practical application of physiology of lactation.pdf by ZubairLatif

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 136

practical application of physiology of lactation.pdf

More Info
									Practical application
  of physiology of
     lactation.
      Factors affecting lactation ? ?
•   Stress .
•   Diseases.
•   Parasites.
•   Fodder.
•   Water availability.
•   Environment.
•   Personnel.
        Physiology of udder ? ?
• What is lactation ? ?
• What is milk? ?
• What is physiology of udder? ?
Udder structure
            Complex organ, made
            up of series of system.


            1 Supportive system.


            2 Secretory system


            3 Duct system


            4 Blood. Nymph &
            nervous system.
                   Cow udder
•   Consist of four separate mammary glands.
•   Empty Wt.???
•   11-28 kg.
•   Cow has four glands & four teats, but other
    Spp?????
•   Sheep & goat….
•   2 glands & 2 teats.
•   Mare ………………
•   4 glands & 2 teats.
             Continued………
• Left & right halves are totally separate.
• Consist of fore & rear quarters.
• Rear quarters are larger than fore quarters &
  secrete about 60% of daily milk.
• 25-50% cows have extra teats, which are
  removed during calfhood.
          Mammary gland ???
• Mammary gland is a milk secreting structure,
  which include a teat, a duct system & lobes (
  lobules) of secretory tissue.
• It is a modified sweat gland which secretes
  milk & serves as a accessory gland to
  reproductive system.
          1 supportive system
• Why it is needed???
• For proper attachment of glands to the body a
  strong supportive ( suspensory) sys. Is Req.
• Cow udder is supported by two major groups
  of ligaments…
• MSL
• LSL
                  MSL ????
• Major & most important ligament, B/C it……
1 Divides udder into two halves.
2 Provides primary support to udder.
3 Provides necessary elasticity. .
• Composed of…………….
• Elastic & fibrous C.T which arise from midline
  of abdominal half & extends b/w the udder
  halves.
                  LSL?????
• Composed of more collagen & less elastin..
• So provides more support & less elasticity.
• Skin provides very little support .
• Udder is attached to skin by………….
1 F.C.T
2 C.C.T
Fig 29-3. An illustrated view of the ligaments that permit
udder suspension (Courtesy of Iowa State University)
Mammary Gland Support
            Medial
            suspensory
                    ligament
                Blood supply
• Importance………….
• Blood flow rate is directly proportional to the
  milk synthesis……
• For one Lit. of milk syn. How much blood
  flow????
• 400-500 Lit. of blood. ( 20% of entire output
  by heart)
     Arterial blood supply?????
• Mammary artery
1 Cranial mammary artery.
2 Caudal mammary artery.
• Combine called.????
• papillary arteries
           Venous blood????
• Two external pudic veins………..( major route
  of blood return when animal is laying)
• Two S/C abdominal veins ( milk veins)…………..
  ( major route of blood return when animal is
  in standing position)
Fig 29-6. Blood flow to and from the mammary
gland determines milk producing capability of the
cow (Courtesy of Iowa State University)
Mammary Vessels
             Nervous system???
•   Sensory ( afferent ) nerves involved in………..
•   Milk ejection & found in………..
•   Teats & skins
•   Sympathetic (efferent) nerves involved in……
•   Arteries but not with milk ejection/alveoli.
•   No innervation for secretory system…..
•   Myoepithelial cells contract with O.T but not
    with direct innervation……….
Interior anatomy of mammary gland
                 1
            Connective
              tissue.

            2 Secretory
               tissue.

            3 Ductular
              tissue
           Connective tissue????
•   Support the ductular & secretory tissue.
•   A good udder should have………………
•   Mini. Amount of C.T &…………
•   Maxi. Amount of S.T…
         Secretory tissue??????
• Arranged in lobes…….
• Each lobe consist of lobules.
• Each lobule contains clusters/groups of
  Alveoli.
• The basic secretory unit is called Alveolus.
           Alveolus ????????
• Sac like st. where milk is synthesized &
  secreted..
• Consist of…………..
• Epithelial cells ( secretory cells) &…….
• Central lumen ( where Epi. Cells secrete the
  milk).
• Epi. Cells surrounded by Myoepithelial cells….
• Myo. Cells contract in response to O.T…
Alveoli manufacture the milk
    from raw materials
supplied by the blood in the
         milk cavities
                                    The Milk Way
                                    Milk is stored here between milking’s.

      Tubule leads from
       each alveolus to
       small milk ducts




           To large milk ducts



                                                                             AND NOW
                    Gland cistern                                             YOU’VE
                                                                               GOT
                                      Teat cistern      Streak canal          MILK!!
                                                         to the end
                                                         of the teat
Fig 29-4. A dissected mammary gland showing the gland cistern,
teat cistern and streak canal (Courtesy of Mark Kirkpatrick)
            Milk let down………
• Milk let down is the natural process used by the
   cows to remove milk from the udder.
• This process is brought about by the release of
   hormone O.T from a gland at the base of a brain
   followwing a suitable stimulus received by a cow.
• Stimulus may be a………
1 Visual
2 Sound
3 feeling
             Continued…….
• Most strong stimulus……….
  Handling of teat.
• For a good stimulus atleast …………. Massage is
  required……
     Mechanism of milk let down
Sight, sound, thought or suckling.

