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CRE-43N-03 Final Report - Yukon River Panel

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					                                    COMPILATION AND MAPPING
                                    OF FISHERIES INFORMATION
                                    WITHIN THE TESLIN TLINGIT
                                     TRADITIONAL TERRITORY

                                                   CRE43-03




                         Prepared for:

               TESLIN TLINGIT COUNCIL
                      PO Box 133
                       Teslin, YT
                       Y0A 1B0




                         Prepared by:

N L. Ferguson, B.Sc., Dipl. Tech. and P. Tobler, B.Sc., R.P.Bio.
        EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC.
                   Suite 206-4133 4th Ave
                       Whitehorse, YT
                           Y1A 1H8



                          March 2004



                    EDI Project No. 605-02
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Restoration and Enhancement Fund, a salmon restoration partnership between the State of Alaska and
Yukon Territory, administered by the Yukon River Panel, provided funding for this project (Project
Number CRE43-03). Hugh Monaghan is the Executive Secretary for the Yukon River Panel and
administers and oversees the Yukon Based Projects. Patrick Milligan, Stock Assessment Biologist,
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Whitehorse, provided technical expertise and guidance. Rick Ferguson and
Al von Finster, from Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) reviewed a draft version of this report.

Several members of the Teslin Tlingit Council, Lands and Resources Department contributed to this
project. Emmie Sidney, Senior Land & Resource Manager provided input into the direction and focus of
the project. Linda Sidney, GIS technician completed mapping and Lorne Jules conducted research for
this project.

DISCLAIMER

Although the information presented in this report is designed to act as a comprehensive compilation of
existing information, findings are based on pre-existing literature. The information presented is only a
summary of the results of each study, and it is therefore recommended that users of this information
verify specific details before it is used to base future management decisions.




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                             Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................................................. i

TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................... ii

1.0 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................1
     1.1 Background..............................................................................................................................1
     1.2 Study Area ...............................................................................................................................1
2.0 METHODS.....................................................................................................................................3
     2.1 Information Gathering and Analysis ......................................................................................3
     2.2 Digital Mapping .......................................................................................................................3
     2.3 Reporting/Data Compilation...................................................................................................4
3.0 RESULTS .......................................................................................................................................5
     3.1 Lower Teslin Watershed ..........................................................................................................7
       3.1.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ............................................................................................7
       3.1.2 Resource Use.......................................................................................................................8
       3.1.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints....................................................................................9
       3.1.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ......................................................................................9
     3.2 Upper Teslin Watershed.........................................................................................................12
       3.2.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................12
       3.2.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................14
       3.2.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................15
       3.2.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................16
     3.3 Morley River Watershed ........................................................................................................18
       3.3.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................18
       3.3.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................19
       3.3.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................19
       3.3.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................20
     3.4 Nisutlin River Watershed .......................................................................................................22
       3.4.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................22
       3.4.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................23
       3.4.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................24
       3.4.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................25
     3.5 Big Salmon River Watershed ................................................................................................27
       3.5.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................27
       3.5.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................28
       3.5.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................28
       3.5.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................28
     3.6 Swift River Watershed ...........................................................................................................30
       3.6.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................30
       3.6.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................31
       3.6.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................31
       3.6.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................32

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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

      3.7 Jennings River Watershed .....................................................................................................34
        3.7.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................34
        3.7.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................35
        3.7.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................35
        3.7.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................35
      3.8 Boswell River Watershed .......................................................................................................37
        3.8.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................37
        3.8.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................37
        3.8.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................38
        3.8.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................38
      3.9 Wolf River Watershed............................................................................................................40
        3.9.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat ..........................................................................................40
        3.9.2 Resource Use.....................................................................................................................41
        3.9.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints..................................................................................41
        3.9.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects ....................................................................................41
4.0 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................................43
      4.1 Significant Issues....................................................................................................................43
      4.2 Significant Data Gaps............................................................................................................44
      4.3 Recommendations..................................................................................................................45
5.0     LITERATURE CITED .............................................................................................................46

Appendix A .........................................................................................................................................51

Appendix B..........................................................................................................................................54




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                                                      LIST OF TABLES

                                                                                                                               Page

Table 3.1. Fish species documented in the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory. ..............................5
Table 3.2. Aerial counts for the Big Salmon, Nisutlin and Wolf Rivers since 1990 (Milligan 2003).6
Table 3.3. Fish species documented in lower Teslin watershed..........................................................7
Table 3.4. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ............................8
Table 3.5. Summary of fisheries resource use in the lower Teslin watershed....................................8
Table 3.6. Known obstructions to fish passage. ..................................................................................9
Table 3.7. Fish species documented in upper Teslin watershed. ......................................................12
Table 3.8. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use...........................13
Table 3.9. Summary of fisheries resource use in the upper Teslin watershed.................................14
Table 3.10. Known obstructions to fish passage. ..............................................................................15
Table 3.11. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................16
Table 3.12. Fish species documented in Morley River watershed....................................................18
Table 3.13. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................18
Table 3.14. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Morley River watershed..............................19
Table 3.15. Known/possible obstructions to fish passage. ................................................................19
Table 3.16. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................20
Table 3.17. Fish species documented in Nisutlin River Watershed..................................................22
Table 3.18. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................23
Table 3.19. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Nisutlin watershed.......................................23
Table 3.20. Known obstructions to fish passage. ..............................................................................24
Table 3.21. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................25
Table 3.22. Fish species documented in the Big Salmon River watershed.......................................27
Table 3.23. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................27
Table 3.24. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Big Salmon River watershed.......................28
Table 3.25. Data gaps in the Big Salmon watershed.........................................................................28
Table 3.26. Fish species documented in the Swift River watershed. ................................................30
Table 3.27. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................31
Table 3.28. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Swift watershed. ..........................................31
Table 3.29. Known obstructions to fish passage in the Swift River watershed................................31
Table 3.30. Significant identified data gaps. .....................................................................................32
Table 3.31. Fish species documented in Jennings River watershed. ................................................34
Table 3.32. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................34
Table 3.33. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Jennings River watershed. ..........................35
Table 3.34. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................35
Table 3.35. All known species within this watershed........................................................................37
Table 3.36. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................37
Table 3.37. Summary of resource use in the Boswell River watershed............................................38
Table 3.38. Known obstructions to fish passage. ..............................................................................38
Table 3.39. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................38
Table 3.40. Fish species documented in Wolf River watershed........................................................40
Table 3.41. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use. ........................40
Table 3.42. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Wolf River watershed..................................41
Table 3.43. Known obstructions to fish passage. ..............................................................................41
Table 3.44. Significant data gaps identified. .....................................................................................41

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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                                                         LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                                                                                        Page

Figure 1. Study area map. ....................................................................................................................2
Figure 2. Lower Teslin watershed map 1 of 2....................................................................................10
Figure 3. Lower Teslin watershed map 2 of 2 (Squanga Creek). ......................................................11
Figure 4. Upper Teslin watershed map. .............................................................................................17
Figure 5. Morley River watershed map. ............................................................................................21
Figure 6. Nisutlin River watershed map. ...........................................................................................26
Figure 7. Big Salmon River watershed map. .....................................................................................29
Figure 8. Swift River watershed map.................................................................................................33
Figure 9. Jennings River watershed map...........................................................................................36
Figure 10. Boswell River watershed map...........................................................................................39
Figure 11. Wolf River watershed map. ..............................................................................................42




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Since the settlement of land claim negotiations in 1993, the Teslin Tlingit Council (TTC) has attained an
increased level of involvement in natural resource management within their Traditional Territory. In
order to effectively manage a large land base such as this, a comprehensive compilation of existing
knowledge about resource values and issues is needed. This report is intended to provide information
about the fisheries resources (with a special emphasis on salmon) located within the Teslin Tlingit
Traditional Territory. It is anticipated that this document will provide the TTC with a greater
understanding of the fisheries resources and issues located within the Traditional Territory, as well as to
greatly increase the level of success and effectiveness of management decisions by providing a base on
which the TTC can root the future direction of fisheries management.

1.1 Background

In June of 2002, a salmon information-gathering workshop for the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory was
held near Teslin, Yukon Territory. The workshop was designed to provide a venue to share local,
traditional, and scientific knowledge, and to document experiences related to the salmon resource. While
there was an extensive amount of information collected, there was not enough time or resources to
thoroughly confirm the accuracy of the scientific information or ensure that all available information was
collected. The main objective of this report is build upon the findings of the workshop by collecting and
mapping all existing fisheries information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory.

1.2 Study Area

The Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory encompasses an area of approximately 1510 km (938 square
miles; CYFN 2002) and is located within the south central portion of Yukon Territory and a portion of
northern British Columbia (Figure 1).




EDI Project # 605-02                       Environmental Dynamics Inc                                         1
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

Figure 1. Study area map.




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

2.0 METHODS

The project was conducted in the following manner.

    1) Information gathering and analysis
    2) Digital mapping of collected information.
    3) Reporting/Data compilation

2.1 Information Gathering and Analysis

Information related to species presence, obstructions to fish migration, fisheries issues, resource
development, and potential future projects within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory was collected
and compiled. The Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory was separated into watersheds as listed below:

    1.      Big Salmon River watershed
    2.      Lower Teslin watershed (Teslin River from confluence with Boswell River to Teslin Lake, and
            Tributaries)
    3.      Upper Teslin watershed (Teslin Lake and tributaries not listed below)
    4.      Boswell River watershed
    5.      Nisutlin River watershed (not including Wolf River)
    6.      Wolf River watershed
    7.      Jennings River watershed
    8.      Morley River watershed
    9.      Swift River watershed

A Teslin Tlingit researcher was hired to initiate the data collection process. Fisheries data sources
consulted during the this process included the Fisheries Inventory Summary System (FISS), Department
of Fisheries and Oceans Stream Files, consultant reports, Yukon College Library, Yukon Energy, Mines
and Resources Library, TTC library and the Yukon Territory Government Renewable Resources Library.

Potential sources of information related to fisheries within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory
obtained from the above sources, was reviewed and summarized by the Teslin Tlingit researcher and then
by Environmental Dynamics Inc (EDI) staff. All significant fisheries locations and their sources were
then mapped by hand on a 1:250,000 scale map so that they could be submitted to Teslin Tlingit GIS
personnel for digital mapping.

It should be noted that although some information had been previously digitally mapped by FISS, an
extensive amount of information was not present on these maps.

2.2 Digital Mapping

Digital mapping was performed by a Teslin Tlingit GIS technician using ArcView. EDI staff aided in the
initial stages of mapping process but much of the mapping was done solely by the Teslin Tlingit GIS
Technician. Each watershed was placed on a separate layer as were fish distributions, obstructions to fish
passage and First Nations harvest locations. All GIS points were referenced with the date of publication
and source (Appendix C). A unique identifier was assigned to each digital point to link with to
information in the tables in Appendix B.



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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

2.3 Reporting/Data Compilation

All documented fisheries information found during the compilation of this report was summarized and put
into table format including, known salmon spawning streams, known chinook rearing streams, streams
known to contain freshwater game species (Appendix B).

Each watershed was ranked according to the level of existing knowledge and was rated as having a
high/moderate/low level of fisheries information available. This subjective ranking was based on the
availability of information regarding the five criteria listed below:

    •   Knowledge of quality salmon spawning locations
    •   Knowledge of salmon rearing locations, including tributaries to main streams
    •   Well documented salmon distributions within the watershed
    •   Well documented species diversity of freshwater fish
    •   Knowledge of the limitations to fish distributions including obstructions to fish passage.

Summaries of the fisheries information available within each watershed are outlined in the results
(Section 3).




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

3.0 RESULTS

The Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory is home to nineteen species of fish including two species of
salmon, nine species considered sport fish and six species of non-sport fish (Table 3.1).

Table 3.1. Fish species documented in the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory.
 Category         Common Name        Scientific Name                                        Species Code
 Salmon           chinook salmon     Oncorhynchus tshawytscha                               CH
 species          chum salmon        Oncorhynchus keta                                      CM
 Freshwater       dolly varden       Salvelinus malma                                       DV
 game fish        Arctic grayling    Thymallus arcticus                                     GR
 species          round whitefish    Prosopium cylindraceum                                 RW
                  broad whitefish    Coregonus nasus                                        BW
                  lake whitefish     Coregonus clupeaformis                                 LW
                  burbot             Lota lota                                              BB
                  inconnu            Stenodus leucichthys                                   IN
                  northern pike      Esox lucius                                            NP
                  lake trout         Salvelinus namaycush                                   LT
                  longnose sucker    Catostomus catostomus                                  LSU
 Other fish
                  lake chub          Couesius plumbeus                                      LKC
 species
                  slimy sculpin      Cottus cognatus                                        CCG
                  least cisco        Coregonus sardinella                                   CS
                  lake cisco         Coregonus artedii                                      CL
                  pygmy whitefish    Prosopium coulteri                                     PW
                  Arctic lamprey     Lampetra japonica                                      AL
                  Squanga whitefish Coregonus sp.                                           SQ

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans have conducted annual aerial surveys of chinook salmon on
portions of the Wolf, Nisutlin and the Big Salmon Rivers since the late 1960’s. The results of the surveys
provide an indication of the total numbers of returning chinook to those systems. These index systems are
used to estimate returns to spawning areas in portions of the Yukon Drainage. Table 3.2 shows the counts
of chinook salmon within these drainages since 1990. Graphs of aerial counts since the late 1960’s and
early 1970’s are presented in Appendix A.




