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					     THE FUNGI
          BY
MR. ZUBAIR LATIF

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

UNIVERSETY OF VETERINARY
AND ANIMAL SCIENCES, LAHORE
                   The fungi
               The Fungi

 Eukaryotes
 Aerobic or facultative anaerobic
 Chemohetrotrophic
 Most are decomposers
 Mycology is the study of fungi




                              The fungi
            Fungi VS Bacterisa
Characteristics              Fungi                        Bacteria
Cell type                    Eukaryotic                   Prokaryotic
Cell membrane                Sterols present              Sterols absent
Cell wall                    Glucans;mannas;chitin        Peptidoglycan
                             (not polypeptide)
Spores                       Produce a variety of         Endospores (not for
                             sexual and asexual           reproduction) some
                             reproductive spores          asexual reproductive
                                                          spores
Metabolism                   Limited to                   Hetrotrophic,
                             hetrotrophic;aerobic,        chemoautotrophic,
                             facultative anaerobic        photoautotrophic,
                                                          aerobic, facultative
                                                          anaerobic, anaerobic
Sensitivity to antibiotics   Often sensitive to           Often sensitive to
                             polyenes, imida zoles        pencilline,tetracyclines
                             and griseofulvin             and aminoglycosidase
                                                     The fungi
                Yeasts

 Unicellular fungi
Fission yeasts divide
symmetrically
Budding yeasts divide
asymmetrically




                         The fungi
                Molds

 The fungi thallus consists of hyphae; a mass
  of hyphae is a mycelium




                              The fungi
         Fungal hyphae
 Septate
 Coenocytic
 Vegatative
 Arial or
  reproductive
pseudohyphae




                     The fungi
               Dimorphic

 Pathogenic dimorphic
fungi are yeasts like at 37C
and mold like at 28C
 CO2 concentration effects
mucor rouxii growth
      yeast like on surface
      mold like deep inside



                               The fungi
           Life cycle

 Asexual reproduction
 Sexual reproduction
 Fugal spore
     asexual spore
     sexual spore




                         The fungi
Asexual spores

 Conidiospor (conidium)
•      Arthrospore
    Blastoconidia
    Chlamidoconidia
Sporangiospore (Sac)




                           The fungi
Asexual Spores




            The fungi
            Sexual Reproduction

  Three phases
Plasmogamy     Haploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates the cytoplasm of
               recipient cell (-)




Karyogamy      + and – nuclei fuse


Meiosis        Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores)




                                              The fungi
           Sexual spores

 Zygospore
  thick walled structure
  fusion of haploid cells
  produces one
   zygospore
Morphologically
   similar cells fuse


                            The fungi
Sexual spores

 Ascospore
   formed in a sac
   fusion of nuclei form
   morphologically similar
    or disimilar




                             The fungi
 Basidiospore
    formed externally on
     pedestal (basidium)
     usually 4 basidiospores
     per basidium




                               The fungi
Fungal Life cycle




              The fungi
          Life cycle of Fungi
 Telomorphs
   reproduce both sexually and asexually
Anamorphs
   lost the ability to reproduce sexually
Deutromycota (fungi imperfecti)
   historically no sexual cycle has been observed
    now recognized as anamorph of ascomycota or
  basidiomycota



                               The fungi
   Nutritional adaptations of Fungi
 Fungi grow better in acidic media (pH: 5.00)
 Almost all molds are aerobic but most yeasts are
  facultative anaerobic
 Most fungi are most resistant to osmotic pressure and
  can grow in relatively high sugar or salt conc.
 Fungi can grow on a substance with a very low
  moisture content, generally too low to support the
  growth of bacteria
 Fungi requires somewhat less nitrogen than bacteria
  for equivalent amount of growth
 Fungi are often capable of metabolizing complex
  CHO, such as lignin (a component of wood) that most
  bacteria can not use for nutrients
                                   The fungi
  Fungal diseases (mycoses)
Systemic         Deep within the body
mycoses

Subcutaneous     Beneath the skin
mycoses

Cutaneous        Affect hair, skin, nails
mycoses

Superficial      Localized e.g hair shaft
mycoses

Opportunistics   Caused by normal microbiota of fungi that are normally non-
mycoses          pathogenic

Mycotoxicosis    By the ingestion of preformed mycotoxins produced by fungi
mycoses


                                                    The fungi
 Differentiation of fungal species
 Sexual spore
 Examination of spore heads (asexual spores) to detect
    arrangement of conidia
    type and morphology of spore
 Features of hyphae
    septate of coenocetic
    hyaline (colorless) or dematiaceous (pigmented)
     special characters i.e spiral or racquet shaped
Colony characters
     size and appearance after specialized incubation
  time
     color of both obverse and reverse side
     surface elevation and depression
                                  The fungi
 Differentiation of fungal species
 Yeasts can be differentiated by
   colony appearance
   size and shape of individual cell
   biochemical profile
Dimorphic of fungi
   on SDA grow as yeasts at 25 C and mold at 37 C
   immunologically reactions to detect soluble
 antigens
   nucleic acid probes


                                    The fungi
Differentiation of fungal species

 Yeasts can be differentiated by
      colony appearance
      size and shape of individual cell
      biochemical profile
  Dimorphic of fungi
      on SDA grow as yeasts at 25 C and mold at
 37 C
      immunologically reactions to detect
 soluble antigens
      nucleic acid probes
                               The fungi
  THE FUNGI
BY
DR HAFIZ SADDAM
HUSSAIN

DEPARTMENT OF
MICROBIOLOGY

UNIVERSETY OF
VETERINARY AND
ANIMAL SCIENCES,
LAHORE             The fungi
           The Fungi
 Eukaryotes
 Aerobic or facultative anaerobic
 Chemohetrotrophic
 Most are decomposers
 Mycology is the study of fungi




                             The fungi
                               The fungi
The fungi
The fungi
The fungi
The fungi

				
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