Effects of Parasites on their Host and their Economic importance Role of Livestock Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan and in the rural socio-economic system 30-40% of income of more than 35 million rural population comes from livestock production activities The livestock sector contributed 50% of the agriculture value added and 11% to National GDP in 2006-07 8% of total exports derived from livestock and livestock products Pakistan possesses some of the finest dairy breeds like Nili- Ravi and Kundi buffaloes, and Red Sindhi & Sahiwal cattle, > 30 small ruminant breeds Fifth largest milk producing country Sub-Sectoral Contribution to Agricultural GDP - 2006-07 Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan: 2006-07 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS Milk 33.230 million tons Beef 1.237 million tons Mutton 0.827 million tons Poultry meat 0.514 million tons Eggs 9.618 billion Wool 41.2 thousand tons Hair 25.0 thousand tons Skins and hides 57.6 million nos. Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan: 2006-07 Share of parasitic Diseases in Losses In Pakistan parasitic infestation is quite prevalent and cost about 26.5 million rupees annually to the livestock industry Similar losses in poultry sector Economic Impact on Livestock Production Morbidity Mortality Effect on Growth & weight gain Effect on Milk Production Effect on FCR Effect on Wool Production Effect on breeding / fertility Extra burden on farm economics due to changes in management practices / cost of treatment etc. Morbidity 100% morbidity in some herds & Flocks. Diarrhoea Anaemia In-appetence Fever Fertility issues Weight loss / loss of condition / emaciation Extra burden on farm economics due to treatment cost or changes in management practices etc. Effects of Parasites Emaciation Parasites affect on Weight Gain / Growth Effect on Weight Gain / Growth Loss of Condition due to poor appetite, impaired nutrient utilization (Digestion & Absorption impaired) Poor Weight gain in affected animals e.g. Ascariasis in Buffalo Calves (31 days): Infected Treated calves = 16.4 Kg Infected Non treated = 08.13 Kg Uninfected – untreated = 22.0 Kg Calves with clinical Ostertagia infection lost weight (- 11.8 kg) & with subclinical infection gained less weight (46.6 Kg) as compared with control calves (60.7 Kg). Nematode infected / treated sheep were heavier than infected / non treated sheep. 42% (treated) more wt. gain Vs infected sheep. Loss of Milk Production Affected Animals May Experience Milk Production Losses. Milk losses in Fasciolosis 10% loss in milk production Quality of milk: Solids not fat (SNF) components of milk are affected Warble Fly: 10 – 15% drop in milk production (Europe) 50% drop in production in Canada Wool Production Quantity and quality of wool is affected by Parasites. Quality is impaired in infected animals e.g. staple length, fiber strength, fiber diameter etc. Amount of wool produced is reduced in affected animals as compared to treated animals (20%) Infected / Treated sheep produced 1.45 kg of wool as compared with infected / non-treated sheep (1.20 Kg) Hide Quality Value of skins / hides is depreciated due to parasites Damage, perforations and holes in hides e.g. warble fly (Hypoderma bovis & H. lineatum) 13M Pounds (1978), $192 in USA (1956), Rs. 9.9 M & 12.9 M losses in buffalo & Cattle in DG Khan & Rajanpur Dist. Mites: damage to skin from rubbing, scratching, biting and tunneling of skin Tick Bites: damage to skin and also initiate strikes Poor Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Sub optimum use of resources More feed & time required for unit weight gain in parasites infected animals as compared with non - infected animals / treated animals Wt. gain in exp. caecal coccidioosis was 1.56, 1.2 and 1.49 kg in non-infected, infected, and infected / treated meat birds Heavily Infected animals may lose weight instead of gain Fertility Issues Breeding / Fertility problems are linked to parasites. Delayed breeding age / age of maturity due to poor weight gain Reproductive health problems due to parasites. Abortions due to parasites e.g. Toxoplasma, Trichomonas etc. Breeding & production issues Poor Quality Products Poor quality products e.g. emaciated carcasses Trimming of meat / offal affected by different parasites or their cysts or larvae Complete rejection of carcass By Products: Affected skins / hides, guts and other organs will not be able to fetch the actual price Extra Burden on farmer Anti-parasitic drugs manufacturing & marketing is a huge industry. Anti-parasitic products accounts for Multi-billion dollar market Coccidiosis in poultry causes $450 Million loss & $100 Million for treatment of the disease Improvement or changes in management costs Chemical residues in animal products Books • Roberts, L. S. and J.J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology.7th Ed., W.C.B. Company, U.K. • Urquhart G. M., J. Armour, J. L. Duncan, A.M. Dunn, F. W. Jennings. 2000. Veterinary Parasitology. • Bhatia, B.B. et al., Text Book of Veterinary Parasitology. • Levine, N. D. 1990. Veterinary Protozoology. Iowa State University, Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. • Soulsby, E. J. L. 1986. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. • Ruprah, N. S. 1985. A Textbook of Clinical Protozoology.