Birds _ Offshore wind farm development - Bureau of Ocean Energy

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					PHILIP BLOOR
Primary Regulations
•   Section 36 of Electricity Act 1989 - BERR

•   Section 5 Food and Environment Protection
    Act (FEPA) 1985 - Defra
•   EIA Requirement – Electricity works
    (Environmental Impact Assessment)
    regulations 2000 (SI 2000/1927)
ENERGY ATLAS
  water depth
ENERGY ATLAS
  wind power
     ROUND 1
Crown Estate Issued Round 1
Licenses in 2001
18 Companies obtained licenses

Demonstration Round

Area of seabed limited to 10 km2

Water depths of less than 20
metres

All within 12 km from shore

A maximum of 30 Turbines
 ROUND 2
2003 Crown Estate announces
second round
27 GW of installed capacity
Much larger than Round 1 sites
Strategic Environmental
Assessment Undertaken

3 Strategic Areas Selected
Further offshore
Licence condition for two years
of site specific bird data
Pre-consent Bird Data




•   Boat Based Data
•   Aerial Bird Data
•   BOTH required for different species
Aerial Bird Surveys
                     SOLUTION
•   Industry require data for EIAs
    Joint Government/Industry Aerial Bird Survey
    Programme
•   Government require data for SPAs and SEA
•   2004 – 2007
•   Shortage of resources
•   Managed by BERR
2. 0 01 - 5
5. 0 01 - 1 0
10 . 00 1 - 20
20 . 00 1 - 50




January – February   Red-throated Diver
      2005
20
40




     January – February   Red-throated Diver
           2006
                January - February 2005
Common Scoter                      Rela tive d ensity
                                         0
                                         0.001 - 25
                                         25.00 1 - 50
                                         50.00 1 - 10 0
                                         100 .0 01 - 2 50
                                         250 .0 01 - 5 00
                                         500 .0 01 - 1 600
                January – February 2006
Common Scoter                     Rela tive d ensity
                                        0
                                        0.001 - 25
                                        25.00 1 - 50
                                        50.00 1 - 10 0
                                        100 .0 01 - 2 50
                                        250 .0 01 - 5 00
                                        500 .0 01 - 8 10
Research
•   Research Advisory Group (RAG)
http://www3.dti.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewables/policy/offs
   hore/research-advisory/


•   Collaborative Offshore Wind Research into the
    Environment (COWRIE)
http://www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk/
    Projects
        ISSUE
THEME           SUBJECT                        SHORT DESCRIPTION                                                APPLICATION        STATUS        FUNDER
        REF.
                                               Review and analysis of existing offshore seabird survey
                                                                                                                                   Completed
                                               effort (ESAS database) to identify significant gaps in spatial                                    BERR through
                                                                                                                                   Report pdf
BIRDS   1.1     UK gap analysis                and temporal coverage. Report “An analysis of ESAS               All                              SEA
                                                                                                                                   on SEA
                                               seabird surveys in UK waters to highlight gaps in coverage”                                       programme
                                                                                                                                   website
                                               issued.
                                               Winter and summer aerial surveys of water bird distribution
                                               and abundance in the Tames Estuary, Greater Wash and
                                                                                                                                   Active RAG
                                               Liverpool Bay Round 2 areas. The programme is aimed at                                            BERR, Defra,
                                                                                                                                   Project No.
                                               providing site specific and regional data on the distribution,                                    developers,
                Baseline surveys of R2 and                                                                                         1.2
BIRDS   1.2                                    abundance and the main feeding/roosting patterns of water        Wind (chiefly)                   CWW (in year
                other Strategic Areas                                                                                              2nd year
                                               birds. Project in 2 phases covering surveys in year 04-05                                         1)
                                                                                                                                   report with
                                               and year 05-06. A further round of surveying is underway                                          NE (in year 2)
                                                                                                                                   printers
                                               1Q 2007.

                                               Garthe & Huppop (2004) developed a Wind Farm
                                               Sensitivity Index (WSI) for seabirds. This may provide a
                                                                                                                Wind (and
                                               strategic tool for use in planning future UK offshore wind
BIRDS   1.3     Indicative Sensitive Mapping                                                                    potentially wave   Not active
                                               leasing and with modification and further work may also be
                                                                                                                and tidal)
                                               applicable to other devices.

                                               JNCC to provide two residential ship-board training
                                                                                                                                   Completed
                Observer training for boat     courses for seabird surveyors working for or to be
BIRDS   1.4                                                                                                     All                RAG           BERR
                based surveys of birds         employed by ecological consultants
                                                                                                                                   Project 1.4
                                                                                                                                   Completed
                                               A comparison of ship and aerial sampling methods for                                COWRIE
                Survey Best Practice
BIRDS   1.5                                    marine birds, and their applicability to offshore windfarm       All                Project No.   COWRIE
                Guidance
                                               assessments. Guidance produced.                                                     BAM-02-
                                                                                                                                   2002
                                               Field studies in the eastern Irish Sea and development of a
                                                                                                                                   Completed
                                               model to assist in predicting the effect of offshore
                Displacement of birds                                                                                              COWRIE
                                               windfarms (individually and cumulatively) on Common
BIRDS   1.6     (especially Common Scoter)                                                                      Wind               Project No.   COWRIE
                                               Scoter due to habitat loss or change. Guidance on the use
                from benthic feeding areas                                                                                         BEN-03-
                                               of this model to assist developers in carrying out
                                                                                                                                   2002
                                               Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA’s)
Research Projects
•   Predicting the displacement of common scoter
    from benthic feeding areas.
•   Energetic costs of flight in birds
•   Investigation into Best Practice Guidance for the
    Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird
    Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms
      Potential use of population viability analysis




                                                             Age-dependent


                                                                             Age-dependent




                                                                                                             between meta-
                         Adult survival




                                                                                             non-breeding
                                                                                             Incidences of
      to assess the impact of offshore wind


                                              Productivity




                                                                                                             populations
                                                                             productivity




                                                                                                                             productivity
                                                                                                                             dependent


                                                                                                                             dependent
                                                                                                             Migration



                                                                                                                             Density-


                                                                                                                             Density-
                                                             survival




                                                                                                                             survival
      farms on bird populations




                                                                                                                                            Score
Red-throated diver   Y                    Y                  N               N               N                N              N      N       16
Fulmar               Y                    Y                  Y               Y               N                S              N      N       26
Gannet               Y                    Y                  S               N               N                N              N      N       18
Cormorant            Y                    Y                  Y               Y               Y                Y              Y      N       42
Eider                Y                    Y                  N               S               Y                S              N      Y       30
Common scoter        Y                    Y                  S               N               N                N              N      N       18
Kittiwake            Y                    Y                  Y               Y               Y                Y              Y      Y       46
Sandwich tern        Y                    Y                  N               N               N                N              N      N       14
Puffin               Y                    Y                  Y               N               S                S              S      Y       37
Use of aerial surveys to
detect bird displacement
by offshore wind farms




  • Use of runs of data over a number of years
  • Include fixed environmental data, e.g. bathymetry
  • Use Generalised Linear Modelling
  Red-throated diver

        0.8

        0.6
Power




        0.4
                                    10% Decline
        0.2                         25% Decline
                                    50% Decline
         0
              0   5         10           15       20
                      Length of survey
Monitoring
             •   FEPA Conditions are:
             •   Flexible
             •   Site specific
Examples of conditions
•   One year pre-construction monitoring
•   Two years of post construction monitoring
•   Avoidance of construction during peak periods of
    sensitivity
•   Use of radar
•   Two phased construction
THANK YOU



PHILIP BLOOR

				
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