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Worlds of Ideas

                  Developing the future.
Key to the theory of
Symmetry cannot get any more com-
plicated: The elements of the so-called
Lie group E8 describe how a geometric
object with 57 dimensions can be rotated
without changing its appearance. The Lie
groups were established by the Norwegian
mathematician Sophus Lie (1842-1899) to
describe continuous symmetries. We are

familiar with three-dimensional objects like
spheres, cylinders and cones that we see
in our daily lives. When you rotate a sphere
in space around its axis, its appearance
does not change. For this purpose, there

are exactly three independent rotation
axes. This type of symmetric relationship is
called continuous because it occurs at any
angle of rotation. This is not the case with a
cube. It maintains its appearance only if it
is rotated at 90 degrees or multiples of 90
E8 shows a Lie group of symmetries of a
geometric object – however, it is an imagi-
nary object with 57 dimensions that can be
rotated in 248 different ways and still main-
tain its appearance. Mathematicians led by
Jeffrey Adams of the University of Maryland
in College Park decoded this highly complex
structure after nearly five years of intensive
research. It took the Sage supercomputer
at the University of Washington 77 hours to
run the calculation. If you wanted to print
out the result, you would need a piece of
paper that was as big as Manhattan. Re-
searchers equate the calculation of E8 with
the Human Genome Project that cracked the
human gene.
The results of Adams’ team will pay off
in particular for those physicists work-
ing on one kind of theory of everything, a
uniform, symmetrical description of the four
fundamental forces of nature. They hope
to unite theories that have been incompat-
ible up to now using higher dimensional
symmetries like E8. Symmetries assume a
somewhat different form in gravity than in
elementary particles – the central question
thus becomes: Which symmetries apply to
everything? With the “exceptionally simple
theory of everything,” the physicist Antony
Garrett Lisi has already published a much-
discussed paper based on the calculations
of the Lie group E8.
                                                     5 7
                                    »The reasonable man adapts himself to the world. …
                                     The unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt
                                     the world to himself. Therefore, all progress depends
                                     on the unreasonable man.«
                                      George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), author

To the rescue
Without the ingenious inventions of a technical whiz, the greatest spy of all times would have
only been half as great. Just when a situation appears hopeless, the tried-and-true quarter-
master, who goes by the name of Q, comes to the rescue in James Bond films. The scope
of Q’s technical tinkering ranges from small gadgets that help secret agents get through their
workdays to bombastic caricatures of military technology. Would the minihelicopter from
the 1966 film “You Only Live Twice” have been thrown for a loop when it fired its rockets?
Physics Professor Metin Tolan thinks some of Q’s handiwork would have sent agents to
kingdom come. Fortunately, you do live twice.
Where education is a tradition
Gym class, at last: Just like young students around the world, these two boys in Chengdu, China,
appear to be happy that they can escape from the classroom for a little while and head outside for
some exercise. They are moving their feet on ground steeped in history: Their school, Chengdu Shishi
High School, is considered to be the world’s oldest existing school. It was established between
143 B.C. and 141 B.C. We just don’t know which sports were in vogue at the time. But the educators
back then certainly knew that school work without breaks for physical activity is an ordeal for both
teachers and students.
»Everyone should have access to education. You should
 not draw any class distinctions.«
 Confucius (551– 479 B.C.), Chinese philosopher
»We consciously create
 a place that fosters
 new ideas.«

                                     “Eureka!” No other exclamation conveys the joy of discovery like this one word. The list of
                                     creative individuals whose ideas have changed the face of our world since Archimedes made his
                                     jubilant jump from his tub is long. And these thinkers have led us to this: a global community of
                                     knowledge in which new physical relationships are discovered, new chemical formulas are found
                                     and new medical insights are gained with each passing minute. Knowledge becomes outdated
                                     faster and faster these days. Particularly in the fields of science and technology, many ideas make
                                     the transition from new to old in just a few years, replaced by fresher, more precise insights. This
                                     realization leads to one clear conclusion: The future belongs to the cravers of knowledge, creative
                                     minds and idea generators. To those very people whom Einstein called “the passionately curious.”
                                     Every day, thousands of creative minds around the world work at ThyssenKrupp to develop new
                                     materials and technologies, and to find innovative answers to unanswered questions. It does not
                                     always have to be the principle of displacement and density that creates a Eureka moment – many
                                     other more commonplace things produce one as well. Things like a new material that will improve
                                     car mileage in the future, a windmill composed of scrap that generates electricity for an African
                                     village or the first self-assembled, self-programmed robot made by an 11-year-old who loves to
                                     tinker with technology.
                                     Innovations are an engine for growth and competitiveness, for social progress and for sustainable
                                     development. To flourish, though, ideas and innovations need the right breeding ground. Edu-
                                                                                                       cation and vocational training have

A breeding ground for ideas                                                                            never been so important as they are
                                                                                                       in today’s knowledge society.
                                                                                                       As a global company, we can play
                                     a major role in this effort. Examples of this work are events like the IdeasPark, which is designed in
                                     particular to pique the interest of children and young people in technology and natural sciences,
                                     partnerships with schools and universities or an environment that encourages creativity. We
                                     consciously create a place that fosters new ideas, working conditions that encourage greater risk
                                     taking and creativity as well as structures that form the framework for pace-setting innovations.
                                     Join us on our journey of discovery through the world of knowledge and ideas. Let yourself
                                     be carried away by the passionate curiosity of the researchers, large and small, found in this

                                     Dr.-Ing. Heinrich Hiesinger,
                                     Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
TK Magazine | 1 | 2012
                                                                                 Necessity’s child: In Malawi, an inventive young man built a small
                                                                                 power generating plant for his family – using scrap metal, bike tires
                                                                                 and eucalyptus.

    views                                                                        forum
26 Two perspectives on knowledge and innovation                          12 Learning how to learn
   Views of William Kamkwamba and Ismail Serageldin                         An Interview with Stanislas Dehaene, a world-renowned
                                                                            cognitive scientist
                                                                         20 World in figures
24 worth_knowing                                                            Where knowledge originates
66 projects_news                                                         22 Democratized knowledge or idiocracy?
105 puzzle                                                                  The effects of new media
106 review

                         Z 3
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                                                %     How innovative is the             SOU                                              LIIA N
                                                      world? A comparative
                                                      look at national                                                            AUSTRA
                                                      contributions to science

                                                                                                                           4.,2 %
                                                                                                      Mn .
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                                                                                               EWZ        67
                                                                                                    1               TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September   4.7 %
                                                                                                AwV                                .3 mn .
                                                                                                                                    ,3 Mio
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76                                                                                     36
Historic encounters: When trekking to the remarkable locales                           United nations: At the ICAMS, an
of our scientific heritage, one is bound to wind up sooner or later                    international group of scientists is heading
in the Galapagos – the cradle of evolutionary theory.                                  in new directions in materials research.

30                                                                        100
Technology as child’s play:                                               Who says old dogs can’t learn
We check in on some                                                       new tricks? Our golden years
pint-sized robot enthusiasts.                                             have much more to offer us,
                                                                          says Prof. Ursula M. Staudinger.

     projects                                                             perspectives
30 Learning while you play                                            74 Mission Statement
   Kids experiment with technology                                        We are ThyssenKrupp
36 Meet the materialists                                              76 Meccas of modernity
   At the ICAMS in Bochum, a new generation of materials                  A pilgrimage to the hallowed grounds of scientific progress
   engineers gets inventive.                                          82 The education of an itinerant
42 Reaching toward the future                                             David Reinke found his dream job at the IdeasPark.
   The ThyssenKrupp IdeasPark – a review and preview                  84 Everyone learns differently
52 No ivory tower                                                         Insights into international education practices
   ThyssenKrupp’s postgraduate program promotes promising             90 In the age of networked intelligence: smarts in the age
   research projects.                                                     of the smart phone
54 Economical mobility                                                    Prof. Hans-Jörg Bullinger on the constructive dialogue between
   Two experts discuss the future of lightweight construction.            master minds
60 Brain work for office workers                                      92 On the origin of the knowledgeable society
   How new findings in neuroscience are aiding continuing                 The fascinating history of Thyssen and Krupp’s early education
   education                                                              and training programs
                                                                      100 “Age often serves as a scapegoat”
                                                                          Psychology professor Ursula M. Staudinger on the need for
                                                                          life-long learning

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

Why are we able to learn how to read, write and calculate? And how does our brain change as we
learn new things? In the following interview, Stanislas Dehaene, one of the world’s leading cognitive
neuroscientists, explains how schools can improve their teaching methods, why we should let our
children surf the Internet – and how our brain places constraints on our culture.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

 »Learning to read is difficult because we have to use a brain
  that was originally designed to ensure our survival in the
    Stanislas Dehaene

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
16    Professor Dehaene, can neuroscience help us use our brains more               brain indeed uses all of the information – but there is an effect that
      efficiently?                                                                  we call “parallel processing:” All letters are processed at once. And
      One can certainly not expect miracles from neuroscience. After all,           together they create a code that is transmitted to the phonological area
      learning, for example learning to read, is difficult – we have to use a       of the brain where the sound pattern of the word is coded.
      brain that was originally designed to ensure our survival in the wilder-
      ness and not to read Shakespeare or develop quantum physics. Chang-           No easy task …
      ing something we have inherited from evolution takes time. But if we un-      That’s why this process takes several years. For example, young
      derstand how the brain does this, this knowledge can help us improve          children read longer words more slowly – they still need to read serial-
      our education systems. Today, we not only know a lot about such spe-          ly, letter for letter. Parallel processing is the result of learning. After three
      cific brain functions as reading or doing arithmetic, but about how learn-    to four years, we can read short and long words at the same speed. But
                                                                                    even adults read more slowly if the letters are spaced apart or in an
                                                                                    unusual font or handwriting.

     »Presumably, each individual                                                   Does reading change our brain?

      lesson at school physically                                                   Yes, considerably. Presumably, each individual lesson at school physi-
                                                                                    cally alters the brain of a child. Our research findings show, for instance,

      alters the brain of a child.«                                                 that reading changes the visual brain – a kind of special area of the
                                                                                    brain where letter shape and letter strings are recognized. But reading
                                                                                    also alters our auditory areas: The brains of people who can read show
                                                                                    dual activation of this region when they hear a language. The brains of
      ing generally works. For example, sleep plays a very important role in        people who can’t read only show single activation. That means that
      learning: Sleep is crucial to reinforcing what has been learned. Our          reading radically changes our language code.
      research results should persuade all parents to put their own children to
      bed early.                                                                    When learning to read, is the act of reading itself important, or is
                                                                                    what we read equally important?
      And do neuroscientists help us learn to read?                                 When we learn to read, we are training the visual system to access the
      They can at least give us tips on what works best. There is no ideal          language system. The best thing about reading: Once you have ac-
      method for teaching others how to read. But there are some principles         cessed the language system, you can access your other brain areas –
      that we can and should adhere to. For example, we now know that the           you can read a math book or light fiction. While doing this, different
      brain does not recognize words as a unit – in contrast to what the psy-       areas of the brain are activated, of course. But each time, you are train-
      chologists who made a remarkable discovery at the beginning of the            ing the reading process.
      20th century initially thought: It doesn’t matter if a word has three let-
      ters or eight letters. People identify words at the same speed. They con-     Even when surfing the Internet?
      cluded that we do not use the individual letters to identify words while      Some people say that children have stopped reading since the Internet
      reading, but rather the entire form of the word. But that is incorrect. The   arrived on the scene. That is simply not true. They are almost constantly

                                                                                                                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
The mathematician and psychologist Stanislas Dehaene, born in
1965, is one of the world’s leading cognitive neuroscientists. In 2005,
he was elected to the Académie des Sciences and Professor of the
newly created Chair of Experimental Psychology at the Collège de
France. Dehaene conducts research into the neural basis of reading,
writing and arithmetic. 7

looking at letters and words and do not stop reading. It is a different
form of reading because information is presented in smaller chunks. We
do not yet know if this has an important impact. But the reading process
itself is not at all changed by the Internet, but is rather trained by it.

Does reading letters and numbers activate different areas of the
Yes, definitely. Some patients with brain injuries can no longer read
texts – but often they can still read numbers. So the same system is
clearly not being used: The letter shapes must be mapped out in the
phonological system, whereas numbers are primarily mapped out in the
quantity system that is in another area of the brain. Our visual system
therefore uses different areas of the cortex when we read letters or

Can we improve our writing systems to simplify reading?
Our writing systems have evolved over thousands of years. Just as with
biological evolution, the result of this evolution is not perfect. But writ-
ing systems are well adapted to the respective language. For example,
we can regard the irregularities in the French language as irregularities.
But they fit the French language well: There are a number of words that
are pronounced the same or similarly like “seau” (pail) and “saut”
(hop). So the same phoneme can be written differently – and we can
eliminate the ambiguity only when we see the word. If French were writ-
ten as it is spoken, then we would continuously encounter homographs
when reading. This is entirely different in the Italian language – and
that’s why the Italians have a completely transparent orthographic             Are cultures with writing systems that are difficult to learn at a
system.                                                                        disadvantage?
                                                                               No, not at all. The Chinese, for instance, achieve the best results in
                                                                               international comparisons in mathematics. It would be wrong to say
                                                                               that they are at a disadvantage because they have to invest a lot of time
                                                                               in learning to read.

                                                                               Can you present the next possible step in the evolution of our writ-
                                                                               ing systems?
                                                                               A few things are indeed really inefficient. For example, it’s unfortunate
                                                                               that our alphabet contains the letters “b” and “d” and “p” and “q”
                                                                               because the visual system confuses them – our brain is not made to
                                                                               distinguish mirror images of letters from each other. This is why many
                                                                               children sometimes write in mirror image when they learn to write. We 3

                                                                               Examining the brain: Stanislas Dehaene conducts his research at NeuroSpin,
                                                                               a research facility located on a spacious campus about 25 kilometers outside
                                                                               Paris. Here, the human brain is examined using such state-of-the-art imaging
                                                                               techniques as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
»If you take a closer look, you will find considerable unity
in the different writing systems.«
                                   3 could at least replace these letters with other ones. I’m also surprised
                                     that we aren’t taking advantage of the computer more. It is amazing
                                     how stupid we are: We take the computer – and present the pages as if
                                     they were printed by Gutenberg. We have not even begun to recognize
                                     what is possible. At some point in time, we will probably discover that
                                     the computer frees us from the constraints of printing letters physically.
                                     Maybe we will then invent a new writing system – I wouldn’t rule this out.

                                     We invented writing and reading although our brain was not de-
                                     signed to perform such tasks. How were we able to do that?
                                     By making these inventions fit the constraints of our brain’s architec-
                                     ture! In contrast to popular belief, our culture does not exhibit unlimited
                                     diversity. Instead, it is limited to what the genetic constraints of our brain

                                                                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                              The wonder of reading
                                                                              Writing was invented about 5,400 years ago by the Babyloni-
                                                                              ans, and the alphabet is only 3,800 years old. In the grand
                                                                              scheme of evolution, these are only brief moments in time.
                                                                              Our genes have not had the time to evolve enough to develop
                                                                              the neuronal circuits needed for reading. In light of this,
                                                                              we experience the emotions of Nabokov and learn about
                                                                              Einstein’s theories using the brain of a primate, a brain that
                                                                              was originally designed to survive in the African savannah. In
                                                                              his book “Reading in the Brain,” Stanislas Dehaene explains
                                                                              what this means for the science of reading and how the
                                                                              complicated process of reading has become so automatized
                                                                              tht evn mIStaks nO lngr plY a rOlE. The book takes readers
                                                                              on an exciting journey into the human brain whose functions
                                                                              are even less well known by the majority of people than those
                                                                              of their computer. 7
                                                                              Stanislas Dehaene: Reading in the Brain. The Science and Evolution of
                                                                              a Human Invention. Viking, 448 pages

A scientist’s trophies: On the doorknob of his wardrobe,
Stanislas Dehaene collects his conference name tags from
the conferences he has attended – in the last 12 months.

allow. Let me give you one example: At first glance, the alphabets and
writing systems of this world look very different. But if you take a closer
look, you will find considerable unity, for instance at the level of the
shapes that were chosen for these systems. I think we will discover that
this similarity exists in many other areas, for example in music. We will
understand how universal it is. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                     n f

                                         EW 0.
                                         EWZ 0 5 m
                                         AwV 2
       EWZ 0.5 mil.
                                3.2 %
        AwV 73

                   IRAQ                              PERU                                               ISRAEL

             EWZ 28.9 mil.                           EWZ 29.5 mil.              2.7 %              EWZ 7.6 mil.
             AwV 73                  n. a.               AwV 153                                   AwV 6,623                5.9 %       EWZ 6.4 mil.                4.0 %
                                                                                                                                         AwV 12

        Knowledge is anything but equally divided around the world – some               scientific papers each year. Despite these differences, most countries
        countries put together networks of leading universities and research            provide extensive funding to education – the cards also show the
        institutions, while others contribute virtually nothing to the advance-         percentage amount of gross national product that the countries spend
        ment of knowledge. This is vividly demonstrated by the country                  on education. If these funds are well invested, the indicators may
        pairs shown here. Each of the paired countries has roughly the same             produce a completely different picture in a few years.
        population, yet each produces an extremely disparate number of

       CANADA                                                                                                                       GERMANY

     EWZ 34 mil.                                                                                                              EWZ 82.3 m
     AwV 27,800              4.9 %                                                                                            AwV 44,408
                                                                                        EWZ 89.6 mil.                                                       4.6 %
                                             EWZ 38.6 mil.              7.0 %           AwV 283                    5.3 %
                                             AwV 262


                                                                                                        2.4 mil.           4.1 %
                                                                                                 EWZ 14
                                                                                                         ,953                                           .           n. a.
                                                                                                  AwV 13                                             mil

                                                                                                                                   TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
            I N DIA                        CH I A
                                                                           JAPAN                                                              ADESH

    EWZ 1,1                                EWZ 1 330
                                               1,    mil.       3.5 %
             66.1 m
                    il.                    AwV 56,806                                                                   EWZ 15
   AwV 18                                                                                                                      3.5 mil
          ,1  94                                                                                                                      .
                            3.2 %                                        EWZ 127.4 mil.                                AwV 23
                                                                         AwV 52,896                      3.4 %                                          2.4 %

                                                 VENE ZUELA
            SAUDI-ARABIA                                                            SOUTH KOREA                                       UKRAINE

                                             EWZ 28.8 mil.
          EWZ 27 mil.                        AwV 497
                                             AwV                 3.7 %
                                   5.7 %                                            EWZ 50 mil.
                                                                                                                   4.8 %                  EWZ 46 mil.                                 5.3 %
            AwV 589
                                                                                    AwV 18,467                                            AwV 1,847

                                                                              SPAIN                                            SOUTH AFRICA

                                                                                                                               EWZ 50 mil.
                                                                           EWZ 46.9 mil
                                                                                       .                                                                        5.1 %
                                                                           AwV 20,981                                          AwV 2,805
                                                                                                           4.6 %

  THAILAND                                 ITALY                                        ALIA                              SRI LANKA

                                      EWZ 60.3                                                                 4.2 %
                                                                                                                                                                    Sources: World Bank, Unesco, National Science Foundation (Science and
EWZ 64.2 mil.                                   mil.                                        .                             EWZ 20.6 mil.
                                                                                                                          EWZ 2                          n.a.
                                                                                    2.3 mil
AwV 1,728                 4.9 %       AwV 26,5
                                               44                             EWZ 2                                       AwV 125
                                                                                                                          AwV 1
                                                             4.6 %                   7,832
                                                                               AwV 1                                                                                Engineering Indicators), CIA Factbook, Wikipedia

                                       BR                                  LEGEND                                      * The number of academic papers
      INDONESIA                                                                                                          includes scientific and engineer-
                                                                             population                                  ing articles in the following areas:
                                                                                                                         physics, biology, chemistry,
                                                                                                                         mathematics, clinical medicine,
                                                                             number of scientific
                                                                                                    publications         biomedical research, engineering
                                                                                                                         and technology, earth science
                                                                            expenditure on edu                           and astronomy. The latest avail-
                                                                                                                         able data are used and primarily
                                                                                                                         originate from 2006 to 2010.
  EWZ 237.6 m                          EWZ 190.8 mil.
                                       EWZ                   5.5 %
  AwV 198                              AwV 11,885
                           3.5 %

  TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     The Internet is the most far-reaching innovation of the 20th century. For today’s 20-year-olds, a world
     that functioned without computers and the Internet seems like something from an ancient civilization.
     But the effect the new omnipresent media has on the processing of information and the learning
     process remains controversial.

