Ice Road River Risks
1. Do you need to cross
2. Two how much weight will the ice
It more than cold
• Falling through ice cover into the frigid water
beneath can quickly lead to hypothermia and
drowning. Learn how to stay safe on the ice
before you go out. No matter how prepared
you are, there is always the possibility of
falling through the ice. If you see someone fall
through ice cover, know how to rescue them.
Before performing an ice rescue and putting
yourself in danger, know how to escape ice.
First Question Have you Taken the
1. Identify the Hazard: Identify existing and potential hazards before work begins.
2. Assess the Hazard
i. Assess the severity of the consequence arising from the hazard in terms of harm
to workers, equipment or the environment.
ii. Assess the likelihood of the consequence arising from the hazard.
iii. Assess and prioritize the hazards based on the risk.
1. Eliminate or Control the Hazard
i. Eliminate the hazard.
ii. Employ engineered controls.
A. Design controls.
B. Monitoring controls.
C. Maintenance controls.
i. Implement administrative controls.
ii. Establish and use personal protective equipment (PPE).
Planning for operations over floating ice covers requires a clear understanding of how
the ice sheet must function to ensure a successful and safe project. This is especially
important for contractors who have no previous experience building ice covers. The
following operational parameters must be identified at the outset:
• Load duration: The period of time that the load is stationary on the ice cover.
• Ice cover type: Freshwater lake ice, river ice, local flood ice, transported flood ice
or peat land ice.
• Load weights: The number and types of vehicles and equipment and their
maximum Gross Vehicle Weights (GVWs); this may also include loads imposed by
foot traffic for special types of work.
• Schedule and operating window: Timing of the start of construction and start of
work on the ice cover as well as the operating window required for the work.
• Contractor capability: Contractor’s experience, equipment availability and
• Hazard controls: Controls that reduce either the consequence or the likelihood of a
hazard; choice of controls depends on the risk level, degree of operator control over
the use of the cover and the user’s exposure.
• Route selection constraints: Site access, hydrology and site permits.
Know your Ice Color
What affects the ice?
There are several factors that can affect the
ice which may make it look thicker than it
actually is. They are:
• type, size and depth of water
• currents or water flow
• logs, rock and surface debris
• air temperature
Walking on ice might be:
• appear fun
However frozen water can easily break
Ice dangers – the cold
The temperature of frozen water is a
hazard to the human body.
Venturing onto frozen ponds, reservoirs,
lakes and canals can easily have fatal
Ice dangers – the cold
Icy water can:
• take your breath away making it hard to breathe
• can make your arms and legs numb which means you
cannot control them or swim properly
• it can lead to hypothermia – a serious reduction in body
Cold water shock
• leaves you gasping for air
• increases your rate of breathing
• increases your heart rate and pulse
All the factors above may lead to
drowning making it dangerous for the
emergency services to safely pull
Only a rule of Thumb
The golden rule
Danger to emergency services
If we manage to recover your body
from the water, attempts might be
made to resuscitate you. However,
this is dependant on the length of
time you’ve been under water for
If a dog or other animal ventures
onto the ice, or falls through it,
do NOT go to its rescue –
you are likely to end up in the
freezing water and unable to rescue
NEVER throw sticks or balls onto the ice for
Identification of potential
• Procedures for dealing with the emergencies.
• Procedures for rescue and evacuation.
• Identification of emergency responders and evacuation
• Identification, location and operational procedures for
emergency equipment and
PPE for rescue and evacuation workers.
• Emergency communication requirements.
• First aid requirements that comply with the OHS Code,
Part 11, First Aid.
• Emergency response training requirements.
