Descriptive statistics.ppt

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					    Descriptive Statististics
         Zubair Latif

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
MEANINGS OF STATISTICS
Numerical Facts Systematically Arranged.
e.g. Statistics of prices, Statistics of road accidents, Statistics of crimes,
   Statistics of birth, Statistics of deaths, Statistics of educational
   institutions etc.

   Subject.
Statistics is the mathmatical science of making decisions and drawing
   conclusions from data in situations of uncertainty. It includes collection,
   organization and analysis of numerical data.

   Statistic.
A numerical quantity calculated from a sample.
                        Basic concepts
• Example:
  It was observed that out of 500 rabbits caught, 300 were females. Is there evidence that more
  rabbits in this country are females?
         Descriptive Statistics
  Presenting the numerical information in the form of number, graphs and tables.
         Inferential Statistics
  To estimate the population parameter on the basis of the sample statistic.
         Population
  The aggregate of units under discussion.
         Sample
  A subset / part of the population.
         Observation
  The numerically recording of information.
         Data
  Collection of related observations.
     Variable
Characteristic that varies form individual to individual
a) Fixed variable                b) Random variable


Types of Variable
   Quantitative variable
Capable of assuming a numerical value

     Continuous variable
Can take all possible values in an interval

     Discrete/Discontinuous variable
Can take only specified values

     Qualitative/Categorical variable
Not capable of taking numerical measurements

•    Constant
Don’t vary from individual to individual
• Frequency
 The number of values falling in a particular category

• Cumulative frequency
 Sum of the observed frequency plus all above class frequencies

• Notations
 X,Y,Z, n, N,∑ (Summation)
Tabular and graphical presentation
             of data
Example
 The final plant height (cm) of thirty plants of wheat is 91, 89, 88, 87, 89, 91,
 87, 92, 90, 98, 95, 97, 96, 100, 101, 96, 98, 99, 98, 100, 102, 99, 101, 105,
 103, 107, 105, 106, 107, 112.
•      Steps to construct a frequency of distribution
       table
i.     Range = maximum value – manimum value
       Range = 112-87=25
ii.    Approximate No. of classes or class intervals No. of classes (C)
         =         1+3.3 log (30)
         =         1+3.3 (1.4771)
         =         5.87443 = 6 (apporx)
iii.   Width of the class (h)       = range/number of classes
                                    =25/6=4.167=5 (approx)
iv. Minimum value is 87, We start the first class as interval from 86 with width
    of the class as 5, so our first class is 86-90 with mid point, average of lower
    and upper class limit i.e. (86+90)/2=88. Similarly, other classes are 91-95,
    96-100,… 111-115 with their mid points 93,98,…113 respectively. This is
    clear that maximum value 112 is included in the last class.
v. Starting from first observation, all the 30 observations are assigned to the
   classes they belong. The first observation 87 falls in the first class 86-90, a
   tally mark is made in the tally column against this class. The second
   observation 91 belongs to the second class 91-95, a tally mark is made in
   tally column against this class. The third observation 89 belongs to the first
   class 86-90, a tally mark is made in tally column against this class and so
   on, the last observation 112 belongs to the last class 111-115. The number
   of tally marks in the tally column against each class gives the frequency of
   that class. The frequency distribution is given in table 1.
Class      Class           Mid-     Entries                     Tally       f        c.f.
Limits     Boundaries      Points
86------90 85.5-----90.5     88     87,89,88,89,87,90           IIII I          6      6


91------95 90.5-----95.5     93     91,91,92,95                 IIII            4     10

96----100 95.5----100.5      98     98,97,96,100,96,98,99,98,   IIII IIII       10
                                    100,99                                           20
101--105   100.5--105.5     103     101,102,101,105,103,105     IIII I          6
                                                                                     26
106--110   105.5--110.5     108     107,106,107                 III             3
                                                                                     29
111--115   110.5--115.5     113     112                         I               1
                                                                                     30
                                                                    Total       30


      Frequency distribution of the height of plants.

				
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