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

Table 3.2. Aerial counts for the Big Salmon, Nisutlin and Wolf Rivers since 1990 (Milligan 2003).
           Year                   Big Salmon                Nisutlin                   Wolf
           1990                       1806                     652                      188
           1991                       1040                     N/A                      201
           1992                       617                      241                      110
           1993                       572                      339                      168
           1994                       1764                     389                      393
           1995                       1314                     274                      229
           1996                       2565                     719                      705
           1997                       1345                     277                      322
           1998                       523                      145                      66
           1999                       353                      330                      131
           2000                       113                       20                      32
           2001                       1020                     481                      154
           *2002                      1149                     280                      84
           *2002                      231                       67                      34
           *2003                      3075                     687                      292
           *2003                      929                      279                      192
N/A: No information available. *2002 surveys on the Big Salmon, Nisutlin, and Wolf Rivers were conducted on August 16
and 23. 2003 surveys on the Big Salmon, Nisutlin, and Wolf Rivers were conducted on August 17 and 23.

The following sections summarize the information collected for each of the nine major watersheds
identified in the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory.




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

3.1 Lower Teslin Watershed

The lower Teslin River watershed encompasses the Teslin River and all water bodies that flow into it
from the outlet of Teslin Lake downstream to where it leaves the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory
(except for the Boswell River which is treated as a separate watershed; Figures 2 and 3).

3.1.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

The lower Teslin watershed is a significant producer of chinook salmon. Radio tracking studies
conducted in 2002 found that 73% of all radio tags found in the Teslin Drainage were found in the
mainstem of Teslin River between the outlet of Teslin Lake and the mouth of the Teslin River (Osborne
2002). Several species of fish are documented within the lower Teslin watershed, of note is the Squanga
whitefish (Coregonus sp), a species of whitefish unique to only a few areas within the Yukon. Within the
Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory this species has been documented in Squanga, Little Teslin and
Teenah lakes (Environment Canada 2003). Environment Canada (2003) also notes that this species is
unable to coexist with ciscoes1 (as they are more competitive and occupy a similar niche), and as such the
Squanga whitefish is highly susceptible to introductions of this genus as well as piscivorous (fish eating)
species of fish. The Squanga whitefish has been designated as a species of special concern2 under the
Species at Risk Act (Environment Canada 2003) and as such should be managed appropriately. All species
documented within the lower Teslin watershed are listed in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3. Fish species documented in lower Teslin watershed.
    Category                             Common Name
    Salmon species                       chum salmon, chinook salmon
                                         Arctic grayling, lake whitefish, burbot, northern pike, dolly varden,
    Freshwater game fish species
                                         round whitefish, whitefish general
                                         lake chub, slimy sculpin, long nose sucker, pigmy whitefish, least
    Other fish species
                                         cisco, Squanga whitefish.

Many streams within the lower Teslin drainage have been documented as containing fish, however
several streams within this watershed have not been studied, as such fish species presence is unknown.
Table 3.4 lists streams within this watershed and their identified uses where documented. For more
detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to
Appendix B.




1
  FISS 2003 listed least cisco (CS) as being present in Squanga Lake; however, investigation of the reference listed by FISS did
not confirm this.
2
  A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological
characteristics and identified threats.
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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

Table 3.4. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                          Chinook             Chinook             Chum
 Stream Name                                                                     Freshwater species
                         spawning             rearing           Spawning
 Teslin River               3                                       3                   3
 Sheldon Creek                                   3                  3
 Dave Creek                                      3                                      3
 Hundred Mile
                                                 3                                      3
 Creek
 Wilson Creek                                    3                                      3
 Squanga Creek              3                    3                                      3
 Muskrat Creek                                   3                                      3
 Swift River                3                    3                                      3
 Meadow Creek                                    3                                      3
 Seaforth Creek             52                   52                                     3
 Mary River
 Hall Creek
 Ike Brook
 Teenah Creek
1
    Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.
2
    Downstream barrier prevents salmon use of this stream.

Along with being a highly productive chinook salmon spawning and rearing watershed, this system is
host to the longest recorded chum salmon migration (DFO stream files 1998). Knowledge of spawning
locations and the distributions of adult salmon within this system are well documented when compared to
other watersheds. The three main chinook spawning locations in the Teslin River have been identified as
below Mary River, just below Boswell River and two miles below Johnson’s Crossing (DFO stream files
2003). Chum salmon have also been documented to spawn near the confluence with the Mary River
(approximately 66 km downstream of Teslin Lake) but have not been documented upstream of this
location (Jane Wilson pers. comm. 2003). Juvenile salmon rearing locations have been studied in many
tributaries to the Teslin River with many limitations to fish distributions identified. Many recent studies
have identified a highly diverse community of freshwater fish species. The overall level of knowledge
regarding fisheries diversity and distributions within the lower Teslin watershed was found to be
moderate to high.

3.1.2 Resource Use

Recreational and First Nations fisheries have been documented in this watershed. Although most salmon
harvesting is centered around Teslin Lake, one First Nation fishery has been documented within the lower
Teslin watershed (Table 3.5).

Table 3.5. Summary of fisheries resource use in the lower Teslin watershed.
 Use                  Comments                                                            Data Source
    First Nation Fishery        Salmon harvesting at Johnson’s Crossing                   Blakley et al. 2002
                                                                                   Yukon Environment
    Recreational Fishery        Johnson’s Crossing – Artic grayling
                                                                                   2003
                                Squanga Lake – Artic grayling, northern pike, lake Yukon Environment
    Recreational Fishery
                                               trout and whitefish sp.             2003

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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

3.1.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

Several streams within the lower Teslin watershed have been documented as having high levels of beaver
activity (Connor et al. 1997). Although beaver dams are not considered permanent barriers to fish
passage, they can pose access problems over the short term. A waterfall on Squanga Creek does act as a
permanent barrier to upstream chinook migration and blocks access to a large portion of that watershed;
however, significant fisheries values still exist upstream, such as the Squanga Lake whitefish (Beak
Consultants 1977). Obstructions identified in the lower Teslin watershed are listed in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6. Known obstructions to fish passage.
 Stream            Obstruction              Comments                                               Data Source / ID1
 Swift      River Beaver dam                Restricts movement of juvenile                         Connor et al. 1997
 (lower     Teslin                          chinook upstream to high quality                       / TTC301
 tributary)                                 habitats (location not specified)
 Muskrat Creek     Beaver dams              Chinook noted above (location                          Connor et al. 1997
                                            not specified)                                         / TTC302
 Squanga Creek Impassable falls             400 yards upstream from                                von Finster 1999
                                            confluence with Teslin River                           / TTC300
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.

Mining

Placer and quartz (hard rock) mining claims have been established within the lower Teslin watershed and
are documented on several creeks. To the best of our knowledge no significant mining activities have
taken place on these claims. As well, Lipovsky et al.. (2001) indicate no record of significant mechanized
placer mining operations in the area. Those locations where claims are documented to exist are listed
below:

       •    Placer mining claims near the mouth of Squanga Creek.
       •    Quartz mining claims near Summit Lake and Squanga Lake.
       •    Quartz mining claims near the headwaters of Wilson and Dave creeks.

3.1.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

As there is a relatively high amount of broad level information available for this watershed, no significant
data gaps were identified. Of course more specific information may be desirable regarding a particular
resource at a later date.

Based on recommendations, some potential projects that could be conducted in the lower Teslin
watershed are listed below.

        •    Investigate the effects of quartz exploration undertaken north of Squanga Creek.




EDI Project # 605-02                                   Environmental Dynamics Inc                                       9
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


Figure 2. Lower Teslin watershed map 1 of 2.




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

Figure 3. Lower Teslin watershed map 2 of 2 (Squanga Creek).




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

3.2 Upper Teslin Watershed

The upper Teslin watershed includes Teslin Lake and all of its tributaries except the Morley, Nisutlin,
Swift and Jennings Rivers (Figure 4). Teslin Lake is 126 km long with an average width of 3.2 km and an
average depth of 59 m (Connor et al. 1999b).

3.2.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

Although a radio tracking study conducted by Osborne (2002) suggests that the upper Teslin River has
relatively low numbers of spawning chinook, the upper Teslin drainage was found to contain a
considerable amount of chinook salmon rearing habitat. As well, Wilson (1999b) indicates that few
chinook have been documented to spawn in this section of the Teslin River and that the majority have
been concentrated in a reach below the rapids at the outlet of Hutsigola Lake. A report produced by
Wilson (1997) suggests that the habitat above Hutsigola Lake appears unsuitable for chinook spawning
due to muddy and weedy substrates. Results of investigations carried out by Wilson (1999a) into chinook
utilization of the lower portion of the Gladys River determined that adult and juvenile chinook salmon are
using portions of the river. Although no chinook were observed or captured in the upper portion of the
Gladys River during Wilson’s investigations, habitat characterizations indicate that use is possible.

Teslin Lake makes up a large portion of the upper Teslin watershed and, as such, many lake species are
documented. Table 3.7 lists all species documented within the upper Teslin drainage.

Table 3.7. Fish species documented in upper Teslin watershed.
 Category                      Common Name
 Salmon species                chinook salmon
 Freshwater game fish species lake whitefish, round whitefish, broad whitefish, burbot, lake trout,
                               Arctic grayling, inconnu, northern pike, whitefish general
 Other fish species            least cisco, longnose sucker, slimy sculpin, Arctic lamprey

As outlined in Table 3.8, many streams are documented to contain fish, but a high number have not been
studied in this watershed. For more detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as
the sources of information refer to Appendix B




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

Table 3.8. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                         Chinook                                   Chum
 Stream Name                             Chinook rearing                         Freshwater species
                        spawning                                  Spawning
 Upper Teslin
                     3
 River
 Brooks Brook                                    3                                      3
 Deadman Creek             3                     3                                      3
 Gladys River              3                                                            3
 Fat Creek                                       3                                      3
 Sterling Creek                                  3                                      3
 Grayling Creek                                  3                                      3
 Fox Creek                                       3                                      3
 Ten Mile Creek                                  3                                      3
 Lone Tree Creek                                 3                                      3
 Hayes River               3                     3                                      3
 Zonazie Creek                                                                          3
 Snowdon Creek                                                                          3
 Goodwin Creek                                                                          3
 Lincoln Creek                                                                          3
 Thirty Mile Creek
 Teenah Creek
 Consolation Creek
 Windy Camp
 Creek
 Davenport Creek
 Terrahina Creek
 Crossroad Creek
 Rapid Roy Creek
 Turn Creek
 Radnor Creek
 Todd Creek
 Brecon Creek
 McLaren Creek
1
    Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Compared to many systems within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory, much is known about Teslin
Lake and its tributaries regarding adult and juvenile salmon utilization, as well as the limitations to their
distribution. Freshwater species diversity has also been well studied in Teslin Lake and many of its
tributaries, but several streams with difficult access have not been looked at. The Gladys River has been
documented to contain both rearing and spawning chinook salmon as well as freshwater species of fish,
but little is known about distributions in many of its tributaries. The overall level of knowledge within
this watershed was found to be moderate to high but much of this knowledge is concentrated around the
east side of Teslin Lake.




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3.2.2 Resource Use

The upper Teslin watershed has, and continues to serve as, a highly important area of traditional fishing
for the Teslin Tlingit First Nation (Blakley et al. 2002). Much of this harvest has targeted chinook salmon
and has
occurred on and around Teslin Lake, however a recreational fishery has also been documented (Table
3.9).

Table 3.9. Summary of fisheries resource use in the upper Teslin watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                      Data Source
 First Nation 1996: 4 camps on Teslin River, 10 camps on Teslin Lake. 1959- English et al. 1997
 Fishery      1994 mean of 536 chinook from Teslin Lake and 350 chinook at
              Johnson’s Crossing. 1959-1994 mean of 45 chum at Johnson’s
              Crossing
 First Nation 1997: 4 camps on Teslin River, 21 camps on Teslin Lake. Total English et al. 1998
 Fishery      harvest 893 chinook.

 First Nation    1998: 1 camp on Teslin River, 7 camps on Teslin Lake with a              Blakley et al. 1999
 Fishery         total harvest of 280 chinook.

 First Nation    1999: 6 camps on Teslin River, 17 camps on Teslin Lake with a            Blakley et al. 2000
 Fishery         of total harvest 931 chinook.

 First Nation    2000: 4 camps on Teslin River, 11 camps on Teslin Lake                   Blakley et al. 2001
 Fishery

 First Nation    2001: Harvesting at the Village of Teslin, west side of the Teslin       Blakley et al. 2002
 Fishery         Lake across from the community of Teslin, Ten Mile Point, Fox
                 Point, and Brooks Brook
 First Nation    2001: 4 camps on Teslin River, 10 camps on Teslin Lake                   Blakley et al. 2002
 Fishery

 First Nation    Outlet of Teslin Lake/Johnson’s Crossing, extensive first nation         DFO stream files
 Fishery         salmon fishery for chinook salmon                                        1960

 Recreational Teslin Lake - Arctic grayling, northern pike, burbot, whitefish             Yukon Environment
 Fishery      species                                                                     2003


Mining

Lipovsky et al.. (2001) indicate no record of significant mechanized placer mining operations in the area.

Other Development

The most significant development in this watershed is the Alaska Highway corridor running along much
of the east shore of Teslin Lake.


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3.2.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

Several obstructions to fish passage have been documented. As Table 3.10 indicates, the majority of
identified issues center on highway crossings. A few natural barriers were also identified in the form of
logjams and beaver dams. Although these obstructions were not as commonly documented as culvert
barriers, they still have the potential to impact the fisheries resource.

