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					                                                     TA 4106 –IND: Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project
                                                                                             Project Preparation

the spatial development program, and indirectly through the planning process of the poverty
alleviation programs.

A Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Framework under the Project is detailed in Appendix 6.

14.2       Social Impact
14.2.1          Part A: Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement
The social and poverty impact of the project components has been assessed in terms of the benefits
and costs which apply to different groups of the population within the 5 cities arising from coverage.
This may be in terms of levels of service, demand and supply mechanisms, pricing, implementation
and on-going operational arrangements.

The social groups that were studied during the PPTA socio economic household surveys are
differentiated in terms of their income, poverty and gender to understand the social profile in a better
manner. The projects component have been formulated are based on the following parameters i.e.
existing scenario of services, needs and priorities based on benefit distribution, poverty impact and
gender analysis. The cost and mitigation measures have been analyzed in terms of social costs,
affordability, land acquisition requirements and resettlement issues. The Project has a specific Gender
action Plan, which is detailed in Appendix 8.

The base line survey reveals that the project will have insignificant social cost, which may come up
from the proposed physical infrastructure investment. Both land acquisition and the need for
resettlement of livelihoods is minimized.

Water Supply

The water supply component will increase the delivery pressure and duration of piped water supply in
the three project cities of Kollam, Kochi and Thrissur. The component responds to the top priority
placed on investment in water by the Corporations and respondents in the household survey. An
average of 34% of households expressed willingness to pay more for improved supply.

Benefits of improved efficiency of the proposed water supply system will provide an estimated 96,788
new connections i.e. above 85% increase by 2011. The analysis indicates that the poor and LIG socio-
economic category in all the three project cities would take the majority of new connection benefit.

Indirect benefits of the improved water supply are likely to be improved hygiene and therefore
improved health status. The incidence of diarrhea stands at an average of 3% across all households in
the project cities. Optimization of these benefits and reduction of water-borne diseases will be
provided by the integrated project approach with the other components of the project in terms of
drainage, sanitation and awareness campaigns on water usage and hygiene behavior.

The improvement in water supply would help women in general and poor women in particular. They
will have direct benefits in terms of improved levels of water delivery and accessibility through the
reduction of work associated with water collection, storage and the convenience of direct household
connection instead of having to rely on public standposts or contaminated well water for cooking and

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                                                     TA 4106 –IND: Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project
                                                                                             Project Preparation

cleaning. This would help women to save time from family activities; she would be able to look after
household activities in better manner.

An indirect benefit will be in the expected improvements to family health, which will improve both
quality of life, opportunities to employment and reduce family health problems and costs.

Sanitation and Sewerage

The sanitation component focuses on the provision of underground sewerage in the densely built-up
core city areas of 4 of the 5 cities. Underground sewerage will provide the cities with the basic
infrastructure to promote a healthier living environment for the part of city population.

Sanitation was rated as one of the top priority for investment by the Corporations (at the mid term
Workshop), and the third highest by household survey respondents, and the slum residents of Thrissur
and Thiruvananthapuram had given second highest priority sanitation. An average of 33% of
households expressed their willingness to pay more for improved sanitation facilities although this
was the third priority in proportion of households amongst the 5 sectors.

Provision of the network is in the densely built up and developing areas of 4 project cities. The direct
beneficiary population in those areas is estimated to be 20-30% of the total population of the 4
Municipal Corporations.

The direct benefits will include greater convenience and a healthier and more sanitary household
environment. Indirect benefits for these households and for the city as a whole will be a safer
environment and improved health status.

The cost of connection is up to Rs.500, which represents almost one sixteenth of average of city
income i.e. about Rs.8,000/- per month and approximates the BPL monthly avg. income which is
Rs.2,059/- per month (Average of MV and JV). The sewerage surcharge costs will fall
disproportionately on higher income. i.e. the higher water consuming households.

The proportion of the BPL population amongst beneficiaries will be up to 18% (slightly lower than
the cities’ average of 20%). The benefit will be disproportionately high for the poor since the present
access to sanitation is nil in the all the four Municipal Corporations accept Thiruvananthapuram and

The benefits for women are similar as for water bringing increased health, livelihood and quality of
life. Increased toilet provision, private or community, will reduce the practice of open defecation. For
many women, this is not only inconvenient but a source of insecurity for them – particularly for poor

The costs of connection have been mitigated in design through the provision of roadside chambers,
which reduce connection costs. It is proposed that the Corporations should subsidize connection costs
for BPL households, although this is not budgeted within KSUDP. The wastewater surcharges relate
to water consumption. High consuming, higher income households should pay more.