               re we lapsing into mental lethargy by letting Google do the        work their way through textbooks and prefer to click from link to link, that
                searching for answers to our questions instead of our very        is, to take an exploratory approach to questions.
                 own brains? Has the job that our fingers perform been
                  boiled down to nothing more than typing text messages?          It’s the dosage, not the poison, that matters
                    Does our attention span extend only to the next e-mail        The German neurologist and psychiatrist Professor Dr. Manfred Spitzer
                     pop-up? Or are we venturing into completely new              views this brave new media world much more critically, as the title of
                      worlds of knowledge and learning while we evolve into       one of his books demonstrates, “Vorsicht Bildschirm” (Beware of the
     increasingly productive multitaskers capable of juggling chats, Internet     Computer Monitor). “When texts are no longer read, but are just
     surfing and games all at once? There is no question that the regular, in-    skimmed, when people only ‘surf,’ instead of diving into books or
     tense use of the Internet and video games has an effect on our brains.       libraries to unearth thoughts and ideas, when the writing of thoughts is
     The real point under debate is how.                                          replaced by cutting and pasting, no one becomes any more intelligent,”
                                                                                  Spitzer says in describing his concerns. He thinks the worst mistake
     New teaching methods for the digital age                                     being made in media education involves the dosage, which, as is well
     To the American Mark Prensky, they are “digital natives.” To the Dutch       known, is the heart of the poison: “To successfully grow cognitively,
     educator Wim Veen, “Homo zappiens” – the children of baby boomers            emotionally and socially, children and adolescents need, above all, the
     who have grown up in a digital world. This generation spends more time       real world and then the virtual one,” he says. Today, young people are
     with digital media than with school work or sleep, and a major portion       finding it increasingly difficult to concentrate, to read and to compre-
     of their communicating is done online. To meet the needs and address         hend something or even to write a structured text, the professor says.
     the interests of these digital natives, Prensky and Veen are calling for     For this reason, Spitzer calls for improved learning software for schools
     our approach to teaching to be completely rethought.                         and for a restriction on media consumption – none for
     “Our education system is out of date,” Prensky wrote in an essay on          children up to 3 years old and a maximum of an
     education in the United States that was published recently. “Our kids’       hour a day for high-school students.
     educational needs have radically changed. New technologies are alter-        Spitzer says a permanent “online exis-
     ing all areas of our society and all jobs. But our educational system is     tence” has a negative effect in the fol-
     not keeping pace with these changes.” Prensky calls for the widespread       lowing way: “To consolidate some-
     teaching of important new skills like programming and video communi-         thing that has been
     cation. Skills that are no longer needed – particularly those that “ma-
     chines can do faster and better” – should be dropped from the curricu-
     The Dutch educator Veen holds similar views: “Traditional books,
     lectures and text-based e-learning do not interest Homo zappiens. He
     wants to control his own learning process and use instruments that sup-
     port his ability to process information,” he argues in his “Visions 2020.”
     And these tools are computers, MP3 players, cell phones and remote
     controls. Veen advocates a culture of “game-based learning.” He
     argues that this approach better represents the digital lives of Homo
     zappiens, a new species of humans who do not want to systematically

                                                                                                                      TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
 learned, the brain needs a period of rest. This life ‘online’ prevents this                                                                             23
 from happening. More and more people today are constantly linked to
 the entire world. But they pay a price for this: They really deal less and
                                                                                   The Flynn effect
 less with this world because they are less and less capable of doing it.”         In the 20th century, the average score on IQ tests in many
                                                                                   industrial countries rose by three IQ points per decade until
 Too much at once                                                                  the 1990s, the New Zealand intelligence researcher James R.
 Unlike Prensky and Veen, Spitzer considers multitasking to be both                Flynn has determined. The reasons Flynn cited for this im-
 harmful and impossible. “The daily media usage time of frequent mul-              provement included not only better diets and healthcare, but
 titaskers is 12.5 hours, and they pack it into eight to nine real hours,”         also new educational opportunities and technologies. While
 he says. “Studies conducted at Stanford University show that people               the scores have continued to climb in developing countries,
 who frequently use several media at the same time have problems con-              the “Flynn effect” can be seen today in only a few industrial
 trolling their thinking: They have a harder time ignoring insignificant           nations. Some researchers blame this trend on the sensory
 external impulses as well as unimportant things in their memory.” As a            overload caused by new media. For his part, Flynn takes a
 result, multitaskers were less capable than non-multitaskers of shifting          critical view of the term “intelligence:” “It is stupid to confuse
                                                                                   IQ tests with what humans consider to be intelligence. There
                                                                                   is no reason to assume that our brains are better than those
»To consolidate something that has been                                            of our ancestors,” he said in an interview. In fact, IQ tests
 learned, the brain needs a period of rest.«                                       do not actually measure intelligence – however that may
                                                                                   be defined. Rather, they evaluate certain abilities, like pattern
                                                                                   recognition, that can be more or less learned and are used
 from one task to another, he says. “Anyone not suffering from an                  more frequently in the digital world. 7
 attention-deficit disorder can certainly acquire one through frequent
 multitasking,” Spitzer says.
 He also argues that passive learning on the computer fails to sufficient-     thinking about it. This is what we determined in the latest studies we
 ly stimulate our gray matter: “Roughly one-third of our brain is for plan-    conducted in our labs,” Spitzer says. He believes this finding has been
 ning, coordination and the execution of movements. And it is this one-        confirmed by a major study that American pediatricians conducted with
 third that is used when we engage in tactile learning, by apprehending.       more than 1,000 infants. This study found that the use of “Baby
 When we learn at the click of a mouse, a simple pointing movement, this       Einstein” DVDs to develop the babies’ language abilities had twice the
 third remains passive, just as it does by channel surfing. Anyone who         negative effect compared with the positive one created by reading aloud
 gets to know the world by sitting at a computer has gotten to know it         to children every day. Computers and television can never replace
 relatively more superficially and uses significantly fewer nerve cells in     contact with humans, Spitzer says. 7
                                                                               TEXT: ANKE BRYSON

 TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
     Female innovation                                        Let’s
     Many inventions come from women –
     and very often these emerge out of pure
     pragmatism. A brief overview:                            He edited the Declaration of
                                                              Independence, was involved
     The dishwasher                                           in the drafting of the Constitu-
     Because she was aggravated by the many                   tion – and created the first
     broken dishes resulting from washing and                 lightning rod: Benjamin
     drying, Josephine Cochran invented the dish-             Franklin was an entrepreneur-
     washer. In 1886, she applied for a patent for            ial thinker in more than one
     her invention, and in 1893 she received the              field – he was not just a
     prize for the “best mechanical construction,             statesman, he was also an
     durability and adaptation to its line of work” at        inventor. “Let the experiment
     the World’s Fair in Chicago.                             be made,” was the U.S.
                                                              Founding Father’s life motto.
     The coffee filter                                        In that respect, he designed a
     Dresden housewife Melitta Bentz invented filter          glass harmonica, bifocals and
     paper in 1908 because she was sick of always             a wood-burning stove. But a
     finding coffee grounds at the bottom of the              daring field trial brought him
     mug. After it was patented in 1908, she imme-            worldwide fame: He and his
     diately established a company in her name.               son flew a kite in a thunder-
                                                              storm – and guided lightning
                                                              to earth. He had captured fire from heaven, his contemporaries cheered.
                                                              Immanuel Kant proclaimed him the “new Prometheus.” Such feats have not
                                                              been surpassed by any politician since. But others have also dabbled in
                                                              inventing: German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer developed, among other
                                                              things, a toaster with see-through panels; British Technology Minister Tony
                                                              Benn devised a backpack with a built-in seat. 7

                                                         Long before the first laws protecting intellectual
     The windshield wiper
     After noticing how New Yorkers stopped their        property were passed, there were patents. One of the
     cars in the rain to get out and wipe down the
     windshields by hand, Mary Anderson came             oldest preserved patent certificates originated in
     up with the idea of a windshield wiper. Her
     contraption was patented in 1913.
                                                         England and is almost 700 years old; the first patent
                                                         law was issued by the Republic of Venice in 1474. In
     A mathematical genius
     In 1843, British mathematician Ada Lovelace         Japan, however, inventions of any kind were explicitly
     demonstrated how to calculate Bernoulli
     numbers with Charles Babbage’s (never-built)        forbidden in 1791: They wanted to keep the public
     “Analytical Engine” computing machine – thus
     creating the precursor to computer software.
                                                         from modernizing. It wasn’t until 1885 that a patent
     That is why she is credited as being the first      law was introduced in Nippon – nearly eight years
     computer programmer – before any of her
     male colleagues. 7                                  after its German counterpart.

                                                                                                        TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                                                   WHO WAS IT?
                                                                             Fiat Lux                                                            25
                                                                             To some extent, one could consider him to be one
                                                                             of the most important representatives of the
                                                                             Enlightenment. At least when one takes the name
                                                                             of this epoch literally. After all, his work significant-
         The university system in the United                                 ly contributed to bringing light into the darkness of
         States is more steeped in tradition                                 this world. Admittedly: He neither belonged to the
                                                                             era of Enlightenment – he wasn’t born until the
         than one might think: Thirteen of the                               mid-1800s – nor were his works spiritual in nature.
         country’s universities were founded                                 No, this man’s contribution to the brightening of
         before 1800. In the former mother-                                  this world was very concrete: He was an inventor,
                                                                             and the patent that he applied for in 1879, which
         land, Oxford and Cambridge are                                      was approved the following year under the number
         certainly among the world’s oldest                                  223898, laid the foundation so that today every
                                                                             room can be lit with the simple flip of a switch.
         universities, but no other universi-                                This gifted tinkerer has more than 2,000 inventions
         ties were established there until the                               to his name despite the fact that he never had the
         19th century.                                                       luxury of a formal education. Many among them
                                                                             have had an enduring impact on the development
                                                                             of economic, societal and cultural life as we know
                                                                             it. The phonograph, for example, which made
                                                                             recording the fleeting world of sound possible for the very first
                                                                             time – on a cylinder covered by a sheet of tin foil. The mimeo-
Who invented it?                                                             graph (a device used for screen printing), the telegram and the
Samuel B. Morse and his code, King Camp Gillette and his razor,              kinetoscope all lead back to our mystery man,
Rudolf Diesel and his motor – many names are inextricably linked to          even if the bulk of these inventions
their inventions. But who were the creators of the wheel and wagon,          were developed by his employ-
stirrup and horseshoe, magnetic compass and paper money? They                ees.
all have changed the course of the world. And yet no one has built           But that has done nothing to
memorials in their honor, named streets after them, restored their           hurt his legacy – and rightly
childhood homes. “Inventor’s Day” hopes to remedy this by bringing           so. Even today, his name is
attention to those people who achieved neither fame nor fortune for          considered a synonym for
their ideas. Europe celebrates this day on November 9, the birthday of       inventive ingenuity. But the
actress and diva Hedy Lamarr, who was arguably the most beautiful            inventor described the
                             woman of the 1940s and broke many               secret to his success in a
                                       hearts in her day. She didn’t just    more prosaic way: Genius,
                                            conquer Hollywood. She           he said, is 1 percent inspira-
                                                also applied for a patent:   tion and 99 percent perspira-
                                                  Together with com-         tion. 7
                                                   poser George An-
                                                     theil, she thought      SOLUTION: PAGE 105
                                                     up a fail-safe radio
                                                     remote control for
                                                    torpedoes. An
                                                   invention from two
                                                  artists? The US Marine
                                                Corps politely declined.
                                             It wasn’t until much later
                                          that technicians came back
                                      to the idea: as a basis for cell
                                  phones. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     After he had to stop going to
     school in 2001 because his
     parents could no longer afford to
     pay the fees, the then 14-year-
     old William Kamkwamba
     checked out a book about ener-
     gy use from his village’s library.
     He came across a picture of a
     windmill in the book and then
     went to work building his own
     version, one made of eucalyptus,
     bicycle parts and scrap, in his
     native village of Masitala,
     Malawi. Thanks to his work, his
     family had electricity – it was the
     first time that the Kamkwambas
     had electrical light. The family’s
     neighbors were skeptical of
     Kamkwamba’s work at first.
     But once the windmill started
     turning, they were lining up to
     charge their cell phones. Kamk-
     wamba became an international
     celebrity as a result of his work.
     In 2008, he was one of the first
     97 students to attend the new
     African Leadership Academy in
     Johannesburg, South Africa.
»I tried. And I made it.«
 William Kamkwamba, inventor from Malawi
»We are at a turning point: The way that knowledge will be structured, accessed,
 manipulated and understood, the way that knowledge will be expanded,
 presented and taught – all of this is undergoing fundamental change at the
 moment. It is the most sweeping revolution since the invention of writing.«
 Ismail Serageldin, Director of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt

     Learning through play – nothing simpler than that. Knowledge about technology and the natural
     sciences can be playfully communicated to children. The development of the necessary toys moved
     from the classic forms like building blocks and model trains to computer-supported applications
     a long time ago. We took a look at some small designers in action.

               iklas, keep pressing until you get to program 5,” Tycha Dinse tells the perplexed
               8-year-old whose robot refuses to carry out the instructions given to it through
               a computer. Philip and Simon add their own questions to the chorus: “Why is
               mine not doing anything?” and “why is it just going around in circles?” Tycha
               Dinse calmly takes control of the situation. The 25-year-old college
               student is used to handling such cries for help. As a trainer at the “Roberta
               Academy,” she works at the Deutsches Museum in Bonn and introduces 8- to            3

                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                     “Roberta” is a technical marvel in the eyes of children:
                                     The Lego robot can be brought to life using a relatively
                                     simple computer program. It’s nothing more than
                                     child’s play.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     3 12-year-olds to a secret world in which they can assemble a simple          knows where these two cables go?” – “on the black part!” The young
       robot made of Lego bricks and teach it to walk, dance and even scoot        designers may not have the technical terms down pat just yet, but they
       around a barrier.                                                           are already well-versed in one thing: The correct way to work with com-
                                                                                   puters has apparently become second nature to these kids. Maxi, Paul,
       Computer work – no problem!                                                 Oliver, Hannah and Bruce work the touchpads on their laptops that they
       But before the colorful robots can actually handle S-shaped curves or a     use to “bring the robots to life” so skillfully that you begin to think they
       zigzag course at the end of the two-hour class, the children will learn     do nothing else the whole day long. The eight children also have no
       about all of the things that a robot can do – and what makes it work        problem following the instructions “please connect it to the USB port.”
       in the first place. For starters, Dinse wants to know just where            Once they have set up their computer work stations, the highly moti-
       robots are used. The children already have the answer: for car testing,     vated designers turn their attention back to their instructor. “So, what is
       in factories and at dangerous places where people cannot venture            the first task you have to complete to let the robot know what it has to
       themselves, including outer space. But what has to be done to actually      do?” A brief period of silence is followed by a fairly vague recollection
       activate a robot? “You have to assemble it!” They already have an idea,     about the topic of today’s course: “programming!”
       but they have not grasped the details yet. That’s not a problem, though,
       because Dinse is happy to tell the young technology buffs just what         The radio wave does it: Roberta learns to walk
       a robot is all about: “A robot has no mind of its own. It can do nothing.   No sooner said than done: Using a relatively simple command menu,
       A smart person must tell it what to do – and that’s a pretty tricky         the children “write” a computer program for Roberta. Walk straight
       process.” With these words, Dinse has piqued the children’s interest.       ahead for two seconds, turn right, walk straight ahead again, shake
       Now, they want to know more about the robot’s inner workings. To find       yourself and walk in a zigzag pattern – the goal is to put the Robertas
       the answers, two-child teams quickly get to work on assembling the so-      through their paces today. The anticipation of a robot race fills the air.
       called “Roberta,” whose chassis is outfitted with a microprocessor, and     But wait – the work done so far is not enough. “Before you can start
       using colorful Lego bricks to give them a distinct look with telescopic     your Roberta, you must first transfer the program,” Dinse says in telling
       eyes or additional arms. And then the class really gets rolling. “Who       the children about the next step in the process. Using a radio, the chil-

                                                                                   mid-section of their favored jobs. To improve the image of technical
       In Leonardo da Vinci’s footsteps?                                           jobs, the “Roberta Academies,” numerous other initiatives, museums,
       Will Niklas, Hannah, Simon or Oliver end up an engineer later in life?      schools and kindergartens are teaching knowledge about the natural
       No one knows right now. Police officer, veterinarian, nurse, soccer         sciences in a playful manner.
       player, teacher, pilot and firefighter – for decades, children have         It remains to be seen how many of the children who receive such
       expressed their interest in the same jobs and have generally followed       instruction will actually become engineers later in their lives. But, at
       conventional role patterns in society. Among boys, the jobs of              the very least, the children’s behavior during play reveals much about
       “engineer” and “researcher, discoverer and inventor” rank in the            them, says educational-services manager Stefan Ginthum: “You have

                                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
              »A robot has no mind of
               its own. It can do nothing.
               A smart person must tell
               it what to do.«

dren transmit their self-written program to their Roberta’s microproces-        especially from the boys – the robots’ close encounters with the legs of
sor. And now things really get rolling: Two by two, the teams have              chairs and walls also have a certain learning effect: “How can you teach
brought their Roberta to life and proudly show off pirouettes, turning          the robot to avoid the barrier?,” the teacher asks. “It must go back-
maneuvers and collisions. These crashes bring expressions of glee,              ward!” The fact that a robot must first recognize a barrier before it can

                                                                 Just what makes a
                                                                 robot tick? The children
                                                                 learn that the secret lies
                                                                 in its microprocessor.

                                                                                avoid it does not appear to be self-evident to this age group. But it does-
children who use a toy once or assemble it and then put it on                   n’t matter because Tycha Dinse can also patiently explain the solution:
a shelf. The constructive element is not so important to such                   “Roberta needs something like eyes. For this reason, Roberta will now
children. And you have the creative ones who have a whole lot                   get some light sensors.” And the children run off to the Lego toolbox
of fun building things. They milk things for all they are worth and             and their laptops. They then get down onto the floor, which they have
will take a toy apart over and over again. A great technical toy                turned into a robot racetrack.
will open a new world to these children.”
                                                                                A key feature: doing it yourself
                                                                                The children’s enthusiasm clearly shows what really captures their
                                                                                attention: “A technically appealing, cool design is what the children 3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                                                    Hard to believe: The young
34                                                                                                                                  students at the “Roberta
                                                                                                                                    Academy” are amazed by
                                                                                                                                    their creations.

                                          3 really like,” Stefan Ginthum says     Roberta courses. “Using very simple means, you can make the robot do
                                            in explaining the success of the      something. This gives children an immediate sense of achievement. We
                                            robot course. He is an education-     use this low entry threshold to awaken and maintain interest.” Complex
                                            al services manager for a compa-      tools like a soldering iron are not necessary. The toy industry is also tak-
                                            ny dedicated to providing high-       ing advantage of the falling prices of such technical components as
                                            tech learning media to children.      memory and processors. “Many brand-name manufacturers can now
                                            “And the do-it-yourself aspect        sell rather mature technical toys at reasonable prices. Added to this is
                                            plays a very big role,” Ginthum       the professional industry software that is designed in such a way that
                                            adds. “Things that move and that      even small children can use it,” Leimbach says.
                                            have gears that you can look
                                            at – these are the things that fas-   The aim is to understand technology
                                            cinate children.” Thanks to carry-    For most children, using technology has become second nature. For
                                            ing out work on a computer,           years now, they have had cell phones, computers and game consoles
                                            which has rapidly developed into      at their fingertips. “But being able to use technology is one thing –
                                            a cultural sensation that children    understanding it is something else entirely,” Leimbach says.
     have also mastered, a number of new possibilities have evolved, he           To promote the understanding of technology, particularly among girls,
     adds.                                                                        the Fraunhofer Institute launched the “Roberta” program at the turn of
     This is the focal point of the “Roberta” courses, in which commercially      the millennium. Ever since, trainers like Tycha Dinse have been taught
     available building blocks are complemented by the computer-support-          to introduce 8- to 12-year-olds to robot programming, a rather compli-
     ed development of a complete system design. “This is exactly how it’s        cated subject for this age group. Can Thorsten Leimbach recommend
     done in industry,” says Thorsten Leimbach of the Fraunhofer Institute        that children build their own robots at home? “If mothers and fathers
     for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems, which developed the        join in, it can work well. We have noticed that the children need a

         Since 1997, young people between the ages of 10 and 20 have              young people’s interest in technical courses of study and jobs
         been able to enter robots they built themselves in a competition,        through the fascination created by the game with technical
         having their technically advanced machines play soccer or com-           systems and artificial intelligence. National competitions are
         plete search, rescue or logistics tasks in front of a large crowd.       held in many countries. The world championship for 2012
         The Switzerland-based RoboCup Federation works to awaken                 was held in Mexico City in June.

