预测试卷(六) Section I Listening Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a selection of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that accompany them. There are three parts in this section, Part A, Part B and Part C. Remember, while you are doing the test, you should first put down your answers in your test booklet, NOT on the ANSWER SHEET. At the end of the listening comprehension section, you will have 5 minutes to transfer your answers from your test booklet onto ANSWER SHEET. If you have any questions, you may raise your hand NOW as you will not be allowed to speak once the test is started. Now look at Part A in your test booklet. Part A You will hear a talk about the British Library digitisation project. As you listen, answer Questions 1 to l0 by circling True or False. You will hear the conversation ONLY ONCE. You now have 1 minute to read Questions 1 to 10. Questions 1 to 10: 1. Readers used to visit the British Library to borrow sound recordings. 2. Digitisation project is started to make archived sound recording of the Library available to content a broader community. 3. 10 specific areas are chosen for digitisation. 4. The total amount of time of the archived recordings is 55,000 hours. 5. The digitisation process is actually undertaken by an in-house team. 6. The finished product will be mounted on the web. 7. The material to be digitised is nearly as much as 10% of the total. 8. The British Library is doing digitisation in other areas. 9. Only authenticated users will be able to listen to the licensed ASR material on-site. 10. The material will be promoted mainly by a press office. You now have 20 seconds to check your answers to Questions 1 to 10. Part B You will hear 3 talks and you must answer the questions by choosing A, B, C or D. You will hear the recording ONLY ONCE. Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following talk on sports' and drama. You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 11 to 13. 11. The reasons why games fascinate students are the following statements except that ______. [A] they do not know how it will turn out. [B] the reasons are something that need not exist. [C] their lives are exactly like games. [D] the games are exciting. 12. How does drama resemble game? [A] There is something unfolding before the spectator. [B] They take place in freedom. [C] There really are things that are worthy for their own sakes. [D] All the above. 13. Life cannot be properly lived and games cannot be properly played unless ______. [A] we know how they get along. [B] we come to grips with life as most people do. [C] we actually live a higher life than ordinarily do. [D] we see something more worthy in it. You now have 30 seconds to check your answers to Questions 11 to 13. Questions 14 to 16 are based on a talk on Korean and Japanese table manners. You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 14 to 16. 14. Typical Korean eating style can be understood as the following except that [A] many Koreans start with a small portion of soup before eating the other dishes in any order they wish. [B] Koreans eat rice with chopsticks. [C] Koreans generally do not pick up their soup bowls, but leave them on the table and eat from them with spoons. [D] Side dishes are eaten with chopsticks. 15. What is considered as the rudest table manners in Korea? [A] Picking up chopstick or spoon before the oldest person starts the meal. [B] Blowing one's nose at the table. [C] Talking with food in one's mouth. [D] Stabbing foods with chopsticks. 16. What is NOT true about Japanese eating style according to the passage? [A] Japanese don't use silverware. [B] Japanese didn't eat meat until 150 years ago. [C] Japanese eat lots of seafood dishes. [D] Japanese put quite a few dishes on their table while eating. You now have 30 seconds to check your answers' to Questions 14 to 16. Questions 17 to 20 are based on the following talk on Generation X. You now have 20 seconds to read Questions 17 to 20. 17. When was Generation X born ? [A] Between 1961 and 1981. [B] Between 1916-1918. [C] Between 1960 and 1981. [D] Between 1931-1961. 18. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage? [A] Generation X is so called simply because they represent something negative to their elders. [B] Generation X lives in the present, likes to experiment, and expects immediate results. [C] Xers axe selfish and cynical, and independent of their parents. [D] They question authority and feel they carry the burden of the previous generations. 19. Xers believe it is their task to either rectify it or make it worse. What does "it" refer to? [A] The justice. [B] The way. [C] The ability. [D] The responsibility. 20. What are the strengths of Xers? [A] They have full hope for the future. [B] They shoulder the responsibility. [C] They will for the most part fail at life. [D] They have individualism and resourcefulness in themselves. You now have 40 seconds to check your answers to Questions 17 to 20. Part C You will hear a talk about price discrimination in airline service and laptop purchase. As you listen, answer the questions or complete the notes in your test booklet for Questions 21 to 30 by writing NOT MORE THAN THREE words in the space provided on the right. You will hear the interview TWICE. You now have 1 minute to read Questions 21 to 30. 21. How much will a buyer be charged for a black Apple's new MacBook laptop? 22. Price discrimination means charging some buyers more than others for ______ product or service. 23. Price discrimination is often fair among buyers, requiring those who are ______ a greater share of sellers' costs to shoulder a greater share of the burden. 24. Sellers' costs per unit must ______ with the number of units sold. 25. Pricing schemes enable companies to attract more buyers and reduce the ______ per buyer served. 26. Sellers offer ______ only to buyers who are first willing to jump a hurdle of some sort. 27. From the seller's perspective, the perfect hurdle is one that can jump without difficulty but that other buyers find impossible to jump. 28. One of the best hurdles yet discovered is the airlines' ______. 29. Discount hurdles do not apportion costs among buyers ______. 30. ______, however, there appears to be at least rough justice in these and other hurdle schemes. Section Ⅱ Use of English ( 15 minutes) Read the following text and fill each of the numbered spaces with ONE suitable word. Write your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. As the Internet has rapidly become a mainstream medium, the social impact of the Internet has been a topic of ongoing debate. Some studies have found that Internet use is associated with reduced social networks and increased loneliness. Internet use appears to cause a decline in psychological well-being, (31) to research at Carnegie Mellon University. Even people (32) spent just a few hours a week (33) the Internet experienced more depression and loneliness (34) those who logged on less frequently, the two-year study showed. And it wasn't (35) people who were already feeling had spent more time on the internet, (36) that using the Net actually appeared to (37) the bad feelings. Researchers are puzzling over the results, (38) were completely contrary (39) their expectation. They expected that the Net would (40) socially healthier than television, since the Net allows (41) to choose their information and to communicate (42) others. The fact (43) Internet use reduces time available for family and friends may account (44) the drop in well-being, researchers hypothesized. Faceless, bodiless "virtual" communication may be less psychologically satisfying than (45) conversation, and the relationships formed through it may be shallower. (46) possibility is that exposure (47) the wider world via the Net makes users less (48) with their lives. "But it's important to remember this is (49) about the technology, per se; it's about (50) it is used," says psychologist Christine Riley of Intel, one of the study's sponsors. "It really points to the need for considering social factors in terms of how you design applications and services for technology." Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension ( 50 minutes) Part A Read the following texts and answer the questions which accompany them by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. TEXT 1 Computer microchips could become smaller, faster and cheaper, thanks to scientists in the United States who have developed a speedier method of printing minuscule patterns on silicon chips. The discovery, by Stephen Chou and fellow scientists at Princeton University in New Jersey, could allow electronics manufacturers to increase the density of transistors on silicon chips by 100- fold and streamline production at the same time. Instead of taking 10 or 20 minutes to make a computer chip, the electrical engineers have imprinted features measuring I0 nanometers, or 10 millionths of a millimeter, on a computer chip in a quarter of a millionth of a second. The achievement, which could pave the way for more powerful computers and memory chips, is reported in the science journal Nature. "You just imprint the pattern directly into the silicon. You not only reduce the steps, you can do it in nanoseconds," Chou said in a statement. Silicon chips are minute slices of semiconducting material made to carry out functions in everything from toasters and mobile phones to giant corporate computers. Scientists had been looking for a replacement for silicon because they thought it would be impossible to improve the silicon chip, which would limit advancements in chip size and speed. Chou has done away with etching, the normal way to make small patterns in silicon, and pressed a mould against a piece of silicon and applied a laser pulse for just 20 billionths of a second. It melts and resolidifies around mould. "Here we do not need to use all those steps," Chou said. "Scientifically, people are still trying to understand how it works, because it is amazing that it works at all." He calls the method Laser-Assisted Direct Imprint or LADI. Princeton University is applying for a patent on the technique. In a commentary on the research in Nature, Fabian Pease, of Stanford University, said the achievement will allow electronics manufacturers to continue the pace of miniaturization and keep Moore's laws on track. Moore's Law, observed by Intel Corp, co-founder Gordon Moore in 196.5, posits that the number of transistors on a semiconductor doubles roughly every 18 months. "A new imprinting technology for the production of silicon chips, introduced by Chou et al, could keep us on track," Pease said, adding that the law could hold for possibly another two decades. 51. What is the significance of the new technology? [A] It is a replacement for silicon. [B] It is a new imprinting technology to make faster, smaller computer chips. [C] It is the improved etching method. [D] The pattern can be imprinted directly into the silicon. 52. What does "resolidify" (Para. 8, last sentence) mean? [A] Become hard again, [B] Back to solitude. [C] Become liquid. [D] Stretch around. 53. Which of the following statements is NOT true as to LADI? [A] It could allow electronics manufacturers to increase the density of transistors on silicon chips by 100 times and simplify production meanwhile. [B] A mould is pressed against a piece of silicon and a laser pulse is applied for just 20 billionths of a second before it's done. [C] It could result in more powerful computers and memory chips. [D] It limits advancements in chip size and speed. 54. How many nanoseconds equal one second? [A] One million. [B] Ten million. [C] One hundred million. [D] One billion. 55. What can be concluded concerning Moore's laws? [A] It has proved to be out of date. [B] It is still applicable to electronic industry. [C] It will hold for another twenty years. [D] It was observed by Gordon Moore in 1965. TEXT 2 An awkward looking character such as Cyrano de Gergerac might sniff at the suggestion, but recent scientific research shows beauty, brains and brawn may in fact all be allied, writes Dr Raj Persaud. Psychologists have concluded that we may be drawn to the stereotypically attractive because of what their faces reveal about their intelligence and success in later life. In America, research led by Professor Leslie Zebrowitz, of Brandeis University, has shown an association between facial attractiveness and IQ. Strangers briefly exposed to a target's face were able to correctly judge intelligence at levels significantly better than chance. The same team also researched how a person's attractiveness might affect their intelligence. They found that good-looking people did better in IQ tests as they aged. Their research sought to prove that how a person perceived himself and was perceived by others predicted how intelligent he apparently became more accurately than his past intelligence. Perhaps because the more attractive people were treated as more intelligent, they ended up having more stimulating and, therefore, intelligence-enhancing lives. Does this mean that your face really could be your destiny? Sociologists Dr Ulrich Mueller and Dr Allan Mazur, of the University of Marburg in Germany, recently analysed the final-year photographs of the 1950 graduates of West Point in the United States. Dominant facial appearances (strong jaws, broad cheekbones) turned out to be a consistent predictor of later-rank attainment. Again, they believed there could be a self-fulfilling effect. Because some men looked more authoritative, they naturally drew respect and obedience from others which, in turn, assisted their rise through the ranks. A team at the Royal College of Surgeon in Dublin has been investigating the sensitive subject of links between physical and mental abnormalities. Led by Doctors Robin Hennessy and John Waddington, the team used a new laser surface-scanning technique to make a 3-D analysis of how facial shape might vary with brain structure. Their findings showed that in early foetal life, brain and face development are intimately connected. From this they concluded that abnormalities in brain elaboration probably also affect face development. This, according to them, explains the striking facial features of someone with Down's syndrome. Using similar techniques, the team also demonstrated how other disorders linked to brain aberrations could be associated with facial alterations. For example, they showed how those suffering from schizophrenia were more likely to have among other facial differences an overall narrowing and elongation of the mid and lower front of the face, with reduced mouth width. Meanwhile, in New York, psychologists Dr Caroline Keating and Dr James Doyle have offered the latest research on what we actually find attractive. They found that the most attractive faces are not those with particularly striking features, but ones that contain a mixture of features signaling warmth, power and dominance, with no one characteristic eclipsing the others. So the very latest scientific research suggests that nobody should try to look too obviously different from average. 56. What is the author's major concern in this passage? [A] Facial features and intelligence. [B] Physical attractiveness. [C] Mental aberrations. [D] Intelligence. 57. Down's syndrome (Para. 10, first sentence) is a kind of disease in ______. [A] ear. [B] heart. [C] skin. [D] mind. 58. How can you identify one suffering from schizophrenia? [A] The change of the face with comparatively smaller mouth. [B] A mixture of features signaling warmth, power and dominance. [C] Strong jaws. [D] Broad cheekbones. 59. What can be inferred from the passage? [A] It is not wise to try to look too obviously different from average. [B] Those with particularly striking features are among the most attractive. [C] Disorders linked to brain aberrations could be related to facial alterations. [D] The more attractive people were treated as more intelligent. 