   Afferent impulses from Alveolus.

      CNS.

         Neuroendocrine reflex.

             Release of OT from P.P.
                  Conti….
Blood stream.

  Mammary gland.

     Myoepithelial cells.

       Contraction.

          Mammary gland duct system.
Milk Letdown
               Milk Ejection
       brain


                      nerves

P.P.




                         Stimulus
       Milk Ejection


              nerves

P.P.
       Milk Ejection



P.P.
             Milk Ejection



                 Abdominal aorta
Oxytocin
   Jugular     heart
   vein
           Milk Ejection




Oxytocin
           Milk Ejection




Oxytocin
Milk Ejection
Milk Ejection
Milk Ejection
            Contraction of an Alveolus


arteriole




 venuole
                                                        Lumen



                                   Myoepithelial Cell
                 Oxytocin
                            Duct
Contraction of an Alveolus




     Oxytocin     Myoepithelial Cell contracts
Contraction of an Alveolus




                        Releases milk into
                           duct system
Contraction of an Alveolus




                  Myoepithelial cell relaxes
Contraction of an Alveolus
Contraction of an Alveolus
                   OT ????????
• a peptide of nine A.A.
• Its systematic name is….
• cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-
  cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amine (cys – tyr – ile –
   gln – asn – cys – pro – leu – gly - NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-
  NH2).
• Oxytocin has a molecular mass
• 1007 daltons .
• The biologically active form of oxytocin, commonly
  measured by ……
• HPLC techniques.
            Continued…………
• Mainly synthe. In the supraoptic &
  paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus.
• Other sites of OT synthesis????????
• Travel down through the fibers of supraoptic
  & paravent. Nucleu & stored in the P.P
       Physiologic effects of OT
• Milk let down.
• Smooth muscle contraction at parturition.
• Establishment of maternal behavior.
  Mother attach & nourish offspring…… not
  found in dry animals……. During
  parturition……OT high in CSF…… bring this
  behav.
   Factors effecting milk let down
1 Noise ( whistling).
2 Disturbance in daily routine.
3 Fear.
  Fear from human.
  Fear of unfamililarity.
  Fear of threats.( aggressive actions, etc)
                 Conti…………
• Effect of Physiological stress/pain.( calculation,
  traffic noise).
• Effect of Alcohol on OT release…( potent
  inhibitor & change in milk composition).
• Effect of opioids on OT release….( morphine
  inhibits letdown reflex).
     Effect of stress on lactation ? ?
Fear, stress, aggitation.


    Adrenaline release.


         OT receptors are blocked in udder.


             Receptors remained blocked for …… minutes.


                  Reduction in milk production.
Inhibition
Synthesis of Milk
                    What’s mastitis ?
Mammae/Mastos = breast           Inflammation of parenchyma of
-itis = Latin suffix for
                                 mammary gland regardless of
         inflammation            cause

                                           Normal                      Inflamed


•Physical and chemical changes in milk                          Swelling
                  (discoloration, clots, leukocytes)            pain
•Pathological changes in glandular tissue                       warm
        {(Swelling, heat, pain (not visible in sub clinical)}   redness
       How mastitis occur ? ?
Keratin layer inside sphinter.
Catch bacteria.
Keratin damaged by ? ? ?
Teat injuries.
Teat surgery.
Teat infusion.
Vita. A, E & selenium ? ?
                                  Process of infection
management---- reduce incidence



                                  Organisms invade the udder through
prevent invasion by good




                                  teat canal (Invasion)
management




                                  Migrate up the teat canal and colonize the
                                  secretory cells and multiply (Infection)

                                  Colonized organisms produce toxic substances
                                  harmful to the milk producing cells
      The cow’s immune system send white blood cells
      (Somatic cells) to fight the organisms
      (inflammation)
      Variable abnormalities of udder and milk, also
      systemic affects




recovery           clinical          subclinical
Losses due to mastitis
      in UK.? ?
3 major problems of UK. Dairy industry.
Most economically expensive disease of
cattle.
70-228 Euro/cow/year.
200 US$/cow/year.
42 Million Euro/year.
Economic Losses
   Types of mastitis? ?

           clinical
 Sub-
                      chronic
clinical

           mastitis
Sub-clinical/hidden
     mastitis
No swelling of udder.
No detectable abnormalities in milk.
15-40% more common than clinical
mastitis.
Clinical mastitis
A) Mild C.M.
B) Severe/acute C.M.
Mild C.M.
Flakes & clots in blood.
Swelling on udder.
No sensitive udder.
Severe C.M.
Flakes & clots in blood.
Swelling on udder.
 sensitive & painfull udder.
In Ewes called bluebag.
No milk from bluebag.
Chronic mastitis.
Persistent udder infection, exist in sub-
clinical form.
Characterized by hard humps in udder.
Economical losses by C.M.
 Rx cost.
 Decreased milk production.
 Premature culling.
 Decreased genetic advancement.
 Lost quarter
 Death.
 Discarded milk.
Economical losses by S. C.M.