Table 3.10. Known obstructions/constraints to fish passage.
 Stream      Obstruction                     Comments                                              Data Source/ ID1
 Brook’s     Alaska Highway Culvert          Passage concerns                                      Connor et al. 1999b
 Brook                                                                                             / TTC304
 Fox Creek Alaska Hwy Culvert, beaver        Passage concerns                                      Connor et al. 1999b
             activity.                                                                             / TTC305
 Ten Mile    Erosion concerns                Possible water quality issues                         Tobler 2003
 Creek                                       from accelerated erosion rates
                                             from trails in area (a quick
                                             assessment in 2003 of this was
                                             conducted by the authors, and no
                                             significant concerns were
                                             identified).
 Ten Mile    Logjam                          Possible barrier (no exact                            Connor et al. 1999b
 Creek                                       location)
 Hutsigola   Rapids at outlet of lake        All chinook observed below                            DFO stream files
 Lake                                        rapids, none observed spawning                        / TTC306
                                             immediately above
 Fat Creek   Beaver dams                     Possible barrier (no exact                            Connor et al. 1997
                                             location)
 Deadman     2 meter high beaver dam, may 962 meters upstream of mouth of                          Connor et al. 1997
 Creek       or may not be a barrier to fish creek
             passage
 Lone Tree Alaska Highway Culvert            Probably a barrier to small fish                      Connor et al. 1997
 Creek                                                                                             / TTC307
 Wolf        Crossing obstruction            Isolated habitat above Alaska                         Beak Consultants Ltd
 Creek                                       Highway crossing, upstream to                         1978
 (possible                                   mine access road, no juvenile
 different                                   chinook migration allowed
 name)                                       above highway crossing. No
                                             juvenile chinook found above
                                             crossing.
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.




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3.2.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.11 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.11. Significant data gaps identified.
                                           Significant Data Gaps
 Little is known about fish distributions in the upper portion of the Gladys River watershed.
 It is unknown which ones and to what extent the culverts on the Alaska Highway are posing problems
 for fish passage.
 Lack of knowledge about the use of Teslin Lake by juvenile salmon.
 Lack of knowledge about the streams on the east side of Teslin Lake.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature some potential projects that
could be conducted in the upper Teslin watershed are listed below.

    •   Alaska Highway culvert inspections.
    •   Upper Gladys River chinook assessment.




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Figure 4. Upper Teslin watershed map.




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3.3 Morley River Watershed

The Morley River watershed includes the Morley River and all of its tributaries from the confluence with
Teslin Lake to the headwaters in the Cassiar Mountains (Figure 5).

3.3.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

A moderate diversity of fish species has been documented in the Morley River watershed. Table 3.12
indicates those species that were identified.

Table 3.12. Fish species documented in Morley River watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon

    Freshwater game fish species                    burbot, Arctic grayling, round whitefish, northern pike, lake
                                                    whitefish, dolly varden, lake trout, whitefish (general)
Other fish species                                  slimy sculpin, longnose sucker

Due to limited access, very few streams within the Morley River Drainage have been studied and as such
little information about fish distribution exists. Table 3.13 lists streams within this watershed and their
identified uses when documented. For more detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as
well as the sources of information refer to Appendix B.

Table 3.13. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                    Chum                          Freshwater
 Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                  Spawning                          species
 Morley River               3                     3                                                   3
 Hazel Creek                                                                                          3
 Strawberry Creek                                 3                                                   3
 Hays Creek                                       3                                                   3
 Andy Creek
 Borden Creek
 Hake Creek
 Battle Creek
 Ram Creek
 Ice lakes Creek
 Kartuhini Creek
1
    Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Chinook spawning and rearing in the lower Morley River is moderately well documented but very little is
known about the upper portion of the river (except that chinook salmon have been documented to spawn
up as far as Morris Lake). Aerial surveys conducted by Wilson (1999a) identify the highest number of
spawning chinook between Morley River canyon and the confluence of Teslin Lake. Some limitations to
fish movements have been documented along the Alaska Highway, but it is unknown what the limiting
factors are in the upper watershed. The overall level of knowledge in the Morley River Drainage was
found to be low, likely due to the lack of development and limited access to many parts of the watershed.



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3.3.2 Resource Use

Recreational fishing has been documented in both Morley River and Morley Lake (Table 3.14).

Table 3.14. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Morley River watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                         Data Source
 Recreational Morley Lake and Morley River - lake trout, northern pike, Arctic Yukon Environment
 Fishery                                    grayling and whitefish sp.         2003


3.3.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

As a portion of the lower Morley River parallels the Alaska Highway, stream crossings and the associated
culverts were listed as a concern in this watershed. More intense investigations are required to determine
which are problems. Obstructions identified in the Morley River watershed are outlined in Table 3.15.

Table 3.15. Known/possible obstructions to fish passage.
 Stream        Obstruction Comments                                                                Data Source / ID
 Hays Creek    Large debris 0.5 km downstream of Alaska hwy culvert.                               von Finster 1998
               Jam            May block passage by adult salmon and                                / TTC322
                              flows may be too low for adult salmon.
 Hays Creek    Alaska         No chinook found above culvert. Very                                 von Finster 1998
               Highway        suitable habitat above. Dense juvenile                               / TTC321
               culvert        chinook just below culvert. Chinook
               (cascades at   common throughout stream below hwy.
               outlet)        Reconstruction of the fish ladder below the
                              culvert may be a useful restoration project.
                              Culvert acts as a complete barrier to fish                           Pers. comm. von Finster
                              passage.                                                             2004
 Strawberry    Culvert and    Inadequate fish passage caused by problem                            FISS 2003
 Creek         falls          culvert, and falls created by submerged                              / TTC320
                              wooden bridge 500 m downstream of
                              Alaska highway crossing (EDI conducted a
                              quick investigation of this stream in 2003
                              and did not find the concerns listed above.
                              In our opinion fast flows downstream of the
                              culvert would likely limit migration up to
                              the culvert, but fish sampling is required to
                              confirm this).
 Strawberry    Large beaver 200 m downstream of Alaska hwy crossing,                               von Finster 1998
 Creek         dam            possible barrier to adult chinook salmon
                              (EDI investigation found this beaver dam to
                              be partially breached)
 Andy Creek    Alaska         Culvert acts as an obstruction                                       FISS 2003
               Highway                                                                             / TTC318
               Culvert
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.



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Mining

Very little mining activity has been documented in the Morley River watershed. To the best of our
knowledge, no significant mining activities have taken place on these claims. As well, Lipovsky et al..
(2001) indicates no record of significant mechanized placer mining operations in the area. However
quartz mining claims upstream of Morley Lake and downstream of Morris Lake near Hake Creek do
exist. As well, mineral exploration has taken place in Morley Canyon (pers. comm. von Finster 2004).

Other Developments

The lower Morley River has been well studied due to hydrological and pipeline investigations.

3.3.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.16 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.16. Significant data gaps identified.
                                          Significant Data Gaps
 Lack of knowledge about chinook spawning and rearing potential in the upper portion of the Morley
 River watershed.
 Identify freshwater species diversity within the upper Morley River watershed.
 It is unknown to what extent culverts on the Alaska Highway are posing problems for fish passage.

Although there is a limited amount of information available for this watershed, the lack of development
makes further investigation a lower priority than in other watersheds. Based on reviewed information and
recommendations from existing literature, potential projects that could be conducted in the Morley River
watershed are listed below:

    •   Conduct culvert assessments, including fish sampling, along the Alaska Highway on many creeks
        including Hays, Strawberry, and Andy Creeks.
    •   Address fish passage concerns on Hays creek.
    •   Conduct crossing assessments (for fish passage and erosion concerns) along the old access road
        running along Hays Creek.
    •   Develop a greater understanding of chinook returning to this watershed (i.e weir/aerial surveys) in
        order to provide improved baseline information.




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Figure 5. Morley River watershed map.




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3.4 Nisutlin River Watershed

The Nisutlin River watershed begins at the confluence of the Nisutlin River and Teslin Lake and extends
upstream including all tributaries (Figure 6). The Nisutlin River drains an area of approximately 11,984
square kilometers (Connor et al. 1999b) and flows south into Nisutlin Bay of Teslin Lake. There is road
access to the middle of this watershed via the South Canol Road.

3.4.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

A high level of fish diversity was found within this watershed including a relatively high amount of
chinook salmon distribution information. Salmon populations in the Nisutlin River have been enumerated
via aerial surveys by DFO for over 30 years and as such have a significant level of knowledge associated
with them. Important chinook spawning habitats have been identified near the confluence with Sidney
Creek, at the outlet of Nisutlin Lake and near the confluence with Wolf Creek. Other high quality
spawning locations have also been documented downstream of the McConnell River confluence. Sidney
Creek, Murphy Creek and Evelyn Creeks were identified by Connor et al.. (1999b) as being of high
importance for rearing juvenile chinook salmon in the Nisutlin watershed. As well, Connor et al. (1999b)
states that the Nisutlin sub-basin may contain some of the most extensive rearing habitat in the upper
Yukon River drainage. All species documented within this watershed are listed in Table 3.17.

Table 3.17. Fish species documented in Nisutlin River Watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon

 Freshwater game fish species                  lake trout, Arctic grayling, northern pike, broad whitefish,
                                               round whitefish, burbot, dolly varden, whitefish general
Other fish species                             longnose sucker, slimy sculpin

Several streams within the Nisutlin River watershed have fish species documented but data gaps still
exist. Table 3.18 lists streams within this watershed and their identified uses. For more detailed
descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to Appendix
B




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Table 3.18. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                    Chum                            Freshwater
 Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                  Spawning                            species
 Nisutlin River             3                     3                                                     3
 Thirty Mile Creek          3                     3                                                     3
 McConnell River            3                     3
 McNeil Creek               3                     3                                                     3
 Sidney Creek                                     3                                                     3
 Cottonwood Creek                                 3                                                     3
 Rose River                 3                     3                                                     3
 Evelyn Creek                                     3                                                     3
 Murphy Creek                                     3                                                     3
 Pony Creek                                                                                             3
 Groundhog Creek                                                                                        3
 Iron Creek                                                                                             3
 Bacon Creek                                                                                            3
 Flat Creek
 Wolf Creek
 Grizzly Creek
 Sleep Creek
 White Creek
 Seagull Creek
 Hundred Mile
                            3                     3
 Creek
 Canol Creek                                      3
1
    Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Salmon spawning locations have been well studied in this watershed from the confluence of the Nisutlin
River with Teslin Lake to just below Nisutlin Lake; however, little is known about salmon distributions
and habitat quality in many of the tributaries. Salmon rearing habitats have been identified in the major
tributaries to the Nisutlin River, but many of its smaller tributaries have received little attention. Some
freshwater species diversity data exists for this system, but distributions of all species are not well
understood. The overall level of knowledge in the Nisutlin River watershed was found to be moderate.

3.4.2 Resource Use

Recreational fishing has been documented in this watershed (Table 3.19).

Table 3.19. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Nisutlin watershed.
 Use                    Comments                                  Data Source
 Recreational Fishery   Sidney Creek – Arctic grayling            Yukon Environment 2003

    Recreational Fishery          Evelyn Creek – Arctic grayling                    Yukon Environment 2003

    Recreational Fishery          Rose River – Arctic grayling                      Yukon Environment 2003




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3.4.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

All of the documented obstructions and constraints were either associated with beaver activity or road
crossings. A high number of culverts on the Canol Road have been documented as being barriers to fish
passage and as such may be significantly reducing the amount of fish habitat in that area. These streams,
as well as others known to have passage concerns are listed in Table 3.20.

Table 3.20. Known obstructions to fish passage.
 Stream                                                                                                   Data Source /
              Obstruction              Comments
                                                                                                          ID1
    Hundred            Beaver dam                         Barrier to fish passage at 5 km upstream of     Connor et al.
    Mile Creek                                            Nisutlin River                                  1999b /
                                                                                                          TTC308
    Cottonwood         Canol Road Culvert                 No fish passage at time of survey.              Laberge 2002
    Creek                                                                                                 and Connor et
                                                                                                          al. 1999b /
                                                                                                          TTC313
    Rose River         Canol Road Culverts                Multiple tributaries have blockage to fish      Connor et al.
                                                          passage. Habitat characteristics of these       1999b, 1998
                                                          streams are unknown
    Big Creek          Canol Road Culvert                 Probable obstruction to fish passage            Connor et al.
                                                                                                          1997 / TTC 315
    Murphy             Hanging culverts on                Obstruction to fish passage. Very limited       Laberge 2002
    Creek              Canol Road                         fish passage. Urgently requiring restoration.   and Connor et
                                                                                                          al. 1999b /
                                                                                                          TTC312
    Groundhog          Canol Road Culvert                 Obstruction to fish passage. (please note       Laberge 2002 /
    Creek                                                 this stream appears to be in the Lapie          TTC314
                                                          watershed)
    Pony Creek         Canol Road Culvert                 Blocks access to almost entire drainage, (0.5   Connor et al.
                                                          m drop)                                         1997
    Nisutlin           Velocity barrier                   Possible velocity barrier several kilometers    Strachan 1999
    River                                                 downstream of Nisutlin Lake (no exact
                                                          location)
    Sidney             Beaver activity                    On tributaries to Sidney Creek (no exact        N/A
    Creek                                                 locations)
    Nisutlin           Falls downstream of                Chinook may negotiate falls to access high      Strachan 1999
    River              lake                               quality spawning grounds found upstream         / TTC310
                                                          (von Finster – personal communication
                                                          1999)
    Iron Creek         Falls                              Possible barrier to fish migration              Connor et al.
                                                                                                          1999b
    Seagull            Beaver dam                         Barrier to fish passage below the lakes         Connor et al.
    Creek                                                                                                 1999
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.




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Mining

A relatively high number of mining claims are documented in this watershed. To the best of our
knowledge, no significant mining activities have occurred on the claims in this watershed. As well,
Lipovsky et al. (2001) shows no record of significant mechanized placer mining operations in the area but
Connor et al. (1999b) states that mining and logging has occurred or was ongoing in the Sidney Creek
drainage. A list of the areas with existing or potential activity is as follows:

    •   Extensive placer and quartz mining claims in the upper reaches of Sidney Creek.
    •   Extensive placer and quartz mining claims throughout Evelyn Creek, Iron Creek and Sydney
        Creek.
    •   Mining and Forestry near Sydney Creek.

3.4.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.21 lists areas where little data is available.