60. It can be safely concluded that ______. [A] strangers were able to correctly judge one's intelligence by chance. [B] your face to some extent decides your future. [C] good-looking people did better in IQ tests as they turned older. [D] in early foetal life, brain and face development are intimately connected. TEXT 3 The government will be told next month that a stark new class divide is opening between career women and mothers who give up work to become housewives. While career mums are able to build on the increased "social capital" or status that a modem education and equal access to the workplace have afforded them, stay-at-home mothers rapidly lose their social status. The new study of social mobility and its conclusion that middle-class women are becoming increasingly "polarised" will be presented at a Cabinet Office meeting later this month by Professor Jonathan Gershuny, a leading sociologists. He will say that while reforms in equal opportunities legislation over the past 30 years have improved women's life chances, all the gains can be lost at the point when they have children if they are unable to afford nurseries or nannies. "When they enter the labor force, young men and women now have similar level of educational attainment, but from the first child's birth a new dynamic emerges," said Gershuny. "In almost all cases where childcare is unaffordable, the woman withdraws (from work). And the withdrawal means a progressive reduction in accumulated work experience, perhaps the loss of a promotion, so the wife's capital falls." Critics claim the constant emphasis on equal economic attainment for men and women is feeding the divorce rate and destroying family life. In addition, many mothers choose to stay at home to ensure that they, rather than an outsider, play the main role in bringing up their children. While women's place in the class system is increasingly determined by their ability to afford children, the declining social status of stay-at-home mums may be accentuated by the break-up of local communities, itself partly a product in increased social mobility. The importance of access to child-care and the determining effect it can have on women's lives is leading them to delay the age at which they have their first child. Many middle-class women do not even consider having their children until they are into their thirties. Researchers say that other social changes have made the life of the stay-at-home mother even less attractive. Greater social mobility means relatives are now less likely to be available to offer help. Danielle Stewart, 41, form south London, is a member of the "superwomen" tribe and has two children, Francesca, 7, and Isabelle, 4. she earns more than ￡ 150,000 a year, of which she spends ￡ 24,000 a year on a nanny. "I am a strong woman who is giving my girl a great example. The intellectual inspiration of work has been fantastic, and I think if I had stayed at home and given up work I would not have got that." Gershumy's research suggests that career women like Stewart, who are able to afford childcare, almost always come from well-to-do backgrounds. It suggests that the old British class system where privilege and status are passed down the generations is still very much alive. 61. How can you interpret the sentence, middle-class women are becoming increasingly "polarised" (Para. 3) ? [A] middle-class women are undergoing opposing division. [B] middle-class women prefer to go to the Poles of the world. [C] middle-class women are becoming more and more popular. [D] middle-class women have more and more problems. 62. The following statements are right except that ______. [A] many middle-class women do not even consider having their children until, they are over thirty years old. [B] career mums are able to go into higher social status compared with housewives. [C] all are endowed with equality by law but things could be different between career women and housewives. [D] most mothers would choose to stay at home to bring up their children. 63. What attributes to the housewives' declining social status? [A] They have less work experience. [B] They lose chance of getting promoted. [C] They attain less in economy. [D] All the above. 64. What plays a decisive role in women's withdrawing from work? [A] Their inability to afford childcare. [B] Their reluctance to have babysitters. [C] Their declining social status. [D] The social mobility. 65. What can be the best title of the passage? [A] Housewives Go Backwards in Status Race. [B] Career Women and Housewives. [C] Social Mobility and Women. [D] A Dilemma: Staying at Home or Working. Part B In the following article, some paragraphs have been removed. For questions 66 to 70, choose the most suitable paragraph from the list A-F to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There is ONE paragraph which does not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. In Britain, the House of Commons is a representative assembly elected by voters or electors through a general election and by-elections. 66. ______. A by-election is a special election held between regular elections. It is an election of a new Member of Parliament in a single constituency, which takes place when a vacancy occurs in the Commons as a result of the death or resignation of an MP, or when an MP is given a peerage. 67. ______. Suffrage refers to the right to vote in political elections. In Britain, universal adult suffrage refers to the right of all adults to vote. A voter or an elector is a person who votes or who has the right to vote in political election. The electorate refers to all the people in a county or in an area who have the right to vote in an election. On polling day, each voter or elector goes to cast one vote at a polling station. Every voter writes their choice on a ballot paper. After making a choice, they put the ballot paper into a ballot box. If a person is a British subject, who is over the age of eighteen, he or she may vote. Besides, the voter must live for a fixed period of time in any constituency. But there are a few exceptions to this, the strangest one being the Queen. As the Sovereign is considered to be above politics, the Queen has no right to vote. Member of the House of Lords also have no fight to vote. Criminals and Lunatics have no right to vote. The person who applies for election to the Parliament is a candidate. The candidate must be aged 21 or over 21. 68. ______. Traditionally, the two major parties held different views in some issues. But now their differences are getting smaller and smaller. And even they don't make much difference in their political views. They come to power in rotation. 69. ______. The party which wins the majority of seats (although not necessarily the majority of votes) in a general election, or which is able to command a majority of supporters in the House of Commons, forms the Government. 70. ______. The largest minority party with the next largest number of seats becomes the official Opposition, with its own leader who has the title of "Leader of Her Majesty's Opposition".' And the leader of the Opposition also has a cabinet but since it is not in power it is called the "Shadow Cabinet". A. The United Kingdom is divided into 659 constituencies. A constituency is a district with its own elected representative in the Parliament. The constituency may also refer to the body of votes living in that district. Each constituency chooses one member to the House of Commons. The member is called Member of Parliament of MP, who will occupy one seat in the Parliament. The Member of Parliament will go the House of Commons to represent his or her constituency. Every MP must be responsible for their constituency. Every constituency has a returning officer to oversee the voting and make sure that the votes are counted correctly. If the result of the election is very close, the official in charge may order a recount. B. Major parties are big parties with more members and supporters 'while minor parties are small parties with fewer members and supporters. The majority party is the party, which has won most of the seats in the Parliament, and is usually in