NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS Zubair Latif Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology NOMENCLATURE OF DRUGS The term drug nomenclature implies that there are several names that can be used to identify a drug Drugs have three different names; 1. Chemical Name 2. Non Proprietary name 3. Proprietary name. CHEMICAL NAME A chemical name is given when a new chemical entity (NCE) is developed. It is the name given to drug in accordance with rules of chemical nomenclature established by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is useful for chemists or technical personnel as it provides the precise arrangement of atoms and atomic groups in the molecule. It is not used to identify the drug in a clinical or marketing situation. NON PROPRIETARY NAME It is a short name given to a drug that is not subject to proprietary rights. The nonproprietary name should always be concise and meaningful. This is used in discussion and textbooks. There are two classes of non proprietary names; 1. Approved Name 2. Official Names APPROVED NAME: This name is given to drug by bodies like United Stats Adopted Name Council (USAN) and British Approved Name (BAN) soon after its introduction. This name sometime referred to as generic name however this term is used to designate a chemical or pharmacological class of drugs such as Sulphonamide, Penicillin. OFFICIAL NAMES: It is the name approved by the National Pharmacopeia Commission and included in the official book i.e. Pharmacopeia. The official name must be identical with approved name. PROPRIETARY NAME It is the name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical firm which sell the drug. Thus a single drug is sold under many proprietary names by different firms. They are written with capital initial letter and are often further distinguished by superscript R in circle ® Clinicians usually described drug by their proprietary names. EXAMPLE Paracetamol CHEMICAL NAME: N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide. NON-PROPRIETARY NAME: Approved Name: British Approved Name (BAN): paracetamol United States Adopted Name (USAN): acetaminophen Official Name: Acetaminophen PROPRIETARY NAME: Panadol, Calpol, Adol CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS It is essential because it allows several thousand of drugs to be reduced to a manageable number of group. There is no uniform or homogenous system of classifying drugs that suits all purposes. Drugs are classified according to the convenience of the person discussing them. Chemist, Pharmacologist , Pharmacist and Clinician We classify the drugs based on CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS 1. Chemical Nature 2. Source 3. Target organ/Site of Action 4. Mode of Action 5. Therapeutic Uses 6. Physiological system 7. Physical Effects 1. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CHEMICAL NATURE Chemical Nature of drug is discussed by a Chemist and based on chemical nature we divide drugs into INORGANIC DRUGS Metals and their Salts (Ferrous Sulphate, Zinc Sulphate, Magnesium Sulphate. Non Metals Includes Sulphur. ORGANIC DRUGS Alkaloids (atropine, Morphine, Strychnine) Glycosides (Digitoxin, Digoxin). Proteins(Insuline, Oxytocin) Esters, Amide, Alcohol, Glycerides. 2. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SOURCE Sources of drugs are discussed by a Pharmacologist and Pharmacist Natural Source Semi-synthetic Source Plants (Morphine, Atropine, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Digitoxin) Doxycycline Animals (Insuline, eCG) Micro organism (Penicillin) Bios-ynthetic Source Mineral (Sodium Chloride) Recombinant Human erythropiotin, Recombinant Synthetic Source bovine somattotropine (Sulphonamide, Procaine). 3. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TARGET ORGAN Classification based on target organs are done by the Physicians. Drugs acting on CNS (Diazepam, Phenobarbitone). Drugs acting on Respiratory System (Bromhexaine). Drugs acting on CVS (Digitoxin, Digoxin). Drugs acting on GIT (Omeprazole, Kaoline, Sulphadimidine). Drugs acting on Urinary System (Magnesium Sulphate, Lasix Drugs acting on reproductive system (Oxytocin, Estrogen) 4. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MODE OF ACTION Classification based on mode of action is done by Physicians & Pharmacologists. Inhibitor of bacterial cell wall synthesis (penicillin) Inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis (Tetracycline) Calcium Channel blocker (Verapamil, nifedipine) 5. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THERAPEUTIC USE Classification based on mode of action is done by Physicians & Pharmacologists. Antimicrobials/Antibacterials (Penicillin, Streptomycin, Quinolones, Macrolides). Antihypertensive (Clonidine, hydralazine, Enalpril). Antidiarrheals (Lopramide, Kaoline). Antiemetics (Domperidone, Meclizine and Metoclopramide). 6. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEM Sympathomimetics (Adrenaline, Noradrenaline). Parasympathomimetics (Carbachol, Pilocarpine, Neostigmine). Neuromuscular blockers Suxamethonium, Gallamine). 7. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PHYSICAL EFFECTS Emollients (Lanolin, Vaseline) Caustics (Silver nitrate) Demulcents (Zinc Oxide, Tannic Acid).
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