Table 3.21. Significant data gaps identified.
                                         Significant Data Gaps
 Adult and juvenile chinook salmon utilization of habitats upstream of Nisutlin Lake is unknown.
 Chinook rearing habitat potential and usage in the smaller tributaries of the Nisutlin River drainage is
 unknown.
 Freshwater fish distributions and diversity are not well documented in both the Nisutlin and its
 tributaries.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature potential projects that we
feel could be conducted in the Nisutlin River watershed are listed below:

    •   Fix problem culverts along the Canol Road.
    •   Investigate possible natural channel instability on Evelyn Creek.
    •   Investigate the impacts of historical mining and forestry development near Sidney Creek.




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Figure 6. Nisutlin River watershed map.




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3.5 Big Salmon River Watershed

The Big Salmon River watershed includes the portion of the Big Salmon River within the Teslin Tlingit
Traditional Territory and all tributaries to this section of river including Quiet Lake (Figure 7). There is
road access to the upper portion of the watershed via the South Canol Road.

3.5.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

A study conducted by Osborne (2002) in the headwaters of the Big Salmon River found that this system is
a significant spawning area for chinook salmon. These findings are also supported by DFO aerial survey
counts that have been conducted on this system for more than 30 years, with counts as high as 3075 in
2003 (Milligan pers. com. 2003). High concentrations of spawning chinook were identified from Souch
Creek confluence to Big Salmon Lake (Wilson et al. 1996b). Table 3.22 indicates all species documented
within this watershed.

Table 3.22. Fish species documented in the Big Salmon River watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon
 Freshwater game fish species           round whitefish, lake whitefish, arctic grayling, northern
                                        pike, burbot, lake trout
Other fish species                      longnose sucker, lake chub, lake cisco, least cisco, pygmy
                                        whitefish


Table 3.23 lists streams within this watershed and their identified uses when documented. For more
detailed descriptions of the fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to
Appendix B

Table 3.23. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                     Chum                        Freshwater
  Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                   Spawning                        species
  Big Salmon River            3                                                                      3
  Scurvy Creek                3                    3
  Caribou Creek                                    3
  Sheep Creek                                      3
  Moose Creek                                      3
  Souch Creek                                      3
  Quiet Lake                                                                                          3
  Bat Creek
  Brown Creek
  Crater Creek
  Granite Creek
1
  Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Aerial surveys have identified the major salmon spawning locations within the Big Salmon River, as well
as the extent to which salmon are distributed in this river; however, little is known about the quality of
rearing habitats in the tributaries to the Big Salmon River. As well, only a small amount of effort has been

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directed toward identifying freshwater species diversity and investigating those factors limiting fisheries
distributions. The overall level of knowledge within this system was found to be low to moderate.

3.5.2 Resource Use

Recreational fishing has been documented in this watershed (Table 3.24).

Table 3.24. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Big Salmon River watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                           Data Source
 Recreational Quiet Lake - lake trout, Arctic grayling, northern pike, whitefish Yukon Environment
 Fishery                    sp. and burbot                                       2003

 Recreational Due to high use by boaters and canoeists it is likely that the Big          N/A
 Fishery                   Salmon River is fished regularly


3.5.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

No known obstructions to fish passage have been documented in this watershed; however, this is likely a
result of a lack of existing data.

Mining

Very little mining activity has been documented in the Big Salmon watershed with the exception of a
small number of claims in the upper drainage, in high elevations near Moose Creek. To the best of our
knowledge, no significant mining activities have occurred on the claims in this watershed. As well,
Lipovsky et al. (2001) shows no record of significant mechanized placer mining operations in the area.

3.5.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.25 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.25. Data gaps in the Big Salmon watershed.
                                         Significant Data Gaps
 The extent of utilization of medium to small tributary streams by chinook salmon is unknown.
 Freshwater diversity within this watershed in not well studied.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature, some potential projects
that could be conducted in the Big Salmon watershed are listed below:

    •   Due to the relative importance of this system (i.e. the high numbers of returning chinook salmon)
        there has been some interest in developing more detailed counts (i.e. weir or sonar) on the Big
        Salmon River (Milligan pers. comm. 2003).
    •   Conduct juvenile chinook salmon sampling and habitat assessments on the tributary streams to the
        Big Salmon River.




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Figure 7. Big Salmon River watershed map.




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3.6 Swift River Watershed

The Swift River flows south from its headwaters in the Yukon Territory; from there it flows southeast into
British Columbia to the southern end of Teslin Lake (Figure 8). The Alaska Highway runs through the
middle portion of the watershed.

3.6.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

A study conducted by Wilson (2002) indicates that the majority of spawning chinook in the Swift River
were observed in the reaches between the confluence of the Smart River and Swan Lake. Examination of
the habitat between Swift Lake and the confluence with the Smart River revealed no suitable chinook
spawning habitat (Wilson 1999b). Chinook salmon habitat reconnaissance surveys conducted by Wilson
(2002) on the Swift River between the mouth and the outlet of Swan Lake revealed low numbers of
spawning and rearing chinook in this portion of river. Wilson (2002) suggests that high levels of boat
activity around spawning times may be contributing to these low numbers and that future studies should
examine the possible impacts of boating activity on spawning habitat and egg to larval survival. Wilson
(2002) also recommended that the length of chinook residency in the Swift River as well as investigations
into the use of its tributaries by juvenile chinook should be explored in future studies. All species
documented within the Swift River watershed are listed in Table 3.26.

Table 3.26. Fish species documented in the Swift River watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon

 Freshwater game fish species                  Arctic grayling, dolly varden, lake whitefish, round
                                               whitefish, lake trout, burbot, northern pike
 Other fish species                            slimy sculpin, sucker (general)

Table 3.27 lists streams within this watershed and their identified uses when data was available. For more
detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to
Appendix B.




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Table 3.27. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                     Chum                               Freshwater
  Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                   Spawning                               species
  Swift River                 3                                                                             3
  Screw Creek                 3
  Smart River                 3                                                                             3
  Logjam Creek                3                    3                                                        3
  Pine Lake                                                                                                 3
  Coconino Creek
  Hook Creek
  Redfish Creek
  McNaughton
                              3
  Creek
  Nome Creek
  Plate Creek
  Partridge Creek
  Seagull Creek
1
  Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Salmon distributions and spawning locations have been identified in the lower Swift River, but the upper
portion of the drainage has received little attention. Rearing habitats are documented in many of the
major tributaries to the Swift River, but no studies were found for smaller streams. Knowledge of
freshwater fish species in this system is limited to streams investigated for pipeline studies and as such
species diversity of freshwater fish is not well known. Overall the level of knowledge was found to be low
to moderate.

3.6.2 Resource Use

Recreational fishing has been documented in this watershed (Table 3.28).

Table 3.28. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Swift watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                                             Data Source
 Recreational Swift River - Arctic grayling and bull trout                                         Yukon Environment
 Fishery                                                                                           2003


3.6.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

Those streams with known passage concerns are listed in Table 3.29.

Table 3.29. Known obstructions to fish passage in the Swift River watershed.
 Stream        Obstruction             Comments                                                     Data Source / ID1
 McNaughton Falls act as barriers      5 miles upstream from mouth                                  Tobler 2003
 Creek                                                                                              / TTC316
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.




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Mining

Quartz mining claims do exist within this watershed but to the best of our knowledge no significant
mining activities have taken place on these claims. The locations where claims exist are listed below:

    •   Quartz mining claims in the upper Swift River near Daughney Lake and in the headwaters of
        Seagull Creek. Additional claims may be present in the British Columbia portion of this
        watershed.

3.6.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.30 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.30. Significant identified data gaps.
                                           Significant Data Gaps
 Salmon resources in the upper portion of the watershed, including salmon distributions and habitat
 utilization are not well studied.
 Freshwater fisheries diversity in this watershed in not well known.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature potential projects that could
be conducted in the Nisutlin River watershed are listed below:

    •   Undertake beaver management and monitoring on the easily accessible areas within the Swift
        Drainage.
    •   Assess culverts associated with Alaska Highway crossing locations along the Swift River.
    •   Assess road crossings along the access road crossing the Swift River near Daughney Lake.
    •   Undertake chinook assessments on the upper Swift River.
    •   Assess the impacts of jet boating on Swift River chinook habitat and incubation.




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Figure 8. Swift River watershed map.




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3.7 Jennings River Watershed

This watershed is located entirely within British Columbia where it flows from it headwaters in the
southern Cassiar Mountains in a northwest direction, eventually flowing into Teslin Lake (Figure 9).
There is no road access to this watershed.

3.7.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

During the 1999 aerial surveys, the highest concentrations of adult chinook salmon were observed just
upstream of the confluence of Kachook Creek and 1.3 miles downstream of the confluence with Snook
Creek (Wilson 1999b). In general, very little information regarding fish distributions was found for this
watershed. All species documented within the Jennings River watershed are listed in Table 3.31.

Table 3.31. Fish species documented in Jennings River watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon
 Freshwater game fish species           -
 Other fish species                     -

As shown in Table 3.32 very little data exists for the majority of the streams in the Jennings River
watershed. For more detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of
information refer to Appendix B.

Table 3.32. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                     Chum                        Freshwater
  Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                   Spawning                        species
  Jennings River              3
  Kachook Creek
  Snooke Creek
  Aconitum Creek
  Shownektaw
  Creek
  Sheephorn Creek
  Tahoots Creek
  Klikit Creek
  Butsih Creek
  Kahan Creek
  Chokatah Creek
  Blackfly Creek
  Ash Creek
  Parallel Creek
  Oblique Creek
1
  Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

It is known that salmon spawn within the Jennings River, but specific spawning sites and the extent to
which they migrate upstream are not well documented. No studies regarding juvenile salmon rearing
locations or available habitat were found for this system, nor was any information about species diversity

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and limitations to fish migration discovered. The overall level of knowledge available for this watershed
was found to be low.

3.7.2 Resource Use

One historic First Nation fish harvest location has been identified in this watershed (Table 3.33).

Table 3.33. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Jennings River watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                      Data Source
 First Nation Chinook Salmon have been harvested in the lower half-mile of  Tobler 2003
 Fishery      the Jennings River at a family fish camp.


3.7.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

Little has been documented about the fisheries resources within this watershed, and as such no known
fisheries obstructions were identified.

Development

No development has been documented in this watershed however mining claims (registered in BC) may
be present.

3.7.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.34 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.34. Significant data gaps identified.
                                           Significant Data Gaps
 Little is known about the extent and distribution of chinook salmon in the Jennings River nor are the
 high quality salmon spawning locations identified.
 Usage of the tributaries to the Jennings River by juvenile salmon is not well studied.
 Freshwater species diversity and distributions are not well known within this system.

While there is a limited amount of data available for this watershed, the relative isolation and lack of
development likely precludes the need for any major projects. The exception may be the collection of
baseline data, using this watershed as a control in the long term monitoring of chinook stocks.




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Figure 9. Jennings River watershed map.




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3.8 Boswell River Watershed

The Boswell River flows into the Teslin River approximately 95 km downstream of Johnson’s Crossing.
This relatively small watershed drains from the west and is located entirely within the Teslin Tlingit
Traditional Territory (Figure 10).

3.8.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

An impassable falls with a series of smaller waterfalls and chutes exists in the lower section of this river
(approximately 5 km upstream of mouth) and as such there is no access to reaches upstream by chinook
salmon. Due to a lack of investigation, very little information is available for the Boswell River
watershed. Table 3.35 indicates all fish species documented within the Boswell River watershed.

Table 3.35. All known species within this watershed.
 Category                                 Common Name
 Salmon species                           chinook salmon
 Freshwater game fish species             Arctic grayling
 Other fish species                       -

Table 3.36 lists streams within this watershed and their identified uses when documented. For more
detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to
Appendix B.

Table 3.36. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                             Chinook                                 Chum                        Freshwater
  Stream Name                                Chinook rearing
                            spawning                               Spawning                        species
  Boswell River                 3                                                                    3
  Bull Creek
  Little Bear Creek
  Falls Creek
  Slate Creek
  Wiley Creek
  Red Mountain Creek
1
  Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Almost no investigation into fish distributions and habitat utilization has occurred in the Boswell River
watershed and therefore very little is known about fisheries resources. The overall level of knowledge in
this watershed was found to be was found to be low.

3.8.2 Resource Use

Table 3.37 outlines documented resource use in this watershed.




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Table 3.37. Summary of resource use in the Boswell River watershed.
 Location     Comments                                                                                         Data Source1
 Boswell      Mineralized, eventual development is likely                                                     von Finster
 River                                                                                                        1996

3.8.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

Due to a series of falls and chutes located in the lower portion of the Boswell River, the majority of this
watershed is not accessible to migrating salmon (Table 3.38). It is not known if there is a resident
population of fish upstream of this barrier.

Table 3.38. Known obstructions to fish passage.
 Stream        Obstruction              Comments                                                   Data Source / ID1
 Boswell River Falls and chutes         Approximately 5 km                                         Tobler 2003
                                        upstream of mouth.                                         / TTC352
1
    where applicable; ID numbers can be used to find the location on the map for this watershed.

Mining

Quartz mining claims are documented in this watershed but to the best of our knowledge none are active
at this time. As well, Lipovsky et al. (2001) shows no record of significant mechanized placer mining
operations in the area. A list of the areas with existing or potential activity is as follows:

       •    Quartz mining claims in the upper portion of Boswell River.
       •    Future mineral development is likely throughout the watershed (Tobler 2003).

3.8.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.39 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.39. Significant data gaps identified.
                                         Significant Data Gaps
 Salmon distributions and high quality spawning and rearing locations are unknown below the falls.
 Information on freshwater fish diversity is lacking throughout the watershed.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature potential projects that could
be conducted in the Boswell watershed are listed below:

       •    Determine fish presence upstream of the falls. The results may lead to interest in a preliminary
            investigation into creating access into this watershed for chinook salmon.




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Figure 10. Boswell River watershed map.