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                                                   TA 4106 –IND: Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project
                                                                                           Project Preparation

The proposed sanitation and sewerage component would improve the poor areas of the municipal
corporations and would help in providing a better hygienic environment for the selected pockets of the
respective cities.


Kerala get two monsoons and flooding is reported to be a problem for all the five municipal
corporations. Improved drainage was ranked 4th priority by the Corporations (Mid Term Workshop),
and also 3rd by the city population at large (household survey). The slum dwellers also had the same

Benefits of the component will be a cleaner, healthier environment with indirect benefits of improved
health and livelihoods. Majority of the people of five municipal corporations are estimated to have
benefits by this component, out of which sizable population belongs to be BPL households, who
actually live close to the drains and canals.

During the monsoon seasons water logging takes place in absence of proper drainage systems, with
many poor people becoming victim of water borne diseases. The proposed drainage projects would
provide better health and hygienic environment for the poor communities, and particularly poor
women, where the benefits are likely to decrease their household and care burdens.

Solid Waste Management

Solid waste collection was shown in the household survey to be the most deficient municipal services.
An unhealthy environment is known to be a source of disease, particularly affecting children who play
in the streets. The feed back from the study, focus group discussion and city level workshop revealed
that solid waste collection, transportation and disposal as a critical problem. The households of
Thrissur and non-poor residents of Thiruvananthapuram ranked improved solid waste collection as
their third priority.

29% of households across cities were willing to pay for improved solid waste collection services.
With better social awareness and advocacy it is possible to enhance the willingness of people to pay
for these services. The solid waste component would benefit the poor as well as rich communities of
the municipal corporation. The most important aspect of this component is providing indirect benefits
to the surrounding environment of the project sites. The women and children would benefit in terms
of cleanliness in the surrounding areas, because they are most vulnerable among the people to become
the victim of diseases spreads due to bad environmental conditions. Solid waste management
component would provide awareness among the communities about the importance of health and

Road and Transport

The Road and Transport components mainly focus on the up widening of existing roads, improvement
in street lighting, improvement in truck and bus terminals and the construction of flyovers. The road
and transport was second top most priority of municipal corporations of five project cities. However
this component was given last priority in the household survey respondents in all project cities. The

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                                                     TA 4106 –IND: Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project
                                                                                             Project Preparation

selected components are likely to provide smooth flow of traffic in the selected section. As a whole
the improvement of road and transport in project cities with improve the quality of urban life for all
the section of the society by providing easier and faster access to/ from the city to the poor
communities who resides in the fringe areas.

14.2.2          Part B Urban Management and Institutional Development
The urban management component is primarily to strengthen project city the capacity of the
Corporations to plan and manage urban development in a more effective, transparent and responsive
manner. In particular, programs, which are based on participatory approaches to planning which can
respond to the needs of local communities, especially the poor. In addition, the urban management
component also aims to strengthen the capacity of local NGOs by providing them training as
intermediaries between the beneficiaries and municipal corporations. The participatory planning
approach would generate a transparent mechanism for smooth implementation of the sub- projects
components in the five cities.

The primary beneficiaries of the institutional development and capacity-building component will be
the State, corporation staff and elected representatives. The secondary beneficiaries will be the
communities of the cities themselves, especially the poor. The recipients of two funds, the
Community Infrastructure Fund (CIF) and the Poverty Social Fund (PSF), will be directly benefited.

The Community Infrastructure Fund (CIF) will be made available to the corporation on an annual
basis for the community-based program within the framework of GoK’s peoples plan process and as
determined during city level stakeholder consultation. The proposals developed through the
participatory planning process will be led by women based community development societies (CDS)
structure set up under the existing SJSRY framework. Long-term benefits are in the form of improved
quality of life in the area targeted by the interventions and the municipal corporations approach to
urban development and poverty alleviation.

Similar impacts will be felt by the beneficiaries of the Poverty Social Fund made available to the
corporation to finance social sector initiatives for city-level poverty alleviation schemes pertaining to
vulnerable groups, poor women, destitutes, orphans and income generation opportunities for poor.
The schemes will be prepared in consultation with the community and would be implemented with the
help of local NGOs. The process of fund utilization of both the Community Infrastructure fund and
Poverty Social Fund will be monitored through Kudumbashree.

14.2.3          Part C: Implementation Assistance
A Project implementation unit, at the city level, will oversee the utilization of the CIF and PSF. The
PMO will monitor the project implementation. Social and community development Experts at the PIU
will oversee the project implementation, and interaction with identified NGOs for project monitoring.

Emphasis will be on maximizing the community participation of the communities concerned by
undertaking initiatives to ensure:

      That public awareness regarding the program is focused and the community is consulted in
      project design and implementation; and

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