Processing-Analysis - Washington Red Raspberries by pengxuebo


									Disease            First                     Study Title              Date                                          Abstract                                            Human   Human cell   Animal   Animal cell

type/risk         Author                 Complete Citation
            Bermudez-Soto, M. J. Bermudez-Soto, M. J.; Tomas -        2004 Phenolic profiles of nine red fruit commercial juice concentrates were characterised by
                                 Barberan, F. A.,                          means of high -performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass
                                                                           spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols,
                                 Evaluation of commercial red fruit        hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenoids, flavan 3-ols, ellagic acid derivatives, and
                                 juice concentrates as ingredients         other phenolic acids, were both identified and quantified in chokeberry, elderberry,
                                 for antioxidant functional juices.        blackcurrant and redcurrant, strawberry, red grape, cherry, plum, and raspberry
                                                                           commercial juice concentrates. Once the characterisation was carried out, the
                                 European Food Research and                antioxidant capacity of each concentrate was assessed in vitro by means of two
                                 Technology 2004, 219, (2), 133 -          different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox
                                 141.                                      equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical
                                                                           method. Elderberry, chokeberry and blackcurrant concentrates were the richest in total
                                                                           phenolics and they had the strongest antioxidant capacity; therefore, these three juices
                                                                           may have huge interest as ingredients in the design of functional juices.

            Camire, M. E.        Camire, M. E.; Dougherty, M. P.;     2007 Consumer interest in naturally colored foods such as breakfast cereals is growing.
                                 Briggs, J. L.,                            Degermed white cornmeal, sucrose, citric acid and dehydrated fruit powder (blueberry,
                                                                           cranberry, Concord grape and raspberry) were mixed in 84.3%:14.3%:0.4%:1.0%
                                 Functionality of fruit powders in         proportions, then extruded in a laboratory-scale twin -screw extruder. Feed rate was
                                 extruded corn breakfast cereals.          255 g/min; water was pumped at a rate of 12.5 g/min; screw speed was 175 rpm.
                                                                           Cooking temperature during extrusion was generally powders survive extrusion and
                                 Food Chemistry 2007, 101, (2),            retain some antioxidant activity, the levels used in this study may have been too low.
                                 765-770.                                  Higher levels of fruit will increase production costs, but the expense may be offset by
                                                                           the more attractive and functional cereals that result.
Disease              First                    Study Title               Date                                           Abstract
type/risk             Author                Complete Citation
            Elisia, I.           Elisia, I.; Hu, C.; Popovich, D. G.;   2007 Gel filtration of black berry (Rubus fruticosus sp) ethanolic extracts was employed to
                                 Kitts, D. D.,                               obtain an anthocyanin-enriched extract. The anthocyanin profile identified cyanidin-3-
                                                                             glucoside as the primary (e.g., 90% of total) anthocyanin present in blackberry. Gel
                                 Antioxidant assessment of an                filtration of crude extracts resulted in a 20-fold increase in total anthocyanin content,
                                 anthocyanin-enriched blackberry             with no change in the proportion of cyanidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant activities of both
                                 extract.                                    the crude and anthocyanin-enriched blackberry extracts were determined using cell-
                                                                             free (ORAC) and cell-based (INT-407 intracellular) antioxidant assays. Antioxidant
                                 Food Chemistry 2007, 101, (3),              activity, assessed by the ORAC assay, indicated a 7-fold increase in activity for the
                                 1052-1058.                                  anthocyanin-enriched fraction. Similar results were obtained for the anthocyanin-
                                                                             enriched extract using the intracellular antioxidant assay with INT-407 cells. Our results
                                                                             indicate that the anthocyanin content, and more specifically the presence of cyanidin-3-
                                                                             glucoside, in blackberry, contributes a major part of the antioxidant ability to suppress
                                                                             both peroxyl radical-induced chemical and intracellular oxidation.

