Nomenclature and Classification of drugs.ppt by ZubairLatif

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									  NOMENCLATURE AND
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
        Zubair Latif




               Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
        NOMENCLATURE OF DRUGS
 The term drug nomenclature implies that there are several names that
  can be used to identify a drug
 Drugs have three different names;


  1. Chemical Name
  2. Non Proprietary name
  3. Proprietary name.
                     CHEMICAL NAME

 A chemical name is given when a new chemical entity
  (NCE) is developed.

 It is the name given to drug in accordance with rules of chemical
  nomenclature established by International Union of Pure and
  Applied Chemistry.

 It is useful for chemists or technical personnel as it provides the
  precise arrangement of atoms and atomic groups in the molecule.
 It is not used to identify the drug in a clinical or marketing
  situation.
               NON PROPRIETARY NAME
 It is a short name given to a drug that is not subject to proprietary
  rights. The nonproprietary name should always be concise and
  meaningful. This is used in discussion and textbooks.

 There are two classes of non proprietary names;
  1. Approved Name
  2. Official Names
  APPROVED NAME: This name is given to drug by bodies like United
  Stats Adopted Name Council (USAN) and British Approved Name
  (BAN) soon after its introduction.
  This name sometime referred to as generic name however this
  term is used to designate a chemical or pharmacological class of
  drugs such as Sulphonamide, Penicillin.
OFFICIAL NAMES: It is the name approved by the National
Pharmacopeia Commission and included in the official book i.e.
Pharmacopeia.
The official name must be identical with approved name.

                PROPRIETARY NAME
It is the name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical firm which
sell the drug.

Thus a single drug is sold under many proprietary names by
different firms.

They are written with capital initial letter and are often further
distinguished by superscript R in circle ®

Clinicians usually described drug by their proprietary names.
                       EXAMPLE

                      Paracetamol
 CHEMICAL NAME: N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide.


 NON-PROPRIETARY NAME:
 Approved Name: British Approved Name (BAN): paracetamol
                United States Adopted Name (USAN): acetaminophen
 Official Name: Acetaminophen

 PROPRIETARY NAME: Panadol, Calpol, Adol
              CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS

 It is essential because it allows several thousand of drugs to be
  reduced to a manageable number of group.

 There is no uniform or homogenous system of classifying drugs
  that suits all purposes.

 Drugs are classified according to the convenience of the person
  discussing them. Chemist, Pharmacologist , Pharmacist and
  Clinician
 We classify the drugs based on
           CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
1.   Chemical Nature

2.   Source

3.   Target organ/Site of Action

4.   Mode of Action

5.   Therapeutic Uses

6.   Physiological system

7.   Physical Effects
  1. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CHEMICAL
                  NATURE
 Chemical Nature of drug is discussed by a Chemist and based on
  chemical nature we divide drugs into
 INORGANIC DRUGS
  Metals and their Salts (Ferrous Sulphate, Zinc Sulphate, Magnesium
  Sulphate.
  Non Metals Includes Sulphur.
 ORGANIC DRUGS
 Alkaloids (atropine, Morphine, Strychnine)
 Glycosides (Digitoxin, Digoxin).
 Proteins(Insuline, Oxytocin)
 Esters, Amide, Alcohol, Glycerides.
    2. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SOURCE
 Sources of drugs are discussed by a Pharmacologist and Pharmacist

Natural Source                       Semi-synthetic Source
 Plants (Morphine, Atropine,         Amoxicillin, Ampicillin,
  Digitoxin)                            Doxycycline
 Animals (Insuline, eCG)
 Micro organism (Penicillin)        Bios-ynthetic Source
 Mineral (Sodium Chloride)           Recombinant Human
                                        erythropiotin, Recombinant
Synthetic Source                        bovine somattotropine
 (Sulphonamide, Procaine).
3. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TARGET ORGAN
Classification based on target organs are done by the Physicians.
 Drugs acting on CNS (Diazepam, Phenobarbitone).

 Drugs acting on Respiratory System (Bromhexaine).

 Drugs acting on CVS (Digitoxin, Digoxin).

 Drugs acting on GIT (Omeprazole, Kaoline, Sulphadimidine).

 Drugs acting on Urinary System (Magnesium Sulphate,
  Lasix

 Drugs acting on reproductive system (Oxytocin, Estrogen)
        4. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MODE OF
                       ACTION
Classification based on mode of action is done by Physicians & Pharmacologists.
  Inhibitor of bacterial cell wall synthesis (penicillin)
  Inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis (Tetracycline)
  Calcium Channel blocker (Verapamil, nifedipine)


                 5. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON
                      THERAPEUTIC USE
 Classification based on mode of action is done by Physicians & Pharmacologists.
   Antimicrobials/Antibacterials        (Penicillin,    Streptomycin,
   Quinolones, Macrolides).
   Antihypertensive (Clonidine, hydralazine, Enalpril).
 Antidiarrheals (Lopramide, Kaoline).
 Antiemetics (Domperidone, Meclizine and Metoclopramide).


6. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL
                              SYSTEM
 Sympathomimetics (Adrenaline, Noradrenaline).
 Parasympathomimetics (Carbachol, Pilocarpine, Neostigmine).
 Neuromuscular blockers Suxamethonium, Gallamine).


 7. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PHYSICAL EFFECTS
 Emollients (Lanolin, Vaseline)
 Caustics (Silver nitrate)
 Demulcents (Zinc Oxide, Tannic Acid).

								
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