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3.9 Wolf River Watershed

The Wolf River watershed flows southeast into the Nisutlin Rivers approximately 7 km upstream of
Nisutlin Bay (Figure 11).

3.9.1 Fish Distribution and Habitat

An abundance of fish habitat exists within the Wolf River watershed and it is known to contain a diversity
of fish species (Strachan 1999). Aerial surveys conducted by DFO on this river for over 30 years indicate
moderate numbers of returning chinook (compared to the other rivers in the area). Strachan (1999)
suggests that spawning habitat is underutilized and that the Wolf River could potentially support a larger
chinook population. Those species of fish documented in the Wolf River watershed are shown in Table
3.40.

Table 3.40. Fish species documented in Wolf River watershed.
 Category                               Common Name
 Salmon species                         chinook salmon
 Freshwater game fish species           lake trout, Arctic grayling, round whitefish, slimy sculpin,
                                        burbot, lake whitefish, northern pike, whitefish general
 Other fish species                     white sucker, longnose sucker

Table 3.41 lists streams within this watershed their identified uses when data was available. For more
detailed descriptions of fish species found in each stream as well as the sources of information refer to
Appendix B.

Table 3.41. Streams1 documented to contain fish species and their associated use.
                                                                    Chum                         Freshwater
 Stream Name         Chinook spawning Chinook rearing
                                                                  Spawning                         species
 Wolf River                 3                     3                                                  3
 Red River                  3                                                                        3
 Caribou Creek
 English Creek
 Red Creek
 Eagle Nest Creek
 Rain Fish Creek
 Trout Creek
 Irvine Creek               3
1
    Only streams with names appearing on 1:250,000 topographic maps are included.

Studies have identified chinook spawning in the mainstem Wolf River as far upstream as the outlet of
Wolf Lake, but exact locations have not been well documented. Very little is known about rearing
habitats in the tributaries to this system or the distributions of adult and juvenile salmon. As well, both
the limits to distribution and overall freshwater species diversity within this watershed are unstudied. The
overall level of knowledge is considered low to moderate in this watershed.




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3.9.2 Resource Use

Recreational fishing has been documented in this watershed (Table 3.42); however, the extent of fishing is
limited by the lack of road access.

Table 3.42. Summary of fisheries resource use in the Wolf River watershed.
 Use          Comments                                                                    Data Source
 Recreational Wolf Lake - lake trout, whitefish sp., Arctic grayling and                  Yukon Environment
 Fishery                   northern pike                                                  2003


3.9.3 Potential Obstructions/Constraints

As is common in the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory, beaver activity has been documented as a
possible barrier to fish passage. Those streams with known passage concerns are listed in Table 3.43.

Table 3.43. Known obstructions to fish passage.
    Stream          Obstruction                  Comments                                  Data Source
 Red River     Beaver dams              Possible barrier (general                 N/A
                                        locations)

Mining

Quartz mining claims are documented in this watershed but to the best of our knowledge none are active
at this time. As well, Lipovsky et al. (2001) shows no record of significant mechanized placer mining
operations in the area. A list of the areas with existing activity is as follows:

    •   Quartz claims downstream of Fish Lake.

3.9.4 Data Gaps and Potential Projects

Table 3.44 lists data gaps that were felt to be significant.

Table 3.44. Significant data gaps identified.
                                         Significant Data Gaps
 High quality salmon rearing locations within the watershed have not been determined.
 The extent of salmon migration within the system has not been looked at.

Based on reviewed information and recommendations from existing literature, potential projects that
could be conducted in the Wolf watershed are listed below:

    •   Undertake assessment of crossings along the winter road running along the Wolf River to
        determine fish passage and erosion concerns.
    •   Investigate beaver activity on the Red River.
    •   Determine if jet boats on the Wolf River have an impact on chinook salmon habitat.




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Figure 11. Wolf River watershed map.




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4.0 DISCUSSION

Although the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory is located in the upper watershed of the Yukon River
watershed, many of the watercourses are utilized by salmon. Throughout this project, chinook salmon
have been found in all of the nine major watersheds within the Traditional Territory and appear to be only
absent where barriers exist or habitats are not suitable.

Results from this report show that development within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory is mainly
limited to the area around the Alaska Highway corridor, while most of the remaining Traditional Territory
has had no or only low intensity development. As the majority of the watersheds within this region are
still intact, the Teslin Tlingit are in a unique situation in that they have an opportunity to manage salmon
populations within a natural system that is, for the most part, un-impacted by development 1.       By using
the information contained within this report and building upon it through future projects, the Teslin
Tlingit can help to manage salmon populations by identifying the distribution and diversity of salmon
within a specific area of the Traditional Territory before development occurs. With this knowledge the
Teslin Tlingit can provide input into development projects with the fisheries resource in mind, in order to
ensure its protection.

Although gaps in data are outlined within this report, it may not be necessary to pursue projects that seek
to fill these gaps until development is planned or likely. In the case that development is likely for a
particular area, data collection should occur so that managers can be fully aware of the potential effects
posed by a specific development.

4.1 Significant Issues

Several issues were identified in many of the nine major watersheds within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional
Territory. Some specific issues applicable to a variety of areas within the Traditional Territory are
discussed below.

Culvert Barriers

Road crossings associated with the Alaska Highway and the Canol Road are limiting access into the upper
portions of some creeks in a few of the watersheds. These blockages can effectively result in the isolation
of large areas of fish habitat by eliminating access. In many situations this lost habitat can be regained
through the use of procedures such as culvert retrofit, replacement or other means of restoring fish
passage. As this problem can be easily resolved in many instances and the current impacts on the
fisheries resource is high, it is recommended that the development of mechanisms to address these issues
be a high priority.

Beaver Activity

Due to high levels of documented beaver activity within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory, beaver
dam issues were found to be significant. Restoration of habitat through beaver monitoring and possible
dam removal in areas where beaver activity is directly impacting fisheries populations may be desirable.

1
  It should be noted that impacts of salmon harvest downstream of Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory were not considered in
the scope of this report; however, likely has a large impact on the amount of salmon (adults and juveniles) using the available
habitat.
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However, this means of habitat enhancement should only be conducted in a well thought out manner
where a clear benefit will result. Wilson (2003) conducted investigations into beaver management
options on Deadman Creek (a tributary to Teslin Lake) and found that a variety of complex factors needed
to be investigated before successful beaver management could occur, and that these factors where highly
site specific. Before any intense management takes place a clear strategy should be developed.

Boat Activity

The use of jet boats as a means of travel occurs within the Yukon, but the impacts on the fisheries
resources have not been well studied. Wilson (2002) suggests that boating activity on the Swift River
downstream of Swan Lake may be negatively affecting chinook salmon egg to fry survival. Further
investigation through a literature review of the affects of jet boats on salmon and their habitats may be
beneficial to gain a better understanding of the potential impacts.

4.2 Significant Data Gaps

A number of reports have been produced from studies conducted within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional
Territory, but gaps in knowledge were found in some instances. The following broad level data gaps were
found to be common among multiple watersheds.

Chinook Enumeration

Through the use of a fish weir or sonar, an accurate index of chinook salmon numbers can be obtained to
more closely monitor specific stocks. Projects such as this would provide the ability to compare the
accuracy of aerial counts (and possibly radio tags) on selected systems and could also be used to collect
DNA samples. As well, a project of this nature would provide training, employment and capacity building
to local members of the community of Teslin, such as with the involvement of the Stewardship Crew.
Due to interests expressed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and agencies in Alaska (due to high
numbers of returning chinook) the Big Salmon River may be a good candidate for such a project. As
well, the TTC has expressed interest in alternative sites such as the Morley and Nisutlin Rivers while
Connor et al. (1999b) suggests that the Wolf River near its confluence with the Nisutlin River as a
suitable weir site.

Chinook Habitat Usage

There is a limited amount of information available about chinook rearing locations and population
dynamics in many of the watersheds within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory. Investigations into
the extent of juvenile rearing and habitat qualities within these watersheds would help to address this data
gap. As well possible constraints to chinook salmon movement should be determined so that
restoration/enhancement works could be planned. A project of this nature would also act to build
capacity, provide training, stewardship and employment opportunities for Teslin Tlingit citizens.
Examples of watersheds where further investigation would be needed if developments were likely to
occur include the Jennings, Swift, Gladys and Morley Rivers.

Condition of Culverts

As multiple Alaska Highway culverts in several of the nine major watersheds outlined in this report were
identified as having problems, further investigations into the validity of these concerns should be
undertaken. When information about these crossings is collected, those that do not pose a concern can be
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put aside while future restoration strategies can be developed for site-specific problems and conditions
when they do exist. For example, culverts associated with several streams along the South Canol Road
have been identified as barriers to fish passage (Connor et al. 1999b). Investigations conducted by
Laberge Environmental Services (2002) identified three high priority culverts including those located at
Murphy, Cottonwood and Groundhog Creeks. The Laberge Environmental Services (2002) report
presents findings from the assessments of those culverts and provides possible fish passage restoration
techniques for each of the highest priority crossings. This process could be used for other culvert
locations outlined in this report such as those found in the upper Teslin, Morley and Swift River
drainages.

4.3 Recommendations

During the production of this report it was realized that a high number of relatively small issues and
concerns have been identified within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory. Many of these issues were
identified either through general comments made by researchers or by local citizens. As a high
percentage of these issues are only of probable concern and have not been substantiated, it is difficult for
managers to develop management plans. One possible remedy to this problem may be to employ existing
resources such as the Teslin River Sub-basin Community Stewardship Program (Stewardship Crew),
under the direction of qualified consultants and TTC managers, to investigate any issues that are
identified so that the true nature of the problems are known. The Stewardship Crew could relay this
information to managers who could in tern develop best management strategies if any are required. For
example, this report provides an excellent starting point for a current list of identified issues that may
need investigation. The TTC should, on a regular basis, develop an updated list of issues that need to be
investigated for each watershed. This updated list would serve as a work plan for future projects as well
as to serve as a foundation to be used to assign priorities to specific areas.

As it is very important to keep track of all potential issues and concerns and their status, it is highly
recommended that all newly collected information be added to the maps and tables contained within this
report. This will enable the TTC to build on existing knowledge and allow present and future managers to
strategically seek projects that are best suited to answering questions about relevant natural resource
development issues within the Traditional Territory.




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5.0 LITERATURE CITED

Baker, S.A. 1979. A survey of environmental mercury concentrations in Yukon Territory. Department of
    Environment.

Barton, L.H. 1986. Outside trip report, 1986 salmon surveys. State of Alaska Department of Fish and
     Game. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Library, Whitehorse Yukon. Memorandum.

Barton, L.H. 1987. Outside trip report, 1987 salmon surveys. State of Alaska Department of Fish and
     Game. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Library, Whitehorse Yukon. Memorandum.

Barton, L.H. 1990. Outside trip report, 1990 salmon surveys. State of Alaska Department of Fish and
     Game. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Library, Whitehorse Yukon. Memorandum.

Beak Consultants Ltd. 1978. A summary of fisheries investigations into water bodies within the
    influence of the proposed Alaska Hwy Pipeline in Yukon Territory.

Beak Consultants Ltd. 1977. A survey of fall spawning fish species in water bodies within the influence
    of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline.

Beak Consultants Ltd. 1980. Summary of fisheries investigations of new crossing locations, Alaska
   Highway gas pipeline, Yukon Territory, 1979.

Blakley A.C., W.B. Griffiths, M.E. Jarvis, J. McKenzie, and K.K. English. 1999. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 1998. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin harvest Study Steering
     Committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

Blakley A.C., M.E. Jarvis, J. McKenzie, , K.K. English, and W.B. Griffiths. 2000. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 1999. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin Harvest Study Steering
     Committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

Blakley A.C., M.E. Jarvis, J. McKenzie, , K.K. English, and W.B. Griffiths. 2001. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 2000. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin Harvest Study Steering
     Committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

Blakley A.C., J. McKenzie, M.E. Jarvis, K.K. English, and W.B. Griffiths. 2002. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 2001. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin harvest study steering
     committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

Connor, M., P. Sparling, B. Burns, K. Nordin, S.P. Withers, and J. Cox. 1997 or 1998. Chinook
    salmon assessment and restoration/enhancement options for selected tributaries of the Teslin River,
    1997. White Mountain Environmental Consulting in association with the Teslin Tlingit Council and
    Laberge Environmental Services.

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Connor, M., P. Sparling, and G. Sidney. 1999a. Fisheries investigations into bull trout distribution in
    the Swift and Morley Rivers, Yukon Territory 1999. White Mountain Environmental Consulting in
    association with the Teslin Tlingit Council.

Connor, M., P. Sparling, K. Nordin, B. Burns, and S.P. Withers. 1999b. Chinook salmon assessment
    and restoration/enhancement options for selected tributaries of the Nisutlin River and Teslin Lake
    Drainages, 1998. White Mountain Environmental Consulting in association with the Teslin Tlingit
    Council and Laberge Environmental Services.

CYFN 2002. Website: http://www.cyfn.ca/ourNations/index.html. Visited: July 22, 2002.

Department of Environment Fisheries and Marine Service. 1973. Catalogue of fish and stream
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DFO stream files. Unpublished information located at Fisheries and Oceans Canada – Habitat and
   Enhancement Branch. Whitehorse, YT.

Eby, P.A. 1977. Potential impacts of gas pipeline construction and operation on use and value of Yukon
     fisheries. Department of Fisheries and Environment.

English, K.K., W.B. Griffiths A.C. Gurak, M.E. Jarvis, and J. McKenzie. 1997. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 1996. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin harvest Study Steering
     Committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

English, K.K., W.B. Griffiths A.C. Gurak, M.E. Jarvis, and J. McKenzie. 1998. Yukon River
     Drainage Basin harvest study 1997. Prepared for: Yukon River Basin harvest Study Steering
     Committee, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Council of the Yukon First Nations. Prepared by LGL
     Limited.