Decreased milk production.
Reduced milk quality.
Causative Agent ? ?
                • Strep. Agalactiae.
                • Staph. Aureus.
 Contagious     • Mycoplasma .




                •   Strep. Dysgalactiae.
                •   Strep. Uberus.
                •   Coliforms.
Environmental   •   E.coli.
                •   Klebsiella.
                •   Pasteurella.
          Mastitis risk factors ? ?
•   Physiological status of animals( dry/lactating).
•   Age of cow.
•   Level of milk production.
•   Milking machines.
•   Inherited features of udder.
•   Environment.
•   Bedding material.
       TESTS
                             Tests



             Mastitis                 Milk Quality
             tests                    tests



Lab. tests              Field tests
Milk quality tests.
         SP
         C
    LP   Qua
                PI
    C    lity

         CC
 Mastitis Tests
SCC    ICC    ILEC

CMT    BTMC   HHEC

SFMT    PS    ABST
          SCC
                   SCC

                             Epi.cell
          WBC
                             10-27%
L.cytes   M.phg.    N.phl.
10-27%    66-88%    1-11%
        Principle
udder   infection   M.phg   I.Sys.   N.phl.
                 Conti….
• Normal range of SCC? ?
• 1,00,000-2,00,000.
• Not recommended for composite milk. Why?
               SFMT


3% surf solution.
1 mint rotation.
Uses ? ? ?
Advantages? ? ?
 Hand held electrical conductivity
• Principal? ?
• Advantages? ?
• Factors effecting ILEC ? ?
   Elimination of mastitis
               Four ways to
                eliminate
                 mastitis.


Culling of                    Spontaneous
 animal.                        recovery.




Rx at drying                  Rx during
    off.                      lactation.
Sampling of mastitic milk
THE 10 STEPS TO MASTITIS
CONTROL
ONE : Predipping
  Pre-dips lower the risk of new infections by 70%.
  Minimum contact time: 30 seconds
  Pre-dips
    Iodophors 1.0 %
    Chlorhexidine 0.2%
  Use single service paper towels, dry teats before
  machine-application.
TWO: Have a good milking system.

    Attach teat cups after thorough cleaning and
    drying of teats.

    Provide stable vacuum.

    Check for slipping of teat cup liners.

    Shut of vacuum before removing teat cups.
THREE: clean, dry, comfortable
environment.

FOUR: Post-Dipping
  Post-dips seal the teat ends temporarily for 6 to 8
  hours.
  Most imp. Step in prevention of new infections from
  contagious organisms.

FIVE: Monitoring:
SCC.
Bulk tank culture.
SIX: Biosecurity.
10% newly purchased cow are the source of Staph.
aureus


SEVEN: milking sequence.

EIGHT: Dry cow Rx
  Cure rate is twice high as that during lactation.
NINE: Keep cows clean, udders free from soil
and manure.
  Keep free stalls and stanchions bedded
  properly.
  Keep calving areas clean.


TEN: Properly feed and care for cows.
                     FMD
• Caused by the Picorna viruses, member of
  genus Apthovirus.
• Sign and symptoms.
• Fever, annorexia, excessive saliva production,
  drooling of saliva, vesicles/blisters formation
  on lips, tongue, mouth, udder, foot.…
       Physiologic effects of OT
• Milk let down.
• Smooth muscle contraction at parturition.
• Establishment of maternal behavior.
  Mother attach & nourish offspring…… not
  found in dry animals……. During
  parturition……OT high in CSF…… bring this
  behav.
            Effects of Parasitism
•   Emaciation.
•   Annorexia.
•   Reduced production.
•   Reduced reproduction.
•   Reduced quality of skin & hides.
•   Reduced quality of wool.
•   Reduced quality of hairs.
•   Prone to disease outbreaks.
            Fodder availability
•   Fodder types ? ?
•   1 Summer fodder.
•   2 winter fodder.
•   3 Rabbi & khareef fodder.
    Times of fodder shortage ? ?
• 1 extreme hot season.
• 2 extreme cold season.
How to cope up with fodder shortage?
•   1   Hay making.
•   2   silage making.
•   3   urea treatment of wheat straw.
•   4   concentrate feeding.
•   5   industrial byproduts feeding.
•   6   offer balanced ration to animals.
   Effect of water on lactation ? ?
• Reduced production of milk if water is not
  provided adlibtum.
• Reduced digestibility efficiency.
• Restlessness.
Effect of environment
    on lactation? ?
Effect of personnel on
     lactation? ?
THANKS For………
                Assignment
• Two physiological conditions in which the
  animal is most prone to the mastitis? ?
• What is pseudo teat? ?
• Supernumerary teat ? ?

								
To top