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					          Library Automation:
          International Trends and Issues


                         Marshall Breeding
                         Director for Innovative Technologies and Research
                         Vanderbilt University
                         http://staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/breeding
Tuesday 27 August 2008
                         http://www.librarytechnology.org/
Rotterdam
Part I.
Broad Industry and
Product Trends
Library Technology
Guides
   Repository for library automation data
   Lib-web-cats tracks 35,000 libraries and the
    automation systems used.
    – Expanding to include more international scope
   Announcements and developments made by
    companies and organizations involved in
    library automation technologies
               Recent Upheavals
                    Industry Consolidation continues
                    Abrupt transitions for major library
                     automation products
                    Increased industry control by external
                     financial investors
                    Demise of the traditional OPAC
                    Frustration with ILS products and vendors
                    Open Source alternatives hit the
                     mainstream

Breeding, Marshall: Perceptions 2007 an international survey of library automation.
http://www.librarytechnology.org/perceptions2007.pl January 2008.
LJ Automation System
Marketplace
   Annual Industry report published in Library
    Journal
   2008:   Opportunity out of turmoil
   2007:   An industry redefined
   2006:   Reshuffling the deck
   2005:   Gradual evolution
   2004:   Migration down, innovation up
   2003:   The competition heats up
   2002:   Capturing the migrating customer
             ILS Industry in Transition

                Consolidation through mergers and
                 acquisitions have resulted in a fewer
                 number of players; larger companies
                Uncomfortable level of product narrowing
                Increased ownership by external interests
                Yet: Some companies and products continue
                 on solid ground

Breeding, Marshall “Automation system marketplace 2008: Opportunity Out of Turmoil”
Library Journal. April 1, 2008.
Library Automation M&A
History
Internationalization

   Many large companies extending their
    geographic reach
   Ex Libris – Based in Israel
   Civica – Based in the United Kingdom
   SirsiDynix – Based in the United States
   Innovative Interfaces – Based in the
    United States
Broad Industry Trends

   Fewer number of larger companies
   Consolidation of product offerings
   Internationalization: strong
    opportunities for systems with strong
    multilingual capabilities.
   Local companies challenged by global
    companies
   Strong interest in open source
    alternatives
   Overall R&D Focused on fewer new
OCLC in the ILS arena?

   Increasingly overlapped with library automation
    activities
   WorldCat Local recently announced
     – Penetrating deeper into local libraries
   Library-owned cooperative on a buying binge of automation
    companies:
    –   Openly Informatics
    –   Fretwell-Downing Informatics
    –   Sisis Informationssysteme
    –   PICA (now 100%)
    –   DiMeMa (CONTENTdm)
   ILS companies concerned about competing with a non-profit
    with enormous resources and the ability to shift costs.
Product and Technology
Trends
   Innovation below expectations
   Conventional ILS less tenable
   Proliferation of products related to e-
    content management
   New genre of discovery-layer
    interfaces
Web 2.0 / Collaborative
Computing
   Currently implemented ad hoc
   Many libraries putting up blogs, wikis, and
    fostering engagement in social networking
    sites
   Proliferation of silos with no integration or
    interoperability with larger library Web
    presence
   Next Gen: Build social and collaborative
    features into core automation components
Part II. A Mandate for
Openness
Opportunities for
Openness
   Open Source
    – Alternative to traditionally licensed software
   Open Systems
    – Software that doesn’t hold data hostage
Open Source Alternatives

   Explosive interest in Open Source driven by
    disillusionment with current vendors and
    near-evangelical promotion of this software
    licensing model
   Beginning to emerge as a practical option
   TOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still roughly
    equal to proprietary commercial model
   Still a risky strategy for libraries – traditional
    licensing also risky
A result of industry
turmoil
   Disruptions and business decisions to
    narrow options have fueled the open
    source movement
   Benefit to libraries in having additional
    options
   Traditionally licensed and open source
    ILS alternatives will coexist in the ILS
    arena
Open Source ILS enters the
mainstream
   Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS
    shifting into one where open source
    alternatives fall in the mainstream
   Off-the-shelf, commercially supported
    product available
   Still a minority player, but gaining
    ground
Open Source ILS options

   Koha
    – Commercial support from LibLime
   Evergreen
    – Commercial support from Equinox
      Software
   OPALS
    – Commercial support from Media Flex
   NewGenLib
    – Open Source ILS for the developing world
        Business case for Open
        Source ILS
           Comparative total cost of ownership
           Evaluate features and functionality
           Evaluate technology platform and
            conceptual models
           Are they next-generation systems or
            open source version of legacy models?