Environment      Canada.        2003.      Species     at     Risk    web     page                 located    at
     http://www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/search/speciesDetails_e.cfm?SpeciesID=120

Environmental Management Associates. 1982. Enumeration of spawning salmon in aquatic systems
     along the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline in Southern Yukon Territory, 1981.

Environmental Management Associates. 1981. Spring fisheries investigations of selected watercourses
     along the Alaska Highway gas pipeline in Southern Yukon Territory, September 1981.

Environmental Management Associates. 1980. Winter studies of aquatic systems along the Alaska
     Highway Gas Pipeline in Southern Yukon Territory-Nisutlin Bay Area (KP 586 to KP 649).

Fish Inventory Summary System (FISS). 2003. Website located at http://habitat.rhq.pac.dfo-
     mpo.gc.ca/cfdocs/fiss/dcf01.cfm

Hunka, R.L., and D.J. Schuler. 1988. Abundance, distribution, habitat utilization, and habitat
    preference of juvenile chinook salmon.



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Laberge Environmental Services. 2002. Restoration of fish passage at selected culverts on the Canol
    Road, phase II.

Lipovsky, P., W. LeBarge, J. Bond, and G. Lowey. 2001. Yukon placer activity map (1:1,000,000),
     2001. Exploration and Geological Services Division, Yukon, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada,
     Open File 2001-34.

Milligan, P.A, W.O. Rublee, D.D. Cornett, and R.A.C. Johnson. 1986. The distribution and
     abundance of chum salmon in the upper Yukon River Basin determined by a radio tagging and
     spaghetti tagging program.

Milligan, P., and L. Boyce. 1998. Steam inspection log 10:10-12:45. Department of Fisheries and
     Oceans. Stream Files.

Milligan, P. 2003. Table created from data provided by Stock Assessment, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
     Whitehorse, YT.

Osborne, C. Radio tracking chinook salmon in the upper Yukon River basin. Newsletter.

Rogerson, R. 1960a. Fisheries officer. Statistics Wolverine Lake. Department of Fisheries and Oceans
    Library, Whitehorse Yukon.

Rogerson, R. 1960b. Fisheries officer. Statistics McNeil Lake. Department of Fisheries and Oceans
    Library, Whitehorse Yukon.

Smarch, K. and R.L. Jackson. 1995. Stream inspection log. Department of Fisheries and Oceans.
    Stream Files.

Sparling, P., and M. Connor. 2002. Deadman Creek salmon winter utilization investigation. White
     Mountain Environmental Consulting.

Sparling, P., M. Connor, and G. Sidney. 1999. Fisheries investigations into the Hermit Lake Drainage,
     and assessment of Arctic grayling stocks, 1999. White Mountain Environmental Consulting in
     association with the Teslin Tlingit Council.

Strachan, M. 1999. Wolf lake area, Yukon wildlands study. Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society in
     cooperation with the Teslin Tlingit Council and the Teslin Renewable Resources Council.

Tobler, P. 2003. Salmon Information Gathering Workshop for the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory –
     June 24-25, 2002. Environmental Dynamics Inc.

von Finster, A. 1989. Technical officer, Habitat Branch, Department of Fisheries and Oceans,
    Whitehorse Yukon. Stream Files.

von Finster, A. 1996. Senior habitat biologist. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Memorandum.
      Stream Files.

von Finster, A. 1998. Fish sampling – Tributaries in the Teslin Area. Department of Fisheries and
      Oceans. Memorandum. Stream Files.
EDI Project # 605-02                       Environmental Dynamics Inc                                         48
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


von Finster, A. 1999. Spawning streams – GY southern lakes planning area. Department of Fisheries and
       Oceans. Memorandum. Stream Files.

Walker, C.E. 1976. Studies on the Freshwater and Anadromous Fishes of the Yukon River within
    Canada. Fisheries and Marine Service, Environment Canada, Northern BC and Yukon, Pacific
    Region.

Wilson, J. 1993. A summary of the aboriginal fishery catches of salmon in the Yukon and Northern B.C.
      division, 1993. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Yukon and B.C. divisions.

Wilson, J., and I. Boyce. 1996a. Steam inspection log 18:20-1934. Department of Fisheries and Oceans.
     Stream Files.

Wilson, J., and I. Boyce. 1996b.          Steam inspection log 10:44-15:10. Department of Fisheries and
     Oceans. Stream Files.

Wilson, J. 1997. Investigations of the Morley, Jennings, and upper Teslin Rivers and stream habitat
     assessment of Deadman Creek. Teslin Tlingit Council 1997 Fisheries Field Projects.

Wilson, J. 1999a. Gladys River chinook salmon habitat survey and chinook salmon spawner aerial
     surveys – Morley, Jennings and upper Teslin Rivers. Teslin Tlingit Council 1998 AFS Fisheries
     Projects.

Wilson, J. 1999b. Chinook salmon spawner aerial surveys – Morley, Jennings, upper Teslin, Gladys,
     and Swift Rivers. Teslin Tlingit Council 1999 AFS Fisheries Projects.

Wilson, J. 2000. Fisheries investigations and chinook salmon habitat survey of the Gladys River
     downstream of Gladys Lake and adult chinook salmon aerial surveys of the Morley, Jennings,
     Gladys, and Swift Rivers. Teslin Tlingit Council 2000 AFS Fisheries Projects.

Wilson, J. 2002. Fisheries investigations and chinook salmon habitat reconnaissance survey of the Swift
     River, Northern British Columbia and aerial adult chinook salmon enumeration surveys of the
     Morley and Swift Rivers. Teslin Tlingit Council 2001 AFS Fisheries Projects.

Wilson, J. 2003. Beaver Management in Deadman Creek. Prepared for the Teslin Tlingit Council.

Yukon    Environment.      2003.      Yukon        Fishing                  web        page        located    at
    www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/yukonfishing/fishare.html




EDI Project # 605-02                       Environmental Dynamics Inc                                         49
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Milligan, P. 2003. Personal Communication. Stock Assessment Biologist. Fisheries and Ocean
     Canada, Whitehorse, YT. Telephone conversations and emails with P.Tobler. September 17 to
     October 9, 2003.

Wilson, J. 2003. Personal Communication. Email to P.Tobler. Dated November 7, 2003.

von Finster, A. 2004. Personal Communication. Comments made during the review of Compilation and
      Mapping of Fisheries Information in the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory. 2003.




EDI Project # 605-02                       Environmental Dynamics Inc                                         50
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03




                                               Appendix A
                       Graphs of aerial counts since the late 1960’s and early 1970’s
                                     (Adapted from Milligan 2003).




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03




                                                Nisutlin River

                       1800
                       1600
                       1400
       Aerial Counts




                       1200
                       1000
                        800
                        600
                        400
                        200

                          0
                              1967
                              1968
                              1969
                              1970
                              1971
                              1972
                              1973
                              1974
                              1975
                              1976
                              1977
                              1978
                              1979
                              1980
                              1981
                              1982
                              1983
                              1984
                              1985
                              1986
                              1987
                              1988
                              1989
                              1990
                              1991
                              1992
                              1993
                              1994
                              1995
                              1996
                              1997
                              1998
                              1999
                              2000
                              2001
                              2002
                              2002
                              2003
                              2003
                              2004
*2002 surveys are average counts and were conducted on August 16 and 23. 2003 surveys are average counts conducted on
August 17 and 23 (Milligan 2003).



                                           Big Salmon River

                       3500

                       3000

                       2500
    Aerial Counts




                       2000

                       1500

                       1000

                       500

                         0
                              1967
                              1968
                              1969
                              1970
                              1971
                              1972
                              1973
                              1974
                              1975
                              1976
                              1977
                              1978
                              1979
                              1980
                              1981
                              1982
                              1983
                              1984
                              1985
                              1986
                              1987
                              1988
                              1989
                              1990
                              1991
                              1992
                              1993
                              1994
                              1995
                              1996
                              1997
                              1998
                              1999
                              2000
                              2001
                              2002
                              2002
                              2003
                              2003
                              2004




*2002 surveys are average counts and were conducted on August 16 and 23. 2003 surveys are average counts conducted on
August 17 and 23 (Milligan 2003).


EDI Project # 605-02                         Environmental Dynamics Inc                                                 52
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03




                                                 Wolf River

                   800

                   700

                   600
   Aerial Counts




                   500

                   400

                   300

                   200

                   100

                    0
                         1967
                         1968
                         1969
                         1970
                         1971
                         1972
                         1973
                         1974
                         1975
                         1976
                         1977
                         1978
                         1979
                         1980
                         1981
                         1982
                         1983
                         1984
                         1985
                         1986
                         1987
                         1988
                         1989
                         1990
                         1991
                         1992
                         1993
                         1994
                         1995
                         1996
                         1997
                         1998
                         1999
                         2000
                         2001
                         2002
                         2002
                         2003
                         2003
                         2004
*2002 surveys are average counts and were conducted on August 16 and 23. 2003 surveys are average counts conducted on
August 17 and 23 (Milligan 2003).




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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03




                                         Appendix B
     Known salmon spawning and rearing streams and waterbodies documented to be used by
                      freshwater fish species for each major watershed.

                  Please note species codes are defined on the maps and ID numbers are
                     intended to allow for cross referencing to locations on the maps.




EDI Project # 605-02                       Environmental Dynamics Inc                                         54
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                                      LOWER TESLIN WATERSHED
                                     Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #         Stream             Location                    Comments                           Data Source
 TTC61        Teslin River       Upstream of Johnson’s crossing   CH                        FISS 2003
 TTC63        Teslin River       Below Mary River, just below     Three main CHa spawning   DFO stream files
                                 Boswell River, and two miles     areas
                                 below Johnson’s Crossing
 N/A          Teslin River       Entire Drainage                  Extremely poor CHa        Barton 1987
                                                                  escapements based on 8
                                                                  years of surveys
 TTC215       Teslin River       Near confluence with Boswell     CM                        Milligan et al. 1986
                                 River
 TTC54        Teslin River       General                          CM                        DFO stream files 1998
 TTC216       Teslin River       Big Eddie above Boswell River    CM                        DFO stream files
 N/A          Teslin River       Approximately 3 km upstream      Longest recorded chum     DFO stream files 1998
                                 of the mouth of Boswell River    salmon migration
 N/A          Teslin River       General                          CM, CHa                   Beak Consultants 1978
 TTC271       Sheldon Creek      Near confluence with Teslin      CM                        FISS 2003
                                 River
 TTC340       Squanga Creek      lower section below falls        CHa                       Tobler 2003
 TTC341       Swift River        General                          CHa                       Tobler 2003
                                      Known Chinook Rearing Streams
 ID #         Stream             Location                      Comments                         Data Source
 TTC53        Dave Creek         General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
 TC51         Hundred Mile       General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
              Creek
 TTC55        Wilson Creek       General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
 TTC240       Squanga Creek      General                          CHj abundant              Beak Consultants Ltd
                                                                                            1978
 TTC57        Squanga Creek      General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
 TTC60        Muskrat Creek      General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
 TTC104       Swift River        lower 1.2 km of the river        CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
              (lower Teslin
              tributary)
 TTC50        Swift      River   Near mouth                       CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
              (lower Teslin
              tributary)
 TTC241       Sheldon Creek      Near confluence with Teslin      CHj                       FISS 2003
                                 River

 TTC62        Meadow Creek       General                          CHj                       Connor et al. 1997
Lower Teslin Continued…




EDI Project # 605-02                          Environmental Dynamics Inc                                           55
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                              LOWER TESLIN WATERSHED CONTINUED…
                             Streams known to contain species other than salmon.
    ID #        Stream           Location                         Comments                               Data Source
    TTC51       Hundred Mile      General                             GR, CCG                        Connor et al. 1997
                Creek
    TTC52       Hundred Mile      General                             CCG                            Connor et al. 1999(b)
                Creek
    TTC55       Wilson Creek      General                             CCG, LSU, GR                   Connor et al. 1997
    TTC242      Squanga Creek     General                             GR, CCG                        DFO stream files
    TTC56       Squanga Creek     General                             NP, LW, GR, CCG, BB, NP        Beak Consultants Ltd
                                                                                                     1978
    TTC58       Squanga Creek     133.51642 60.477338                 PW, BB, CCG, GR, LW            Beak Consultants Ltd
                                                                                                     1977
    TTC57       Squanga Creek     General                             CCG, LSU, RW, BB, NP, GR       Connor et al. 1997
    TTC59       Squanga Lake      General                             NP, LSU                        Baker 1979
    TTC344      Squanga Lake      General                             SQ, RW, BB, NP, GR, LW,        FISS 2003
                                                                      CCG, LT, BW, CS1
    TTC342      Little Squanga    General                             WF                             FISS 2003
                Lake
    TTC343      Little Teslin     General                             LT, WF, NP, LW, LSU, BB,       FISS 2003
                Lake                                                  CCG, SQ
    TTC53       Dave Creek        General                             BB, CCG, GR, LSU, RW           Connor et al. 1997
    TTC60       Muskrat Creek     General                             CCG, LKC, NP, RW               Connor et al. 1997
    TTC62       Meadow Creek      General                             CCG, LKC, BB, GR               Connor et al. 1997
    TTC50       Swift River       Near mouth                          GR, BB, LKC, LSU, CCG          Connor et al. 1997
                (lower Teslin
                tributary)
    TTC64       Seaforth Creek    General                             GR, DV, RW, CCG                EMA1981
    TTC65       Seaforth Creek    General                             WF, CS, LW, NP, CCG, GR        FISS 2003
    TTC353      Rosy Lake         General                             LT, GR                         FISS 2003