            Iannetta, P. P. M.   Iannetta, P. P. M.; van den Berg,      1999 This study focuses on four raspberry (Rubus idaeus) genotypes from tno different
                                 J.; Wheatley, R. E.; McNicol, R. J.;        genetic backgrounds: cvs Glen Prosen and Glen Clova, bred at the Scottish Crop
                                 Davies, H. V.,                              Research Institute (SCRI) and genotypes bred at Horticulture Research International
                                                                             (HRI), East Mailing (EM), EM 1997 and EM 5007. The ripe fruit of each genotype pair
                                 The role of ethylene and cell wall          were characterised subjectively by raspberry breeders as relatively firm or soft,
                                 modifying enzymes in raspberry              respectively. Different stages of fruit development from each genotype were used to
                                 (Rubus idaeus) fruit ripening.              quantify fruit firmness, rates of ethylene evolution and ripening rate. Penetrometry data
                                                                             confirmed suspected firmness differences, Firmness correlated,vith rates of ethylene
                                 Physiologia Plantarum 1999, 105,            evolution. Rates of ethylene production also correlated with receptacle size. Storage of
                                 (2), 338-347.                               green fruits in 20 mu l 1(-1) ethylene reduced fruit firmness, enhanced respiration rate
                                                                             and colour (anthocyanin) development and stimulated the development of cell wall
                                                                             hydrolase activities. However, during natural ripening in the field, fruit respiration rate
                                                                             declined, which indicates a non-climacteric ripening pattern. In drupelets, the activities
                                                                             of polygalacturonase (PC;). pectin methylesterase (PME)I Cx-cellulase (Cx) and beta-
                                                                             galactosidase (beta-gal,) increased substantially as ripening progressed, More
                                                                             detailed studies with ripe fruit of cv. Glen Clova indicated major isoforms of PC at pIs
                                                                             3.3, 8.6 and 10.1; of PME at pIs 7.2, 8.5, 8.7, 8.8; of Cx at pi 2.4 and of beta-gal. at pIs
                                                                             6.3 and 6.7.
Disease            First                    Study Title               Date                                         Abstract
type/risk          Author                Complete Citation
            Kalt, W.           Kalt, W.; Forney, C. F.; Martin, A.;   1999 Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), raspberries (Rubus idaeus Michx.),
                               Prior, R. L.,                               highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium
                                                                           angustifolium Aiton) were stored at 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees C for up to 8 days to
                               Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C,            determine the effects of storage temperature on whole fruit antioxidant capacity (as
                               phenolics, and anthocyanins after           measured by the oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay, Cao et al., Clin. Chem.
                               fresh storage of small fruits.              1995, 41, 1738-1744) and total phenolic, anthocyanin, and ascorbate content. The four
                                                                           fruit varied markedly in their total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant capacity was
                               J Agric Food Chem 1999, 47, (11),           strongly correlated with the content of total phenolics (0.83) and anthocyanins (0.90).
                               4638-44.                                    The antioxidant capacity of the two blueberry species was about 3-fold higher than
                                                                           either strawberries or raspberries. However, there was an increase in the antioxidant
                                                                           capacity of strawberries and raspberries during storage at temperatures >0 degrees C,
                                                                           which was accompanied by increases in anthocyanins in strawberries and increases in
                                                                           anthocyanins and total phenolics in raspberries. Ascorbate content differed more than
                                                                           5-fold among the four fruit species; on average, strawberries and raspberries had
                                                                           almost 4-times more ascorbate than highbush and lowbush blueberries. There were
                                                                           no ascorbate losses in strawberries or highbush blueberries during 8 days of storage
                                                                           at the various temperatures, but there were losses in the other two fruit species.
                                                                           Ascorbate made only a small contribution (0.4-9.4%) to the total antioxidant capacity of
                                                                           the fruit. The increase observed in antioxidant capacity through postharvest phenolic
                                                                           synthesis and metabolism suggested that commercially feasible technologies may be
                                                                           developed to enhance the health functionality of small fruit crops.

            Lohachoompol, V.   Lohachoompol, V.; Srzednicki, G.;   2004 This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the
                               Craske, J.,                              anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L).