“Making a Business Case for Open Source ILS.” Marshall Breeding,
Computers in Libraries March 2008
http://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg-displaytext.pl?RC=13134
Impact of Open Source
ILS
   Library automation industry cannot be
    complacent
   Some libraries moving from traditionally
    licensed products to open source products
    with commercial support plans
   Disruption of ILS industry
    – new pressures on incumbent vendors to deliver
      more innovation and to satisfy concerns for
      openness
   New competition / More options
More Open Systems
   Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more
    open
   APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access
    and manipulate their data outside of delivered software
   A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more
    flexibility and control in accessing data and services and in
    extending functionality than having access to the source code.
   Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to
    breaking core system functions, avoids issues of version
    management and code forking associated with open source
    models.
Opportunity out of the
Upheavals
   More options
    – Commercial + Open Source
   More vendors
    – New open source support companies provide
      new competition
   More library involvement
    – Libraries re-energized to make significant
      contributions to the body of library automation
      software
   Traditionally licensed and open source
    automation systems will co-exist. We have
    an interest in the success of both
    alternatives.
Next-Generation Library
Interfaces
     Troubling statistic
       Where do you typically begin
        your search for information on
        a particular topic?
       College Students Response:
        89% Search engines (Google 62%)
        2% Library Web Site (total respondents -> 1%)
        2% Online Database
        1% E-mail
        1% Online News
        1% Online bookstores
        0% Instant Messaging / Online Chat



OCLC. Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources
(2005) p. 1-17.
         Usage + / - from 2005 to
         2007
                                       +5%

                                                                   -10%
                                                +30%




           +14%
                                        “The unfortunate exception is
                                        the use of library Web sites;
                                        usage has dropped from 2005 to
                 +19%
                                        2007.”
Source: Sharing, Privacy and Trust in our Networked World. OCLC 2007
Crowded Landscape of
Information Providers on
the Web
   Lots of non-library Web destinations deliver
    content to library patrons
    –   Google Scholar
    –   Amazon.com
    –   Wikipedia
    –   Ask.com
   Do Library Web sites and catalogs meet the
    information needs of our users?
   Do they attract their interest?
The Competition
The best Library OPAC?
Better?
Better?
Demand for compelling
library interfaces
   Urgent need for libraries to offer
    interfaces their users will like to use
   Move into the current millennium
   Powerful search capabilities in tune
    with how the Web works today
   Meet user expectations set by other
    Web destination
Inadequacy of ILS OPACs