Asphyxia - suffocation from lack of air
Chilblains - lesion that occur from repeated prolonged exposure of the bare
skin to water temperature between 32degrees and 60 degrees
Drowning - death caused by changes in the lungs due to immersion in water
Freezing ( deep frostbite) - The third stage, or deepest, of the three degrees
of frostbite. The subcutaneous layers and
deeper structures are affected
Frostbite - the common term for superficial frostbite, the second or middle
stage frostbite. Ice crystals form in the skin and subcutaneous
Wind Chill - Chilling caused by the convection of heat from the body by the
presence of currents or cool air
Wind chill- convection of heat from the body caused by the
movement of cold or cool air.
• Affects only living things, Monitor each other!!
• Calculations based on temps and wind speed
• May cause problems with very limited exposure
• Older and younger affected worse
Cold Water Near Downing
• First reaction a victim may face is shock. This may lead to
Sudden Immersion Syndrome – Cardiac Arrest.
• Hyperventilation- water inhaled into mouth.
• Involuntary gasp upon initial immersion- uncontrolled water
• Mammalian Diving Reflex
1. Cold water acts as both a killer and lifesaver.
2. Important to remember signs and symptoms for victim
3. It is simply a loss of body heat.
4. Core body temperature drops below 95 degrees.
5. Chronic (long exposure) vs. acute onset (rapid exposure)
6. Water will conduct heat away from body 25 times faster
than air of the same temp. Add wind and water currents
may go up to 35 times faster
• Factors to increase survival time. (HELP/HUDDLE positions)
• Many variables affect a person’s cooling rate.
• Assume all victims have the potential for survival if they have
been under water for one hour or less.
Hypothermia: Signs and Symptoms
Core Temp Signs/Symptoms Mental Status
95 to 98 Shivering Normal to Withdrawn
90 to 95 Loss of Coordination Confusion/ Diff speaking
80 to 85 Coma Sleepy/Lethargic
80 and below Cardiac Arrest None
Other than the removal of cold and wet clothing, any advanced treatment
should be per paramedic protocol (Discuss what we will do)
THINK ABOUT SURVIVAL TIMES
33 degrees 15 to 45 minutes
40 degrees 30 to 90 minutes
50 degrees 1 to 3 hours
60 degrees 2 to 40 hours
70 degrees 2 to 40 hours
80 degrees 3 hours to indefinite
Facts of Ice
• Clouded and discolored ice is very weak
• Ice less than 4” thick should not be expected to hold several persons
• Shoreline ice is dangerous due to expansion and contraction of ice
• Center of deep lakes and ponds make poor ice due to currents and wind effect
• New ice is much stronger than clouded ice
• Clear ice is much stronger than clouded ice
• Many factors affect the strength of ice
• And remember about the goose and duck hole and natural springs
Never go on the ice alone. Naturally occurring ice is unpredictable. Make sure
you have proper safety equipment and a buddy.
Wear a personal flotation device (PFD) under your winter gear. The Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources advises NOT to wear a PFD in a closed
vehicle. The excess bulk may make it difficult to escape from a car - especially
through a window.
Wear appropriate footwear. Crampons are used to convert footwear for use on
the ice. Some use metal spikes and some use cables - similar to tire chains.
Carry ice picks at all times. Put them in an accessible pocket where they will be
easy to reach while floating in the water.
Carry a throw rope with you. You can buy one, or make one using an empty and
clean plastic jug stuffed with nylon rope.
Stopping on ice is extremely difficult. When snowmobiling or driving in low-
visibility conditions, go slow enough to be able to stop if you see something.
Many vehicle accidents happen because the driver couldn't stop by the time he
or she saw the hole in the ice.
When driving, remove your seatbelt (since you're going slow and easy) and your
PFD Keep your window rolled down to facilitate a quick escape if your car falls
through the ice.
Make sure you know how to escape from ice, and that you know how to help
someone escape ice.
Rescue - Should be kept as simple as possible. ALWAYS MAKE
CONTACT WITH VICTIM ASAP. Use Self Rescue,Reach, Throw, Row,
Go, Helo system
• Arrive at scene and assume command
Self Rescue – Talk victim in, Get them a PFD if possible
Reach - this method can be utilized when the victim is located
close to shore. At no time does the rescuer venture out
onto the ice, but instead uses an extension device such
as a pike pole or ladder to reach the victim.