                                                                        Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at $\5^\circ$ C while frozen samples were
                               The Change of Total Anthocyanins         kept for up to three months at $-20^\circ$ C. There were two drying treatments, one
                               in Blueberries and Their                 including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only
                               Antioxidant Effect After Drying and      cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were $7.2 \pm 0.5$ mg/g
                               Freezing.                                dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh
                                                                        samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were
                               J Biomed Biotechnol 2004, 2004,          significantly reduced to $4.3 \pm 0.1$ mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and $3.7 \pm 0.2$
                               (5), 248-252.                            mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal
                                                                        treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In
                                                                        contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level
                                                                        during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin
                                                                        extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh,
                                                                        dried, and frozen blueberries.
Disease             First               Study Title                Date                                          Abstract
type/risk          Author            Complete Citation
            Moyer, R.       Moyer, R.; Hummer, K.; Wrolstad,              The high antioxidant content of berry crops provides possible health benefits such as
                            R.E.; Finn, Ch.                               reduction of coronary heart disease, improved visual acuity, anti-viral and anti-cancer
                                                                          activity. Our objective was to determine the range of total anthocyanin content (ACY),
                            Antioxidant compounds in diverse              total phenolic content (TPH) and antioxidant capacity in diverse species and cultivar
                            ribes and rubus germplasm                     germplasm of dark fruited currants and gooseberries, Ribes L., and blackberries and
                                                                          black raspberries (Rubus L.). Ripe fruit was harvested from 22 June 2000 to 15
                            Acta Hort. (ISHS) 585, 501 -505.              September 2000 from 45 berry genotypes growing in the Willamette Valley, Oregon.
                                                                          The fruit was hand-picked, stored on ice in the field, and frozen at –23oC in the
                                                                          laboratory that same afternoon. ACY was determined by the pH differential method.
                                                                          Anthocyanin pigments were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography
                                                                          (HPLC). TPH was determined via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant capacity was
                                                                          measured by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). ACY for Ribes nigrum L.
                                                                          cultivars ranged from 128 to 411 mg ACY/100g fruit; for blackberries (Rubus hybrid)
                                                                          from 94 to 230 mg ACY/100g fruit; for black raspberries (Rubus niveus Thunb., R.
                                                                          occidentalis L., and R. leucodermis Douglas ex Torrey & A. Gray) from 230 to 627 mg
                                                                          ACY/100g fruit. Some blackcurrants were rich sources of ACY, TPH, and ORAC
                                                                          though gooseberries and jostaberries were not as rich as blackcurrants. Ribes
                                                                          valdivianum Phil., a Chilean native, had the highest TPH (1790 mg gallic acid/100g
                                                                          fruit) and ORAC 115 μ   mol trolox equivalents/1g fruit, and R. occidentalis cv. Munger
                                                                          had the highest ACY (627 mg ACY/100g ) of all tested Ribes and Rubus genotypes.
                                                                          Rubus ursinus Cham. and Schldl. hybrid ‘Marion’ had the highest blackberry ACY (230
                                                                          mg ACY/100g). ACY was highly correlated to TPH and ORAC in Rubus and Ribes.
                                                                          We suspect that other antioxidant compounds, such as Vitamin C, compose a
                                                                          significant part of TPH and antioxidant capacity in Ribes. Rubus and Ribes genotypes
                                                                          contain much higher ACY, TPH, and antioxidant capacities than are found in most
                                                                          other fruits and vegetables.

            Mullen, W.      Mullen, W.; Yokota, T.; Lean, M.       2003 The use of gradient reversed phase HPLC with diode array and MS(n) detection for the
                            E.; Crozier, A.,                            analysis of ellagitannins, ellagic acid conjugates and quercetin conjugates in
                                                                        raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) is described. MS(n) is a particularly powerful tool for the
                            Analysis of ellagitannins and               analysis of trace levels of natural products in impure extracts as interpretation of
                            conjugates of ellagic acid and              fragmentation patterns, coupled in some instances with knowledge of HPLC retention
                            quercetin in raspberry fruits by LC-        properties, can facilitate the partial identification of components when reference
                            MSn.                                        compounds are unavailable.