   Online Catalog modules provided with
    an ILS subject to broad criticism as
    failing to meet expectations of growing
    segments of library patrons.
   Not great at delivering electronic
    content
   Complex text-based interfaces
   Relatively weak keyword search
    engines
Disjointed approach to
information and service
delivery
   Books: Library OPAC (ILS module)
   Articles: Aggregated content products, e-
    journal collections
   OpenURL linking services
   E-journal finding aids (Often managed by
    link resolver)
   Local digital collections
    – ETDs, photos, rich media collections
   Metasearch engines
   All searched separately
Change underway
   Widespread dissatisfaction with most of the current
    OPACs. Many efforts toward next-generation
    catalogs and interfaces.
   Movement among libraries to break out of the
    current mold of library catalogs and offer new
    interfaces better suited to the expectations of
    library users.
   Decoupling of the front-end interface from the
    back-end library automation system.
   Eventual redesign of the ILS to be better suited for
    current library collections of digital and print
    content
Next-Generation
Interfaces:
Scope and Concepts
Working toward a new
generation of library
interfaces
   Redefinition of the “library catalog”
   Traditional notions of the library
    catalog questioned
   Better information delivery tools
   More powerful search capabilities
   More elegant presentation
Redefining the “catalog”
   More comprehensive information discovery
    environments
   It’s no longer enough to provide a catalog limited to
    print resources
   Digital resources cannot be an afterthought
   Systems designed for e-content only are also
    problematic
   Forcing users to use different interfaces depending
    on type of content becoming less tenable
   Libraries working toward consolidated user
    environments that give equal footing to digital and
    print resources
Comprehensive Search
Service
   Current distributed query model of
    federated search model not adequate
   Expanded scope of search through
    harvested content
    – Consolidated search services based on metadata
      and data gathered in advance (like OAI-PMH)
   Problems of scale diminished
   Problems of cooperation persist
   Federated search currently operates as a
    plug-in component of next-gen interfaces.
Web 2.0 Flavorings

   Strategic infrastructure + Web 2.0
   A more social and collaborative
    approach
   Web Tools and technology that foster
    collaboration
   Integrated blogs, wiki, tagging, social
    bookmarking, user rating, user
    reviews
   Avoid Web 2.0 information silos
The Ideal Scope for Next
Gen Library Interfaces
   Unified user experience
   A single point of entry into all the
    content and services offered by the
    library
   Print + Electronic
   Local + Remote
   Locally created Content
   User contributed content?
Next Generation
Interfaces:
Functions and Features
Interface Features / User
Experience
   Simple point of entry
    – Optional advanced search
   Relevancy ranked results
   Facets for narrowing and navigation
   Query enhancement – spell check, etc
   Suggested related results
   Navigational bread crumbs
   Enriched visual and textual content
   Single Sign-on
Relevancy Ranking

   Based on advanced search engines
    specifically designed for relevancy
    – Endeca, Lucene, etc
   Web users expect relevancy ordered results
    – The “good stuff” should be listed first
    – Users tend not to delve deep into a result list
    – Good relevancy requires a sophisticated
      approach, including objective matching criteria
      supplemented by popularity and relatedness
      factors.
New Paradigm for search
and navigation
   Let users drill down through the result set
    incrementally narrowing the field
   Faceted Browsing
    – Drill-down vs up-front Boolean or “Advanced
      Search”
    – gives the users clues about the number of hits in
      each sub topic
    – Ability to explore collections without a priori
      knowledge
   Visual search tools
   Navigational Bread crumbs
    – Select / deselect facets
Query / Result
Enhancement
   “Did you mean?” and other features to
    avoid “No results found”
   Validated Spell check
   Automatic inclusion of authorized and
    related terms
   More like this – recommendation
    service
   Make the query and the response to it
    better than the query provided
Enriched content
   Rich visual information: book jacket images, rating scores,
    etc.
   Syndetic Solutions ICE ($$$$)
   Amazon Web Service (AWS)
     – Recent changes in term of use seem to preclude
       use by libraries
   Google Book Search API
     – Released March 13, 2008
     – Liberal terms of use
   No open content approach (yet)
      Personalization / Single
      Sign-on
   Customized content and service options based on
    personal preference and profile of user
   Persistent sign-on – horizontal and vertical
    – Seamless navigation in and out of appropriate sub-systems
           ILL / ILS patron requests, federated search, proxy services
    – Credentials follow as user navigates among Web site
      components
    – ILS / Interlibrary Loan / proxy services / shopping cart / etc
    – Carry sign-on into and out of institutional resources
   Ability to select and save content; initiate requests;
    customize preferences, etc.
      Deep search
   Entering post-metadata search era
   Increasing opportunities to search the full contents
     – Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open Content
       Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search, etc.
     – High-quality metadata will improve search precision
   Commercial search providers already offer “search inside
    the book”
   No comprehensive full text search for books quite yet
   Not currently available through library search
    environments
   Deep search highly improved by high-quality metadata
See: Systems Librarian, May 2008 “Beyond the current generation of next-generation
   interfaces: deeper search”
Beyond Discovery