                                                                                                                      TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                             »Things that move and that have
                                                                              gears that you can look at –
                                                                              these are the things that fascinate

certain amount of guidance,” Leimbach says. “In principle, though,
children really don’t need a whole lot of special toys in order to explore
technology. They ask so many questions every day. You just have to
explain things to them.” Tycha Dinse seems to have taken this particu-
lar lesson to heart. How else could the young woman remain so calm
amid the whirlwind kicked up by the eight budding engineers in the
Deutsches Museum in Bonn? 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                      allways have a lot of stories to tell. Anyone who has a marble floor
     Eighty scientists from 30 countries: an inter-   certainly wants to make a serious impression. And anyone who
     national community conducts research at the      paints the walls red wants to show off his or her creativity. In the
     ICAMS institute in Bochum, Germany. One          hallway of the Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Materials
                                                      Simulation – or ICAMS – you will find a no-frills map of the world
     goal unites them: They are determined to be      hanging on the wall. Small flags have been stuck in innumerable
     the world’s finest developers of materials.      cities on the map, places like Santa Fe and Toronto, Shanghai 3

                                                                                 TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                     What distinguishes a material from a solid body?
                                     People like Jutta Rogal who conducts research at
                                     ICAMS develop a scientific understanding of materials.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                Facts about research
                                                                                                The Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Materials
                                                                                                Simulation (ICAMS) opened in 2008 and is part of
                                                                                                the Ruhr-University Bochum. Three foundation-
                                                                                                endowed chairs cover three areas: atomistic
                                                                                                simulation, thermodynamic and kinetic simulation
                                                                                                as well as the micromechanic simulation of macro-
                                                                                                mechanic material behavior. Using “multiscale
                                                                                                modeling,” ICAMS is working to predict the behav-
                                                                                                ior of materials, results that will enable materials
                                                                                                with desired properties to be developed more
                                                                                                easily. ICAMS has received support not only from
                                                                                                political leaders, but also from industry: It gets
                                                                                                about €24 million from the German state of North
                                                                                                Rhine-Westphalia and from an industrial consor-
  Appreciates the pioneering spirit: Chemist Georg Madsen has been on board since 2009.         tium of which ThyssenKrupp is a member. The
                                                                                                partnership with ThyssenKrupp also has a practical
                                                                                                benefit. The institute’s researchers and the compa-
3 and Kokshetau. Each flag represents a place where an institute employee has                   ny’s developers work together and hold regular
  done research, taught and lived.                                                              discussions during symposiums and meetings.
  ICAMS lures scientists from around the world to Bochum, a city in the Ruhr region             Another high-performance computing group funded
  of northwestern Germany – it is considered to be one of the leading materials-                by ThyssenKrupp will be launched in 2012. 7
  research institutes in Europe. The people who walk down this unpretentious hall-
  way have an ambitious goal: They intend to revolutionize the way that materials
  are developed.
  The flag planted on the Danish coast belongs to Georg Madsen: The 39-year-old
  chemist earned his doctorate in Aarhus, Denmark. He joined the institute in 2009
  – a year after it was established. He was drawn by its pioneering spirit: “We can
  create something new here,” he says. “This is shaping up to be an institute where
  everyone wants to work in the same direction.” In Bochum, he hoped he would              International community:
                                                                                           51 percent of the institute’s
  meet people who thought the same way and be able to discuss issues with them.
                                                                                           scientists come from
  And – unlike life at the university – he would not have to fight his battles as a lone   countries outside Germany.
  wolf. Georg Madsen found what he was looking for. Today, ICAMS is the scien-
  tific home to about 60 people, including mathematicians, computer scientists,
  engineers, materials scientists, physicists and chemists like himself. All special-
  ties work together.

»This is shaping up to be an institute where
 everyone wants to work in the same direction.«
  Georg Madsen, chemist

  The researchers have taken off their lab coats. Clad in a T-shirt, Georg Madsen
  sits at a computer terminal, surrounded by formulas, graphs and tables. At the
  ICAMS, computer simulations have replaced experiments. No matter whether the
  focal point is wind-power stations, airplane turbines or car doors: Many techno-
  logical innovations require new materials. At ICAMS, their corrosion resistance,
  strength and flexibility are determined – using a mouse click that takes the place
  of laborious experiments. The researchers are able to save two things by simu-
  lating the properties of materials on their computers: time and resources. In doing 3

  TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                   Education at ICAMS
                                                                                                   Under the leadership of Managing Director Ralf
                                                                                                   Drautz, ICAMS intends to not only give new life to
                                                                                                   materials development, but also to engineering ed-
                                                                                                   ucation: The institute now offers the degree pro-
                                                                                                   gram called materials science simulation. In taking
                                                                                                   this approach, ICAMS is cultivating a generation of
                                                                                                   materials engineers who learned during their mas-
                                                                                                   ter’s degree programs that various disciplines must
                                                                                                   work together. “We intend to ensure that our stu-
                                                                                                   dents know how a physicist or a chemist, how a
                                                                                                   materials scientist or a mechanical engineer views
                                                                                                   material. Our graduates should have a holistic un-
                                                                                                   derstanding of materials,” Ralf Drautz says. Up to
       The share of women is climbing – it is now 20 percent, thanks in part to Sankari Sampath.   30 students are to be admitted each semester. 7

     3 so, they gain a huge lead on their global competitors. A lead that can only be
       measured in years, and not months. But this requires some preliminary work to
       be done, too.
       Georg Madsen, for instance, heads the atomistic simulation group. With the help
                                                                                                   Share of women rises
       of Eunan from Northern Ireland, Nick from the Midwest of the United States and              In Germany, more women than men earn the
       Alessandro from northern Italy, he explores density functional theory, which is             Abitur, the diploma issued by the country’s college-
       used to determine the properties of molecules. But he has few proven programs               preparatory high schools. But this trend is not really
       on which he can draw and first has to develop the necessary methods. As a                   reflected in technical subjects. For instance, the
       result, he expects that it will be a few years before he will have many results to          share of women majoring in electrical engineering
       show for his work. Nonetheless, the pace at ICAMS is fast. “The time between the            is 9 percent. But not at ICAMS: 20 percent of
       idea and action is not very long,” Georg Madsen says. Six months ago, the first             employees are female. One of them is the PhD
       discussions were held about a thermoelectric project – it is now under way. The             candidate Aenne Köster. Even though she had no
       institute went from zero to 100 in seconds flat. Or as Georg Madsen puts it: “We            Lego building bricks as a child, she says she has
       hit the ground running.”                                                                    “always been fascinated by mathematics and
                                                                                                   physics.” ICAMS gives the 26-year-old the opportu-
       From zero to 100                                                                            nity to bring this interest to life. Here, she is re-
       People who sign on at the ICAMS do not speak a whole lot of German. At the con-             searching how the behavior of TRIP steel can be
       ference table, in seminar rooms, during group meetings or at the coffee machine:            described with the help of a suitable model. What
       English is the language you hear in the 10th, 11th and 12th floors of High Rise             does she like best? “Putting the theory into a
       West. German words rarely crash the party. If this weren’t the case, Alessandro,            model.” 7
       the new employee from Italy, would not understand a word being said. He joined
       Georg Madsen’s team as a PhD candidate just a few months ago, and he had to
       beat out 80 other applicants for the opportunity. His excellent grades in physics
       proved to be the game breaker.
       Creating a good group and recruiting skilled employees – Georg Madsen thinks
       ICAMS can be proud of these accomplishments. The strength of the institute is
       also reflected in the number of papers its staff has published. Georg Madsen had
       a hand in five papers last year. Since the institute opened in 2008, its employees
       have published nearly 270 papers. And they were able to do so even though they
       had no electricity or computers during its first weeks of operation. Today, the
       infrastructure works just fine, and the team is nearly complete. There are few
       openings for PhD and post-doc candidates listed on the institute’s home page: It
       will soon be time to add three more flags to the hallway map. 7

                                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
Had to beat out 80 other
applicants: Alessandro Parma
is one of the newest members

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

        The playground for new ideas
        The IdeasPark is part of the “Discovering Future Technology” initiative that ThyssenKrupp launched in 2004.
        The initiative is a response to the increasing shortage of young people interested in technical careers and is
        designed to promote a dialogue about technology among all segments of society and age groups as well as
        to excite young people about technology-related vocational apprenticeships and university-level engineering
        The Ideas Park initiative pursues no commercial interests. It is an open platform that enables its
        approximately partners from science, society, business and media to bundle their educational and technical
        activities into joint projects.

                               A FEEL FOR
     The Ideas Park has become a fixture of the educational landscape in Germany. To mark this
     occasion, we took a look back at the past and ahead to the future: We were wondering just what
     had become of some projects that had been introduced at past IdeasParks – and came up with
     some very interesting answers.

                                                                                                                  TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                              What the world needs
                              What do room-cleaning robots, homework-performing machines and devices capable of predicting test
                              questions have in common with machines that regulate sleep and waking times and devices that suck up
                              polluted air? The world is still waiting for them to be invented – at least that is what children said at the
                              IdeasPark. During the stimulating journey through the world of technology, they apparently gained not only
                              impressions, but also ideas. In the following section, some visitors recall their experiences.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

        Venturing into new dimensions
        No matter whether it is perspective drawing or holography –              In all FELIX 3D displays, the images seem to float in space – for
        for ages, painters, photographers and filmmakers have been               instance, in a glass ball or in a crystal cube. The observer can freely
        dreaming about the spatial presentation of images. A group of            move around the display, observing the object from all sides and
        young researchers from northern Germany made this dream                  taking control – using suitable input media.
        come true by using several three-dimensional all-round                   The displays were perfected during years of exacting work over-
        displays that were shown at the IdeasParks 2006 and 2008.                seen by Knut Langhans, a director of studies and a physicist. In the
        These displays have been continuously refined since then and
        may now have a huge future ahead of them: the FELIX 3D
        display, SOLIDFELIX, HiResFELIX and LEDFELIX.

        The FELIX 3D display, which has been continuously upgraded by
        the FELIX 3D project group at the Vincent Lübeck High School, uses
        the Helix3D system that was patented in 1976 by its inventor,
        Professor Rüdiger Hartwig. In this system, laser beams are
        projected onto a rapidly rotating helix (= spiral) in a cylinder. This
        produces points of light that in their entirety produce a three-
        dimensional picture. As one potential area of application, Hartwig’s
        patent application noted that the system could be used in air-
        traffic control to produce three-dimensional images of objects
        flying at heights and distances.                                         The impulse provider: Knut Langhans (middle) with his team.

                                                                                                                  TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                               »The IdeasPark was a whole lot of fun. It had plenty of hands-on                                                    45
                                technology and experiments you could try for yourself. When
                                we learned about the solar system at school, I created a model
                                of the solar system.«
                                Daniel, 11

                                                     3-D tube produced      The research results produced by the budding researchers in Stade
                                                     in a zirconium-
                                                     based glass.           have been attracting the interest of international industry and
                                                                            science for a long time now – at international conferences, the
                                                                            secondary-school students are the youngest delegates.
                                                                            The FELIX researchers also profit individually from their innovative
                                                                            activities: In addition to having an opportunity to gain practical
                                                                            training in their free time, they gain further qualifications and
                                                                            expertise in natural science and technology as well as in method
                                                                            training and project management. As part of this opportunity, Knut
                                                                            Langhans has set up an association to assist natural scientists of
                                                                            the future (VFN e.V.). The students themselves prove over and over
                                                                            again that this association is taking the right approach: They give
                                                                            up their afternoons, weekends and school vacations for their
process, they have gained international acclaim in academia. They           projects. And those that “grow out of” the project group often
also show tremendous potential. The three-dimensional FELIX                 remain associated with it during their future careers. 7
displays are ideal for 3-D design in such areas as architecture.  ,
They soon could find themselves in air-traffic control towers or
operating rooms. With the aid of spatial screens, the airspace
above an airport or the interior of the human body would be shown
in three dimensions – the images themselves would be provided by
radar or a computer tomography scanner. In air-traffic control, for
instance, various colored points of light could provide true-to-scale
representation of planes flying to and traveling from the airport.
This would be much simpler and less prone to errors than today’s
practice: Air-traffic controllers still have to calculate the third
dimension from data.
The students of Knut Langhans have proven for nearly 30 years
now that research never stands still. The latest breakthrough is the
LEDFELIX display, a volumetric 3-D display with an active screen
that has practically no size limitation. With this innovative display, it
is no longer necessary to project the images: The volumetric pixels
– or voxels – glow on their own.
                                                                            The stuff that makes up space: display material and lens system.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                              »Visiting the IdeasPark strengthened my interest in technical                                                         47
                               processes and interrelationships. After completing an
                               apprenticeship to become a draftsman, I would like to study
                               mechanical engineering.«
                               Jens, 22

David vs. GOALIAS
At the IdeasPark 2008 in Stuttgart, GOALIAS definitely had its             After 18 months of developmental work, the star scorer was born:
“hands” full: The goalie robot developed by the Institute for              With David, users can set the trajectory using a graphical input op-
Automation and Software Technology at the University of                    tion. Once the trajectory is determined, the shooting parameters
Stuttgart had to fend off more than 10,000 penalty kicks,                  are transmitted to the central control unit, which then readies the
some of which raced at speeds of up to 120 km/h. The me-                   automated kicker for the task at hand. The ball is fired at the click
chanical goalie blocked more than 92.5 percent of the shots.               of a button.
It’s not surprising then that GOALIAS was one of the biggest               The institute says David’s goal-scoring percentage beats that of
attractions at the IdeasPark.                                              every soccer pro. The goal scorer, which excels during standard sit-
                                                                           uations, can rocket the ball into the net at speeds of 144 km/h and
The heart of GOALIAS is a sophisticated system designed to                 curls free kicks into the corner at a rate that other ball magicians
demonstrate the capabilities of cutting-edge automation technolo-          can only dream of. In this case, even GOALIAS is helpless. 7
gy: To block a penalty kick, GOALIAS uses three high-per-
formance cameras to determine the ball’s latest position.
This information is passed on to the central, microcon-
troller-based control system that determines where the
ball will hit and prompts GOALIAS to block the ball at that
point. When the ball is shot at very fast speeds, the auto-
mated goalkeeper really gets put to the test. After all, it
has barely one-half second to react.
To further improve GOALIAS, it has to be tested with re-
peated shots that are both very fast and very precise.
Knowing that soccer stars like Lionel Messi and conven-
tional ball-shooting machines would not be up to this
challenge, the institute’s automation experts came up
with another idea: David, the automated soccer shoe.
The main requirements for the goal scorer who would
take on GOALIAS were quickly determined: David would
have to have the shooting strength of the world’s best
soccer pros and be able to propel the ball with rotational
speeds of up to 20 rotations per second. In addition, the
automated soccer shoe should be able to repeatedly
shoot the ball along nearly the same predetermined          Faster than every soccer pro, more deadly than any ball machine: David, the automated
trajectory.                                                 soccer shoe.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                          Living structures
                          A tower that grows on its own? “Baubotanik,” or “construction
                          botany,” demonstrates that growing woody plants can be used
                          as structures. The German term was created by the Institute of
                          Modern Architecture and Design at the University of Stuttgart.

                          The thinking behind the concept: Trees play a major role in micro-
                          climates and the appearance of our cities. But it usually takes
                          decades for a tree to fully develop. The aim of Baubotanik is to
                          erect architectural tree structures that are the size of living trees. By
                          taking this approach, green spaces that combine the aesthetic and
                          environmental qualities of trees with structural functionality can be
                          created in significantly less time.
                          Baubotanik structures frequently draw from the same basic princi-
                          ple: Young, flexible trees are fixed to the conventional load-bearing

                                                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                             »It was great to get a completely different perspective of cars                                                      49
                              that fill streets everyday – as cross-sections. I would really like
                              to build cars myself or modify forms, that is, work in design.«
                              Antonia, 9

structure and shaped to create the desired form. As they grow, the      on a number of factors and
trees bear a bigger and bigger share of the load. After several years   is one of the questions being
have passed and an inspection has been conducted by a structur-         studied at the tower struc-
al engineer, the technical support structure can be removed. Floors     ture. It is expected to take
of the structure or a roof can then be borne by the trees alone. In     five to 10 years after planti-
other structures, woody plants take over the load-bearing role from     ng time at the end of 2009.
the very start.                                                         The biggest, as well as the
                                                                        first urban, Baubotanik
An organism consisting of several hundred plants                        structure is the Plane-Tree-
Because Baubotanik designers constantly deal with uncontrollable        Cube Nagold, which is being
growth processes, a structure may not evolve in the way that an         erected as part of the
architect imagined it would. “But that’s not the goal anyway,” says     Baden-Württemberg Garden
Ferdinand Ludwig, a research assistant and member of this inves-        and Flower Festival in 2012.
tigative area at the institute. “We want to end the discord between     The institute’s Baubotanik
tree and structure. We are interested in creating green spaces          research group is the driving
that you can experience not only on the ground, but also in the –       force behind this project as
man-made – tree crown.” One possibility is functional buildings –       well. The structure’s plan-
including residential buildings – that have a technical load-bearing    ning documents describe
structure around which a Baubotanik unit has been erected.              the structure as a “walk-in
Most recently, the research department at the institute has intensi-    tree” and a “fusion of the        That’s what the tower will look like
                                                                                                          one day – unless the tree changes its
fied its work to develop new areas of application for woody plants      urban tree and the urban          mind.
in Baubotanik. One result of this work is a tower that is rising into   house.” It consists of a load-
the sky near Lake Constance in southern Germany. The base of this       bearing structure of living plants and various technical units like
tower is a structure resembling half-timbered houses that consists      stairs and galleries. Following the flower festival, the cube,
of several hundred white willows. Only the lowermost plants were        measuring 10 x 10 x 10 meters is to be integrated into a row of city
placed into the ground. All of the others were rooted in plant          houses. 7
containers borne by a temporary steel frame. Here, the Stuttgart
researchers are drawing on the ability of plants from the same
species to grow into a single organism. With this approach, the
plant containers can be removed once the lowermost plants of the
tower have developed a strong root system in the soil. Once the
living structure is stable enough to hold the three integrated levels
made of galvanized steel and bear the load of the structure, the en-
tire frame can be removed. The point when this can occur depends

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                             »At the last IdeasPark, I was an apprentice at ThyssenKrupp,                                                      51
                              and the IdeasPark motivated me to study engineering. After
                              visiting the IdeasPark, I was also determined to participate in
                              Germany’s research competition for young people, ‘Jugend
                              forscht.’ And I did take part in 2009, winning a special prize in
                              healthcare for creating a ‘talking diaper’ that people needing
                              care can use and that helps prevent illness.«
                              Eyuep, 21

Glowing development worker
At the IdeasPark 2006 in Hannover, the Technical University             light-source project. He is working to develop a low-cost production
Dresden presented an innovation that could improve the lives            process for OLEDs, a particularly efficient and environmentally
of millions of people who have to live without electricity: a           conscious light source. Currently, the OLED modules are made on
solar-powered LED light source capable of replacing the pop-            glass substrates. Hesse‘s team is intensely working to put OLEDs
ular kerosene lamps in developing countries that create only a          on flexible substrates, including plastic and metal foils, that can
flicker at best while also burning fossil fuels.                        then be coated with OLEDs. “If we get to the point where we can
                                                                        economically produce OLEDs on foil, this would be the optimal light
Each year, about 1.5 million tons of kerosene are burned in Africa,     source for a solar lamp in developing countries,” Hesse says. 7
and spending on kerosene in some countries makes up the biggest
portion of the foreign-currency budget. With the help of a SOLUX-
Solarleuchte, though, 35 liters of kerosene per lamp can be con-
served each year. The project was not continued by the Center for
Technical Design at TU Dresden for lack of an industry partner. But
“the spirit of the light source still burns,“ says Jan Hesse of the
Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems, which worked on
the solar-light project at the time and is now developing a new light
technology of the future, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED).
First, the original partner who left the project prematurely, Solux
e.V., developed its own LED-operated solar light source. It is sold
as a user-ready light and as a kit that can be used to assemble the
light in a workshop located in the developing country. Second, a
number of other projects that use cutting-edge lighting technology
in an array of products are being conducted at the Center for Tech-
nical Design. For instance, the designers at TU Dresden are in high
demand as partners in funded research projects that are develop-
ing innovative applications of organic and inorganic light-emitting
In his latest research work, Jan Hesse is also directly benefiting
from the expertise that his team developed during the original solar    A ray of hope for households without electricity: the solar lamp

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
     projects_phd program

     It’s the dream of many a PhD student: to write a dissertation that forms the cornerstone of groundbreak-
     ing innovation. To bring this dream to life, one thing is key: practical experience. And one way to get it is
     to participate in an industry-oriented PhD program like the one offered by ThyssenKrupp.

                  he success of renewable energies largely depends on the          engineering company Uhde GmbH. There, the topic is the subject of a
          ability to efficiently store electrical energy. After all, an adequate   research project launched about one year ago by Simon Schulte
          storage solution is essential to effectively balance the supply of       Beerbühl, a student in ThyssenKrupp’s PhD program “Your Innovation.”
          wind- and solar-generated energy, which fluctuates sharply with          This topic instantly appealed to the industrial-engineering graduate,
          weather conditions and the time of day, and efficiently use these        who had focused on process and plant technology as well as chemical
          sources of energy. For this reason, research on such storage             technology during his studies at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
          technologies has taken off, including at ThyssenKrupp’s plant-           For his PhD work, Schulte Beerbühl has selected a topic related to an