1
 FISS 2003 listed least cisco (CS) as being present in Squanga Lake; however, investigation of the reference listed by FISS did
not confirm this.
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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                                UPPER TESLIN WATERSHED
                  Known Chinook Spawning Streams in the upper Teslin watershed.
 ID #          Stream    Location                        Comments               Data Source
 TTC243        upper Teslin     Downstream of confluence        CHa                                   Barton 1987
               River            with Glundebery Creek
 TTC90         upper Teslin     Mouth to Hutsigola Lake         CHa                                   Wilson 1999(a),
               River                                                                                  Wilson 1997
 TTC91         upper Teslin     General                         2916 CHa survey count in 1982         DFO stream files
               River                                                                                  1982
 TTC74         Brooks           Local knowledge                 CHa                                   Tobler 2002
               Brook
 TTC70         Deadman          Local knowledge                 CHa                                   Tobler 2002
               Creek
               Deadman          Mouth to 962 meters upstream    Suitable for chinook spawning,        Wilson 1997
               Creek                                            may support a small chinook
                                                                population
 TTC88         Gladys River     Outlet of Hall Lake to first    CHa
               (Tributary to    unnamed lake downstream                                               Wilson 1999(a)
               Teslin Lake)
 TTC87         Gladys River     Outlet of first lake            CHa Small side channel provides       Wilson 1999(a)
                                downstream of Hall lake to 60   protection for juvenile chinook
                                km downstream
 TTC86         Gladys River     Mouth of river to 75 km         Dead CHa on bank                      Wilson 1999(a)
                                upstream (no obstructions to
                                fish passage were observed)
 TTC339        Hayes River      General                         CHa                                   Tobler 2003
                   Known Chinook Rearing Streams in the upper Teslin watershed.
ID #          Stream         Location                    Comments               Data Source
TC68          Brooks Brook           General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC69         Brooks Brook           General                    CHj                                   Beak Consultants
                                                                                                      1977
TTC71         Deadman Creek          Downstream of logjam-      CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
                                     provide over wintering
                                     habitat
TTC72         Deadman Creek          General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b),
                                                                                                      1998
TTC73         Deadman Creek          General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
              Deadman Creek          Immediately upstream       Multiple CHj captured from            Fax: Teslin Tlingit
                                     of the Alaska Highway      February to April                     Lands and Resources
                                     crossing
TTC83         Fat Creek              General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC84         Sterling Creek         General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC77         Grayling Creek         General                    CHj                                   EMA 1981
TTC76         Grayling Creek         General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC81         Fox Creek              General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC79         Ten Mile Creek         General                    CHj                                   Connor et al. 1999(b)
TTC75         Lone Tree Creek        General                    CHj                                   Beak Consultants Ltd
                                                                                                      1978,1977
TTC245        Lone Tree Creek        General                    Winter juvenile chinook utilization   Sparling et al. 2002
TTC89         Hayes River            General                    CHj                                   DFO stream files
Upper Teslin Continued…



EDI Project # 605-02                           Environmental Dynamics Inc                                                 57
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                        UPPER TESLIN WATERSHED CONTINUED…
                     Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #         Stream          Location                Comments              Data Source
 TTC246       Teslin Lake          General                  LT, NP, LW, BB, LSU          Baker 1979
 TTC247       Teslin Lake          General                  LW, BB, RW, LSU, LT,         DFO stream files
                                                            GR, CS, IN
 TTC66        Teslin Lake          Near outlet              AL, IN, BW, CS, BB, NP       FISS 2003
              Teslin Lake          General                  IN                           DFO stream files 1978
 TTC67        Teslin Lake          General                  GR, LW, BW, RW, CS,          Beak Consultants Ltd 1978
                                                            NP, BB, LSU, IN
 TTC85        Gladys River         “Reach 1” mouth of       Juvenile LT, BB, juvenile    Wilson 2000
                                   river                    GR
 TTC221       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        BB                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC222       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        LT                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC223       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC235       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC239       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC238       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC237       Gladys River         Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC88        Gladys River         Outlet of Hall Lake to   CCG, juvenile BB,            Wilson 1999(a)
                                   first unnamed lake       juvenile GR. Adult GR
                                   downstream               juvenile NP at outlet, WF,
                                                            GR, CS
 TTC236       Trout Lake           Fish wizard point        GR, BB                       Fish wizard 2003
 TTC231       Zonazie Creek and    Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
              tributaries
 TTC230       Unnamed Creek        Fish wizard point        GR                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC229       Snowdon Creek        Fish wizard point        BB                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC228       Unnamed Creek        Fish wizard point        BB                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC226       Unnamed Creek        Fish wizard point        BB                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC224       Unnamed Creek        Fish wizard point        LT                           Fish wizard 2003
 TTC225,      Lincoln Creek        Fish wizard point        BB, GR                       Fish wizard 2003
 TTC227
 TTC249       Brooks Brook         General                  LT, NP                       Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC69        Brooks Brook         General                  GR, NP, CCG, BB              Beak Consultants Ltd 1977
 TTC68        Brooks Brook         General                  CCG                          Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC71        Deadman Creek        General                  CCG                          Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC83        Fat Creek            General                  CCG, LSU, GR, BW, NP         Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC82        Fox Creek            General                  GR                           Beak Consultants Ltd 1977,
                                                                                         1980
 TTC81        Fox Creek            General                  CCG                          Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC75        Lone Tree Creek      General                  CCG, GR                      Beak Consultants Ltd 1978
 TTC76        Grayling Creek       General                  CCG                          Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC77        Grayling Creek       General                  GR, BB, RW, LSU, CCG         EMA1981
 TTC78        Grayling Creek       General                  GR                           Beak Consultants Ltd 1978
 TTC80        Ten Mile Creek       General                  GR, CCG                      Beak Consultants Ltd 1977
              Hermit Lake          General                  GR                           Sparling et al. 1999
 TTC89        Hayes River          General                  LSU, GR, BB, NP, CCG         DFO stream files
 TTC84        Sterling Creek       General                  GR, CCG                      Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC220       Goodwin Creek        Fish wizard point        BB                           Fish wizard 2003
              Wolf Creek           2 km upstream of         GR, CCG                      Beak Consultants Ltd 1980
                                   Alaska highway
                                   crossing


EDI Project # 605-02                         Environmental Dynamics Inc                                               58
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                                    MORLEY RIVER WATERSHED
                                    Known Chinook Spawning Streams
    ID #            Stream                 Location              Comments                            Data Source
 TTC131        Morley River        Just below Morris Lake                 CHa                       FISS 2003
               Morley River        General                                Aerial survey counts of   Wilson 1999(a)
                                                                          127 in 1994 and 253
                                                                          CHa in 1995
 TTC123        Morley River        Majority observed from Morley          35 live and 20 dead       Wilson 1999(a)
                                   River Lodge to confluence with         CHa
                                   Teslin Lake. 37 live and 12 dead
                                   CHa. Possibly not conducted during
                                   peak spawning activity
 TTC122        Morley River        Spawning and migration                 CHa                       FISS 2003
               Morley River        -132.297053 60.030597                  CHa                       FISS 2003
 TTC128        Morley River        2 km upstream of Alaska Highway        CHa                       EMA1980
                                   crossing
 TTC130        Morley River        lower 2 to 3 miles of upper Morley     83 CHa                    Barton 1987
                                   River and downstream of Morley
                                   Lake
 TTC113        Hazel Creek         General                                SA                        DFO stream files
                                                                                                    2003
                                    Known Chinook Rearing Streams
 ID #          Stream              Location                      Comments                            Data Source
 TTC124        Morley River        General                                CHj                       FISS 2003
 TTC131        Morley River        Just below Morris Lake                 CHj                       FISS 2003
 TTC128        Morley River        2 km upstream of Alaska Highway        CHj                       EMA1980
                                   crossing
               Hays Creek          Overwintering, nursery, rearing        CHj                       FISS 2003
                                   habitat
 TTC132        Hays Creek          Mouth to just above Alaska Highway     40 CHj observed           EMA1980
                                   crossing
 TTC338        Strawberry Creek    General                                CHj                       Tobler 2003
                       Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #         Stream            Location                          Comments                           Data Source
 TTC127       Morley River         Near Morley River Lodge                Juvenile NP               von Finster 1998
 TTC121       Morley River         General                                BB, GR, CCG, RW,          Connor et al.
                                                                          NP, LSU                   1999(b)
 TTC128       Morley River         2 km upstream of Alaska Highway        BB, RW, CCG               EMA1980
                                   crossing
 TTC124       Morley River         General                                LSU, RW, BB, CCG,         FISS 2003
                                                                          GR, LW, LT, NP
 TTC129       Morley River         In Morley Lake                         DV, RW, BB, CCG,          FISS 2003
                                                                          LSU, GR, LW, LT, NP
              Morley River         General                                GR, NP, LT, LW, RW,       Beak Consultants
                                                                          LSU, CCG                  Ltd 1978
 TTC132       Hays Creek           Mouth to just above Alaska Highway     CCG                       EMA1980
                                   crossing
 TTC126       Strawberry Creek     Grayling summer and nursery habitat    NFC                       FISS 2003
 TTC125       Strawberry Creek     Upstream of Alaska hwy crossing        GR, CCG                   Beak Consultants
                                                                                                    Ltd 1978
 TTC134       Hazel Creek          50 meter upstream of the Alaska        BB, CCG                   EMA1980
                                   Highway
 TTC350       Morris Lake          General                                LT, GR, WF, CH, SA        FISS 2003
 TTC351       Slim Lake            General                                LT, WF, GR                FISS 2003

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Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                                      NISUTLIN RIVER WATERSHED
                                       Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #      Stream               Location                        Comments                                    Data Source
 TTC19     Nisutlin River       Sidney Creek to Hundred Mile      457, 410, 305, 281 live and 2, 34,   Barton 1986, Barton 1987,
                                Creek (surveys conducted over     58, 124 dead CHa respectively. In    Barton 1990
                                August 15, 18, 20 and 21)         excess of 200 and 212 redds
                                                                  observed on August 20 and 21
                                                                  respectively (poor to fair survey)
 TTC30,    Nisutlin River       Rose River to McNeil River and    146 live, 4 dead and 129 live, 19    Barton 1986
 TTC32                          Between McNeil River and          dead CHa respectively
                                Nisutlin Lake
 TTC22,    Nisutlin River       Rose River to Wolf Creek, Wolf    9 chinook, 14 redds, 36 chinook,     Barton 1987
 TTC24                          Creek to McConnell River,         19 redds, 9 chinook, 7 redds, and
                                McConnell River to McNeil         212 chinook, 11 CHa carcasses
                                River, and McNeil River to        respectively
                                Nisutlin Lake
 TTC2      Nisutlin River       UTM 132.643155 60.458833,         CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b)
                                UTM 132.643155 60.458833,
                                UTM 132.688283 60.553893,
                                UTM 132.930598 60.749658
           Nisutlin River                                         Lowest CHa survey numbers in 8       Barton 1987
                                                                  years of survey
 TTC29     Nisutlin River       Upstream of confluence with       CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b)
                                McConnell River
 TTC6      Nisutlin River       132.643155 60.458833              CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC21     Nisutlin River       Upstream of confluence with       CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b),
                                Hundred Mile Creek                                                     DFO stream files
 TTC18     Nisutlin River       132.95408 60.918575               CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC23     Nisutlin River       Near confluence with Wolf Creek   Major chinook                        Department of
                                                                  spawning/migration area              Environment Fisheries and
                                                                                                       Marine Service 1973
 TTC20     Nisutlin River       FISS point                        CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC4      Thirtymile Creek     FISS point                        CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC7      Nisutlin River       FISS point                        CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC26     Nisutlin River       Downstream of McConnell River     CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC27     Nisutlin River       Downstream of McConnell River     CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC28     Nisutlin River       Downstream of McConnell River     CHa                                  FISS 2003
 TTC25     Nisutlin River       Down stream of confluence with    Extensive spawning habitat           Connor et al. 1999(b)
                                McConnell River                   observed
           Nisutlin River       Above old campground              70 fish clustered                    DFO stream files
 TTC31     Nisutlin River       Upstream of confluence with       CHa                                  DFO stream files
                                McNeil River
 TTC33     Nisutlin River       Mile 73 to 78 and the outlet of   Main chinook spawning grounds        Department of
                                Nisutlin Lake                                                          Environment Fisheries and
                                                                                                       Marine Service 1973
 TTC8      Nisutlin River       Near confluence with Sidney       Important location for CH            Connor et al. 1999(b)
                                Creek                             spawning
           Nisutlin River       Upstream of the fall located      Excellent chinook spawning           Strachan 1999
                                downstream of Nisutlin Lake       habitat
 TTC335    McConnell River      upper section                     Good spawning gravels, CHa           Tobler 2003
 TTC334    Rose River           General                           CHa                                  Tobler 2003
           Sidney Creek         2 km upstream of Iron Creek       CHa                                  Connor et al. 1999(b)
 TTC39,    McNeil River         McNeil Lake to Moss Lake (up to   19 CHa on redds                      Barton 1990, FISS 2003
 TTC40                          at least ¾ of the way upstream
                                from Moss Lake
 TTC336    Hundred Mile Creek   General                           CHa                                  Tobler 2003
Nisutlin Continued…




EDI Project # 605-02                         Environmental Dynamics Inc                                                         60
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03

                       NISUTLIN RIVER WATERSHED CONTINUED…
                              Known Chinook Rearing Streams
    ID #        Stream        Location                Comments                                   Data Source
 TTC9         Sidney        General                         CHj                                Connor 1996
              Creek
 TTC10        Sidney        FISS point                      CHj                                FISS 2003
              Creek
 TTC11        Sidney                                        CHj
              Creek
 TTC15        Sidney        100 m either side of Canol      50-60 CHj captured using minnow    von Finster 1989
              Creek         Road crossing                   traps Mapped Wrong. Shown
                                                            above Sidney lake, should be on
                                                            Sidney Creek.
 TTC11        Sidney        Upstream of Iron Creek          CHj                                Connor et al.
              Creek                                                                            1999(b)
              Sidney        Including Murphy and Evelyn     Most important for rearing CHj     Connor et al.
              Creek         Creeks                                                             1999(b)
              drainage
              Sidney        General                         Among the highest CPUE for CHj     Connor et al.
              Creek                                         ever recorded in the Yukon River   1999(b),1998
                                                            drainage