                            Phytochemistry 2003, 64, (2), 617-
Disease            First                  Study Title               Date                                        Abstract
type/risk          Author             Complete Citation
            Rein, M. J.      Rein, M. J.; Ollilainen, V.;        2005 In most fruit and berry products the attractive red color is unstable and easily
                             Vahermo, M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, J.;         susceptible to degradation. The colors of strawberry and raspberry juices can be
                             Heinonen, M.,                            enhanced and stabilized by the addition of cinnamic acids. The aim of this study was to
                                                                      identify the novel anthocyanin products responsible for the improved juice color. The
                             Identification of novel                  pyranoanthocyanins formed were detected using high-performance liquid
                             pyranoanthocyanins in berry juices.      chromatography, and the fractions from this were analyzed using a nano-ESI tandem
                                                                      MS technique. The pyranoanthocyanins identified were formed from reactions of the
                             European Food Research and               main anthocyanins of strawberry and raspberry juices with ferulic acid or sinapic acid.
                             Technology 2005, 220, (3-4), 239-        The new anthocyanin derivatives were the 4-vinylguaiacol and 4 -vinylsyringol adducts
                             244.                                     of pelargonidin and cyanidin. This is the first time that pelargonidin 3-glucoside-based
                                                                      vinylphenol pyranoanthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins with more complex sugar
                                                                      residues have been found. This is also the first time pyranoanthocyanins have been
                                                                      detected in strawberry and raspberry juices.

            Rimando, A. M.   Rimando, A. M.; Kalt, W.; Magee,       2004 A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and
                             J. B.; Dewey, J.; Ballington, J. R.,        piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10
                                                                         species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas
                             Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and             chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium
                             piceatannol in vaccinium berries.           (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye
                                                                         blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's
                             J Agric Food Chem 2004, 52, (15),           blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry),
                             4713-9.                                     Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry),
                                                                         and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884
                                                                         ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry
                                                                         sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was
                                                                         found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry
                                                                         sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-
                                                                         422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong
                                                                         antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported
                                                                         health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits.
Disease                 First               Study Title                Date                                       Abstract
type/risk           Aut hor               Complete Citation
            Mullen, W.          Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. 2002 Scottish-grown red raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C and phenolics, most
                                E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.;           notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside),
                                Crozier, A.,                              and cyanidin-3-glucoside, and two ellagitannins, sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C,
                                                                          which are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid, and
                                Effect of freezing and storage on         hydroxycinnamates. The antioxidant capacity of the fresh fruit and the levels of vitamin
                                the phenolics, ellagitannins,             C and phenolics were not affected by freezing. When fruit were stored at 4 degrees C
                                flavonoids, and antioxidant               for 3 days and then at 18 degrees C for 24 h, mimicking the route fresh fruit takes after
                                capacity of red raspberries.              harvest to the supermarket and onto the consumer's table, anthocyanin levels were
                                                                          unaffected while vitamin C levels declined and those of elligitannins increased, and
                                J Agric Food Chem 2002, 50, (18),         overall, there was no effect on the antioxidant capacity of the fruit. It is concluded,
                                5197-201.                                 therefore, that freshly picked, fresh commercial, and frozen raspberries all contain
                                                                          similar levels of phytochemicals and antioxidants per serving.

            Parry, J.                                             2005 Cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were
                                Parry, J.; Su, L.; Luther, M.; Zhou,
                                K.; Yurawecz, M. P.; Whittaker, P.;    evaluated for their fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, tocopherol profile, total
                                Yu, L.,                                phenolic content (TPC), oxidative stability index (OSI), peroxide value, and antioxidant
                                                                       properties. All tested seed oils contained significant levels of alpha-linolenic acid
                                Fatty acid composition and             ranging from 19.6 to 32.4 g per 100 g of oil, along with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids
                                antioxidant properties of cold-        (1.64-3.99). The total c arotenoid content ranged from 12.5 to 30.0 micromoles per kg
                                pressed marionberry, boysenberry,      oil. Zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid compound in all tested berry seed oils, along
                                red raspberry, and blueberry seed      with beta-carotene, lutein, and cryptoxanthin. Total tocopherol was 260.6-2276.9
                                oils.                                  mumoles per kg oil, including alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols. OSI values were
                                                                       20.07, 20.30, and 44.76 h for the marionberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry seed
                                J Agric Food Chem 2005, 53, (3),       oils, respectively. The highest TPC of 2.0 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of oil was
                                566-73.                                observed in the red raspberry seed oil, while the strongest oxygen radical absorbance
                                                                       capacity was in boysenberry seed oil extract (77.9 micromol trolox equivalents per g
                                                                       oil). All tested berry seed oils directly reacted with and quenched DPPH radicals in a
                                                                       dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that the cold-pressed berry
                                                                       seed oils may serve as potential dietary sources of tocopherols, carotenoids, and
                                                                       natural antioxidants.