                                                                                                                   TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

internship he had completed in 2009 at ThyssenKrupp Uhde in the area           functional area. “As a result, I can forge important contacts with expert
of ammonia synthesis. But the magna cum laude graduate was also                colleagues for Mr. Schulte Beerbühl,” explains Kolbe whose responsi-
sold by the topic’s practical relevance. After establishing contact with       bilities in the R&D department also include establishing and nurturing
the Institute through the PhD program, ThyssenKrupp’s research topic           contacts with universities. “Following the initial phase, I’m now involved
was presented to the Institute since the “assessment of processes and          in the detailed engineering work and spend much time at the Dortmund
technologies fits very well with the Institute’s focal topics,” the 25-year-   location where I can work closely with the experts,” Schulte Beerbühl
old explains. Over the course of three years, Schulte Beerbühl, who            reports.
learned about the PhD program as a result of his membership in                 As an external PhD student, Schulte Beerbühl hopes to combine the
ThyssenKrupp’s study-support program, will explore how chemical raw            best of both worlds. “The advantage of a PhD program at a research
materials – like ammonia, methanol and methane – can be efficiently            institution is that you’re in the midst of other scientists. The practical
produced from electrical energy in technical processes and converted           application of the project is a challenge. Through the PhD program and
back into electricity and heat when needed. “For ThyssenKrupp Uhde,            my research project at ThyssenKrupp, both can be ideally combined,”
chemical storage options are particularly interesting because the com-         he explains. Is this the ticket to an industry career? “It’s too early to
pany’s technologies can be used in the process,” explains Dr. Bärbel           say,” Schulte Beerbühl says, “ but thanks to this program, I can get to
Kolbe, Chief Engineer in Research and Development at Uhde GmbH. A              know life and work in both worlds and will certainly get a better picture
mentor in the PhD program, she supports Schulte Beerbühl as his                of where the journey could take me down the road.” He especially
tandem partner and provides assistance when content-related and                values the opportunity to talk with other PhD program participants about
organizational questions arise. Her own expertise in the subject area is       the broad range of challenges that arise in the program. “A PhD student
just the icing on the cake. Her own PhD experience is a prerequisite for       exploring continuous production in a steel plant has very different chal-
becoming a mentor. This type of experience ensures that mentors can            lenges to master than someone like me who is researching the planning
relate to the PhD students and understand the challenges of the                and assessment of chemical processes,” Schulte Beerbühl says. “This
individual phases of doctoral work.                                            exchange is very exciting and informative.”
                                                                               The PhD program ensures that all doctoral projects are on the cutting
The best of both worlds                                                        edge of research by championing topics that complement current com-
Bärbel Kolbe earned her PhD in 1983 – in the newly rediscovered hot            pany projects: projects like energy storage in chemicals, an innovation
topic of bioethanol, and she lent her daughter a helping hand every            that holds much potential for electricity production or direct use as fuel
once and awhile as she was working on her own dissertation. On top of          for vehicles – once all technological challenges are mastered. This just
that, Kolbe meets an additional requirement for serving as a mentor in         may be the case when Schulte Beerbühl hands in his dissertation.7
ThyssenKrupp’s PhD program: As an experienced executive, she is                TEXT: ANKE BRYSON
linked to a great network that extends well beyond her own field and

     “Your Innovation” – the PhD program of ThyssenKrupp AG
     As part of ThyssenKrupp’s PhD program “Your Innovation,” highly qualified young scholars are integrated into the Group’s work on the
     latest technologies. In addition to ensuring a steady stream of young scientists, the program supports the development of specialized
     and, above all, interdisciplinary expertise as well as systematically promotes innovation at the company. The program targets internal
     PhD students with PhD positions at ThyssenKrupp AG or a Group company as well as external PhD students at departments or institutes
     who are working on practical projects with ThyssenKrupp.
     The core focus of the program is dissertation topics in the fields of engineering and business. Interdisciplinary exchange among
     program participants as well as coaching sessions, made-to-measure seminars and networking events help participants recognize and
     develop their potential as well as offer comprehensive support tailored to the individual phases of doctoral study. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Strong team: Dr.-Ing. Lothar
     Patberg and Professor Dr.
     Werner Hufenbach stand in
     front of a radial braiding
     machine at the Institute for
     Lightweight Engineering
     and Polymer Technology in

                                    TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
ThyssenKrupp is conducting research with the Institute for Lightweight Engineering and Polymer
Technology at the Technical University of Dresden to find innovative materials solutions that
can be used in creating the mobility of tomorrow. An interview with the institute director Professor
Dr. Werner Hufenbach and Dr.-Ing. Lothar Patberg, Director of Innovation at ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

      Sensible use of forces: Elaborate testing
      procedures are required in the develop-
      ment of lightweight construction solu-
      tions. The tension compression testing
      machine shown here, for example,
      is used to test the energy absorption
      potential of foam.

                         3 What requirements will be placed on mobility of the future            and limitations of modern materials, we started a partnership
                           and which challenges will have to be overcome in the                  with the Institute for Lightweight Construction and Plastics
                           process?                                                              Engineering at the Technical University of Dresden 10 years
                           PATBERG: Vehicle manufacturing in the future will have two            ago. The objective is to create expertise in the use and evalu-
                           key qualities: first, an array of drive systems, that is, the coex-   ation of innovative lightweight construction materials and to
                           istence of internal-combustion engines, electric drive systems        explore the maximum possible weight-saving potential. This is
                                                                                                       the only way that we can optimally advise our customers
                                                                                                       about the selection of the right materials mix.
     »We intend to gain skills in the use and evaluation of
      lightweight construction materials.«                                                       What does the Institute for Lightweight Engineering
                                                                                                 and Polymer Technology do? What particular exper-
      Dr.-Ing. Lothar Patberg, Director of Innovation at ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe
                                                                                                 tise do you contribute to the partnership?
                                                                                                 HUFENBACH: Dresden is the cradle of state-of-the-art
                        and hybrid units that combine various technologies; second,      lightweight construction practices. It has large, established
                        the continuously growing demands being placed on light-          expertise about this area, both in terms of aerospace as well
                        weight construction and the increasing reduction of weight       as the automotive and rail-vehicle industries. The Institute for
                        with the aim of lowering energy costs. The special challenge     Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology plays an im-
                        here is to cost-effectively implement lightweight construction.  portant role in this work and acts as an international pioneer
                        After all, smart lightweight construction must be done not only  in the area of functionally integrated lightweight construction.
                        reliably and safely, but also, above all, affordably. To move    One of our special characteristics is our holistic approach: We
                        forward in this area and to get to better know the possibilities offer lightweight-construction solutions from a single source –

                                                                                                                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                                   the individual systems. We focus on the entire system – from
                                                                   the actuators, that is, the producers of motion, to the sensor
                                                                   and electrical systems. To enable knowledge produced by re-
                                                                   search to be quickly and efficiently passed on to the business
                                                                   community, the Technical University of Dresden has estab-
                                                                   lished a number of limited liability companies, including the
                                                                   Leichtbau-Zentrum Sachsen GmbH, a company that focuses
                                                                   on the area of lightweight construction. Thanks to this compa-
                                                                   ny, we can provide our industry partners with an ideal inter-
                                                                   face for the series-focused development of lightweight-con-
                                                                   struction solutions.

                                                                   What strengths does steel have in comparison with other
                                                                   materials, particularly plastics? And what are its limita-
                                                                   HUFENBACH: Steel has a number of properties that make it
                                                                   an extremely attractive and versatile material, including its
                                                                   stiffness and its ability to deform when overloaded. The
                                                                   strengths of the relatively new materials group of carbon-fiber-
                                                                   reinforced plastic, or CFRP, in comparison to steel lie in the
                                                                   way it combines extreme lightness with high stiffness and
                                                                   rigidity. These properties make it the material of choice in cer-
                                                                   tain applications. CFRPs are also very consistent in their
from materials design and production technologies for light-       usage properties. But they also have their weaknesses. One
weight components and systems to tests and quality-assur-          of them concerns problems involved with determining whether
ance processes. Specifically, this means: We do not just make      the material has been damaged. When this occurs with steel,
a sheet-metal or plastic part for a door. We also develop entire   you will see a dent and can simply repair the damage. For
vehicle concepts. In the process, we examine the interplay of      CFRP, you have to use an ultrasound device to spot possible 3

    Mobility of the future
    InEco is a project being conducted by ThyssenKrupp Steel as the main sponsor in
    cooperation with the Institute for Lightweight Engineering and Polymer Technology at
    the Technical University of Dresden and Leichtbau-Zentrum Sachsen GmbH to develop an
    ultralight high-performance electric vehicle (see drawing). The InEco project is designed to study new materials and
    identify the optimal materials mix in order to be prepared to meet rising mobility demands in terms of lightness,
    stability and cost effectiveness. The project was launched at the beginning of 2011 and was presented to a wide
    audience for the first time at the International Motor Show held in Frankfurt am Main in September 2011. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                               3 internal cracking. And it                                           an innovative material
                                                                 is not so easy to repair.                                           for building lightweight
                                                                 PATBERG: Right now,                                                 cars. Given the growing
                                                                 steel has a number of                                               challenges, the task is
                                                                 other strengths on its                                              to prepare steel to face
                                                                 side that go along with                                             the future. We must
                                                                 its special material                                                learn how steel can
                                                                 properties. One is its                                              be optimally combined
                                                                 price, that is, its cost                                            with other materials,
                                                                 effectiveness. Carbon-                                              particularly CFRP. The
                                                                 fiber-reinforced poly-                                              goal will be to create an
                                                                 mers are still very                                                 innovative, steel-based
                                                                 expensive and hardly                                                mixed form of construc-
                                                                 suited for a mass mar-                                              tion in which the specif-
                                                                 ket. While a kilogram of                                            ic strengths of various
                       Wants to make steel fit for the future:   steel costs about 80        Develops holistic lightweight solu-     materials can be effec-
                       Dr.-Ing. Lothar Patberg                                               tions: Professor Dr. Werner Hufenbach
                                                                 cents, a kilogram of                                                tively combined in new
                       CFRP will cost you €10 to €15. That’s a huge difference. In ad-       types of components.
                       dition, steel is much more environmentally friendly and can be
                       reused indefinitely. When you look at CO2 emissions over the          Which projects are you working on together?
                       entire product cycle, steel is almost unbeatably sustainable in       PATBERG: The most important project we are working on right
                       comparison with all other lightweight-construction materials          now in our partnership is called InEco. We started it at the
                       when evaluated on the basis of today’s electricity mix.               beginning of 2011. The work involves developing new com-
                       What will this mean for steel’s future in cutting-edge light-         ponents and technologies to produce an ultralight high-per-
                       weight construction?                                                  formance electric car. This project will really help us reach our
                                                                                             goal of producing innovative steel products that have an obvi-
                                                                                             ous benefit for the customer. We expect to make a number of
     »The future of lightweight construction is not black.                                   new findings and to add many new skills that will enable us to
      Rather, the materials mix is crucial.«                                                 provide our customers not only with steel, but also with steel-
                                                                                             based composite materials to meet the highest lightweight
      Professor Dr. Werner Hufenbach, Institute Director at the
                                                                                             construction requirements.
      Technical University of Dresden

                       HUFENBACH: This is not an issue of either/or, but of both.            How is the InEco project being conducted? Is it a study
                       Steel and other metallic materials like aluminum and magne-           that is only being conducted on a computer or will a real
                       sium will remain classic materials for a long time and contin-        vehicle come out of it?
                       ue to have tremendous potential as a result. The real potential       HUFENBACH: InEco involves a total vehicle concept. The end
                       of these materials involves composites, that is, as a combina-        result will be components for a car body that is 90 percent
                       tion of steel and CFRP. For this reason, the future of lightweight    complete, a so-called generic demonstrator, from which other
                       construction is definitely not black, as people say in an allu-       materials and construction techniques can be developed.
                       sion to the typical color of CFRP. Rather, it will be decided in      Because InEco is intended for a mass market, the project was
                       the right application of the best materials mix for a particular      designed as a four-seat model from the very beginning and
                       job.                                                                  not as a one-seat vehicle, which is frequently the case for
                       PATBERG: This is what we think, too. Steel has always been            concept studies.

                                                                                                                        TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
     Electrical steel clears the way for electromobility
     Special electrical steel plays a key role in hybrid and          result in resistance in the machine – a portion of the
     electric vehicles: The core components of electric               electric energy is not transformed into motion. Rather,
     motors are made of it. The quality of the electrical steel       it is thrown off as heat. This is a task for the nongrain-
     being used has a direct impact on such factors as                oriented electric steel (NGO electric steel) made by
     range, size, weight and energy-storage system design.            ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel, a soft-magnetic type of
     As a result, electrical steel is a driver in the efficiency,     steel that, acting as an iron core in the electric machine,
     cost and market success of future electric propulsion            bundles and amplifies the magnetic flow in a highly
     systems.                                                         efficient manner. In addition to vehicle drive systems,
     The new types of electrical steel developed by                   NGO electrical steel is used in industrial motors, house-
     ThyssenKrupp Electrical Steel GmbH cut core losses in            hold appliances, railroads and wind-power stations. 7
     electric motors by up to 30 percent. The result: im-
     proved overall efficiency, that is, electric motors that use
                                                                        A steel that opens new doors:
     less energy. The material is already being used in the             electrical steel
     construction of prototype series for future electric and
     hybrid cars.
     The biggest challenge facing materials producers is the
     high number of rpms and the resulting high operating
     temperatures of hybrid and fully electric drive systems.
     High-performance electric motors for industrial applica-
     tions have rpm levels of a maximum of 5,000 to 8,000
     per minute. The rate can be up to four times higher in
     fully electric-car drive systems. Electric motors that
     convert energy as efficiently as possible need iron cores
     with the technically lowest core losses. Such losses

What sort of challenges have you faced with InEco, and                electric car has to be addressed, including those concerning
what have you learned so far?                                         handling characteristics. They vary depending on where you
PATBERG: You constantly face new challenges in this project.          put what parts in the car body. An electric vehicle has few of
One example is surface quality: You can’t have an excellent           the engine components found in an internal-combustion
surface with CFRP. Of course, you can make a vehicle roof ex-         engine. But you have to compensate for them in one way or
clusively from carbon. But to produce the surface quality that        another. In part because of such questions, we are develop-
customers are used to having with a steel roof, you would             ing a generic demonstrator in order to demonstrate system
have to apply a thick layer of clear paint. But that is totally im-   behavior and interactions. 7
practical. The solution could be a composite that combines            THE INTERVIEW WAS CONDUCTED BY MICHAEL JAKOB. |
plastic and steel and thus marries the strengths of both mate-        PHOTOS: BIRGITTA KOWSKY
HUFENBACH: In addition to the challenges created by the se-
lection of materials, an array of other questions regarding an

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                BRAIN TRAINING
     We are finding out more and more about how the brain works. ThyssenKrupp is harnessing this
     knowledge in new training approaches for its employees. Here, executive managers talk about

                                 port? Nothing but a waste of time. Up until early   though. In fact, pretty much the contrary: understanding. In
                                  2011, Dr. Klaus Müller was convinced of this.      2011, the manager took part in a program on neuroleadership
                            He had never once jogged in all his 56 years and he      – and now he knows exactly how his brain works and how
                                considered physical exercise to be largely           he can boost its performance. “Sport, for example, is the best
                                  unnecessary. However, the physicist, who           ‘medicine’ the brain can get. It strengthens the brain’s cogni-
                                  works for ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe as its         tive performance measurably,” says Friederike Wiedemann,
                                 Crude Steel Team Coordinator, recently bought       who designed the training program together with the
                 his third pair of running shoes. An almost miraculous conver-       ThyssenKrupp Academy. The neurological expert works for
                 sion from Saul to Paul. This has nothing to do with belief,         the Munich Leadership Group, a provider of leadership

                                                                                                              TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

training programs that harnesses what scientists have found        constructive changes by altering their own ingrained habits. In
out about our grey matter for the benefit of companies and         the end, the brain is no more than an organ, albeit a very
organizations.                                                     special one and, as such, is subject to the same biochemical
That such a program should lead people like Klaus Müller to        processes as the rest of the body. So, what happens when
change their lifestyle so radically has several reasons. One key   Klaus Müller really makes his body work and gets his heart
reason is the fact that the findings – unlike many popular, more   beat going? He sweats. And he expels large numbers of stress
esoteric self-development methods – are scientifically proven.     hormones that otherwise burden the brain.
Friederike Wiedemann explains to the participants exactly how      In addition to this point, which is particularly persuasive
the brain works and why this is – and how they can make            among natural scientists, what also fascinates program 3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

            3 participants is the fact that neurological research does away      ing given that the tools we work with these days – internet,
              with many widely believed perceptions. “Brainstorming is a         e-mails and mobile phones – are all mediums that constantly
              good example,” says Wiedemann. “One thing is quite certain:        require us to shift our attention. And there is almost nothing
              Creative ideas cannot be achieved in this way. The brain needs     more counterproductive for concentration and efficiency than
              peace and quiet for sudden inspiration. That’s why many good       distraction from one’s work. This is addressed by the consul-
              ideas come to us in the shower, or while we’re sitting alone in    tant and author David Rock in his book “Your Brain at Work,”
              the car. Brainstorming, on the other hand, is better suited to     in which he describes in detail the demands made of our
              rational, logical processes where the solution is obvious but      brains in the work setting – and how to make the best of it.
              where different opinions need to be gathered.”                     According to current research, we need 25 minutes after an
                                                                                 interruption until we fully refocus on our original task. Rock
              Cut out the distractions, concentrate more                         recommends, among other things, one very simple piece of
              Many practices in the working environment have a ‘brain-           advice: Switch off all modern means of communication when
              blocking’ effect and this means that creative potential is being   trying to think. According to the author, “people who are con-
              wasted on many levels. And yet, the findings of neurological       stantly online risk a considerable reduction in their IQ.” Klaus
              research are barely being drawn on. This is all the more shock-    Müller has already found out for himself that getting rid of the

                                                                                                          TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

external distractions does indeed bring improvements. Since           the neurological research provides us with a credible explana-
attending the program, he tries to block off one to one and a         tion, it’s easier to implement the changes – and improvements
half hours of time exclusively for himself – no telephone calls       can be noticed very soon, both at work and at home, and in
and the door to his office remains shut. “I put the time into my      particular with regard to efficient organization of processes
Outlook calendar for all to see. At first, you barely dare to block   and meetings, and management of employees.”
off so much time for concentrated work. But I discovered that         Another tip: Give yourself a break. During one seminar, partic-
I can absorb information far more efficiently and, for example,       ipants had spent the better part of the day ‘cooped up’ and,
prepare myself much more effectively for meetings. My                 by 4 p.m. in the afternoon, nobody could concentrate any
colleagues have already noticed the difference,” Müller says.         more, says Uwe Kinski. “Had it been a normal business meet-
Dr. Uwe Kinski, who also attended the pilot program, agrees:          ing, we would simply have carried on for another two hours,
“I can only rarely organize my own time but now I try to create       even if it were ridiculously inefficient. However, we all went
‘time islands’ for myself, which I use for concentrating and for      out for a walk and returned after an hour feeling so fit and
matters that are important to me.” Taken as a whole, the CFO          motivated that we carried on for another three hours.”
of ThyssenKrupp Elevator CENE remarks that the program ad-            Another program topic: team work. After all, the participants
dressed many of the “small issues in life.” “However, because         are all executive managers. Important findings on this subject 3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

            3 come from an apparently totally different area of human inter-        Why serotonin and dopamine affect our behavior
              action – love. However, neurological scientists have long             Take “explorers”: These are people who have a very active
              moved on from romantic notions of love. For example, after            dopamine system. “Generally, such people are very curious,
              studying a dating platform, the American Helen Fisher estab-          they are more likely to be risk-takers and they are always
              lished that people feel attracted to each other based on their        looking for something new. These are the people, for example,
              ‘biochemical constitution;’ here, certain neurotransmitters in        who always deliver just before the deadline – that last minute
              the brain (rather like messengers running between nerve cells)        gives them the kick,” Wiedemann explains. In contrast, the
              collude with the four hormones dopamine, estrogen, testos-            “builder” has a very active serotonin system – these are
              terone and serotonin. Based on how they collude, says Fisher,         usually well-balanced individuals, they plan very reliably but
              people can be divided into four basic personality groups. And         certainly wouldn’t work through the night to get a job done.
              this, naturally, is not only of significance for personal relation-   “Explorers and builders don’t work well together. To be aware
              ships but also in the work setting. Friederike Wiedemann is           of this fact in the day-to-day work setting can be very helpful:
              convinced: “Those who take biochemical compatibility into             It enables management to create a working environment in
              account when putting together their team will find that they not      which employees feel happy and can work their best. How-
              only achieve much better results at project level but also have       ever, the norm is still very much that senior management
              more success when recruiting new staff.”