power. The minority party is the party, which has a few seats in the Parliament, and is usually out of power. C. A general election takes place after a Parliament has been dissolved and a new one summoned by the Sovereign. Under ordinary circumstance, the political parties launch campaigns and the government officials organize the election for several weeks. The general election is a massive undertaking and all the voters in the country must be notified. D. In the summer before the election, each of the major political parties holds a convention. The Republicans hold the Republican Party Convention, while the Democrats hold the Democratic Party Convention. Delegates from every state meet together to choose candidates for President and Vice-President. The number of delegates from each state is determined by the population and its support for that party in previous elections. The way of choosing delegates varies from state to state. In some states, delegates are elected by the voters. In others, they are appointed by a state party convention or by state political leaders. E. The present electoral system is based on the existence of organized political parties, each laying rival policies before the electorate. Now the two main political parties in Britain are the Labour Party and the Conservative Party. Many trades unions support the Labour Party. Trades unions were originally formed in the early 19th century to try to change the long hours of work, disgraceful conditions and low rates of pay in factories. Unions of many different types of workers were formed. They gained in strength through the 20th century and are now a strong force, negotiating pay and working conditions with the employers. F. By tradition, the leader of the majority party is appointed as Prime Minister by the Sovereign. The Prime Minister is responsible for making the Cabinet. The Cabinet is a group of the most senior and powerful ministers in the government, who meet regularly to discuss and decide policies. Part C Answer questions 71 to 80 by referring to the comments on 3 different theories of child development and learning. Answer each question by choosing A, B, C or D and mark it on ANSWER SHEET 1. Note: When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order. Some choices may be required more than once. A = Maturationist Theory B = Environmentalist Theory C = Constructivist Theory Which theory's advocates believe that · young children are expected to learn repetitively both in class and at home? 71. ______. · each child is given individual attention and can express his ideas freely? 72. ______. · young children are not ready for school unless they can recite the alphabet and count? 73. ______. · building blocks and large puzzles are helpful toys stimulating children's interaction? 74. ______. · as young children grow older, they will learn naturally and automatically? 75. ______. · young children are ready for school when they initiatively interact with the environment and people around them? 76. ______. · young children are best taught by their parents to learn to recite the alphabet and count before they go to the kindergarten? 77. ______. · children are both the designers and participants in classroom activities? 78. ______. · children with learning disabilities have to attend special classes if they can't respond properly? 79. ______. · young children are not ready for school unless they can follow instructions from adults? 80. ______. A Maturationionist Theory The maturationist theory was advanced by the work of Arnold Gessell. Maturationists believe that development is a biological process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time. This perspective leads many educators and families to assume that young children will acquire knowledge naturally and automatically as they grow physically and become older, provided that they are healthy. School readiness, according to maturationists, is a state at which all healthy young children arrive when they can perform tasks such as reciting the alphabet and counting; these tasks are required for learning more complex tasks such as reading and arithmetic. Because development and school readiness occur naturally and automatically, maturationists believe the best practices are for parents to teach young children to recite the alphabet and count while being patient and waiting for children to become ready for kindergarten. If a child is developmentally unready for school, maturationists might suggest referrals to transitional kindergartens, retention, or holding children out of school for an additional year. These practices are sometimes used by schools, educators, and parents when a young child developmentally lags behind his or her peers. The young child's underperformance is interpreted as the child needing more time to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to perform at the level of his or her peers. B Environmentalist Theory Theorists such as John Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura contributed greatly to the environmentalist perspective of development. Environmentalists believe the child's environment shapes learning and behavior; in fact, human behavior, development, and learning are thought of as reactions to the environment. This perspective leads many families, schools, and educators to assume that young children develop and acquire new knowledge by reacting to their surroundings. Kindergarten readiness, according to the environmentalists, is the age or stage when young children can respond appropriately to the environment of the school and the classroom (e. g. , roles and regulations, curriculum activities, positive behavior in group settings, and directions and instructions from teachers and other adults in the school). The ability to respond appropriately to this environment is necessary for young children to participate in teacher-initiated learning activities. Success is dependent on the child following instructions from the teacher or the adult in the classroom. Many environmentalist-influenced educators and parents believe that young children learn best by rote activities, such as reciting the alphabet over and over, copying letters, and tracing numbers. This viewpoint is evident in kindergarten classrooms where young children are expected to sit at desks arranged in rows and listen attentively to their teachers. At home, parents may provide their young children with workbooks containing such activities as coloring or tracing letters and numbers--activities that require little interaction between parent and child. When young children are unable to respond appropriately to the classroom and school environment, they often are labeled as having some form of learning disabilities and are tracked in classrooms with curriculum designed to control their behaviors and responses. C Constructivist Theory The constructivist perspective of readiness and development was advanced by theorists such as Jean Piaget, Mafia Montessori, and Lev Vygotsky. Although their work varies greatly, each articulates a similar context of learning and development. They are consistent in .their belief that learning and development occur when young children Internet with the environment and people around them (Hunt, 1969). Constructivists view young children as active participants in the learning process. In addition, constructivists believe young children initiate most of the activities required for learning and development. Because active interaction with the environment and people are necessary for learning and development, constructivists believe that children are ready for school when they can initiate many of the interactions they have with the environment and people around them. Constructivist-influenced schools and educators pay a lot of attention to the physical environment and the curriculum of the early childhood classroom. Kindergarten classrooms often are divided into different learning centers and are equipped with developmentally appropriate materials for young children to play with and