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					Effects of Parasites on their Host
and their Economic importance
                 Role of Livestock
 Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan
  and in the rural socio-economic system
 30-40% of income of more than 35 million rural population
  comes from livestock production activities
 The livestock sector contributed 50% of the agriculture value
  added and 11% to National GDP in 2006-07
 8% of total exports derived from livestock and livestock
 Pakistan possesses some of the finest dairy breeds like Nili-
  Ravi and Kundi buffaloes, and Red Sindhi & Sahiwal cattle, >
  30 small ruminant breeds
 Fifth largest milk producing country
Sub-Sectoral Contribution to
 Agricultural GDP - 2006-07

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan: 2006-07
 Milk 33.230            million tons
 Beef 1.237             million tons
 Mutton 0.827           million tons
 Poultry meat 0.514     million tons
 Eggs 9.618             billion
 Wool 41.2              thousand tons
 Hair 25.0              thousand tons
 Skins and hides 57.6   million nos.

                          Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan: 2006-07
   Share of parasitic Diseases in Losses

In Pakistan parasitic infestation is quite prevalent and
cost about 26.5 million rupees annually to the livestock

Similar losses in poultry sector
      Economic Impact on Livestock
 Morbidity
 Mortality
 Effect on Growth & weight gain
 Effect on Milk Production
 Effect on FCR
 Effect on Wool Production
 Effect on breeding / fertility
 Extra burden on farm economics due to changes in
  management practices / cost of treatment etc.

 100% morbidity in some herds & Flocks.
 Diarrhoea
 Anaemia
 In-appetence
 Fever
 Fertility issues
 Weight loss / loss of condition / emaciation
 Extra burden on farm economics due to treatment
  cost or changes in management practices etc.
          Effects of Parasites

Parasites affect on Weight Gain / Growth
      Effect on Weight Gain / Growth

 Loss of Condition due to poor appetite, impaired nutrient utilization
   (Digestion & Absorption impaired)
 Poor Weight gain in affected animals e.g. Ascariasis in Buffalo Calves (31
Infected Treated calves                   = 16.4 Kg
Infected Non treated                      = 08.13 Kg
Uninfected – untreated                    = 22.0 Kg
 Calves with clinical Ostertagia infection lost weight (- 11.8 kg) & with
   subclinical infection gained less weight (46.6 Kg) as compared with
   control calves (60.7 Kg).
 Nematode infected / treated sheep were heavier than infected / non
   treated sheep.
 42% (treated) more wt. gain Vs infected sheep.
           Loss of Milk Production

Affected Animals May Experience Milk Production
 Milk losses in Fasciolosis
     10% loss in milk production
 Quality of milk: Solids not fat (SNF) components of milk
  are affected
 Warble Fly: 10 – 15% drop in milk production (Europe)
   50% drop in production in Canada
              Wool Production

Quantity and quality of wool is affected by Parasites.

 Quality is impaired in infected animals e.g. staple
  length, fiber strength, fiber diameter etc.
 Amount of wool produced is reduced in affected
  animals as compared to treated animals (20%)
 Infected / Treated sheep produced 1.45 kg of wool
  as compared with infected / non-treated sheep
  (1.20 Kg)
                  Hide Quality

Value of skins / hides is depreciated due to parasites
 Damage, perforations and holes in hides e.g. warble
  fly (Hypoderma bovis & H. lineatum)
      13M Pounds (1978), $192 in USA (1956), Rs. 9.9
  M & 12.9 M losses in buffalo & Cattle in DG Khan &
  Rajanpur Dist.
 Mites: damage to skin from rubbing, scratching,
  biting and tunneling of skin
 Tick Bites: damage to skin and also initiate strikes
     Poor Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)

 Sub optimum use of resources
 More feed & time required for unit weight gain in
  parasites infected animals as compared with non -
  infected animals / treated animals
 Wt. gain in exp. caecal coccidioosis was 1.56, 1.2
  and 1.49 kg in non-infected, infected, and infected /
  treated meat birds
 Heavily Infected animals may lose weight instead of
                Fertility Issues

Breeding / Fertility problems are linked to parasites.
 Delayed breeding age / age of maturity due to poor
  weight gain
 Reproductive health problems due to parasites.
 Abortions due to parasites          e.g. Toxoplasma,
  Trichomonas etc.
 Breeding & production issues
           Poor Quality Products

 Poor quality products e.g. emaciated carcasses
 Trimming of meat / offal affected by different
  parasites or their cysts or larvae
 Complete rejection of carcass

By Products:
 Affected skins / hides, guts and other organs will
  not be able to fetch the actual price
        Extra Burden on farmer

 Anti-parasitic drugs manufacturing & marketing is a
  huge industry.
 Anti-parasitic products accounts for Multi-billion
  dollar market
 Coccidiosis in poultry causes $450 Million loss &
  $100 Million for treatment of the disease
 Improvement or changes in management costs
 Chemical residues in animal products

• Roberts, L. S. and J.J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of
  Parasitology.7th Ed., W.C.B. Company, U.K.
• Urquhart G. M., J. Armour, J. L. Duncan, A.M. Dunn, F. W.
  Jennings. 2000. Veterinary Parasitology.
• Bhatia, B.B. et al., Text Book of Veterinary Parasitology.
• Levine, N. D. 1990. Veterinary Protozoology. Iowa State
  University, Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
• Soulsby, E. J. L. 1986. Helminths, Arthropods and
  Protozoa of Domesticated Animals.
• Ruprah, N. S. 1985. A Textbook of Clinical Protozoology.

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