                                                                                                             TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

creates a work environment that best fits their own personali-     However, taken as a whole, both Klaus Müller and Uwe Kinski
ty type,” the expert observes. But is it really possible to put    agree that no other program has ever left such a lasting
these findings into practice? According to Uwe Kinski, this        impression, nor had so much impact on both their working * David Rock:
works only up to a point: “It’s relatively easy to recognize the   and private lives. Kinski grins: “It has its benefits and draw- Strategies for
                                                                                                                                         Overcoming Dis-
personality type of an employee. However, when it comes to         backs. My wife doesn’t want to hear another word about this traction, Regain-
forming a team, there are many other factors that have to be       ‘brain-stuff.’ As with all things in life, you need to find the right ing Focus and
                                                                                                                                         Working Smarter
taken into account, such as know-how or, quite simply, time        balance.” 7                                                           All Day Long,
constraints.”                                                      TEXT: ALEXANDER SCHNEIDER                                            HarperBusiness,

    Integrated, not parallel
    How corporate learning is changing: One example is ThyssenKrupp Academy’s “Impact Workouts”
    The changes taking place in corporate learning aren’t just visible in the neuroleadership program. Another example is ThyssenKrupp
    Academy’s “Impact Workouts” learning platform: Rather than offering programs as parallel events to work – something for which ever
    fewer employees have time – the learning process is integrated into the normal working day. Over the course of several months, the
    “Impact Workouts” are incorporated into an existing business challenge. In this way, the employees learn how to apply relevant know-
    how and important methodologies to real challenges. “This affords the participants optimal learning conditions. Neuroscience has
    shown us that, to learn something new, people have to feel an emotional attachment – and this is the case if the know-how proves
    to be highly relevant to their circumstances,” explains ThyssenKrupp Academy’s Dr. Janin Schwartau. What’s more, both employees
    and employer see the learning time as a worthwhile investment, given that it is used to solve an existing business problem and its
    effectiveness can thus be measured. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

       Around the world in 125 days: In 2011, car
       manufacturer Daimler successfully sent its
       fuel-cell car on a 30,000 km world tour across
       four continents, to prove the time for fuel-cell
       vehicles has come.

      On the road with hydrogen
      3 The demand for a greater proportion of            which combines the individual cells to          nologies. “In the field of electromobility,
      renewable energies within the overall en-           form a so-called fuel cell stack,” says Dr.     fuel-cell vehicles are more likely to meet
      ergy mix has set companies and scientists           Stefan Puls of ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe        individual transport needs than purely
      the task of developing technologies that            AG’s research and development depart-           battery-operated vehicles,” explains Dr.
      can harness Wind, Sun & Co so that they             ment. “And fuel cells with metal bipolar        Bernd Schuhmacher, also with Thyssen
      can be used for commercial purposes. Ex-            plates are especially efficient in converting   Krupp Steel Europe AG’s research and de-
      isting power plants are still not in a posi-        hydrogen into electricity, enabling a           velopment department. “They can travel
      tion to compensate weather-related fluc-            realistic space- and weight-saving design       much further – up to 800 km.” For this
      tuations in electricity production. Surplus         for commercial use.” Just how these             reason, the industry is going full-steam
      electricity produced by wind turbines is a          plates can be mass produced from rust-          ahead in its efforts to manufacture fuel-
      case in point: This could be used for the           and acid-resistant steel is something           cell cars in large numbers. Parallel to this,
      electrolytic separation of water into oxy-          that ThyssenKrupp Nirosta, together with        major industrial nations, such as the U.S.,
      gen and hydrogen. Based on demand,                  ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, the               Japan and Germany, are preparing to
      energy stored in this manner can be                 Fraunhofer Institute for Materials and          expand their hydrogen filling station net-
      turned back into usable energy with the             Beam Technology and the Fraunhofer              works. Should the technology establish
      help of hydrogen-powered fuel cells – for           Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin      itself, carbon dioxide emissions generated
      example, to provide heating and electricity         Films is looking into. In the automobile        by traffic could eventually be reduced to
      but, also, to power vehicles or sub-                industry in particular, hydrogen-powered        zero. 7
      marines. “An important element of the               fuel-cell technology is considered one of
      fuel cell is the so-called bipolar plate,           the most important next-generation tech-

                                                                                                                    TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

    New realms of experience
    3 Who, What, When, Where, Why?                 the children to try their hand at new            The day-care center offers year-round
    Children are constantly asking questions       things, and to use and sharpen their             childcare for children from four months
    about the world around them. Every an-         senses. Particular attention is paid to          right through to school age – and all just a
    swer leads to a new question. Curiosity        encouraging them to take an interest in          few steps from the workplace. This makes
    and the desire to discover their surround-     adventure and discovery; for example             it easier for employees and their families
    ings are the most important sources of         in the day care center’s very own labora-        to reconcile both family and work commit-
    energy for children. So that this hunger to    tory, using magnifying glasses and               ments; there are even a few places set
    find out more doesn’t dry up, children         microscopes, magnets and periscopes,             aside for children of non-employees. The
    have to be offered new realms of experi-       gadgets for measuring wind and water             day-care center is intended as a space for
    ence from early on. And this is exactly        power and for converting the sun’s               meeting within the ThyssenKrupp Quartier
    what the new ThyssenKrupp day-care             energy. Then there’s the engineering             – for parents and children, interested
    center that was inaugurated on August 1,       area, where the children can help them-          visitors and exchange trainees. The
    2012 wants to provide. Located within the      selves to tools to fiddle around taking          project is managed by ThyssenKrupp
    grounds of the ThyssenKrupp Quartier           gadgets apart and also have a large              AG’s Corporate Center for Human
    in Essen, its aim is to provide a space for    variety of construction materials at hand        Resources, while ThyssenKrupp Real
    little explorers, discoverers and inventors,   to make new ones. With the launch of the         Estate managed the construction, and a
    for curiosity and adventure, for fun and       day-care center, ThyssenKrupp has given          consortium comprising the architects
    games. “Every child has a hundred lan-         life to one of its core values: responsibility   firms JSWD and Chaix & Morel designed
    guages,” according to the Reggio Emilia        for the education of future generations,         the building along with the whole Quartier.
    education approach, which is adopted by        particularly given the present need              The day-care center is operated by the
    the day-care center: When expressing           for highly qualified natural scientists,         voluntary welfare association Deutsches
    themselves, children draw on a broad           engineers and technicians – something            Rotes Kreuz (German Red Cross). 7
    repertoire that extends far beyond the         that will become even more acute in the
    spoken language. The Reggio Emilia             future.
    educational philosophy puts the natural
    development of the individual child at the
    center of a holistic, experience-based
    learning approach. It aims to introduce
    the child to natural sciences and tech-
    nology, mathematics and languages, as
    well as develop their intercultural and
    social competence. At the very center of
    the philosophy is the aim to strengthen
    children’s’ creativity and technical
    understanding, their ability to express
    themselves linguistically, their social
    competencies and ‘ego strength.’
    Within the day-care center, generous-
    ly-sized open areas ensure there is plenty
    of room for running around and playing,
    and for sport. And all around the outside
    of the building, there is ample space to
    run, climb, swing or dig. Taking different
    approaches all the time, the aim is to get

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                    Key players from around the world have joined
                                                                                                    forces to develop new mobility solutions.

                                                                                                    testing tower for elevators in South Korea.
                                                                                                    From Memphis to Stuttgart to Shanghai,
                                                                                                    the R&D centers are collaborating with
                                                                                                    universities and technical institutes. As
                                                                                                    such, ThyssenKrupp Elevator is actively
                                                                                                    tackling local challenges, and its products
                                                                                                    are setting global trends. “Every country
                                                                                                    has its own individual characteristics,
                                                                                                    norms and market challenges. That’s why
                                                                                                    our development teams around the world
                                                                                                    are tackling different tasks,” explains
                                                                                                    Gerhard Thumm, Vice President Innova-
                                                                                                    tion Management Operating Unit CENE.
                                                                                                    A typical elevator in southern Europe can
                                                                                                    carry up to six people, while elevators in
                                                                                                    North America are mostly designed for
                                                                                                    much larger loads because of prevailing
                                                                                                    standards, for example stipulating equal
                                                                                                    rights for disabled persons. Energy
                                                                                                    efficiency, handling characteristics and
                                                                                                    the estimated lifecycle of the product are
                                                                                                    all examples of parameters that vary from

      International networks                                                                        country to country.

                                                                                                    Balancing act between the markets
      3 In times of globalization, research and    challenge early on: Its research and             In the ideal world, new components such
      development are a vital safeguard for the    development centers (R&D) constitute a           as gearless mechanisms could take the
      future of large companies. Global players    close-knit, worldwide network of experts         different regional norms into account right
      are only competitive when they manage        who work together to research and devel-         from the beginning, so that these compo-
      to put their global experience and exper-    op solutions for the technical challenges        nents could later be used across the
      tise to effective use. However, who knows    of today and the future. They maintain           globe. However, given the hugely diverse
      what experts are developing locally in       close relations with local production sites      norms and laws in Europe, Asia and North
                                                                                                    America, global solutions pose a key
     »We have a vision of a global platform from which local                                        challenge to research and development.
                                                                                                    “We do already have bilateral collabora-
      requirements can be derived.«                                                                 tive projects between global regions,”
                                                                                                    says Gerhard Thumm. “This way, every
      Shanghai, Porto Alegre or Memphis?           and align themselves strongly to the             developmental step draws us closer. The
      Companies with international operations      needs of the markets. In Europe, Asia,           world of elevators is merging in our R&D
      need to have structures and platforms in     North and South America, they create the         centers: This is because we have a vision
      place that enable knowledge sharing,         necessary preconditions for innovative           of a global platform, from which local
      realize synergies and avoid redundant        products and resource-efficient process-         requirements can be derived.” A shining
      data. Only this way can they efficiently     es. All of the R&D sites have their own          example of ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s inter-
      distribute and process site-specific know-   facilities for field testing. Furthermore, the   national teamwork is the Shanghai World
      how. ThyssenKrupp Elevator rose to this      centers all have access to the 150-meter         Financial Center. This project sets new

                                                                                                               TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

    standards: with double-deck elevators
    that can move 10 meters within a second
    – that is the equivalent of 36 kilometers
    per hour.

    The fastest double-decker
    in the world
    It couldn’t have worked without close in-
    ternational collaboration: The R&D team
    in Neuhausen, Germany, has overall
    system responsibility, as well as responsi-
    bility for the development and production
    of the electrical equipment, the machinery
    and the power electronics. The gripping
    device, a central safety device in all
    elevators, was developed by colleagues in
    Memphis, U.S. And a team in Brazil was
    responsible for the newly designed roller
    guides – used here for the first time           Forming the future
    ever – which ensure the optimal perfor-
    mance of the elevator car. All the compo-       3 Fewer and fewer young people, more and more older people:
    nents were tried and tested in the testing      The demographic changes in most of the highly developed
    tower in South Korea, where the local           countries are also being felt by companies. In order to address
    team worked closely with the develop-           the challenges this is posing, ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe started
    ment engineers. The results of this             its ‘ProFuture’ program in 2006. One important aspect of this
    collaborative project are impressive:           is to reduce the average age of the workforce, which is steadily
    To this day, the elevators in Shanghai          getting older. By reducing employees’ contractual working hours,
    are the fastest double-deck elevators in        500 new jobs have been created over the past few years and
    the world. 7                                    1,000 trainees have been given a permanent job. Today,
                                                    ProFuture focuses on steps to ensure that employees’ perfor-
                                                    mance and motivation remain strong, by introducing innovative
                                                    new health and safety measures and improvements to their
                                                    work-life balance, for example by offering flexible working hours
                                                    for young parents. It has also developed a standardized system
                                                    for knowledge transfer and method-based induction training
                                                    for new employees when older employees leave the company.
                                                    In September 2010, German consulting firm Apriori awarded
                                                    ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe the “Fokus 50+ Award” for this
                                                    program – thanks to its “exemplary strategic mainstreaming and
                                                    integrative, interdisciplinary and sustainable approach to demo-
                                                    graphic management.” “The award proved that we had set the
                                                    course on this matter at the right point in time,” says Dieter Kroll,
                                                    board member and Human Resources Director at ThyssenKrupp
    Global challenges: developing components that
                                                    Steel Europe AG. “That is a wonderful success and an incentive
    meet regional needs and can be used globally    for us to carry on shaping ‘ProFuture.’” 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                                                                     Totally focused: children busy
                                                                                                     ‘at work’ at ThyssenKrupp’s
                                                                                                     holiday camp

      Young discoverers
      3 “Is that right?” and “I can’t do it!” are   given – but definitely no lectures on the      of the camp, there are always sad faces
      some of the most common phrases that          subject, no exact instructions and no          among those who are too old to return the
      the ThyssenKrupp Holiday Camp team            eagle-eyed supervision. Here, children         next time, and who would do anything –
      hear from the children. “Unfortunately,       are expected to “trust their own ideas and     even washing-up! – to be able to come
      many children just aren’t used to experi-     develop their own practical skills.”           back,” says Tekolf. Themes in past years
      menting or fiddling with things, or putting   As well as getting an introduction to          have ranged from the World of Water
      their own ideas into practice anymore,”       aspects of science and technology in the       (“HTwoO Agents and the ‘Blue Gold’
      explains Marion Tekolf, a graduate of         form of fun activities, the two-week           Mission”) through exciting new technical
      social pedagogy and biological technical      summer camp – 2012 was the seventh             discoveries from around the world to
      assistant, who is the brain behind the        year running for the camps in Duisburg         “Amazing Creatures and their Worlds.”
      camps. “Even the youngest participants        and Ratingen – also helps ease childcare       “Spaceship Thykru on Course for Inter-
      expect exact instructions. Ideally, they’d    problems during the longest school             galactic Space Adventures” was the main
      like the grown-ups to watch every step        holiday of the year. Targeting young           theme in 2012. On their journey through
      of the way, to make sure they’re doing        explorers from ages six to 12, it is open to   space on board spaceship Thykru,
      it right or, better still, do it for them.”   children of employees, their friends and       the children explored various space
      But this is something they won’t find here.   other children interested in how things        phenomena, among other things. Why
      Curiosity is encouraged and where             work. “Every year, we have children who        do stars shine? How do lenses work? And
      information and help is needed, it is         have come back for more and, at the end        what happens to people in space?

                                                                                                              TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

The children experience real adventures
when they start to look into these kinds
of questions and begin to develop, test
and build their own inventions in the
“workshop of stars,” on the “planetary
construction site” or in the “comet                                                                             It can’t get more
kitchen.” But unknowing parents have                                                                            natural than this:
nothing to fear: Trained team professors                                                                        cutlery on a PLA
are always at the sides of their budding                                                                        basis.
new scientists when they carry out their
dare-devil experiments. Marion Tekolf was
thrilled with the results: “The new Mars
mobil that the children created is definitely
a prototype!” 7
                                                The green alternative               3 Research on biodegradable plas-         acid. An interdisciplinary team of bi-
                                                tics has been intense over the past       ologists, biotechnologists, chemists,
                                                20 years. Plastic bags, coffee cups,      materials processing engineers and
                                                fast-food packaging, bottles and even     laboratory technicians has managed
                                                t-shirts that can be thrown away with-    to optimize the classic lactic acid
                                                out a guilty conscience once they         production process and taken out a
                                                aren’t needed any more – all made         patent on a completely new prepara-
                                                possible by the biodegradable plastic     tion process with no waste products.
                                                poly lactic acid (PLA). All manner of     “The use of the new production
                                                products can be made from PLA. The        process is an important step in
                                                catch: Production processes haven’t       making the manufacture of bio-
                                                yet been perfected. “Theoretically,       degradable plastic PLA commercially
                                                we could start manufacturing plastics     viable,” says Schulze. The PLA
                                                using renewable raw materials imme-       process (PLAneo®) is currently being
                                                diately,” says Dr. Joachim Schulze,       trialed and tested on a commercial
                                                Head of Biotechnology at Thyssen          scale by Uhde Inventa-Fischer in
                                                Krupp’s subsidiary Uhde. However,         a newly built pilot plant in Guben.
                                                currently this simply isn’t a cost-ef-    “PLA production uses far less energy
                                                fective option for all products. To       than existing methods of producing
                                                make the dream of pure bio-based          polymers from petrochemical raw
                                                plastic production a reality as soon as   materials.” The first industrial-scale
                                                possible, Uhde’s biotechnology team       plant using PLAneo® technology is
                                                in Leipzig, and a team of plastics ex-    expected to go live by 2013. 7
                                                perts from Uhde Inventa-Fischer in
                                                Berlin, are working around the clock
                                                to develop an economically viable
                                                process for producing PLA from lactic

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Diving into a career
     Secondary school (Hauptschule)        following way: The relevant            In the next training year, a total
     pupils, especially children from      teachers at all 16 secondary           44 young people will complete
     immigrant families, have prob-        schools in Duisburg have been          an apprenticeship with Thyssen
     lems finding good trainee posi-       asked to make a note of any            Krupp Steel Europe under the
     tions in Germany. ThyssenKrupp        pupils who shine out as being          auspices of the Sprungbrett pro-
     Steel Europe AG, however, has         particularly technically motivat-      ject – working as electronics en-
     been actively targeting exactly       ed. As soon as these pupils            gineers and industrial mechan-
     these young people for some           reach 10th grade, are consid-          ics. And in the autumn, the next
     four years now, within the            ered capable of further technical      young hopefuls will be selected.
     framework of its own trainee          training, and have been person-        “Our experience with the project
     program: Its “Sprungbrett”            ally invited to attend an informa-     has consistently been very
     project (‘Spring-Board’) aims to      tion day, they have the option to      positive,” stresses Volker Grigo,
     indentify young, technically gift-    submit a written application to        head of technical training at
     ed and motivated people while         take part in the program. In all,      ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe,
     they are still at school, and then    40 hand-picked pupils go               Duisburg. “It has already en-
     to inspire them to try their hand     through a selection procedure          abled us to find a couple of very
     at an industrial-technical trainee-   that comprises several stages          promising trainees with great
     ship. The project works in the        and introduces them to the com-        potential.”
                                           pany. Those who are also suc-
                                           cessful in the final test and inter-
                                           view are then offered one of the
                                           coveted trainee positions.
     perspectives_mission statement

     We are ThyssenKrupp
     Companies are organic beings         as a compass for every single       councils and executives as well
     that undergo constant change.        individual – throughout all         as during 25 workshops held in
     Organic beings that must con-        functions, divisions, regions and   such countries as the United
     tinuously reinvent their products    levels.                             States, Brazil, Spain, China, India
     and services in order to remain      With its new mission statement,     and Germany. By employees
     competitive and dynamic              ThyssenKrupp has created this       from an array of functions and
     businesses. For this reason, it is   guide, in a process that involved   hierarchical levels.
     essential that a set of common       more than 1,300 employees
     values and an overarching code       around the world. It is a guide     A mission statement that creates
     of conduct bind together each        that was developed and drafted      a broad vista for the ideas and
     unit of a company engaged in         during many discussions with        innovations of each individual.
     international business and act       members of company works

                                                                                                                    TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                     Our mission statement
                                     We are ThyssenKrupp – a technology company with far-reaching
                                     expertise in materials.
                                     Prowess, diversity, global reach and tradition form the basis of our work,
                                     characteristics that have made us leaders in the markets where we do business.
                                     We create value for our customers, employees and shareholders.

                                     We develop solutions to the challenges of tomorrow in an alliance with our
                                     We are customer-focused. We take new approaches and develop products and
                                     services that create a sustainable infrastructure and promote the efficient use of

                                     We hold ourselves to the highest standards.
                                     We engage as entrepreneurs, with confidence, a passion to perform,
                                     and courage – aiming to be best in class. This is based on the dedication
                                     and performance of every team member. Employee development is especially
                                     important. Employee health and workplace safety have a top priority.

                                     We share common values.
                                     We serve the interests of the Group. Our interactions are based on transparency
                                     and mutual respect. Integrity, credibility, reliability and consistency define
                                     everything we do. Our actions are based on rock-solid values: dependability
                                     and candor, credibility and integrity. To us, compliance is second-nature. We
                                     assume social responsibility.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     You can also see Mars better from here: an unusually cloudy evening on the Chilean
     Cerro Paranal, home to the European Southern Observatory

     Where are the origins of enlightenment and modernity? What awe-inspiring
     places invite you to linger to gain a deeper understanding and to reflect further? The book “Mekkas der Mod-
     erne” (“Meccas of Modernity”) takes its readers on a pilgrimage to places where the history of science was
     written – inspiring them to go out and discover the world themselves. In 76 travel stories and essays, famous
     authors, scientists and journalists lead the way through the universe of our global knowledge society to the
     places that mean the most to them. “Not just the locations of cool-headed logic, but also places to experience
     through the senses or even the emotions.” They stretch from Freud’s consulting room in Vienna to the British
     Museum, from Nietzsche’s grave to the Cape Canaveral Spaceport, from the cradle of civilization in Africa
     to the Pantheon in Moscow (Monument to the Eternal Glory of the Great People of the Soviet Land). We took
     a closer look at some of the highlights of this spectacular journey of enlightenment.