   Fulfillment oriented
   Search -> select -> view
   Delivery/Fulfillment much harder than
    discovery
   Back-end complexity should be as
    seamless as possible to the user
   Offer services for digital and print
    content
Library-specific Features

   Appropriate relevance factors
    – Objective keyword ranking + Library
      weightings
    – Circulation frequency, OCLC holdings,
      scholarly content
   Results grouping (FRBR)
   Collection focused (vs sales-driven)
Enterprise Integration

   Ability to deliver content and services
    through non-library applications
   Campus portal solutions
   Courseware
   Social networking environments
   Search portals / Feed aggregators
Interoperability

   Decoupled interface implies data
    synchronization
   Mass export of catalog data
   Hooks back into the ILS for holdings
    and patron services
    – Real-time availability
Architecture and
Standards
   Need to have an standard approach
    for connecting new generation
    interfaces with ILS and other
    repositories
   Proprietary and ad hoc methods
    currently prevail
   Digital Library Federation
    – ILS-Discovery Interface Group
   Time to start thinking about a new
Smart and Sophisticated

   Much more difficult than old gen
    OPACS
   Not a dumbed-down approach
   Wed library specific requirements and
    expectations with e-commerce
    technologies
Open Source opportunity?

   Commercial traditionally licensed
    solutions currently far ahead of open
    source alternatives
   Time-to-market a critical factor
   Challenge to catch up
New-Gen Library
Interfaces
Current Commercial and Open
Source Products
Endeca Guided
Navigation
   North Carolina State University
    http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/catalog/
   McMaster University
    http://libcat.mcmaster.ca/
   Phoenix Public Library
    http://www.phoenixpubliclibrary.org/
   Florida Center for Library Automation
    http://catalog.fcla.edu/ux.jsp
AquaBrowser Library

   Queens Borough Public Library
    – http://aqua.queenslibrary.org/
   Oklahoma State University
    – http://boss.library.okstate.edu/
   University of Chicago
    – http://lens.lib.uchicago.edu/
Ex Libris Primo

   Discovery and Delivery platform for
    academic libraries
   Vanderbilt University
    http://alphasearch.library.vanderbilt.edu
   University of Minnesota
    http://prime2.oit.umn.edu:1701/primo_libr
      ary/libweb/action/search.do?vid=TWINCI
      TIES
   University of Iowa
    http://smartsearch.uiowa.edu/
Encore from Innovative
Interfaces
   Designed for academic, public and special
    libraries
   Nashville Public Library
    http://nplencore.library.nashville.org/iii/encore/app
   Scottsdale Public Library
    http://encore.scottsdaleaz.gov/iii/encore/a
      pp
   Yale University Lillian Goldman Law
    Library
    http://encore.law.yale.edu/iii/encore/app
OCLC Worldcat Local

   OCLC WorldCat customized for local
    library catalog
    – Relies on hooks into ILS for local services
    – Tied to library holdings set in WorldCat
   University of Washington Libraries
    http://uwashington.worldcat.org/
   University of California Melvyl Catalog
The Library Corporation

   First ILS company involved in
    promoting new interface technologies
   Initially based its strategy on
    AquaBrowser and Endeca
   Indigo – announced at ALA Midwinter
    Jan 2008
   “Library Positioning Software”
   Based on Lucene / SOLR
SirsiDynix
   Enterprise based on Brainware Globalbrain
    technology
    – Prototypes shown at ALA Annual Conference
   Offered only in SaaS model initially
   Product based on FAST announced in March
    2006 – withdrawn
LibraryThing for Libraries

   Not a full next-gen interface
   Provides a way to add tagging to
    existing interfaces
   Deal with social tagging critical mass
    problem
Scriblio

   Formerly WPopac
   Built with WordPress
   Plymouth State University
   http://library.plymouth.edu/
   Searches library Web site + catalog
   http://about.scriblio.net/
VUFind – Villanova University