manipulate. Teachers and adults have direct conversations with children, children move actively from center to another, and daily activities are made meaningful through the incorporation of children's experiences into the curriculum. At home, parents engage their young children in reading and storytelling activities and encourage children's participation in daily household activities in a way that introduces such concepts as counting and language use. In addition, parents may provide young children with picture books containing very large print, and toys that stimulate interaction (such as building blocks and large puzzles). When a young child encounters difficulties in the learning process, the constructivist approach is neither to label the child nor to retain him or her; instead, constructivists give the child some individualized attention and customize the classroom curriculum to help the child address his or her difficulties. Section IV Writing (40 minutes) In recent years, working at home for one's employers has become a growing trend in many countries and is expected to be common Jot most office workers in the coming decades. Write an argument to clarify your own points of view on this issue. You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience to generate support for your argument and include an example. You should write no less than 250 words. Write your article on ANSWER SHEET 2. 答案 专家预测试卷(六) Section I Listening Comprehension Part A 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. F Part B 11. D 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. B 16. D 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. D Part C 21. $1,499 22. essentially the same 23. responsible for 24. decline 25. average cost 26. discounts 27. price-sensitive buyers 28. Saturday stopover requirement 29. with precision 30. On balance Section II Use of English 31. according 32. who 33. on 34. than 35. that 36. but 37. cause 38. which 39. to 40. prove 41. users 42. with 43. that 44. for 45. actual 46. Another 47. to 48. satisfied 49. not 50. how Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1: 51. B 52. A 53. D 54. D 55. B Text 2: 56. A 57. D 58. A 59. A 60. B Text 3: 61. A 62. D 63. D 64. A 65. A Part B 66. C 67. A 68. E 69. B 70. F Part C 71. B 72. C 73. A 74. C 75. A 76. C 77. A 78. C 79. B 80. B Part IV Writing [参考范文] In recent years, working at home for one's employers has become a growing trend in many countries. A survey done by a U.S. research institute predicted that the number of U.S. teleworkers (those who work at home) would rise to about 50 million by 2006. And someone even predicts telecommuting will be the predominant workplace trend in the next 20 years. The factors propelling the telecommuting trend, as I see, are rising corporate real estate costs, increasing road traffic, changing social mores, and better and more affordable technology. As cellphones, PDAs, Internet access, and virtual office software continually improve, they are in turn facilitating global collaboration and redefining the concept of the workplace. What's more, parents wanting more time with their children and workers exhausted by long commutes are demanding flexible work schedules. Meanwhile, the company itself would benefit tremendously. It would need less office space (perhaps none!), Cubicles, phones, desk space, computers could be done away with, not to mention parking, time, etc. The average full-time teleworker is estimated to save his or her employer US $10 000 each year in reduced absenteeism and greater job retention, as well as higher job satisfaction and productivity. You may think it is thus understandable why it is so popular nowadays and welcomed by both the employers and employees and you may be stimulated to be one of them. But just wait; you should first decide whether it is right for you. In fact, telecommuting is not idem for everyone. Those who need office stimulus to be productive, for example, are bad candidates. On the other hand, those who are self-disciplined and experienced in their jobs, and can work alone without close supervision do best with telecommuting. 专家预测试卷(六) Section I Listening Comprehension Part A 1．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“The British Library holds a huge and ever growing archive of sound recordings．Access to these recordings，however， can be problematic，usually requiring a visit to the Library， ” with pre-booked appointment to hand．；由此可知，人们以往是到图书馆去借阅录音资料的。故本题是正确 的。 2．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“…get to content previously unavailable to the broader community outside of actually making a trip to the Library． ”由此可知，数字化工程可以使更多的人受益。故本题是正确的。 3．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“We have put together a package of ten specific areas that we will focus on． ” 由此可知，大英图书馆重点确定了十个专题进行数字化工程。故本题是正确的。 4．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“There are over 3 million separate recordings in the Archive，which adds up to 5,50，000 hours． ”由此可知，档案录音素材是 55 万小时，而不是 5 万 5 千小时，故本题是错误的。 5．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“…an external contractor who will undertake the actual digitisation work． ”由 此可知，实际进行数字化工作的人是外部承包商，而非内部团队(in-house team)。故本题是错误的。 6．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“But in terms of material mounted on the web，it is significant． ”由此可知， 就传送上网的素材而言，数目已经很可观了。故本题是正确的。 7．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“There are over 3 million separate recordings in the Archive，which adds up to 550,000 hours．The target is 4,000 hours，…”由此可知，要数字化的录音素材是总量的不足百分之一。故 本题是错误的。 8．[解析] 从访淡中我们了解到“and we are doing digitisation in other areas． ”由此可知，大英图书馆还在 其它领域进行数字化工作。故本题是正确的。 9． [解析] 从访谈中我们了解到 “For the licensed ASR material， which is the majority， only authenticated users will be able to listen to it off-site．”由此可知，注册的 ASR 材料是要脱机收听的，而非在线收听。故本题是 错误的。 10．[解析] 从访谈中我们了解到“Conferences，through our curators and our involvement with academic departments，as well as through．JISC mailing lists．The British Library Press office will also be closely involved． ”由此可知，推介工作并非主要由新闻办公室来做。故本题是错误的。 Part B 11．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“It is because they behold there something that need not exist，that could be otherwise，but which exists according to the rules，according to the drama of the game ([B])．We do not know how it will turn out ([A])．Our lives themselves are exactly like this if we think about“([C])．而没有提及学生 们喜欢竞赛是因为竞赛令人兴奋。故[D]为正确答案。 12．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“As spectators we behold something unfold before us．．It is there in the ． unfolding plot that we see what is the human condition played out before us ([A]). Aristotle says that games are not so exalted as drama，but nonetheless they are like unto it. They take place in freedom ([B])．We can see in them that there really are things that are worthy for their own sakes ([C])．由此可知，竞赛和戏剧的相同之处。 [D]为三者的综合，故[D]为正确答案。 13． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “Life cannot be properly lived and games cannot be properly played unless we know their order，how they proceed． ”由此可知，我们不能很好地生活和运动，如果我们不知道他们的 规则，他们运作的方式。故[A]为正确答案。 14． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “Unlike other chopstick cultures， Koreans do not eat rice with chopsticks only but use sujeo，a combination of a long shallow spoon and oval-shaped chopsticks． ”由此可知，[B](用筷子 吃米饭)是错误的表述，故[B]为正确答案。 15． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “Bad manners include blowing one's nose at the table， which is considered the rudest of acts，…”由此可知，在餐桌上擤鼻涕是被视为最粗鲁的行为。故[B]为正确答案。 16． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “…unlike Koreans， when Japanese eat， they just put a few dishes on their table．”由此可知，日本人在就餐时只摆几样菜。a few(几个)不同于 quite a few(很多)。故[D]为正确答案。 17．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“Well，it's the group of people born between 1961 and 1981． ”由此可 知，X 世代出生于 1961 至 1981 年间。故[A]为正确答案。 18．