Throw - By using a throwing device, much greater distance can
be reached, still allowing rescuers to remain on shore.
Ice Safety Plans must also address
the requirements related to
Equipment (PPE) as follows:
1. Clearly identify the PPE required.
2. Provide training on the
inspection, use and limitations of
3. Monitor the condition and use of
Gauging the strength of ice is very difficult.
There is no such thing as 100% safe ice.
Never walk or drive on cloudy ice
Only go on clear, thick ice
Spring ice is NEVER safe
The thickness of ice is never consistent - it
will be flat on top, but not on the bottom
Snow on ice acts as an insulator - it makes
ice warmer and weaker
Extreme cold snaps will weaken the ice
Ice formed over running water (rivers &
streams) is more dangerous than ice
formed over standing water (lakes &
General ice thickness guidelines (new, clear ice only):
Less than 2 inches - STAY OFF!
4" and thicker - probably safe for walking and ice fishing on foot
5" and thicker - probably safe for ATV or snowmobiling
8-12" and thicker - probably safe for small cars or light pickups
12-15" and thicker - probably safe for medium trucks
Noisy ice doesn't necessarily mean unsafe ice. It's just the layer of ice shifting
and moving on top of the water.
The safety of ice is ever-changing. It depends on a multitude of factors.
age of the ice
depth of water under the ice
size of the body of water under the ice
distribution of weight on the ice
Victims Below Surface -Prior to victim going below the surface,
a dive team should be dispatched. We will use drag hooks and
pike poles. Body is usually located within one and a half times
depth of water in feet from the point of entry.
Self Rescue Points..
• Ice formation.
• Ice seldom freezes and thaws at a uniform rate.
• 2 inches of clear solid ice will support one person.
• Remember that the only absolute in ice safety is to stay off of it !!!!
• Thickness of ice is only one of many determining factors in ice safety.
• NO fire gear near water, 10 foot rule.
• Ice awls,Ice staff- know how to use them, tick/tock
• Always use sliding steps- never run
• Cover your mouth and nose!!!
• Roll to safety, do not stand.
• Always have a back-up dressed and ready.
Get away from the
shoreline in that
No One Within 10
What’s wrong with this
Surface Water Rescues
• Water rescues may involve many kinds of
water bodies—pools, rivers, streams, lakes,
canals, flooded gravel pits, or even the ocean.
A personal flotation device (PFD) is mandatory
equipment for any water-related rescue.
The basic water rescue model is:
One minute or less
One minute to control your breathing
For about one minute, the person will gasp for
air in reaction to contact with the cold
water. After one minute, the gasping subsides,
the skin numbs and the sensation of
intense cold decreases.
The movement of currents can create a
Currents can force a person up against a
• For victims near shore, extend a pole or throw a
line with a floating object attached.
• For victims far from shore, lie flat and push a
ladder, plank, or tree limb out to victim.
• Victims should attempt to get upper body onto the
surface of the ice and lie flat.
SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT TO BE KEPT
IN THE VEHICLE
Equipment to be kept in the vehicle should include:
• Thermometer to monitor air temperature.
• First aid kit (checked and fully stocked).
• Fire extinguisher.
• Warning devices (pylons, reflectors, flags, etc.).
• Waterproof matches/lighter and material to start fires.
• Sleeping bag or warm blankets.
• Backup cold weather clothing.
• Metal or ceramic coffee mug.
• Snow shovel.
• Two-way radio, cell phone or satellite phone.
• Emergency rations: food (energy bars) and beverage mixes (instant coffee, tea,
hot chocolate powder).
Employers should inform workers if their vehicle or equipment is equipped with special
safety features that would assist them when working on ice.
Do the paperwork