                                                                                                           TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                 Reach for the stars –
                                                 European Southern Observatory, Chile
                                                 “The landscape looks likes images from the surface of Mars: ocher colors, gently rolling hills, scattered
                                                 rocks, no brush or blades of grass – desert as far as the eye can see. […] Rising from the desolate
                                                 desert landscape is a symmetrically shaped mountain, Cerro Paranal. Four silver buildings crown its
                                                 summit plateau – giant boxes that look like sculptures and sparkle like diamonds in the sun. It almost
                                                 looks like a fleet of UFOs has landed in the wilderness. This place actually does have a lot to do with
                                                 outer space. While the Atacama Desert in northern Chile is not a particularly hospitable refuge for life,
                                                 it is the best location in the world for astronomy. In this desert, the Cerro Paranal scrapes the sky at
                                                 a total of 2,635 meters above sea level. Nowhere else on Earth is the air this still, and the weather this
                                                 clear and dry. The Atacama is heaven on Earth for astronomers. […] The sky here is completely clear
                                                 more than 300 nights a year. Jürgen Stock discovered the uniqueness of this spot at the end of the
                                                 1950s. The pioneering astronomer from Hamburg spent years riding horses and mules to the most
                                                 remote summits and investigating
                                                 their visibility conditions.” Thanks to
                                                 Stock, Chile currently hosts the largest
                                                 collection of astronomical equipment:
                                                 several U.S. facilities as well as the
                                                 European astronomical organization
                                                 ESO. 7

                                                 When astronomers dream of heaven,
                                                 it looks something like this.

                                                 Escaping into ice – Antarctica
                                                 “The first moment you step out into the Antarctic everything is so bright, so cold and so unforgettable
                                                 that the only thing your mind can do is try to process it all. It’s a struggle at first. […] As glaciologist
                                                 Hubertus Fischer warned his team before their expedition: ‘The confusing part is that your grasp of di-
                                                 mensions is completely distorted.’ [...] The polar explorers’ destination is located at the end of a path
                                                 marked by thin rods with black streamers: the Kohnen Station, an arctic research village on stilts. […]
                                                 Geophysicists, glaciologists, drilling engineers, atmospheric chemists and geologists from Europe and
                                                 the United States are part of a deep ice-core drilling project called EPICA. The European project for ice
                                                 coring in Antarctica is the most ambitious and impressive logistical attempt to solve the mystery of
                                                 Earth’s recent history. The polar scientists want to reconstruct over 600,000 years of climate history, an
                                                 epic undertaking. They intend to collect information on temperatures, precipitation, changes in major
                                                 ocean currents and continental drift. The kilometer-thick ice is like an archive. Air from every period of
No time to get cold feet: deep drilling in the
                                                 time is trapped in pockets in the ice like chronological layers in the rings of a tree.” 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
     They can just about live forever, but are not immutable: Thanks to the
     Galápagos turtles, Darwin developed the Theory of Evolution.

     Laboratory of evolution – Galápagos
     More than 100 years ago on the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin discovered the key to evolutionary theory while studying
     turtles and finches. “Geographic isolation allowed the species here to develop unique characteristics that cannot be found
     anywhere else on Earth in order to adapt to the living conditions that differed from those of the mainland. […] Particularly the rather
     inconspicuous Darwin’s finches play a major role in biology: The primary difference between the 13 species of Galápagos finches is
     their beak shape, which reflects adaptations to various living conditions. Reflecting on the research he carried out on the island,
     Darwin wrote: ‘At last, gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced (quite contrary to the opinion I started with), that
     species are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable.’ Darwin’s conception of the world collapsed. Like his contemporaries,
     he, too, believed in the biblical creation story that species were immutable. […] With this discovery, he led a revolution in thought
     that perhaps shook us more to the core than when Copernicus dethroned Earth from its place at the center of the universe.” 7

                                                                                                                     TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                     Sacred belief in the
                                     interdisciplinary –
                                     Santa Fe Institute
                                     New Mexico
                                     “How should an institute for the research of
                                     ‘complex systems’ look? Doesn’t an institute
                                     dedicated to examining everything from
                                     financial markets to immune systems, from
                                     evolution to social networks, from mathemat-
                                     ics to neuroscience need to be big, really big?
                                     In trying to envision such an institution, our
                                     mind’s eye constructs a monumental temple of
                                     knowledge; perhaps located in one of the
                                     world’s metropolises, with millions spent on
                                     laboratories, expensive equipment and highly
                                     acclaimed institutes. Yet, anyone who visits the
                                     Santa Fe Institute for the first time will find
                                     nothing of the sort: It is small. Really small!
                                     There is no army of scientists like at large
                                     research centers, research is not done with
                                     equipment, and there isn’t even a single
                                     laboratory. The Santa Fe Institute ascribes to
                                     the belief that new ideas in science come from
                                     individual minds, not organizations. […]
                                     Typical hierarchies do not seem to exist here:
                                     It’s even common for high-school students to
                                     pursue their own projects at the institute.
                                     Esteemed scientists […] are part of a research
                                     family at the institute and are continuously dis-
                                     cussing topics with the young researchers.” 7

                                     At the Santa Fe Institute (U.S.), even complex-
                                     systems research starts with an age-old cultural

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Shooting for the
     stars in the Steppe –
     “The Steppe is silent. A stillness
     blankets the endless plains under a
     moonlit sky – an ocean of sand and
     grass that dreamlessly sleeps. It is
     three o’clock in the morning. Wisps
     of fog drift over the ground in Kaza-
     khstan. Suddenly a loud crack of
     thunder […]. A painfully bright ball of
     light cuts through the mist. ‘Go, Pro-
     ton, go!’ Frank McKenna yells. […]
     Proton is the name of the rocket
     slowly making its way from pad 39
     into the night sky between China
     and Russia, fueled with more than
     500 tons of highly explosive fuel.”
     McKenna is president of the compa-
     ny International Launch Services.
     Satellite operators from 15 countries
     book one-way tickets into orbit with
     him. Baikonur, the oldest and largest
     spaceport in the world, now plays a
     central role in the satellite business.
     “The world is addicted to sending
     equipment into orbit that helps
     forecast crop yield, guide airplanes
     to their destinations and transmit         Carrying the weight of our modern era of communications: a Proton
     telephone conversations, Internet          rocket on the way to the launch pad at the Baikonur spaceport in
     communication and TV talk shows.
     Satellites are perhaps the latest infra-
     structure of modern society – and the
     least visible.” 7

                                                                                                                    TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                     Far, far away in a Mathematician’s
                                     Paradise – Oberwolfach
                                     “Oberwolfach – a world primarily consisting of 44,000
                                     monographs, 30 blackboards and a Steinway. Without a
                                     doubt, it is the research center for mathematics. Every week,
                                     always from Sunday evening through Saturday morning, 48
                                     of the best mathematicians from a certain field meet to focus
                                     solely on their own area of study, pose questions and discov-
                                     er new ideas. […] The direction a workshop develops usually
                                     only becomes clear as it evolves. And so for the most part,
                                     it’s: ‘Come by tomorrow and tell us something about quasi-
                                     triangular Hopf algebra!’ This means you need to be honest
                                     when listing your areas of expertise …” Many mathematical
                                     breakthroughs have been achieved or publically discussed
                                     for the first time in Oberwolfach. “But Oberwolfach is only
                                     one kind of inspiration incubator. Articles are rarely written
                                     here, no university and doctoral theses have been advised,
                                     and there are no committee meetings or office hours. […] It
                                     is a place for ideas, questions and creativity to flow.” 7

                                     Retreat for masterminds: the Mathematical Research Institution at
                                     Oberwolfach in the Black Forest, Germany

                                     What started as an Internet discussion eventually led to the creation of
                                     a travel guide through our knowledge society: “Mekkas der Moderne”
                                     (“Meccas of Modernity”), published by Hilmar Schmundt, Miloš Vec,
                                     Hildegard Westphal, Böhlau Publishing House, 2010.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Not everybody ends up on quite the career path they had in mind: Up until a few years ago, David
     Reinke was working as a forester, as a fitness trainer and as a sports car dealer. Today, the trained
     mechatronics engineer works in ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe’s casting-roller plant in Duisburg and has
     big plans for the future. He came across his dream job at ThyssenKrupp’s IdeasPark.

                   or six years, David Reinke was on the look-out for his                                                                    … making him all
                                                                                                                                             the more commit-
          dream job. It all started after he finished secondary school in 1998:                                                              ted now he has
                   “To be quite honest, back then, when I got the results of my                                                              found his place as
                                                                                                                                             a mechatronics
                   exams, I was pretty clueless about what I wanted to do,”                                                                  engineer.
          the 30-year old recalls. He enjoyed physics and technology, but
          more as a hobby and not really as a potential career option. Not
          knowing what else to do, he followed the advice of his careers ad-
     visor and applied to Bochum’s business college to do a business
     traineeship. He managed one year before giving up. “I just didn’t enjoy
     sitting at a desk all day every day. It wasn’t for me.” Shortly after that,
     he began a forest management traineeship with Bochum City Council.
     He enjoyed being out in the fresh air – but then he had to have his hand
     operated on and was told he wouldn’t be allowed to use a power saw
     anymore. Having always enjoyed sport, he finally decided to make his
     hobby his job and started a sports and fitness management trainee-
     ship. However, having frequently worked overtime without being paid,
     Reinke handed in his notice while still on probation.

     It took a long time for                                                       After that, life became relatively unsettled: a four-month traineeship
     David Reinke to work
     out which direction                                                           with a sports car dealership in Aachen, a job in a video store in Bochum,
     he really wanted to go                                                        and in an Internet cafe in Essen. Then he carried out his civil service,
     in vocationally …
                                                                                   doing community work with Diakonie, the social welfare organization of
                                                                                   the Protestant Church in Germany and, last but not least, he worked in
                                                                                   an electrical store.
                                                                                   “Everything I did in those six years was interesting and taught me some-
                                                                                   thing new,” Reinke says. “But I always had the feeling that I still hadn’t
                                                                                   found what I was looking for in a job.” That all changed very suddenly
                                                                                   when he went to the IdeasPark in Gelsenkirchen in September 2004.
                                                                                   “I really didn’t want to go at first,” recalls Reinke, whose wife originally
                                                                                   brought it to his notice. Then he changed his mind, but only because he
                                                                                   wanted to get a couple of ideas for his experiments at home. “I really

                                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
 never thought I’d find something new that I would like to do.” Fascinat-
 ed by the technical and chemical experiments on display at the Ideas-
 Park, Reinke applied to ThyssenKrupp Steel to do a mechatronics engi-
 neering traineeship – and finished the three and a half year course
 ahead of time, as the best in his class and region. And not just that: He
 was immediately given a job as electrical overseer with GWA, Thyssen
 Krupp Steel’s casting-roller plant, where it manufactures thin sheet for
 transformer stations and for the automobile industry.

 Step by step to that dream job
 Together with his shift colleagues, Reinke is responsible for overseeing
 the running of the casting-roller plant the whole time it is operating.
 Covering an area of roughly one square kilometer, the team regularly
 needs to inspect and carry out repairs to electrical components and
 defective cables, and replace components – everything that is needed
 to keep the facilities running smoothly. Reinke first took an interest in the
 work at GWA while still completing his training. “Together with our train-
 ing supervisors, we went to all the facilities and this is the one I liked
 most.” At that time, there were no trainees at the plant, one of the most

»Everything I did in those six years
 was interesting and taught me
 something new.«

 modern in Europe. Thanks to the commitment of his advisor, Reinke be-
 came the first trainee ever to be able to spend the last four weeks of his
 training at GWA, and was subsequently given a job there. Was this his
 dream job at last? “Absolutely. No two days are the same,” Reinke says
 of his job. “It embraces a huge spectrum of tasks from small repairs
 through to highly specialized jobs. And this is exactly what makes it so
 interesting.” But Reinke isn’t about to put his feet up and take things
 easy. Far from it. At the moment, he is playing with the idea of swap-
 ping the casting-roller plant for the lecture theater, to do a mechatron-
 ics engineering degree at the University of Essen. At home, too, he is
 busy: For years, he has been working away at his own project, looking
 at how to obtain alternative energy from water. Reinke won’t reveal
 more. “I’d say I need another couple of years before the project is at a
 level where it can be launched commercially. But then it could change
 the energy market,” he forecasts confidently. Looking back, Reinke
 doesn’t regret his erratic career path either. Every job, every experience
 taught him something new and, without them, he wouldn’t have gotten
 to know many of his friends. All in all, says Reinke: “It couldn’t have
 gone any better.” 7
 TEXT: ELLEN BOLDUAN                                                             3

 TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Büffeln Chinesen wegen ihrer komplizierten Schrift besonders fleißig? Sind Europäer Schöngeister?
     Oder sind gar bestimmte Kulturen klüger als andere? Unterschiede im Bildungserfolg sind weder
     angeboren noch abhängig von kulturellen Entwicklungen wie Schriftsystemen. Entscheidend ist vielmehr
     die Rolle, die Bildung in der jeweiligen Gesellschaft spielt.

                                                                               TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                     TO LEARN

                                     Are the Chinese really diligent about cramming because of their language’s
                                     complicated system of characters? Are Europeans aesthetes? Or are par-
                                     ticular cultures more intelligent than other ones? Differences in educational
                                     achievement are neither hereditary nor the result of cultural developments
                                     like systems of writing. Rather, the role that education plays in a particular
                                     society is the critical factor.

                                                          hen teachers from Europe head off on a trip to China, a visit to a school there is
                                                         usually one of the stops on the tour. But the sudden encounter with the foreign
                                                        way of teaching can be somewhat traumatic: Even the youngest children are able
                                                       to master the Roman alphabet within just a few weeks and begin to use it like old
                                                      pros. As a learning aid, that is. After all, the real challenge can’t begin until these let-
                                                     ters are firmly planted in the children’s minds: learning the Chinese form of writing.
                                                    Thousands of characters – each one unique, each one to be learned by heart. Still,               3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
            In the jungle of education reform
            Alternative educational concepts are everywhere. But just a few of them have succeeded in
            gaining long-term, worldwide acceptance. Here are the most-well known ones:

            Waldorf education                                                       “help me do it myself.” It concentrates on the individuality of a
            The education concept developed by the esotericist Rudolf Steiner       child and is designed to support one central goal: to bring the joy
            is based on postulates of anthroposophy: This spiritual philoso-        of learning in line with a child’s personal needs and talents. One
            phy places humans in the context of the transcendental. Just as         particular focal point is freedom: A child may and should decide
            important is the lesson concerning the four “realms of being:”          what he or she would like to do.
             the physical body, the etheric body, the astral body and the ego.
            Each represents a seven-year development stage, and the
            teaching of children must be adapted to each phase. In addition         Freinet
            to scientific subjects and vocational training, the curriculum in-      Schools should be free from oppressive religion and any sort of
            cludes unconventional topics like eurythmics. Steiner’s philoso-        compulsion and should give pupils the opportunity to discover the
            phy of education was applied for the first time at a school in          world themselves – these were the goals that the French educator
            1919. Today, more than 1,000 Waldorf schools are in operation           Célestin Freinet pursued in the 1920s. In his philosophy of
            around the world.                                                       education, self-responsibility and team work with classmates play
                                                    a leading role. Even though the Freinet philosophy of education
                                                                                    was influenced by socialist thinking, Freinet rejected any type
            Montessori                                                              politicization of the school. Today, the Freinet philosophy is prac-
            Maria Montessori developed her philosophy of education at the           ticed primarily in Romance countries and eastern Europe.
            beginning of the 20th century, which is based on the principle of

                                                                                                                                          All children are
                                                                                                                                          curious – no matter
                                                                                                                                          whether they are
                                                                                                                                          enrolled in an ele-
                                                                                                                                          mentary class at the
                                                                                                                                          Japanese School in
                                                                                                                                          Düsseldorf (left) or
                                                                                                                                          a school in Florida
                                                                                                                                          (other pictures on this
                                                                                                                                          double page). But the
                                                                                                                                          methods of teaching
                                                                                                                                          and the goals of edu-
                                                                                                                                          cation vary around
                                                                                                                                          the world – frequently
                                                                                                                                          due to living condi-

     3 that’s not half of the problem. The children can’t look at the characters    States hold at least a bachelor’s degree (and the largest number of this
       and know how they are pronounced. This is where the Western alpha-           group comes from eastern and southeastern Asia). But only 27 percent
       bet comes into play. Chinese pupils use it from the very start to note the   of all U.S. citizens have obtained a similar educational level. The train-
       pronunciation of the Chinese characters.                                     ing used to learn Chinese characters may indeed help improve concen-
       This sounds like an enormous challenge. And it is. Do the Chinese make       tration, memorize information more quickly and become perseverant.
       up a larger and larger share of university graduates around the world for    But you could also say that these barriers do not exactly simplify the
       this reason? Do eastern Asians represent an above-average number of          teaching of knowledge. Could the time consumed in learning the char-
       specialists and managers for this reason as well – regardless of the         acters not be put to better use? A final, scientifically proven answer to
       country where they raise their children? U.S. government statistics          this question has yet to be found. But this is not the case with one other
       show that about half of all people of Asian heritage living in the United    issue: Particularly in eastern Asia, education is seen as the surest way

                                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

to climb the professional and social ladder, as a life-insurance policy of
sorts. Even Confucius, the Chinese philosopher whose voice continues
to ring out today, underscored the meaning of education.
Actually, the answer to the questions about the driving forces behind the
different levels of academic achievement is not to be found in such lan-
guage and cultural differences as characters and letters. Rather, the
critical factor is this: What is the actual purpose of education in a soci-
ety? And just what is education anyway?

Knowledge must be helpful
The answers to these questions depend on many factors: factors like
the worth of the individual in comparison with the group and the signif-
icance of the individual in society. Such considerations lead to another
question as well: Should education mold the people living in a country
into responsible citizens or solidify the status quo of a single class? In
societies with strict hierarchies, education is a symbol of a person’s
membership in the ruling class. The social environment – that is, the
economic position of a country – is also of critical importance: Countries
with high social risks and low individual security systems place more         also seen in the family’s influence on education: Asian families fre-
value on the “success-producing power” of acquired knowledge. In              quently urge their children to learn a wide variety of occupations. This
such places, education serves as a means of survival. People who can          will bolster the family’s economic security in times of crisis.
trade their knowledge for money or food are the only ones who are             Generally speaking, countries with lower standards of living frequently
putting their education to good use. The functionality of knowledge is        tend to believe that individually acquired knowledge should contribute
                                                                              to the good of the entire society – education as the engine of progress.
                                                                              This feeling is reflected in the fact that Asia has made exceptionally
                                                                              rapid technical strides in recent years. Engineering has been systemat-
                                                                              ically promoted, with the goal in the 1970s and 1980s of raising stan-
                                                                              dards of living as quickly as possible. Not only China and India (infor-
                                                                              mation technology is the primary focus here), but also small countries
                                                                              like Singapore have consciously focused the curriculums of their insti-
                                                                              tutions of higher learning on this area. Here, the social benefits of edu-
                                                                              cation have long been the primary objective.

                                                                              The humanities as a luxury
                                                                              In developing and emerging countries, educational concepts like
                                                                              Montessori, Waldorf and Freinet have few chances. After all, their
                                                                              objective is primarily personal happiness and the development of the
                                                                              personality. It is not as though people in Africa or Asia would have no
                                                                              use for them. But – you really cannot earn a living with them. In those
                                                                              places where parents want to see their children gain security as fast as
                                                                              possible – that is, with a clear occupation and high success – alterna-
                                                                              tive educational concepts are viewed rather skeptically. Once the eco-
                                                                              nomic situation has improved, educational experiments will turn up in
                                                                              pedagogic “fringe areas.” In the upbringing of infants or kindergarten.
                                                                              That is, in those places where the economic impact will not be so
                                                                              apparent if the new approach proves to be worthless.
                                                                              The era of individual concepts will begin only after a broad middle class
                                                                              has arisen: education for the purpose of personal growth. Educational 3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                                                           wash, cook and do needlework, as is the case in many regions? Or
                                                                                           should education be modified to serve the needs of a new image of
                                                                                           women? Even fundamental issues like the language of instruction – that
                                                                                           is, the choice between the local dialect and the language of the former
                                                                                           colonial power – are passionately debated in Africa – not to mention the
                                                                                           cultural adaptation of learning methods. At some point in the distant
                                                                                           future, when the world’s fundamental problems have been nearly
                                                                                           solved and attending school is a fact of life for nearly everyone, region-
                                                                                           al education concepts may perhaps play a role. For personal growth. 7
                                                                                           TEXT: FRANÇOISE HAUSER

       Learning with pictures from their own worlds: a boy attending school in Gjohaven,
       a settlement of the Inuits in northern Canada

     3 goals tend to shift toward personal happiness as fewer educational ob-
       jectives are set by the state or are urged by families and as these ob-
       jectives are increasingly shaped by personal interests. As a result, the
       legions of European and North American humanists certainly did not
       have their sights set on high income when they began their freshmen
       years. Rather, they are using their education to achieve a personal, ideal
       gain. Or the choice of a major is the result of a certain carelessness, a
       luxury one must be able to afford: In Europe and North America, a spe-
       cific professional benefit is no longer a top priority due to the generally
       high standard of living.
       But less prosperous countries still have good reasons for rethinking the            In spite of difficult
                                                                                           circumstances –
       rigid structure of their traditional, function-focused education systems:           classes are
       This approach is not particularly known for encouraging creativity. Any             almost always
                                                                                           held: a temporary
       country seeking to make the leap from a producing society to a creative             school in a Pak-
       society must promote individual thinking. Regardless of the cultural                istani province hit
                                                                                           by severe flooding
       framework. Even in China, the media and government education ex-                    (left) and a class
       perts are now promoting a less functional-based approach to teaching                in a Nairobi slum,
                                                                                           where up to 100
       in order to develop the creativity of pupils and students: Not much more            pupils sit in one
       can be achieved in economic terms by simply reproducing available                   room.
       knowledge. China now realizes that it needs innovative thinkers and is
       increasingly focusing on individual education concepts.