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“It seems we have come to be called Xers simply because we represent something negative to our elders ([A])． Generation X fives in the present，likes to experiment，and expects immediate results([B]) ． They question authority and feel they carry the burden of the previous generations([D])．[C]的错误在于后半部分，原文：Xers are selfish and cynical，and depend a lot on their parents．由此可知，X 世代极端依赖于父母，而非[C]所言独立于父母之外。故 [C]为正确答案。 19．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“Intergenerational justice failed somewhere along the way and it will be our task to either rectify it or make it worse．”由此可知，世代之间存在不公平，X 世代觉得他们有义务或是 纠正这种不公平或是使之恶化。故[A]为正确答案。 20． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “…many see our individualism and resourcefulness that have been built up through our childhoods as our saviors． ”由此可知，X 世代有个性且足智多谋，这是他们的长处。故 [D]正 确答案。 Part C 21．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“if I order Apple's new MacBook laptop，the company will charge me $ 1,499 for a machine in black…”由此可知，买黑色的苹果笔记本电脑要花费 1,499 美元。 22． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “…price discrimination means charging some buyers more than others for essentially the same product or service． ”由此可知，价格偏见指的是有些购买者相比其他购买者为基本相同 的商品和服务付较高价钱。 23．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“…price discrimination often metes out rough justice among buyers， requiring those who are responsible for a greater share of sellers' costs to shoulder a greater share of the burden．” 由此可知，价格偏见在购买者当中是大致公平的，那些负担销售者更大成本的购买者承担更大的份额。 24．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“…sellers' costs per unit must decline with the number of units sold． ”由 此可者，销售者每件商品的成本随着销售商品的数量增加而下降。 2S．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“…pricing schemes that enable companies to attract more buyers reduce the average cost per buyer served． ”由此可知，定价策略吸引到更多的购买者，从而减少每个购买者所承担 的平均成本。 26． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “…sellers offer discounts， only to buyers who are first willing to jump but a hurdle of some sort…”由此可知，销售者主动提供折扣，但只对那些愿意跨越某种价格障碍的购买者。 27． [解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到 “From the seller's perspective， perfect hurdle is one that price-sensitive the buyers can jump without difficulty…”由此可知，从销售者的角度看，完美的价格障碍应该是对价格敏感的 购买者能毫无困难地跨越。 28．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“One of the best hurdles yet discovered is the airlines' Saturday stopover requirement． ”由此可知，迄今为止所能发现的最好的价格障碍之一是飞机周六中途停留的要求。 29．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“Of course，discount hurdles do not apportion costs among buyers with precision． ”由此可知，折扣障碍并不能精确地在购买者中分配成本。 30．[解析] 从听力材料中我们了解到“On balance，however，there appears to be at least rough justice in these and other hurdle schemes． ”由此可知，折扣障碍总体来讲是大致公平的。 Section Ⅱ Use of English 31．[解析] 考查固定搭配 according to…(根据…，依据…)。 32．[解析] 考查定语从句 who 指人，做主语。 33．[解析] 考查固定搭配 spend…on。 34．[解析] 考查比较状语从句 more…than。 35．[解析] 考查由 that 引导原因状语从句。 36．[解析] 考查 not…but…(不是…而是…)连接两个由 that 引导的原因状语从句。 37．[解析] 考查回应第一段 cause(引起，及物动词)的意义、用法。 38．[解析] 考查由 which 引导的非限制定语从句。 39．[解析] 考查固定搭配 be contrary to。 40．[解析] 考查 prove 做连系动词的用法。意思为原来是…，结果是…。 41．[解析] 考查回应文首 Internet use，互联网用户即为 Internet users(复数)。 42．[解析] 考查固定搭配 communicate with(与…交流)。 43．[解析] 考查 that 引导同位语从句，说明 The fact 的内容。 44．[解析] 考查固定搭配 account for(说明，解释)。 45．[解析] 考查对上文 virtual(虚拟的)的理解，其反义词为 actual(实际的，真实的)。 46．[解析] 前文解释了一种可能的原因，此处是对另一种可能性的推测，故用 Another(句首大写)。 47．[解析] 考查固定搭配 exposure to(暴露于…；受…影响) 48．[解析] 考查回应上文 less satisfying(其主语为 communication)，此句主语为 users，故为 satisfied。 49．[解析] 下文才是真正的问题所在，此句不是，故用 not。 50．[解析] 问题的所在在于互联网的使用，即使用的方式，故用 how。 Section Ⅲ Reading Comprehension Part A Text A--B 51． [解析] 本题考查主旨大意。 文章首段指出 “Computer microchips could become smaller， faster and cheaper， thanks to scientists in the United States who have developed a speedier method of printing minuscule patterns on silicon chips．由此可知，由于这项新技术，电脑芯片会变得更小、更快、更便宜。故[B]为正确答案。 52．[解析] 本题考查词义辨析。resolidify 为派生词。solid，形容词， “固体的，固态的” 。re-，前缀，又， 再。-fy，动词后缀。resolidify， “再度变得坚硬” 。故[A]为正确答案。 53．[解析] 本题考查细节判断。文章第二段“The discovery，by Stephen Chou and fellow scientists at Princeton University in New Jersey， could allow electronics manufacturers to increase the density of transistors on silicon chips by 100-fold and streamline production at the same time． ([A])文章第八段…pressed a mould against a piece of silicon and applied a laser pulse for just 20 billionths of a second．([C]) 文章第四段 The achievement，which could pave the way for more powerful computers and memory chip…([B])文章第七段 Scientists had been looking for a replacement for silicon because they thought it would be impossible to improve the silicon chip， which would limit advancements in chip size and speed． 没有这项新技术以前人们想要找东西 替换 silicon，以为没办法改进 silicon chip(芯片)，会限制芯片的大小与速度。故[D]表述错误，为正确答案。 54．[解析] 本题考查细节判断。通过第三段信息 10 nanometers = 10 millionths of a millimeter，(10 纳米=1 毫米的百万分之十)推导出 one billion nanoseconds=one second。故[D]为正确答案。 55． [解析] 本题考查推理判断。 文章的后三段反复提到 “Moore's Law， …the achievement will allow electronics manufacturers to continue the pace of miniaturization and keep Moore's laws on track． …the number of transistors on a semiconductor doubles roughly every 18 months， ” 由此可知，摩尔定律指出，大约每 18 个月半导体 上的晶体管的数目就要翻倍。这项新发明使得摩尔定律继续发挥效用。故[B]为正确答案。 56．[解析] 本题考查主旨大意。文章第一段提出美貌与头脑相关。接下来的段落也是对此论题的阐释和证 明。故[A]为正确答案。 57．[解析] 本题考查细节判断。文章第九段指出“A team at the Royal College of Surgeon in Dublin has been ” investigating the sensitive subject of links between physical and mental abnormalities． 第十段 This， according to them，explains the striking facial features of someone with Down's syndrome．Down's syndrome(唐氏综合症) 很显然是一种影响智力的脑病，mind 为 mental 的名词。故[D]为正确答案。 58．[解析] 本题考查细节判 断。 文章第十一段 “those suffering from schizophrenia were more likely to have among other facial differences an overall narrowing and elongation of the mid and lower front of the face，with reduced mouth width． ”由此可知， 患有精神分裂症的病人面貌特征是脸的中下部长、窄，嘴相对较小。故[A]为正确答案。 59．[解析] 本题考查推理判断。文章结尾 “So the very latest scientific research suggests that nobody should try to look too obviously different from average． ”由此可知，最新的研究表明，人们应该尽量使使自己不要看上 去那么与众不同。故[A]为正确答案。 60．[解析] 本题考查主旨大意。文章第六段“Does this mean that your face really could be your destiny?”总 结前文基础上，提出问题，下文进行具体论述，有理论，有例证。等于可以得出结论“Your face really could be your destiny．或 Your face somewhat decides your future． ”故[B]是正确答案。 61． [解析] 本题考查词义辨析。 polarise， 。 “a “使两极分化” 文章首段 stark new class divide is opening between career women and mothers who give up work to become housewives． ”第二段再次明确这样的对比。第三段正 式提出是由于社会流动性所造成的这种社会地位的两极分化。故 [A]为正确答案。 62． [解析] 本题考查细节判断。 文章第六段 “In almost all cases where childcare is unaffordable， woman with the draws (from work)． ”大部分妇女放弃工作是不得已的。尽管有批评家指出有些妇女是自愿选择由自己抚养 孩子。故[D]为正确答案。 63．[解析] 本题考查细节判断。文章第六段“…the withdrawal means a progressive reduction in accumulated work experience (答案[A])， perhaps the loss of a promotion (答案[B])，so the wife's capital falls， ”第七段 Critics claim the constant emphasis on equal economic attainment for men and women is feeding the divorce rate and destroying family life． ”暗示家庭妇女没办法获得同等的经济收益，即挣得少。故[D]为正确答案。 64．[解析] 本题考查细节判断。文章第六段“In almost all cases where childcare is unaffordable，the woman withdraws (from work)．第八段： while women's place in the class system is increasingly determined by their ability to afford childcare．第十段：The importance of access to child-care and the determining effect it can have ” on women's lives is leading them to delay the age at which they have their first child． 反复强调无力负担抚育费 是妇女离职，做家庭主妇的决定性因素。故[A]为正确答案。 65． [解析] 本题考查主旨大意。 文章主要论述的是家庭妇女社会地位的下降， 尤其是与职业女性相较而言。 故只有[A]项符合题意。 Part B 66．[解析] 上一段即文章的首段为总启段，概述英国的下议院由选民通过 a general election(常规选举)及 by-elections(补缺选举)选出来的代表大会组成。本段是分述的第一部分，即 a general election 部分。 67．[解析] 文章第三段即上一段提及 constituency(选区)，本段即解释英国共分 659 个选区及选区的作用。 对应下段对选举权的解释。 68．[解析] 上两段论述选举权及选民。下一段交待两大政党的今昔政见变化情况。本段交待现今的选举制 度是建立在有组织的政党存在基础上的，以及两大政党的名称和支持者，从而前后文相互照应。 69．[解析] 从大党论及多数党和少数党，为下段(政府的组成)作铺垫。 70．[解析] 首相产生于多数党领袖，组建内阁。下段即为最大的少数党组建影子内阁。 Part C 71 ． [ 解 析 ] 答 案 出 处 在 文 章 第 二 部 分 (Environmentalist Theory) 第 二 段 第 四 句 “ Many environmentalist-influenced educators and parents believe that young children learn best by rote activities， such as reciting the alphabet over and over，copying letters，and tracing numbers． ”由此可知，许多受环境论者影响 的教育者和父母认为孩子最好的学习方式是通过死记硬背，比如一遍遍地背诵字母表，抄写字母，数数。 