Disease            First               Study Title            Date                                         Abstract
type/risk        Author           Complete Citat ion
            Rommel, A.     Rommel, A.; Wrolstad, R. E.,       1993 Flavonols were characterized and measured in experimental (n = 46) and commercial
                                                                   (n = 9) red raspberry juices by HPLC/diode array spectral techniques. Samples were
                           Composition of Flavonols in Red         prepared using minicolumns, packed with Polyamide 6. A fraction eluted with methanol
                           Raspberry Juice as Influenced by        contained eight or fewer quercetin glycosides, quercetin, and kaempferol. A second
                           Cultivar, Processing, and               fraction eluted subsequently with 0.5% ammonia in methanol contained three flavonol
                           Environmental -Factors.                 glucuronides, two flavonol forms, aglycons, ellagic acid, and its derivatives. Quercetin
                                                                   3-glucuronide was the major flavonol in experimental and commercial juices,
                           Journal of Agricultural and Food        respectively (mean of 54 and 51 ppm), and a flavonol presumed to be quercetin 3-
                           Chemistry 1993, 41, (11), 1941-         sophoroside was the second primary compound (means of 29 and 33 ppm). In
                           1950.                                   addition, 36 flavonol forms were measured in trace amounts. The mean total
                                                                   concentrations of quercetin and kaempferol forms, respectively, in experimental juices
                                                                   (n = 45) were 118 and 3.6 ppm and in commercial juices (n = 7) 121 and 3.4 ppm,
                                                                   respectively. The mean total flavonol concentrations in experimental and commercial
                                                                   juices were 122 and 125 ppm, respectively. Influences of cultivar (n = 10), processing
                                                                   method (standard, high-speed centrifugation, depectinization, diffusion extraction,
                                                                   vacuum and osmotic concentration) and environmental factors (geographic origin,
                                                                   maturity, harvesting method, mold contamination) were evaluated.

            Rommel, A.     Rommel, A.; Wrolstad, R. E.,       1993 Ellagic acid and its derivatives present in pilot-plant-processed raspberry juices and
                                                                   commercial juice concentrates were characterized and concentrations estimated using
                           Ellagic Acid Content of Red             HPLC/diode array spectral techniques. Experimental juice samples (n = 45) contained
                           Raspberry Juice as Influenced by        a mean concentration of 10 ppm of ellagic acid and less-than-or-equal-to 16 derivatives
                           Cultivar, Processing, and               of ellagic acid with individual mean concentrations of up to 3 ppm. Commercial juices
                           Environmental -Factors.                 (n = 7) contained more ellagic acid and derivatives than experimental juices, with a
                                                                   mean concentration of 30 ppm of ellagic acid and up to 6.7 ppm for individual ellagic
                           Journal of Agricultural and Food        acid derivatives. The mean total concentration of ellagic acid and its derivatives in
                           Chemistry 1993, 41, (11), 1951-         experimental juices was 28 ppm and in commercial juices 52 ppm. Qualitatively, the
                           1960.                                   chromatographic profiles were very similar for the juices studied, but quantitatively,
                                                                   there were great differences due to cultivar (n = 10) and processing method.
                                                                   Williamette and Meeker cultivars contained the most ellagic acid and its forms. Juices
                                                                   made by diffusion extraction and a standard process had by far the highest
                                                                   concentrations of ellagic acid and its forms. High-speed centrifugation reduced total
                                                                   ellagic acid forms by half compared to diffusion extraction; depectinization and
                                                                   concentration decreased total forms even further.