       Challenges beyond borders                                                                 Teaching the ABCs around the world
       For many countries of the world, such problems lie in the distant future.                 Reading, writing, arithmetic – something that is part of the daily
       In large parts of Africa, Latin America and southern Asia, the primary                    lives of young people ages 6 to 15 in Germany is not for many
       concern is just getting children into school and teaching them the 3 R’s.                 children in other countries. About 72 million children around the
       Frequently, the idea has to be really sold hard: Girls, members of social                 world do not attend school. Fifty percent of these children live in
       fringe groups and the handicapped also have the right to receive an                       Africa and 25 percent in southern and western Asia, respectively.
       education that will enable them to lead independent lives. This area in                   One other point must be kept in mind as well: One school does
       particular prompts many countries to initially raise the fundamental                      not equal another. Even within Europe, education systems differ
       question of “for what purpose?” Is it really enough to teach girls to

                                                                                                                              TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
Aid is frequently necessary: children attending a school of Favela Vila Canoa
in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) sponsored by the Rotary Club of Italy

                                                                                                          »In large parts of Africa,
                                                                                                 Latin America and southern Asia,
                                                                                                        the primary concern is just
                                                                                                        getting children into school
                                                                                                    and teaching them the 3 R’s.«

greatly: In Luxembourg, compulsory education begins for children                known as “homeschooling” or “unschooling.” Homeschooling is
at age 4 with the so-called “playschool” and extends to the age of              also allowed in Japan. But most children attend elementary school
15. Children in Belgium, on the other hand, must go to school from              for six years before going to junior high school for three years, just
ages 6 to 18. With the exception of Germany, which requires chil-               as they do in China. In addition to such standard courses as mathe-
dren to be taught in schools, parents in all other European countries           matics and physical education, unusual subjects are included in the
may teach their children themselves or hire private teachers to pro-            curriculum as well: Children in war-torn Afghanistan take “an intro-
vide instruction at home. This approach is widely used in the United            duction to land mines.” Some German schools teach “happiness,”
States, Canada and Australia. Depending on the method – on the                  and all elementary school pupils in Tatarstan (Russia) learn to play
basis of traditional school instruction or the child’s interests – this is      chess. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     As a result of globalization, we have witnessed the dawn of a new
     age: that of “networked intelligence.” Behind the groundbreaking
     innovations of our times, creative minds conduct creative
     conversations that take place beyond traditional disciplines
     and across borders.

     The vast accumulation of                         sapiens. The philosopher Peter
     knowledge and the acceleration of                Sloterdijk talks of the “holy fire of
     technical change since the 18th Century          dissatisfaction,” the social scientist
     have led to the development of a ‘knowl-         Helga Nowotny of “insatiable curios-
     edge society’ in which knowledge is the          ity.” Albert Einstein apparently said:
     most important asset and where knowl-            “I have no special talents. I am only
     edge workers have become a company’s             passionately curious.”
     most important capital.                          The positive value of curiosity is
     There are more scientists and researchers        a relatively recent phenomenon.
     today than in the entire history of the world.   In most cultures, it was consid-
     The web of media and communications              ered a vice, in the Middle
     systems is becoming ever more sophisti-          Ages it was a sin. “These
     cated and ever more effective. The con-          days, curiosity is no longer seen as pri-
     tours of this age of “networked intelli-         marily a hunger to see, rather primarily a       discoveries usually come with a long histo-
     gence” are becoming more defined. And at         hunger to know,” explains the philosopher        ry – one based on broad knowledge and
     the center are the creative minds, the de-       Martin Seel. “It’s a longing for knowledge       knowledge-sharing.
     velopers, the inventors who open the way         that no level of insight could ever satisfy.”
     to new realms of possibility, researchers        Researchers and engineers are inspired by        Creative dialogue
     who develop new technologies, and engi-          the desire to “know” and “be able to do.”        How do new ideas become reality? Knowl-
     neers who create new technical works of          They are never happy with the way things         edge alone isn’t enough: That knowledge
     art. New discoveries don’t come from be-         are; they want to overcome obstacles and         has to be organized, combined and – most
     tween the covers of a book; they come            find solutions where others say “not possi-      importantly – newly configured. Radically
     from between two ears: from the heads of         ble!”.                                           new ideas are usually the result of pushing
     creative knowledge workers. Only human           But how do innovators, inventors, thinkers       the boundaries of a particular discipline
     beings are creative, not machines – at           actually get their bright new ideas? Cre-        and working together as a team. Creativity
     least, for the moment.                           ativity often comes across as something          is as much about targeted searching as
                                                      quite mysterious. Everybody has experi-          about collecting ideas – it’s about wander-
     What drives us forward? Curiosity                enced that flash of inspiration – that magic     ing around in the field of possibilities.
     What drives us forward? The eternal              moment when the light goes on and all the        As such, innovation isn’t just a technical
     search for new experiences and continu-          bits of the puzzle fit together. Eureka – I’ve   process, it is also a social process, as well
     ous breaking of the new limits are among         done it! But that moment of inspiration is       as a knowledge exchange beyond the
     the most basic characteristics of Homo           anything but an accident. Inventions and         boundaries of one’s own competencies.

                                                                                                                      TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                                                                                      polytronics, electrochemistry, or
                                                                                                                     neuroprosthetics – and this con-
                                                                                                                      vergence of the technologies is
                                                                                                                      ongoing and triggers further
                                                                                                                      surges in innovation.

                                                                                                                        Open innovation – a cata-
                                                                                                                        lyst for new ideas
                                                                                                                           As delightful as the myth is,
                                                                                                                           the idea of the scientific
                                                                                                                          genius who suddenly has an
                                                                                                                       epiphany while sat alone in his
                                                                                                                   quiet room is one we should have
                                                                                                                   done away with long ago. Most of
                                                                                                                   the time, it is teams or working
                                                                                                                   groups collaborating to find a solu-
                                                                                                                 tion. New discoveries don’t appear out
                                                                                                           of thin air – even the ones that take us
                                                                                                           most by surprise. In most cases, they are
                                                                                                           the product of a race between many scien-
                                                                                                           tists, and the breakthrough often happens
                                                                                                           simultaneously in several locations. Flexi-
                                                                                                           ble innovation networks, higher education
                                                                                                           establishments, research centers and
                                                                                                           companies all work together closely – they
        Where people from different disciplines         The three classic scientific disciplines –         are the models of the future.
        come together to solve problems and             physics, chemistry and biology – merge to-         Progress is made when people come to-
        where there is creative dialogue, the out-      gether at the nano level and combine with          gether. The more intensive the exchange of
        comes can be surprising.                        information technology and cognitive sci-          information, the greater the potential for
                                                        ence. For the first time ever, it is possible to   innovation. The more tightly-knit the net-
        The merging of the classical                    take the smallest units of matter, to work         work, the more effective the system. As
        disciplines                                     with them, manipulate them and assemble            such, the global innovation race is more a
        These days, radically new innovations are       them differently, using molecular through          competition between leaders and organi-
        no longer the product of just one single sci-   to quantum-effect science. Interdiscipli-          zations than anything else: a competition
        ence or technology; they arise from the         nary collaboration is opening the doors to         to see who is the best and the fastest at
        crumbling of the traditional divides be-        completely new areas of application, such          using the global know-how. 7
        tween disciplines and their merging to-         as nanotechnology or modern biotechnol-            TEXT: PROF. DR.-ING HANS-JÖRG BULLINGER, PRES-
        gether, enabling new possibilities in the       ogy. The linking of the technologies is also       IDENT OF THE FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT.
        design of matter on a nano scale.               visible in new terms such as mechatronics,         ILLUSTRATION: MARIO WAGNER

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

     Education for all: It was one of 19th-century Europe’s most important social developments.
     It also shaped ThyssenKrupp’s predecessor companies.

        n Europe, the 19th century was a time of mass literacy. Reading         eracy, with this trend beginning to pick up steam in about 1860, as his-
        and writing were no longer skills of just the elite and middle class-   torian Jürgen Osterhammel explains in his book “Die Verwandlung der
        es, but also an increasing number of urban and rural tradespeople.      Welt” (“The Transformation of the World”). By 1910, Great Britain, the
        At the same time, the public education system was expanded, and         Netherlands and Germany had achieved nearly full literacy. From the
        children of lower- and middle-class families were included by the       perspective of the elite, this achievement was, on the one hand, desir-
        state’s educational bodies for the first time. Prussia had the first    able for paving the way to modernity and helping advance national in-
        European government to come close to the goal of eradicating illit-     tegration. But the “cultural emancipation of the masses” also resulted

                                                                                                                  TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                          Knowledge is power – Girls in the children’s reading room of the library in the
                                                                          Friedrichshof workers’ housing development in Essen (1913). Friedrich Alfred
                                                                          Krupp’s initiative to set up a library with several branches as well as an education-
                                                                          al society and scholarship fund all demonstrate that at an early point support of
                                                                          education had gone far beyond just fulfilling a functional business necessity for
                                                                          Krupp AG and its shareholders.

                                                                                                                                                                  Photos: Historisches Archiv Krupp, ThyssenKrupp Konzernarchiv.

in greater demands for participation in social and political life.        companies to workers’ emancipation. Furthermore, German industry
ThyssenKrupp’s predecessor companies were also shaped by these            also involved itself in matters of education – initially focusing on the pro-
developments. Several biographies (see the following pages) tell the      fessional training of its own employees – extending its support to civil
stories of men at the company who rose from humble backgrounds to         and religious educational societies in the German Empire. As various
high positions. Such opportunities would not have been possible with-     examples will demonstrate, these efforts were greatly exceeded by the
out the rapid industrialization and the steady development of a “knowl-   predecessor companies of ThyssenKrupp who had taken early steps in
edgeable society” in the 19th century as well as the receptiveness of     this area. 7 TEXT: ALEXANDER SCHNEIDER

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
             ‘Fostering general education’
                 As the only other major company in Ger-
                 many besides Bayer, Krupp made an effort
                 at the turn of the 20th century to contribute
                 to the intellectual and cultural development
                 of people. The company took the step of
                 founding an institution, the Krupp Educa-
                 tional Society – doing so without consider-
                 ation of the short-term economic impact of
                 the decision.
                 The aim of the Krupp Educational Society,
                 founded under the aegis of Friedrich Alfred
                                 Krupp on July 19, 1899,
                                 was to “foster general edu-
                                 cation and cultural activities
                                 while rigorously excluding all   Evening lectures and activities as well as chess and photography courses: Starting in 1899, employees
                                                                  could take advantage of these opportunities at the Krupp Educational Society.
                                 political and religious mat-
                                 ters.” With its selection of     white-collar employees alike. Dr. Ralf                class. The concept of the educational soci-
                                 evening lectures and activi-     Stremmel, historian and head of the Krupp             ety lost importance with the end of World
                                 ties as well as assorted         Historical Archive, says that the broader             War II in 1945: By the 1920s, access to
                                 courses in literature, stenog-   goal of the society was to act as a kind of           public education had already markedly ex-
                                 raphy, chess, economics,         “middle-class society for people of all               panded in the Ruhr region, so the rele-
                                 the sciences and photogra-       classes” and a “stabilizing factor of civil           vance of the society gradually waned. In
                                 phy, the Krupp Educational       society.” Ultimately, Stremmel adds, the              Stremmel’s view, Krupp’s efforts to use so-
                                 Society reached out to la-       Krupp Educational Society also sought to              ciety as a catalyst for overall social reform
                                 borers, skilled trade work-      indirectly mold workers according to the              were “almost unheard of” at that time. 7
     Friedrich Alfred
                                 ers, service personnel and       cultural values and norms of the middle
     Krupp, 1888

                    j     S U CC E S S S TO R I E S _ 1

                    On-the-job training
                    Wilhelm Engels’ (1841–1878) meticulous efforts to improve the technical processes in
                    the melting shop – the central production unit of the Krupp cast-steel plant in Essen –
                    were nothing less than remarkable. He left behind extensive operational logs, which now
                    serve as interesting sources of information about the history of technology. Among other
                    topics, the logs cover the work carried out to systematically improve steel production dur-
                    ing the 19th century. And in carrying out his work, Engels did not even have a university
                    education to help him: He had attended a trade academy and then started working as a
                    technician at Fried. Krupp in 1864. Clearly fascinated with the work, Engels suggested and
                    implemented many improvements that helped him move all the way up to the position of
                    melting shop manager before he died of tuberculosis at age 37 – a common fate in the 19th
                    century. 7                                                                                Wilhelm Engels

                                                                                                                              TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

                                                                              The committee meeting log for the 1919 scholarship fund indicates that Arthur
                                                                              Rabich (his employee log above) wanted to continue his education at the mechani-
                                                                              cal engineering school after having dropped out in 1915 due to the war. The lock-
                                                                              smith’s father was dismissed by the company in 1917 because of theft and had
                                                                              “cruelly abandoned his family.” Nevertheless, the 23-year-old Rabich was awarded
                                                                              200 marks for a summer semester in 1919.

Scholarships for the children of employees
In July 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II visited the Krupp cast-steel plant in         The scholarship fund remained virtually unchanged through 1945 – al-
Essen. Friedrich Alfred Krupp, who had a personal interest in the sci-        though historical circumstances are reflected in the logs of the scholar-
ences and whose advisers included men with a great sense of culture           ship committee meetings. For instance, after World War I, many schol-
and education, used the occasion as an opportunity to create a schol-         arships were awarded to men who were forced to retrain due to war
arship that would give the sons of master-level employees and workers         injuries. Exceptions were also made to the general eligibility require-
better technical training (but generally not at an institute of higher edu-   ments in effect at the time: Leo Leiting received a scholarship although
cation). To be eligible for the scholarship, potential candidates had to      his father had never worked at the company. But as he was an injured
have a father who had worked for the company as well as had to have           veteran and had “displayed bravery in battle” – he had received a
worked at Krupp for least four years themselves. In addition, as Krupp        German Iron Cross First and Second Class – he was awarded the grant
outlined when he created the scholarship, candidates needed to “ex-           anyway. The total number of scholarships that were awarded is
hibit exceptional diligence, conduct and skills.”                             unknown. But in 1938, shortly before the outbreak of World War II, the
This effort was not entirely altruistic, however: After all, the company      company newspaper reported that the fund had awarded 3,450 schol-
had a great need for highly trained employees. In one reflection of this,     arships to more than 1,000 students in its 48 years of existence. 7
it was expected that scholarship holders would reapply for a position at
Krupp after completing training at a mechanical engineering school, the
forerunner of today’s technical university.

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
      j    S TO R I E S O F U P WA R D C L I M B S _ 2

      From Taunus to
      One of 13 children, Franz Dahl (1859–1950)
      went to work at Burbacher Hütte, an iron works
      in Saarland, at age 19, following his graduation
      from vocational school in his hometown of
      Soden im Taunus. After starting with easy,
      practical tasks, he climbed up the ranks to be-
      come head of the steel mill before moving to
      Oberhausen in 1890 to gain experience in pro-
      ducing section rolls from blocks of soft steel
      at the Gutehoffnung mill. In 1894, August
      Thyssen appointed him head of the steel mill in
      Bruckhausen, most likely at the suggestion of
      Dahl’s former boss, Siegfried Blau. From that
      day forward, Dahl worked at Thyssen until
      1920, joining the mine’s board of directors in
      1901. That same year, this small-town kid with
      a big family from provincial Germany took his
      first trip to America. Joined by Fritz Thyssen,
      the company owner’s oldest son, he went to
      learn about innovations in steel production. Nu-
                          merous patents attest to
                          Dahl’s versatility. Later, he
                          also chaired the technology
                          committee of the German                         Reflective pose for the photogra-
                          steelworker’s union and re-                     pher: an apprentice in a training
                                                                          workshop at the August Thyssen
                          ceived an honorary doctor-                      iron works in 1956
                          ate in engineering from the
                          Berlin Institute of Technolo-
                          gy in Charlottenburg. 7
      Franz Dahl

                                                          A hall for books
                                                          The value attributed to education at the end of the 19th century is already evident in the
                                                          name itself: Bücherhalle (hall of books) was the name Friedrich Alfred Krupp gave the
                                                          library established in 1899 at the northeast entrance of the steel casting factory. When
                                                          its doors opened, the library, which was intended “for the entertainment and education
                                                          of the family members of workers at the steel casting factory,” had 8,000 volumes on
                                                          its shelves; by 1902 the number had risen to 28,000. The library also had a separate
                                                          section for young adult literature, although efforts were made to ensure “inappropriate
                                                          works did not reach the hands of young borrowers.” Over the years, the main library
                                                          was joined by other branches in workers’ housing developments in Essen. 7

                                                                                                              TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                        Traditional work: Young women learn                                                97
                                                                        sewing, embroidery and ironing.

