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					  General Parasitology
 Study of parasites
 Para means beside
Sitos mean food or grain.
One who eats at the expense of others.
     Introduction to Parasitology
• Each animal is a host of many parasites; thus,
  there are far more parasitic organisms on earth
  than there are nonparasitic organisms.
     Introduction to Parasitology
• Each animal is a host of many parasites; thus, there are
  far more parasitic organisms on earth than there are
  nonparasitic organisms.


• It has been estimated that more than 50% of all
  living plants and animals are parasitic at some
  stage during their life cycle.
     Introduction to Parasitology
• In this course we will concentrate on 3 major
  groups of parasites:

      1. Protozoa- flagellates, amebas, malarial
      organisms

      2. Helminths - parasitic worms such as the flukes,
      tapeworms, and roundworms

      3. Arthropods - insects and arachnids that are
      ectoparasites and carriers (vectors) of diseases
             Protozoa




Babesia                 Trypanosoma




Plasmodium              Balantidium
                   Helminths




 Ascaris (Nematode)               Taenia (Cestode)




Fasciola (Trematode)           Schistosoma (Trematode)
                    Arthropodes




 Ctenocephalides (Fleas)         Human head louse




Hyalomma (Tick) Lucilia (Green bottle fly)   Sarcoptes (Mite)
Why do we study parasites?


• Medical Importance
• Veterinary Importance
• Economic Importance
Medical Importance of Parasites
• Humans are hosts to many species of
  parasites.
Medical Importance of Parasites
• Humans are hosts to many species of parasites.

• Many of these parasites are causative agents
  of major public health problems of the world.
Recent estimates of the number of people
 infected with parasites in the world are:
     Ascaris                 1.3 billion
     Hookworms               1.3 billion
     Whipworms               1 billion
     Filarial worms          657 million
     Malaria                 500 million
     Schistosomes            270 million
     Amebiasis               50 million
     Taeniad tapeworms       50 million
     Clonorchis              20 million
     Chagas’ Disease         15 million

These parasites cause untold suffering and death
in the world today.
Examples of Medical Importance
         in the World
 Examples of Medical Importance
          in the World
• The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the
  mid-40's due to Schistosomes.
 Examples of Medical Importance
          in the World
• The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the mid-40's
  due to Schistosomes.
• 15 million children in the world died per year
  from a combination of malnutrition and
  parasites.
 Examples of Medical Importance
          in the World
• The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the mid-40's
  due to Schistosomes.
• 15 million children in the world died per year from a
  combination of malnutrition and parasites.
• Over 1 million African children died from the
  effects of malaria.
 Examples of Medical Importance
          in the World
• The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the mid-40's
  due to Schistosomes.
• 15 million children in the world died per year from a
  combination of malnutrition and parasites.
• Over 1 million African children died from the effects of
  malaria.
• Many cases of plague, transmitted by
  fleas, still occur throughout the world.
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
• In Pakistan, cattle cannot be raised in an area
  equal to that of the U.S. due to babesia and
  theileria.
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
• In Pakistan, cattle cannot be raised in an area equal to
  that of the U.S. due to babesia and theileria.


• A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
• In Pakistan, cattle cannot be raised in an area equal to
  that of the U.S. due to babesia and theileria.
• A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.

• Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep infected with
  parasites fail to gain weight and may not
  reproduce.
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
• In Pakistan, cattle cannot be raised in an area equal to
  that of the U.S. due to babesia and theileria.
• A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
• Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep infected with parasites fail
  to gain weight and may not reproduce.


• Dogs may become infected with babesia and
  heartworm and die if untreated.
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
• In Pakistan, cattle cannot be raised in an area equal to that of the
  U.S. due to babesia and theileria.
• A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
• Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep infected with parasites fail to gain
  weight and may not reproduce.
• Dogs may become infected with babesia and heartworm
  and die if untreated.


• Cats are infected by many species of protozoans
  and helminths.
Parasitic infections

                     healthy




       Parasitic
       infestation
Parasitic infections

                  healthy




                  Tick
                  infestation




                 Tick
                 infestation
Parasitic infections

                  healthy




                   Fly strike
  Parasitic infections in humans




 Elephantiasis     Sleeping sickness




                 Guinea worm disease
Toxoplasmosis    (Dracunculiasis)
                     Summary

 Parasites
 Parasitic infections/infestations
 Host-Parasite interactions
 Economic effects of parasitic diseases
 Immunity against parasitic infections
 Diagnostic techniques
 Strategies to control parasitic infections




               Imran.rashid@uvas.edu.pk

				
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