Disease               First               Study Title              Date                                          Abstract
type/risk         Author                Complete Citation
            Seeram, N. P.     Seeram, N. P.; Henning, S. M.;        2006 Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are reported to have numerous               x
                              Zhang, Y. J.; Suchard, M.; Li, Z. P.;      biological properties, but their absorption and metabolism in humans are poorly
                              Heber, D.,                                 understood. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of pomegranate ETs, 18 healthy
                                                                         volunteers were given 180 mL of PJ concentrate, and blood samples were obtained for
                              Pomegranate juice ellagitannin             6 h afterwards. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were obtained on the day before (-
                              metabolites are present in human           1), the day of (0), and the day after (+1) the study. Ellagic acid (EA) was detected in
                              plasma and some persist in urine           plasma of all subjects with a maximum concentration of 0.06 +/- 0.01 mu mol/L, area
                              for up to 48 hours.                        under concentration time curve of 0.17 +/- 0.02 (mu mol (.) h) (.) L-1, time of maximum
                                                                         concentration of 0.98 +/- 0.06 h, and elimination half-life of 0.71 +/- 0.08 h. EA
                              Journal of Nutrition 2006, 136, (10),      metabolites, including dimethylellagic acid glucuronide (DMEAG) and hydroxy-6H-
                              2481-2485.                                 benzopyran-6-one derivatives (urolithins), were also detected in plasma and urine in
                                                                         conjugated and free forms. DMEAG was found in the urine obtained from 15 of 18
                                                                         subjects on d 0, but was not detected on d - 1 or + 1, demonstrating its potential as a
                                                                         biomarker of intake. Urolithin A-glucuronide was found in urine samples from 11
                                                                         subjects on cl 0 and in the urine from 16 subjects on d + 1. Urolithin B-glucuronide was
                                                                         found in the urine of 3 subjects on d 0 and in the urine of 5 subjects on cl + 1.
                                                                         Urolithins, formed by intestinal bacteria, may contribute to the biological effects of PJ
                                                                         as they may persist in plasma and tissues and account for some of the health benefits
                                                                         noted after chronic PJ consumption. Whether genetic polymorphisms in EA-
                                                                         metabolizing enzymes (e.g., catechol-O-methyl transferase and glucuronosyl
                                                                         transferase) are related to variations in response to PJ remains to be established.

            Sun, Y.           Sun, Y.; Liao, X.; Wang, Z.; Hu, X.; 2006 Anthocyanins (Acys) are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruit,
                              Cheng, F.                                 vegetables, and plants. The extraction of Acys from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.
                                                                        var. Heritage) by microwave-assisted process (MAP) was studied. A central composite
                              Optimization of microwave-assisted        rotate design (CCRD) was used to obtain the optimal conditions of microwave-assisted
                              extraction of anthocyanins in red         extraction (MAE), and the effects of operating conditions such as the ratio of solvents
                              raspberries and identification of         to materials, microwave power and extraction time on the extraction yield of Acys were
                              anthocyanin of extracts using high-       studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions of
                              performance liquid chromatography         MAE were ratio of solvents to materials 4:1 (ml/g), extraction time 12 min, and
                              - mass spectrometry.                      microwave power 366W. Under these conditions 43.42 mg of Acys from 100 g of fresh
                                                                        fruits (TAcy, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside), approximately 98.33% of the total red
                              European Food Research and                pigments, could be obtained by MAE. The Acys compositions of extracts were
                              Technology.                               identified by high-performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (HPLC-
                                                                        MS), 12 kinds of Acys had been detected and 8 kinds of Acys were characterized.
                                                                        Result indicated that cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2Gglucosylrutinoside),
                                                                        cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3- rutinoside, cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside,
                                                                        cyanidin-3-(2Gglucosylrutinoside), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside we re main components in
                                                                        extracts. In addition, in comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, MAE is
                                                                        more efficient and rapid to extract Acys from red raspberry, due to the strong disruption
                                                                        of fruit tissue structure under microwave irradiation, which had been observed with the
                                                                        scanning electron.