Promoting women
In the 19th century, the question of whether or not women
should also enjoy access to education was by no means un-
controversial. After all, more education leads to more demand
for increased participation in positions of power – this is how,
for example, women in Germany gained the right to vote at a      In the building pictured above, girls 14 years old or older could learn new skills: the
                                                                 industrial school on Limbeck Avenue in Essen where the main Bücherhalle would later
national level in 1919. Alfred Krupp was somewhat progres-       be located.
sive for his time: As early as 1875, he began supporting the
construction and operation of industrial schools for women. The goal was to, among other things, enhance “the
earning capacity of women and girls dependent on paid labor” by providing instruction in school on typical female
handiwork. The Fried. Krupp’sche Industrieschule zu Essen (Ruhr) (Friedrich Krupp’s Industrial School in Essen)
was located at 18 Limbeck Ave. and primarily targeted the wives and daughters of company employees. Indeed,
the subject matter of their education was determined on the basis of a traditional female role: The lesson plan for
students 14 and up involved sewing by hand, sewing with a machine, embroidery, making clothing and ironing. It
would still be a few decades before the first women would be seen in the steel plant. 7

     j    S TO R I E S O F U P WA R D C L I M B S _ 3

     Talent crowned him king
     He was really only expected to make it through elementary school. But because he had noticeable talent, the parents
     of Franz Bartscherer (1877-1960) followed the school’s recommendation to allow him to progress into the higher grades
     – until 1896, when he completed his Abitur examinations at the Königliche Industrieschule in Nuremberg. After study-
     ing engineering at the Technical University in Munich, he began his first job at MAN in 1900. It was in this capacity that
     he first came into contact with Thyssen while delivering a large gas engine to the company’s main plant in Duisburg-
     Hamborn. At the age of 28, he was hired by August Thyssen to oversee machinery at the Bruckhausen plant. Bartscher-
     er then made a name for himself within the company as head of the business administration office, a function he had
     established despite the predominant opinion that a simple bookkeeping department would have been sufficient. When
     Vereinigte Stahlwerke was created in 1926 – in which Thyssen Group was melded together with other iron, steel and
     mining companies – Bartscherer stepped onto its board. After its subsequent decentralization, he became chairman of           Franz Bartscherer
     the executive board at the newly founded August Thyssen-Hütte AG in 1934 and was responsible for the huge German
     plant complex until his retirement in 1943. Due to his exceptional knowledge of the iron and steel industry, he was also called Hüttenkönig
     (king of the plant) – despite the fact that he had no training in iron and steel works. His son, Chief Engineer Hans Bartscherer, and his
     grandson, the lawyer Dr. Franz Bartscherer, also spent their careers at Thyssen AG and ThyssenKrupp AG. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

Same activity, different era: the first lab for courses in typing at Thyssen-Hütte,
used by administrative trainees in 1933 (right) and typing training at August
Thyssen-Hütte AG in 1971 (above)

                                              More demanding, more systematic,
                                              more comprehensive
                                              At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution,            technology. In this respect, it was only logical in
                                              workers at steel and strip mills most often learned       1964 that a training division be established under
                                              how to operate a blast furnace just by copying what       the supervision of the labor director at the August
                                              they saw others doing; proper training in the quickly     Thyssen mill. Its goals were to continue to expand
                                              growing industry only gradually emerged in the Ruhr       training as well as systemize it. In 1977, a prelimi-
                                              region, which attracted migrant workers from the far      nary milestone was reached: After years of planning,
                                              reaches of Germany as well as from other countries.       Thyssen AG opened a newly constructed training
                                              This development was the catalyst to systematic           center in Duisburg-Hamborn. Former German Presi-
                                              training at Thyssen in 1903: At that time, a compa-       dent Walter Scheel made a special trip to the open-
                                              ny school for further training was started in Duis-       ing as the guest of honor. For the first phase of con-
                                              burg-Hamborn, where it operated through 1945.             struction alone, the company invested 300 million
                                              After World War II, public vocational schools as-         deutschmarks. Thirty years later, the training center
                                              sumed responsibility for teaching apprentices prac-       was still playing an important role at ThyssenKrupp
                                              tical work parallel to their regular education. But the   AG – thereby fulfilling the goal set by Labor Director
                                              importance of internal training actually rose – in part   Kurt Doese at its opening: to build a training center
Former German President Walter
Scheel at the opening of the training
                                              because jobs were becoming increasingly more              that could be used for decades to come. 7
center in Duisburg-Hamborn in 1977            demanding as a result of the growing complexity of

                                                                                                                       TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
Integration – a question
of education
The integration of foreign employees has been a challenge that
Thyssen as a company has been addressing throughout its history.
After all, August Thyssen had begun to employ numerous non-German-
speaking workers at his Gewerkschaft Deutscher Kaiser steel mill (which
later became August Thyssen-Hütte) as early as WWI. These individu-
als were primarily from the eastern regions of what was then the Ger-
man Reich, but southern Europe also played an important role in the
early years: In 1913, 17 percent of new hires at the Gewerkschaft
Deutscher Kaiser were Italian. A full 50 years – or two world wars and
three political structures – later, another shortage of skilled workers led
Thyssen to once again search for employees in other countries. The
percentage of foreign workers at August Thyssen-Hütte rapidly                 First steps in a foreign language: Thyssen was offering language courses to
                                                                              interested foreign employees as early as 1973.
increased from only 3 percent in 1963/64 to 13.4 percent in 1974 – the
year that the ban on recruiting foreign workers took effect in the Feder-
al Republic of Germany.
It was clear to Thyssen early on that education was and is the decisive
factor in providing opportunities for foreign nationals and their children    After all, one of the primary goals of the further education courses was
to attend schools and have careers. In one reflection of this, the com-       to encourage motivated employees to take on more challenging tasks in
pany offered targeted classes for young foreigners and organized on-          areas where these skills were increasingly in demand. As evidenced by
site German classes especially for Turkish, Yugoslav and Spanish em-          the 1973 article, “A tool for integration – German classes for foreigners
ployees. The courses were, of course, also in the company’s best              at the plant,” such issues – ones that German society still wrestles with
interest – a fact that the Thyssen Niederrhein AG company newsletter          almost 40 years later – have long been focal points of discussion and
noted in 1973.                                                                concrete action at companies like Thyssen. 7

    j    S TO R I E S O F U P WA R D C L I M B S _ 4

    100 years at the company
    From farmer’s son from the Eifel region of Germany to director of hot metal – the Peters fam-
    ily history encompasses three generations and, as of 2011, 100 years of working at the com-
    pany. One of seven children, Jakob Peters left his parents’ farm in the Eifel in 1911 to try his
    luck in the Ruhr region. The 16-year-old started as an untrained worker at Phoenix, which
    would later merge into Vereinigte Stahlwerke along with Thyssen Group. He worked his way
    through various positions to eventually become operations manager of the blast furnace at
    August Thyssen-Hütte AG in Duisburg. His son Karl-Heinz Peters, who started at August
    Thyssen-Hütte in 1953 – three years before his father’s retirement, was ultimately in charge
    of all blast-furnace operations for Thyssen Group and was partially responsible for the com-
    pany’s expansion into having the largest facility in Germany. The third generation came on       Two out of three        … and his son,
                                                                                                     generations:            Dr. Michael Peters
    the scene in 1982: Dr. Michael Peters began working at Thyssen as an engineer for metal-         Dr. Karl-Heinz Peters …
    lurgy and spent some of his working years in the United States and Japan. Michael Peters
    oversaw the ThyssenKrupp Steel AG project to construct of blast furnace 8 in Duisburg, which went into operation in early 2008. Today,
    the grandson of an Eifel farmer’s son is Director and Head of Hot Metal at ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG. 7

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

             »AGE OFTEN SERVES

                               TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
                                                                                                               Professor Dr. Ursula M. Staudinger
                                                                                                               (52) is director of the Jacobs Center on
                                                                                                               Lifelong Learning at the Jacobs Univer-
                                                                                                               sity Bremen, where she also serves as
                                                                                                               Vice President. In addition, she is Vice
                                                                                                               President of the German Academy of
                                                                                                               Sciences Leopoldina, a corresponding
                                                                                                               member of the Heidelberg Academy of
                                                                                                               Sciences and a fellow of the American
                                                                                                               Psychological Association. In her
                                                                                                               research work, Staudinger explores
                                                                                                               such topics as the reserves and poten-
                                                                                                               tial of life-long development, aging and
                                                                                                               productivity, intergenerational relation-
                                                                                                               ships as well as the development of
                                                                                                               insights, lifestyles and wisdom
                                                                                                               throughout the span of life. During her
                                                                                                               career, she has written a number of
                                                                                                               reports for government commissions
                                                                                                               focusing on aging and life-long devel-
                                                                                                               opment and represented Germany on
                                                                                                               the European committee that revised
                                                                                                               the U.N. International Action Plan on
                                                                                                               Aging. The native of Nuremberg, Ger-
                                                                                                               many, studied psychology in Erlangen
                                                                                                               and Massachusetts (United States).
                                                                                                               She completed her doctoral and post-
                                                                                                               doctoral work at the Free University of

Psychology Professor Ursula M. Staudinger talks about the need for life-long learning, anachronistic
education and work structures as well as the importance of wisdom in our society.

Professor Staudinger, people live an average of 30 years longer            people’s heads. Regrettably, we have been unable to sensibly use the
than they did 100 years ago. Are we becoming more intelligent              extra time to a sufficient extent.
because we now have more time to learn?
That would be nice. Unfortunately, it is not the case. The traditional     What would be the best way today to replace this sequential career
three-stage model for life – you learn as a young person, you work as      path?
an adult and you take it easy as a retiree – is still firmly anchored in   We must link these individual phases of life more tightly. Our current 3

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

      3 education, training and work structures in Germany are anachronistic         But when you look at how the game of business is played, these fears
        and are totally unsuited for a society of people living longer. In the fu-   are justified.
        ture, for instance, people’s working lives should increasingly include       But this is only because there is no critical mass of companies and em-
        phases that focus on professional development or their private lives.        ployers who are prepared to let their employees step back from the daily
                                                                                     routine and attend professional-development courses or gain new cre-
        Wouldn’t this have a negative impact on productivity?                        ativity and, thus, productivity by temporarily readjusting their priorities.
        No. Such models are already working quite well in some countries, in-        Confidence in the new model must grow in the world of work. But the
        cluding Scandinavian countries and Switzerland. Here, people can             models outside Germany are working.
        choose, to some extent, the percentage they want to work. We should
                                                                                                                If the areas of work and learning are to be
                                                                                                                more closely linked, shouldn’t careers be
      »It is recommended that teams consisting of young and                                                     started at an earlier point?
                                                                                                                The bachelor’s degree has been introduced
       old colleagues be set up when products and processes are                                                 at German universities in an effort to shorten
       being developed.«                                                                                        the time that students spend in college. The
                                                                                                                reduction of the time that students attend col-
                                                                                                                lege-preparatory high schools in Germany to
        also not forget that our extra years will be generally healthy years. This   eight years is another step in this direction. Compared with other coun-
        means that, in principle, we will be able to work longer. We are not         tries around the world, Germany’s nine-year program was a dinosaur
        losing any time. But we must adapt our work structures to address this       that had no place in today’s world. Overall, these reductions make
        change.                                                                      sense because we have seen that the initial education people receive is
                                                                                     not enough to support them throughout their careers. Other qualifica-
        This model has not yet taken hold in Germany.                                tions must be added later.
        There is a lot of skepticism here. Many people are afraid of interrupting
        their careers because they think that they will lose influence and will be   This means that life-long learning is essential?
        unable to hold the same position.                                            I think this term sounds too negative, almost like a life prison term. We

                                                                                                                         TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
must realize that work and learning are two sides of the same coin.           much pressure to prove themselves and take a more relaxed approach          103
Here, too, Sweden, Denmark and Finland are setting a good example.            to things. When older people have problems with learning, age often
Many people in Germany still think like this: I am either working or learn-   serves as a scapegoat. Frequently, though, the problem is that they are
ing. But learning should continue right after the first degree has been       out of practice. If there were enough challenges, it would look much
earned. Learning is a part of life.                                           different.

One aim is to encourage more rapid innovation. How can the cre-               Are older people wiser?
ative and intellectual potential of employees be best encouraged?             It is a fallacy to believe that you automatically become wiser as you get
It is recommended that teams consisting of young and old colleagues           older. If we define wisdom as the greatest capacity to provide insights
be set up when products and processes are being developed. While the          into difficult, ambiguous questions of life, other components come into
young employees will contribute their newly gained knowledge from             play in addition to age. For instance, wise people can see things in a 3
universities or technical colleges, the older colleagues can draw from
the experience of knowing what does and does not work.

Are older members of groups concerned about
working in such cross-generational teams?
When they work together with young people, no prob-
lems occur. Each person is a member of the group as
a result of his or her specialty, and each plays a clear,
important role as a result. But this may not be the
case when new knowledge is being acquired. In such
instances, some people prefer age-homogeneous
groups due to the different learning speed. It is impor-
tant to determine the environment in which students
feel most at home. If the emotions are not in harmony,
the learning process will be negatively impacted.

It is said that older people are afraid of learning new
things. Is this cliché true?
Research has indeed found that when we are old we are
less open and rather inflexible toward the new. But this
is not a law of nature. It can be changed. When you give
people the necessary skills to deal with the new, they
will also enjoy engaging with it. We demonstrated this
in a study that evaluated a model project of the German
Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and
Youth: The openness of volunteers who received train-
ing for their new work became much more positive and
not negative as it was among volunteers who did not re-
ceive this training. When you gain the necessary skills
to be successful in a new context, experiencing the
new becomes fun, and you want more of it. At times,
retirees became almost addicted to acquiring new

Do older people have learning strengths that young
people do not have?
This is closely linked to a person’s individual back-
ground. Generally speaking, older people are much
more relaxed because they have already accomplished
much in their lives, things like starting careers, finding
a partner or establishing a family. They no longer feel

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

      »We can only reach the preliminary
       stages of wisdom. Perfect wisdom is nearly
       impossible to obtain.«

      3 larger context of time. As a result, they are able to better analyze and    Can wisdom, like knowledge, be learned?
        understand things. They are also capable of distancing themselves           We can only reach the preliminary stages of wisdom. Perfect wisdom is
        from their own value systems and of applying the values of the affect-      nearly impossible to obtain. It is definitely helpful if you can talk with
        ed individual in evaluating a situation.                                    trusted persons and expand your mental horizons before you discuss a
                                                                                    difficult problem. It is also helpful if you frequently try to put yourself in
        But young people can also acquire such abilities.                           the position of others and change your point of view.
        Exactly. But you must have reached a certain stage of development. By
        the time we are in our mid-20s, we have learned the “basics” with the       Is wisdom important to developing innovations?
        help of our families and our interactions with peers. Wisdom continues      When you are talking about technical innovations, knowledge of a par-
        to grow only if a series of other factors comes into play.                  ticular discipline and experience with market behavior are frequently
                                                                                    enough. But this has less to do with wisdom. When you are talking
        Does intelligence play a role?                                              about innovations in areas like leadership, wisdom plays a much more
        The brain must be capable of storing, interpreting and interconnecting      critical role. Realistically, everyone should realize that business life
        experiences. Beyond this basic requirement, no additional intelligence      unfortunately involves pressures that stand in conflict with actions that
        is required in order to become wiser. The opposite is true: Highly intel-   would be recommendable from wisdom’s point of view. 7
        ligent people are frequently more egocentric. They also lack social em-     THE INTERVIEW WAS CONDUCTED BY JAN VOOSEN. |
        pathy and a system of values. Such things are elementary to wisdom.         PHOTOS: BARBARA DOMBROWSKI

                                                                                                                         TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
Five questions – five solutions – five prizes
If you don’t ask, you won’t find out: This motto is used by a childrens’   Take the letters that are in the numbered squares and put them in the
program in Germany. And indeed, we wouldn’t know anything if we had-       right order and you will find the solution to the puzzle.
n’t ever begun to ask questions about ourselves and the world we live      Send an email with the answer to:
in. And now we want you to tell us something: We are looking for in-
ventions, famous people, and knowledge and innovation locations.           or send us a postcard to:
Those who find the right answers – in this magazine – might be lucky
enough to be among the winners of our puzzle competition. This is how
                                                                           Redaktion ThyssenKrupp Magazin
it works: There is just one answer to each question. Answer the ques-
                                                                           Postfach 20 01 63
tions in any order you like and write each solution word on the cross-
                                                                           60605 Frankfurt am Main
word puzzle – you need to work out where.
                                                                           The deadline for entries is Nov. 15, 2012. All winners will be notified in
                                                                           writing. The judges’ decision is final.
                                                                           Have fun!

                                                                           Question_1                                 Question_3
                                                                           The history of invention is a history of   Sometimes the best stories come from
                                                                           dispute: Who invented it? This is what     real life: Hedy Lamarr and George
                                                                           happened with the electric light bulb:     Antheil invented a fail-safe radio
7                            6         1   9                               No sooner did Thomas Edison file a         remote control for torpedos. However,
                                                                           patent application in the U.S. in 1879     this technology was never used for
                                                                           than two other men also staked a           military purposes. Instead, it became
                                                                           claim. The Brit Joseph Wilson Swan         the basis of today’s mobile phone sys-
                                                                           had already invented such a light bulb     tem. Their education didn’t indicate
                                                   2                       a year earlier and patented it in Great    engineering expertise – Antheil was a
                                                                           Britain. And then, the watch-maker         composer, and Hedy Lamarr also had
                                                                           Heinrich Göbel, a man of German            an artistic job. What was this job?
                                                                           descent, also claimed to be the real
                                                                           inventor of the light bulb. However,       Question_4
                                                                           these days only Edison’s name              Deep in the Black Forest lies a
5                                                                          remains in our minds. Which other          research center that is only really
                                                                           tone-setting invention is credited to      known to mathematicians. Not only
                                           8   4       10                  his name?                                  have many mathematical break-
                                                                                                                      throughs been achieved here, or dis-
                                                                           Question_2                                 cussed here publicly for the first time,
                                                                           He is supposed to have been very           but those who take part in events at
                                                                           attractive. Unfortunately, he lived at a   the center can also use one of the
                                                                           time when photography was still a          world’s largest specialist libraries for
3                                                                          long way from being invented, so that      mathematics. Where exactly is this
                                                                           we are unable to judge for ourselves.      oasis of calm for superbrains located?
                                                                           However, it is indisputable that this
                                                                           famous Italian had outstanding intel-      Question_5
                                                                           lectual abilities and was well ahead of    Where splendid Baroque Ensembles
                                                                           his time. To this day, engineers hark      now bring joy to the hearts of locals
                                                                           back to his constructions and ideas.       and tourists, there must once have
                                                                           Apropos art: This genius did, of           been a landscape characterized by
                                                                           course, also work with a paint brush       wetlands and marshlands. Or so the
                                                                           and pencil. What was his forename?         name of this city, with its Sorbian
                                                                                                                      roots, suggests. And it goes without
                                                                                                                      saying that people in marshland areas
                                                                                                                      develop the specialist skills needed for
                                                                                                                      mastering life on ‘unsolid’ ground.
                                                                                                                      However, the fact that, as a result of
                                                                                                                      this, the city became a hub for light-
                                                                                                                      weight construction is the stuff of leg-
                                                                                                                      ends. Although it does of course make
                                                                                                                      perfect sense. What is the name of the
    Five winners of a € 100 voucher
                                                                           Solution from the page
    for will be drawn
                                                                           “forum_worth knowing”
    from all contestants who sent in
                                                                           The person wanted for
    the correct solution.
                                                                           “Who was it:” Thomas Edison

TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September

      Environment is everything that surrounds                        To have perspectives means to have a                                    Architecture shapes our working environ-
      us and shapes our existence – from                              future, to present perspectives means                                   ment and the world we live in. Almost
      climate change, as one well-known                               finding goals for which the effort is                                   everything we do, we do in spaces that
      researcher relates in this magazine, to the                     worthwhile, to provide new impulses, to                                 have been created by man. Our eyes are
      elements – sun, wind and water – in their                       identify and develop future potential –                                 opened to this fact by a number of articles
      capacity as equally useful and unpredic-                        with technical solutions for mankind’s                                  in this magazine; by a tour with a ‘strollo-
      table forces of nature, from demographic                        most pressing challenges, precisely like                                gist’, a trip to the city under the city and
      change to the manifold “stressors”                              promoting an environment that is open                                   a look at developments that will define
      influencing our social surroundings. A                          for new ideas, and in which each indi-                                  the cities of the future. The extent to
      steel mill where environmental protection                       vidual can reach his potential. From the                                which architecture and urban planning
      is high up on the agenda is just as much                        idea, to the innovation, to technology                                  play together when bringing a city district
      an issue as the cultural interpreter who is                     assessment – in this magazine tinkerers                                 back to life can be seen in the detailed
      looking for the right tone in this globalized                   as well as futurologists have a voice, it                               articles about the ThyssenKrupp Quartier,
      world. The way we confront the environ-                         deals with products that can revolutionize                              which was opened in Essen in 2010. The
      mental challenges of today reflects a                           our everyday life, as well as the shaping                               exemplary long-term and technologically
      diversity of technical solutions like the                       of the living spaces of the future. The                                 innovative concepts that were implement-
      storage of greenhouse gases, energy                             astronaut, Thomas Reiter, reports how                                   ed there provide an open working environ-
      extraction from plants or the ways we pro-                      a change in perspective can affect our                                  ment that invites dialogue. However, it
      tect ourselves against natural disasters.7                      value system. 7                                                         isn’t just people who build: The entomolo-
                                                                                                                                              gist Bert Hölldobler tells us what we can
                                                                                                                                              learn from ants. 7

      The magazines can be ordered at
      in the service navigation area under “Publications.”

      Publisher                                              Publishing house and editorial offices: F.A.Z.-Institut für Management-,         Photos: action press (26–27), American Institute of Mathematics (2–3),
      ThyssenKrupp AG, Dr. Jürgen Claassen,                  Markt- und Medieninformationen GmbH, Mainzer Landstrasse 199,                    CAEPSELE (20–21), Daimler (66), Getty Images (52–53, 59, 60–65),
      ThyssenKrupp Allee 1,                                  60326 Frankfurt am Main, Telephone: +49 69 75 91–0,                     (22–25, 60–65), HAMILTON/ REA/laif (28–29), Adam Hart-Davis/
      45143 Essen,                                           Fax: +49 69 75 91–1966                                                           SPL/Agentur Focus (77 top), Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach
      Telephone: +49 201 844–0                               Managing Directors: Volker Sach, Dr. André Hülsbömer                             (81), David Parker/SPL/ Agentur Focus (76–77), Picture-Alliance/cdsb –
      Project Management at ThyssenKrupp:                    Project Management: Ludger Kersting                                              Imaginechina (6–7), Picture-Alliance/dpa (4–5, 72–73, 77 and, 80–81,
      Christiane Wanzeck, PhD                                Editors: Anke Bryson (responsible), Alexander Schneider                          84–89), Santa Fe Institute (79), Walter Schmidt/ NOVUM (44), Solux e.V. (51)
      The contents do not necessarily reflect the views of   Art Director: Wolfgang Hanauer
      the publisher. Excerpts may only be reproduced with    Authors: Ellen Bolduan, Anke Bryson, Jenni Glaser, Francoise Hauser, Christina   Lithography: Goldbeck Art, Frankfurt/Main,
      attribution and if a sample copy is provided.          Höhn, Michael Jakob, Alexander Schneider, Jan Voosen, Inka Wichmann              Printing: Kuthal Druck, Mainaschaff

                                                                                                                                                                    TK Magazine | 1 | 2012 | September
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Worlds of Ideas

                  Developing the future.

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