Based on Apache Solr search toolkit
http://www.vufind.org/
eXtensible Catalog

   University of Rochester – River
    Campus Libraries
   Financial support from the Andrew W.
    Mellon Foundation
   http://www.extensiblecatalog.info/
Part III. Moving toward
new generation of
library automation
             Rethinking the ILS
                Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid
                 libraries
                Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid
                 libraries
                Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core
                 ILS with additional modules to handle electronic
                 content
                New discovery layer interfaces replacing or
                 supplementing ILS OPACS
                Working toward a new model of library automation
                   – Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA
                     applications
                   – Comprehensive Resource Management
“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007
ILS: a legacy concept?
   ILS = Integrated Library System
    (Cataloging + Circulation + OPAC + Serials +
      Acquisitions)
   Focused on print and physical inventory
   Electronic content at the Journal Title or
    collection level
   Emerged in the 1960’s – 1970’s
   Functionality has evolved and expanded,
    but basic concepts and modules remain
    intact
   Note: Some companies work toward evolving the
    ILS to competently handle both print and digital
    content (e.g. Innovative Interfaces)
ILS: ever diminishing role
   Many libraries putting much less emphasis on ILS
   Just an inventory system for physical materials
   Investments in electronic content increasing
   Management of e-content handled outside of the
    ILS
   Yet: libraries need comprehensive business
    automation more than ever. Mandate for more
    efficient operations. Do more with less.
Dis-integration of Library
Automation Functionality
   ILS -- Print and Physical inventory
   OpenURL Link resolver
   Federated Search
   Electronic Resource Management
    Module
   Discovery layer interface
Is non-integrated
automation sustainable?
   Major burden on library personnel
   Serial procurement / installation /
    configuration / maintenance cycles take
    many years to result in a comprehensive
    environment
   Inefficient data models
   Disjointed interfaces for library users
   Very long cycle to gain comprehensive
    automation
Breaking down the
modules
   Traditional ILS
    – Cataloging
    – Circulation
    – Online Catalog
    – Acquisitions
    – Serials control
    – Reporting
   Modern approach: SOA
           Service Oriented
           Architecture




http://www.sun.com/products/soa/benefits.jsp
           Legacy ILS + e-content
           modules
  End User
  Interfaces:



                                  Circulation   Acquisitions

  Functional                                                              Electronic
  modules:      Federated                                      OpenURL    Resource
                 Search                                         Linking     Mgmt
                                  Cataloging     Serials                   System

Data Stores:



                   Staff Interfaces:
SOA model for business
automation
   Underlying data repositories
    – Local or Global
   Reusable business services
   Composite business applications
           SOA for library workflow
           processes

                                      Composite
                                      Applications




                                Reusable
         Granular               Business
         tasks:                 Services




Data Stores:
Comprehensive Resource
Management
   Broad conceptual approach that proposes a
    library automation environment that spans
    all types of content that comprise library
    collections.
   Traditional ILS vendors: Under development
    but no public announcements
   Open Source projects in early phases
   Projection: 2-3 years until we begin see
    library automation systems that follow this
    approach. 5-7 years for wider adoption.
        Open Library
        Environment (OLE)
        project
           Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
             – Research in Information Technology program
             – Solicited proposal / Lead institution
           Duke University selected to lead project
           Core Participants: Kansas University, Lehigh University,
            National Library of Australia, Library and Archives Canada,
            University of Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding
           Advisory Participants: University of Chicago, Wittier College,
            University of Maryland, ORBIS Cascade Alliance, Rutgers
            University
           Status: Proposal complete, pending formal approval from the
            Andrew W. Mellon Foundation



http://oleproject.org
Preparing for next
generation library
automation
   Reassess workflows
   Separate streams for print and digital?
   Integrated processing of print and
    digital?
   Opportunities to take advantage of
    SOA-based composite business
    applications
   Assemble a more ideal set of tools for
    managing serials and periodicals
Questions and
Discussion

				
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