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					Animal Associations
            Animal Associations


   Association between different organisms /
    species
    Association can be
   Homogenetic (same gene pool) e.g. cattle herd,
    flock of sheep or swarm of bees
    Heterogenetic (association between individuals
    of different genotype) e.g. symbiosis
         Heterogenetic Associations


Symbiosis
   Commensalism
   Mutualism
   Phoresis
   Parasitism
                Symbiosis


"the living together of unlike organisms"
 Two organisms living in close association,
  commonly one living in or on the body of the
  other, are symbionts, in contrast to free living
 Any relationship where two species live closely
  together
                  Symbiosis
                                    b) mutualism




a) commensalism     c) parasitism
                  Commensalism

   One member of a
    symbiotic relationship
    benefits and the other is
    neither helped or harmed

   Example: Holes used by
    bluebirds in a tree were
    chiseled out by
    woodpeckers after it has
    been abandoned
              Commensalism




   Bacterial flora in intestines of Man
   Entamoeba gingivalis in gums
   Remora on large fish, sea turtles & submarines
       Commensalism




Gut flora are beneficial to human
               Commensalism

Swimming with Whale shark            Ride and food




One member of a symbiotic relationship get benefits
and the other is neither helped or harmed
                   Mutualism
   both species benefit
    from a relationship

   Lichens (fungus and
    Algae)




          Metabolic and physiologic dependence
                 Mutualism

Flagellates in termite gut
Bacteria in insects and
filarial worms (Wolbachia)
Leeches & intestinal bacteria
               Phoresis
   Host provide traveling facility
   No physiological or metabolic dependence

    Beetle with mites           House fly
      Parasites & Parasitism?
  Parasite and Parasitism are ecological terms
  that define a way of life
 Para means beside

   Sitos mean food, grain
One who eats at the table of other
 One partner / symbiont (the parasite) harms or
  lives at the expense of the other (host).
 Dependence of one living-thing on the other

 One gets benefits from other doing nothing or
  even harming the other.
         Parasites & Parasitism?
   Parasitism- One
    creature benefits
    and one creature is
    harmed
   E.g: tapeworm.
    Feeds in a humans
    intestines absorbing
    his/her nutrients.
           Parasitism
  Physiologic & Metabolic dependence
a. Development stimuli
b. Nutritional dependence
c. Digestive enzymes
d. Control of maturation
             Parasitism
   No free living existence, portion of its life-cycle
    need to be in the host
   Obligatory relationship between host and
    parasite
             Parasitism / Predation
           Predator                           Parasite
   Live at the expense of Prey       Live at the expense of Host
   Interested in capital             Rely on interest
   Loose association                 Intimate association
   No metabolic dependence           Metabolic dependence
   Larger / stronger than prey       Smaller than host
   Quick action / short contact      Slow in action / long
    / momentary                        association
   Lethal for prey                   Mostly not lethal for host
Identify these relationships?




                           Parasitism
Mutualism




            Commensalism

				
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