故[B]为正确答案。 72．[解析] 答案出处在文章第三部分(Constructivist Theory)全文末句“…constructivists give the child some individualized attention and customize the classroom curriculum to help the child address his or her difficulties．” 由此可知， 建构主义者会对孩子个体给与关注， 定制课程， 以利于孩子表达自身的困难。 故[C]为正确答案。 73．[解析] 答案出处在文章第一部分(Maturationist Theory)第二段首句“School readiness，according to maturationists，is a state at which all healthy young children arrive when they can perform tasks such as reciting ．” the alphabet and counting．．。由此可知，成熟论者认为如果孩子会背字母表、数数才能上学。显然，不具 备这样的条件就无法入学。故[A]为正确答案。 74．[解析] 答案出处在文章第三部分(Constructivist Theory)第二段倒数第二句“In addition，parents may provide young children with…，and toys that stimulate interaction (such as building blocks and large puzzles)． ” 由此可知，家长会提供给孩子能激发他们互动的玩具，比如积木和大的拼图。故[C]为正确答案。 75． [解析] 答案出处在文章第一部分(Maturationist Theory)第一段末句 “This perspective leads many educators and families to assume that young children will acquire knowledge naturally and automatically as they grow physically and become older，…”由此可知，许多教育者和家庭认为孩子随着年龄的增长和身体的发育， 就会自然而然地学习。故[A]为正确答案。 76．[解析] 答案出处在文章第三部分(Constructivist Theory)第一段最后一句“Constructuctivists believe that children are ready for school when they can initiate many of the interactions they have with the environment and people around them， ”由此可知，建构主义者认为孩子如果能主动与环境及周围的人互动就具备了上学条 件。故[C]为正确答案。 77． [解析] 答案出处在文章第一部分(Maturationist Theory)第二段第一、 “…School readiness， 二句 according is to maturationists， a state at which all healthy young children arrive when they can perform tasks such as reciting the alphabet and counting；maturationists believe the best practices are for parents to teach young children to ” recite the alphabet and count while being patient and waiting for children to become ready for kindergarten． 成熟 论者认为孩子如果能背字母表、会数数、身体健康，就具备了上学条件。他们认为最好的做法是家长教孩 子背字母表、数数，从而为上幼儿同做准备。故[A]为正确答案。 78． [解析] 答案出处在文章第三部分(Constructivist Theory)第二段第三句 “children move actively from center to another，and daily activities are made meaningful through the incorporation of children's experiences into the curriculum． ”由此可知，孩子们自由地在各学习区域走动，把孩子们的经历融入到课业中去，每日的活动 变得有意义了起来。也就是说，孩子既是课堂活动的参与者，又是课堂活动的设计者。故[C]为正确答案。 79．[解析] 答案出处在文章第二部分(Environmentalist Theory)全文末句“When young children are unable to respond appropriately to the classroom and school environment，they often are labeled as having some form of learning disabilities and are tracked in classrooms with curriculum designed to control their behaviors and responses． ”由此可知，如果不能对教室及学校环境做出恰当反应，孩子就被冠以不具备学习能力的标签， 就需要上特别为他们设计的规范他们行为和反应的课程。故[B]为正确答案。 80．[解析] 答案出处在文章第二部分(Environment Theory)第二段第二、三句“The ability to respond appropriately to this environment is necessary for young children to participate in teacher-initiated learning activities． Success is dependent on the child following instructions from the teacher or the adult in the classroom． ”由此可知，如果不具备对环境及教师的指导做出恰当反应的能力，就不能入学。故[B]为正确 答案。 听力原文 预测试卷(六) Part A Questions 1 to 10: The British Library bolds a huge and ever growing archive of sound recordings. Access to these recordings, however, can be problematic, usually requiting a visit to the Library, with pre-booked appointment to hand. This can be a shame, for as well as providing factual insight, sound can also augment learning by adding intrigue, color and depth. A joint CSR2 funded digitisation project, between JISC and the British Library, could begin to meliorate what could be perceived as barriers to access of archived sound recordings, and ensure that the UK Further and Higher Education Community will soon have the opportunity to get to content previously unavailable to the broader community outside of actually making a trip to the Library. The following interview outlines which areas of the archive will be digitised and what can be expected over the duration of the project and beyond. Host: How do you choose which material to digitise? Guest: We have put together a package of ten specific areas that we will focus on. The question which I guess you are asking is how we decided upon those. There are over 3 million separate recordings in the Archive, which add up to 550,000 hours. The way in which our work is organised is through curatorial sections. They work within particular subject fields, which has enabled us, over the years, to build up a series of relationships with departments within the community. Host: Could you explain a little about the digitisation process itself? How are you undertaking that? Guest: We have an in-house team, essentially responsible for putting together the packages and then checking them for their issues, qualities and so forth. The notion is to marry up their work flow with an external contractor who will undertake the actual digitisation work. Ultimately the outputs will be archival master copies and access copies for mounting on the web. Host: How much material are you digitising, in terms of hours?. Guest: The target is 4, 000 hours, a substantial mount. In relation to the total amount of material we have in the Sound Archive, it could be considered a drop in the ocean. But in terms of material mounted on the web, it is significant. Host: What are the timescales we are looking at with this project? Guest: We plan to have everything ready by September 2006, and a user panel will be involved in the development of a pilot due by September this year. Host: Do you see this project as informing the British Library strategy on digitisation? Guest: It fits in very well with the British Library strategy, and we are doing digitisation in other areas. There are other projects which we are doing which will integrate well. We are updating our on-site listening service, and there are going to be interactions with that. For the licensed ASR material, which is the majority, only authenticated users will be able to listen to it off-site. However, for the material that does not require a license, anyone in the public domain will be able to listen regardless of authentication. Host: Have you thought about how you are going to promote this material? Guest: Conferences, through our curators and our involvement with academic departments, as well as through JISC mailing lists. The British Library Press Office will also be closely involved. Part B (1) Questions 11 to 13: About the only thing I read carefully each day after break; fast is the sports page. That is almost the only place left in which you can still come to grips with the drama of Life as most people live it. On sports pages we still find cheating to be cheating, we find glory in what is earned, we find corruption and repentance, honor and competence, vanity and genuine humility. Students wonder why games fascinate them as they do. It is because they behold there something that need not exist, that could be otherwise, but which exists according to the rules, according to the drama of the game. We do not know how it will turn out. Our lives themselves are exactly like this if we think about it. Many scholars made the point that the world need not exist, but does. Games need not exist but do. Life cannot be properly lived and games cannot be properly played unless we know their order, how they proceed. As spectators we behold something unfold before us, how things will turn out, according to the rules of play that need not be, but are. Drama itself is like this unfolding also. Bloom in his Shakespeare's Politics observes, speaking of Greek and English drama, that while watching a drama before us, we actually live a higher life than we do ordinarily, when we am mainly brushing our teeth or figuring out taxes. It is there in the unfolding plot that we see what is the human condition played out before us. We are struck by awe and pity and even fear as we see our lot. Aristotle says that games are not so exalted as drama, but nonetheless they are like unto it. They take place in freedom. We can see in them that there really are things that are worthy for their own sakes, "we suspect that there might be other things even more worthy." (2) Questions 14 to 16: Korea