 TTC16        Cottonwood    Downstream of the culvert on    CHj                                Laberge
              Creek         Canol Road                                                         Environmental
                                                                                               Services 2002, DFO
                                                                                               stream files
 TTC35        Rose River    Near lower Sheep Creek          CHj                                Connor et al.
                                                                                               1999(b)
 TTC34        Rose River    General                         CHj                                Connor et al.
              drainage                                                                         1999(b)
 TTC14        Evelyn        General                         CHj                                Connor et al.
              Creek and                                                                        1999(b)
              tributaries
 TTC12        Murphy        General                         CHj                                Connor et al.
              Creek                                                                            1999(b)
 TTC3         Thirty Mile   General                         CHj                                Connor et al.
              Creek                                                                            1999(b)
 TTC38        McNeil        General                         CHj                                Connor et al.
              River                                                                            1999(b)
 TTC8         Nisutlin      Near confluence with Sidney     CHj (high numbers 2.05CHj/HR)      Connor et al.
              River         Creek                                                              1999(b)
 TTC335       McConnell                                     CHj                                Tobler 2003
              River
 TTC336       Hundred       General                         CHj                                Tobler 2003
              Mile Creek
 TTC337       Canol         General                         CHj                                Tobler 2003
              Creek
Nisutlin Continued…




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                        NISUTLIN RIVER WATERSHED CONTINUED…
                      Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #            Stream       Location                       Comments                            Data Source
 TTC14           Evelyn Creek      General                         CCG                        Connor et al.
                 and tributaries                                                              1999(b)
 TTC13           Murphy Creek      General                         GR                         Laberge
                                                                                              Environmental
                                                                                              Services 2002
 TTC12           Murphy Creek      General                         CCG                        Connor et al.
                                                                                              1999(b)
 TTC5            Thirty     Mile   General                         LT, GR, NP, WF             DFO stream files
                 Creek
 TTC3            Thirty     Mile   General                         CCG, GR                    Connor et al.
                 Creek                                                                        1999(b)
 TTC6            Nisutlin River    132.643155 60.458833            CCG, GR, RW                Connor et al.
                                                                                              1999(b)
 TTC38           McNeil River      General                         CCG, GR, LSU               Connor et al.
                                                                                              1999(b)
 TTC29           Nisutlin River    Upstream of confluence with     CCG                        Connor et al.
                                   McConnell River                                            1999(b)
 TTC6            Nisutlin River    Between Nisutlin Bay and        CCG, GR, RW                Connor et al.
                                   above confluence with Thirty                               1999(b)
                                   Mile Creek
 TTC18           Nisutlin River    132.95408 60.918575             CCG, LSU, GR               Connor et al.
                                                                                              1999(b)
 TTC1            Nisutlin River    General                         BW, GR, LSU, NP, RW        DFO Stream files
 TTC258          McNeil River      McNeil Lake                     GR, LT                     Rogerson 1960 (b)
 TTC259          Murphy Creek      Upstream of the culvert on      CCG, GR                    Laberge
                                   Canol Road                                                 Environmental
                                                                                              Services 2002
 TTC16           Cottonwood        Upstream of the culvert on      CCG                        Laberge
                 Creek             Canol Road.                                                Environmental
                                                                                              Services 2002
 TTC36           Pony Creek        Canol Road crossing             CCG, BB, GR downstream     Laberge
                                                                                              Environmental
                                                                                              Services 2002
 TTC35           Rose River        Upstream of lower Sheep Creek   BB                         Connor et al.
                                                                                              1999(b)
 TTC37           Groundhog         Downstream of Canol Road        GR, BB, DV                 Laberge
                 Creek (appears    crossing                                                   Environmental
                 to be in Lapie                                                               Services 2002
                 watershed)
 TTC17           Iron Creek        General                         CCG                        DFO Stream files
                 Bacon Creek       Canol Road crossing             CCG upstream and GR,       Laberge
                                                                   CCG, BB downstream         Environmental
                                                                                              Services 2002




EDI Project # 605-02                         Environmental Dynamics Inc                                           62
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                                        BIG SALMON WATERSHED
                                       Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #               Stream              Location                   Comments                           Data Source
 TTC97              Big Salmon River    General                          1167 CHa survey count       DFO stream files
                                                                         1982
 TTC202             Big Salmon River    Outlet of Big Salmon Lake to 8   Major concentration of      DFO stream files
                                        miles downstream                 spawning chinook in 1971
                                                                         and 1972
 TTC206             Scurvy Creek        Upstream of Grey Creek           CHa                         von Finster 1996
 TTC204             Scurvy Creek        Short distance below             4 CHa spawner. First time   von Finster 1996
                                        confluence with Grey Creek       documented
 TTC260             Big Salmon River    Scurvy Creek to Big Salmon       139, 303, and 306 live      Barton 1986
                                        Lake (surveys conducted over     CHa respectively
                                        August 15, 18, and 21)
 TTC96              Big Salmon River    Moose Creek to Bat Creek         170 live and 64 dead CHa    Barton 1986
                                                                         (poor survey)
 TTC200             Big Salmon River    Scurvy Creek to Moose Creek      154 live and 26 dead CHa    Barton 1986
                                        (Pleasant Lake outlet)           (poor survey)
 TTC94              Big Salmon River    Bat Creek to Souch Creek         14 live and 11 dead CHa     Barton 1986
                                                                         (poor survey)
 TTC92              Big Salmon River    South Big Salmon confluence      211 live and 19 dead CHa    Barton 1987
                                        to confluence with Souch         (fair to poor survey), 77
                                        Creek, Souch Creek to Bat        live 10 dead, 278 live 17
                                        Creek, Bat Creek to Moose        dead, 110 live 20 dead,
                                        Creek, Moose Creek to Scurvy     and 371 live 8 dead CHa
                                        Creek, and Scurvy Creek to       respectively
                                        Big Salmon Lake
 TTC95              Big Salmon River    Near Souch Creek confluence      Major concentrations of     FISS 2003
                                                                         CHa here
                    Big Salmon River    DFO Weir                         August 29 weir count of     Barton 1987
                                                                         997 CHa
 TTC99              Big Salmon River    Souch Creek to Big Salmon        2375 live and 190 dead      Wilson et al.
                                        Lake                             CHa                         1996(b)
 TTC261             Big Salmon River    Big Salmon Lake outlet to 3      30 live CHa observed,       DFO stream files
                                        miles downstream                 estimated 500 spawned       1960
                                                                         based on number of redds
                                       Known Chinook Rearing Streams
 ID #              Stream               Location                   Comments                           Data Source
 TTC207            Caribou Creek        General                          CHj                         Hunka et al. 1988
 TTC205            Scurvy Creek         General                          CHj                         Hunka et al. 1988
 TTC201            Sheep Creek          General                          CHj                         Hunka et al. 1988
 TTC98             Moose Creek          General                          CHj                         Hunka et al. 1988
 TTC93             Souch Creek          General                          CHj                         Hunka et al. 1988
                      Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #              Stream         Location                      Comments                              Data Source
 TTC208            Quiet Lake           General                          GR, LW, RW, BB, LT,         Baker 1979
                                                                         LKC
 TTC345            Quiet Lake           General                          BB, LT, LW, BB, NP,         FISS 2003
                                                                         GR, RW, CCG, IN, CS,
                                                                         PW, CL, WF
 TTC203            Big Salmon River     Outlet of Big Salmon Lake        LT, RW, LW, GR, NP,         DFO stream files
                                                                         BB, LSU                     1960
 TTC262            Big Salmon River     General                          GR, RW, LSU                 DFO stream files


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                                      SWIFT RIVER WATERSHED
                                     Known Salmon Spawning Streams
    ID #         Stream        Location                 Comments                                 Data Source
    TTC117       Swift River   Mouth to Swift Lake                CHa                            Wilson 1999(b)
    TTC114       Swift River   Swan Lake and the confluence       CHa                            Barton 1987
                               with Smart River
    TTC106       Swift River   Confluence with Smart River to     Majority of chinook spawning   Wilson        2002,
                               Swan lake                          here                           EMA1982
    TTC116       Swift River   General                            CHa                            DFO stream files
    TTC331       Logjam        General                            CHa                            Tobler 2003
                 Creek
    TTC332       McNaughton    General                            CHa                            Tobler 2003
                 Creek
    TTC111       Screw Creek   General                            CHa                            Beak     Consultants
                                                                                                 Ltd 1978
    TTC115       Smart River   General                            CH                             FISS 2003
    TTC133       Smart River   -131.740714 60.083224              CH                             FISS 2003
                                     Known Chinook Rearing Streams
    ID #         Stream        Location                 Comments                                 Data Source
    TTC263       Logjam        General                            18 CHj                         Beak     Consultants
                 Creek                                                                           Ltd 1978
    TTC108       Logjam        General                            25 CHj                         DFO stream files
                 Creek
                       Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
    ID #        Stream     Location                   Comments                                   Data Source
    TTC109      Logjam         60 00’131 30’                      GR, CCG                        DFO stream files
                Creek
    TTC110      Logjam         General                            CCG                            Beak Consultants
                Creek                                                                            Ltd 1978
    TTC107      Smart River    General                            GR, DV, LW, RW, CCG, LT,       Beak Consultants
                                                                  BB, SU                         Ltd 1978
    TTC112      Smart River    Just upstream of Alaska Highway    DV                             EMA1980
                               crossing
    TTC105      Swift River    General                            DV                             Beak Consultants
                                                                                                 1978
    TTC120      Pine Lake      Pine Lake                          RW, GR, LT                     Connor et al.
                                                                                                 1999(a)
    TTC119      Swift River    -130.980671 60.069239              RW, GR, CCG, BB, DV            FISS 2003
    TTC103      Swift River    Swift River Drainage               CCG, GR, BB, RW, LW, NP        Connor et al.
                                                                                                 1999(a)
1
    when no reference is listed, distribution was derived from many sources, refer to map.




EDI Project # 605-02                           Environmental Dynamics Inc                                           64
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                                    JENNINGS RIVER WATERSHED
                                    Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #            Stream          Location                     Comments                            Data Source
 TTC101          Jennings        Mouth to Snook Creek           15 live CHa                     Wilson
                 River                                                                          1999(b),1999(a),
                                                                                                Wilson 1997
 TTC102          Jennings        Confluence with Kachook        Highest concentration of CHa    Wilson 1999(b)
                 River           Creek                          located here
 TTC100          Jennings        Mouth to Klinkit Creek         38 CHa                          Smarch 1995
                 River
                 Jennings        Near Teh Creek (2 to 3 miles   16 live CHa                     Barton 1987
                 River           either side)
                       Known Chinook Rearing Streams – none documented
            Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon – none documented



                                  BOSWELL RIVER WATERSHED
                                   Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #         Stream        Location                         Comments                            Data Source
 TTC264       Boswell       Near confluence with Teslin River   CH observed                     Beak
              River                                                                             Consultants 1978
                      Known Chinook Rearing Streams – none documented
                    Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #         Stream    Location                            Comments                             Data Source
 TTC265       Boswell   Near confluence with Teslin GR                                          Beak
              River     River                                                                   Consultants
                                                                                                1978
 TTC266       Boswell       General                             GR observed.                    DFO stream
              River                                                                             files 1996




EDI Project # 605-02                        Environmental Dynamics Inc                                             65
Compilation and Mapping of Fisheries Information within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory – CRE43-03


                                      WOLF RIVER WATERSHED
                                    Known Salmon Spawning Streams
 ID #          Stream          Location                        Comments                               Data Source
 TTC43,        Wolf River      From Wolf Lake to Red River and      CHa                               Barton 1986,
 TTC44                         from Red River to Fish lake outlet                                     Barton 1987
               Wolf River      As far up as Wolf Lake               King migration                    FISS 2003
               Wolf River                                           Lowest survey counts in 8 years   Barton 1987
                                                                    of survey
 TTC267        Wolf River      Wolf Lake to Red River               CHa                               Barton 1990
 TTC268        Wolf River      Red River to outlet of Fish Lake     CHa                               Barton 1990
 TTC47         Red River       Wolf River to Fish Lake outlet       CHa                               Wilson et al.
                                                                                                      1996(a)
 TTC330        Irvine Creek    General                              CHa                               Tobler 2003
                                     Known Chinook Rearing Streams
 ID #         Stream          Location                          Comments                              Data Source
 TTC41        Wolf River      Near mouth                            CHj                               FISS 2003
                    Waterbodies Known to Contain Species other than Salmon
 ID #         Stream    Location                            Comments                                  Data Source
 TTC269       Wolf River      Wolverine Lake (two miles south of    LT, GR                            DFO stream files
                              Wolf Lake)
 TTC46        Wolf River      Wolverine Lake (two miles south of    LT, GR, WF                        Rogerson 1960
                              Wolf Lake)                                                              (a)
 TTC42        Wolf River      General                               GR, CCG, RW                       Connor et al.
                                                                                                      1999(b)
 TTC45        Wolf Lake       General                               LT, BB, LW                        Strachan 1999
 TTC344       Wolf Lake       General                               LT, RW, BB, LW, GR, NP, WF,       FISS 2003
                                                                    CH, LSU
 TTC48        Wolf River      General                               GR, LW, RW, BB, NP, LT,           Strachan 1999
                                                                    WSU, LSU
 TTC41        Wolf River      Near mouth                            NP, CCG, RW, GR                   FISS 2003
 TTC270       Red River       Red River Lake (48 miles northeast    GR                                DFO stream files
                              of Johnson’s Crossing)




EDI Project # 605-02                         Environmental Dynamics Inc                                                  66

				
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