and Japan are so similar because Korea is located next to Japan, but we have lots of differences in our eating style. Although there is no prescribed order for eating the many dishes served at a traditional Korean meal, many Koreans start with a small portion of soup before eating the other dishes in any order they wish. Unlike other chopstick cultures, Koreans do not eat rice with chopsticks only but use sujeo, a combination of a long shallow spoon and oval-shaped chopsticks. Koreans generally do not pick up their rice or soup bowls, but leave both on the table and eat from them with spoons. Side dishes are eaten with chopsticks. Bad manners include blowing one's nose at the table, which is considered the rudest of acts, picking up chopstick or spoon before the oldest person starts the meal, chewing with an open mouth, talking with food in one's mouth, sticking chopsticks or spoons straight up in a dish, stabbing food with chopsticks, mixing rice and soup, and picking up food with one's hands (with certain exceptions). In informal situations, these roles are often broken. Though diners do not need to finish all the shared food that was provided, it is customary to finish one's individual portion of rice. On the other hand, in Japan, there are different roles about eating. First, they use just chopsticks; they don't use silverware. Also, when they eat food, they pick up the bowl for the main dish. Next, until 150 years ago, they did not eat meat because they believe in Buddhism. The Japanese eat lots of seafood dishes because Japan is surrounded by water and they come from the Buddhist tradition. Finally, unlike Koreans, when Japanese eat, they just put a few dishes on their table. As you can see, we have some different eating styles although we are so close because of our geographical situation. (3) Questions 17 to 20: What is Generation X? As far as Generation X is concerned, that generation was not defined by birthrates at all, but rather by a shared sensibility. Well it's the group of people born between 1961 and 1981. It's that simple. It seems we have come to be called Xers simply because we represent something negative to our elders. Generation X lives in the present, likes to experiment, and expects immediate results. Xers are selfish and cynical, and depend a lot on their parents. They question authority and they feel they carry the burden of the previous generations. We may be the one thing that all of the generations who currently precede us have in common. That is -- the ability to speak assuredly about our shortcomings. Of course, they overlook the fact that we are their responsibility, or actually their fault -- our generation will be called upon to look after our parents knowing that they failed to look after us. Intergenerational justice failed somewhere along the way and it will be our task to either rectify it or make it worse. We are a group of individuals who grew up with no one at home after school. It appears we have little hope for the future. No jobs, no homes, and basically no money are almost expected of us. These bleak prospects, along with the fact that we will be forced to support the largest number of senior citizens ever, do not provide much hope. Some believe that these blockades will be too much for us to handle and we will for the most part fall at life, but many see our individualism and resourcefulness that have been built up through our childhoods as our saviors. We will soon discover who is right and who is wrong. Part C Questions 21 to 30: If I fly to Chicago from Ithaca, N. Y. , later this month, Northwest Airlines will charge me $ 565 if my trip does not include a Saturday night stopover, but only $410 if it does. Similarly, ff I order Apple's new MacBook laptop, the company will charge me $ 1,499 for a machine in black, but only $1,349 for an identically configured one in white. As economists use the term, price discrimination means charging some buyers more than others for essentially the same product or service. Is it a bad thing? Buyers paying the higher prices understandably resent the practice. They might thus be surprised to learn that it often enables them to enjoy both lower prices and higher quality than would be possible if sellers charged the same price to everyone. Even more surprising, price discrimination often metes out rough justice among buyers, requiring those who are responsible for a greater share of sellers' costs to shoulder a greater share of the burden. For these claims to hold, sellers' costs per unit must decline with the number of units sold. This test is met in many markets. According to Sandy Angers, a spokeswoman for Boeing, for example, the average cost per seat for a typical domestic flight is 25 percent lower for the company's 180-seat 737-900ER than for its 110-seat 737-600. Similarly, the average cost of laptop computers declines sharply with the number produced -- largely because research and development costs are essentially fixed. When the company produces more units, each buyer's share of the costs declines. The upshot is that pricing schemes that enable companies to attract more buyers reduce the average cost per buyer served. And that frees resources that can be used to support higher quality -- more frequent flights for travelers and more sophisticated laptops for computer buyers. Among the ingenious tactics that sellers have developed for getting some buyers to pay more than others, many share a common feature: sellers offer discounts, but only to buyers who are first willing to jump a hurdle of some sort, like taking the trouble to mail in a rebate coupon. From the seller's perspective, the perfect hurdle is one that price-sensitive buyers can jump without difficulty but that other buyers find impossible to jump. One of the best hurdles yet discovered is the airlines' Saturday stopover requirement. Business travelers are not only much less sensitive to fares than leisure travelers are, they are also typically away from home during the week and reluctant to spend weekends away from their families. In contrast, leisure travelers, who are much more sensitive to fares, almost always take trips that include at least one weekend. Thus, few business travelers are willing to meet the Saturday hurdle, whereas most leisure travelers can meet it without effort. Is it unfair that business travelers pay higher fares for seats on the same flights7 Except for business travelers' demands for frequently scheduled flights, carders; could employ even larger aircraft than they currently do. So, the higher fares paid by business travelers are at least in part a reflection of the higher costs per seat associated with the smaller aircraft that carriers must use to accommodate their demands. The issues are similar in the computer market. Although some people care a great deal about cutting-edge hardware and software, others would happily settle for simpler machines ff that meant lower prices. Offering discounts to buyers of traditional white machines enables Apple to expand its market. And this reduces its cost per unit sold, freeing resources to develop even more sophisticated machines. Of course, discount hurdles do not apportion costs among buyers with precision. Some leisure travelers demand frequent service, for example, and would have been willing to pay for it, while some business travelers would have been willing to tolerate less frequent service if that meant lower fares. Similarly, some buyers who do not care much about a computer's technical abilities may have an overriding preference for machines in black, while others for whom those abilities are important may be equally happy with machines in white. On balance, however, there appears to be at least rough justice in these and other hurdle schemes. The buyers who care most about quality tend also to be those who are least willing to jump over discount hurdles. To the extent these hurdles work, business travelers and buyers of black laptops have little grounds for complaint.
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