Disease              First                 Study Title              Date                                          Abstract
type/risk            Author             Complete Citation
            Zafrilla, P.      Zafrilla, P.; Ferreres, F.; Tomas - 2001 From red raspberries, ellagic acid, its 4-arabinoside, its 4' (4' '-acetyl) arabinoside, and
                              Barberan, F. A.,                         its 4' (4' '- acetyl)xyloside, as well as quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosides, were
                                                                       identified. In addition, two unidentified ellagic acid derivatives were detected. The free
                              Effect of processing and storage on      radical scavenging activity of the ellagic acid derivatives was evaluated by using the
                              the antioxidant ellagic acid             DPPH method and compared to that of Trolox. All of the isolated compounds showed
                              derivatives and flavonoids of red        antioxidant activity. The effect of processing to obtain jams on raspberry phenolics was
                              raspberry (Rubus idaeus) jams.           evaluated. The flavonol content decreased slightly with processing and more markedly
                                                                       during storage of the jams. The ellagic acid derivatives, with the exception of ellagic
                              J Agric Food Chem 2001, 49, (8),         acid itself, remained quite stable with processing and during 6 months of jam storage.
                              3651-5.                                  The content of free ellagic acid increased 3-fold during the storage period. The initial
                                                                       content (10 mg/kg of fresh weight of raspberries) increased 2-fold with processing, and
                                                                       it continued increasing up to 35 mg/kg after 1 month of storage of the jam. Then a
                                                                       slight decrease was observed until 6 months of storage had elapsed. The increase
                                                                       observed in ellagic acid could be explained by a release of ellagic acid from
                                                                       ellagitannins with the thermal treatment.

            Hakkinen SH       Hakkinen SH, Karenlampi SO,        2000 The content of ellagic acid was determined from the berries of the family Rosaceae
                              Mykkanen HM, Heinonen IM,               (strawberry, red raspberry, cloudberry, arctic bramble). Extraction and hydrolysis
                              Torronen AR                             procedures were optimized and analysis was done with an HPLC method and UV
                                                                      detection. The influence of processing on ellagic acid content was studied in strawberry
                              Ellagic acid content in berries:        jam. Strawberries, red raspberries, and strawberry jam were analyzed fresh and after
                              Influence of domestic processing        3, 6, and 9 months of storage in a domestic freezer or refrigerator. Ellagic acid contents
                              and storage.                            after 3 months of storage at -20 degreesC varied between 31.5 (strawberry 'Senga
                                                                      Sengana') and 68.6 mg/100 g f.w. (arctic bramble). Ellagic acid content in strawberry
                              European Food Research and              jam (23.8 mg/100 g f.w.) was 80% of that in unprocessed strawberries. The content of
                              Technology 2000, V212, (1), 75-80.      ellagic acid in strawberries and red raspberries was reduced by 40% and 30%,
                                                                      respectively, during the 9 months of storage at -20 degreesC. The unprocessed berries
                                                                      studied, together with nuts, make the main contribution to the total dietary intake of
                                                                      ellagic acid in Finland.
Disease             First                Study Title               Date                                          Abstract
type/risk           Author              Complete Citation
            Viljanen, K.     Viljanen, K.; Halmos, A. L.; Sinclair, 2005 The effect of raspberry and blackberry juice on oil-in-water (o/w) emuls ion oxidative
                             A.; Heinonen, M.,                           stability was investigated with different concentrations of whey proteins and rapeseed
                                                                         oil. The extent of lipid oxidation was measured by determining conjugated diene
                             Effect of blackberry and raspberry          hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and that of protein oxidation
                             juice on whey protein emulsion              by loss of natural tryptophan fluorescence and formation of protein carbonyl
                             stability.                                  compounds. In addition, the anthocyanin colour stability and emulsion turbidity were
                                                                         measured. The increasing concentration of whey proteins and berry juices led to
                             European Food Research and                  enhanced stabilization of the interface formed during emulsification. The anthocyanin
                             Technology 2005, 221, (5), 602 -            concentration and colour decreased during oxidation leading to whiter emulsions.
                             609.                                        Raspberry juice provided a better overall antioxidant protection towards lipid and
                                                                         protein oxidation compared to blackberry juice. The antioxidant activity of berry juices
                                                                         towards lipid oxidation varied with concentration. The antioxidant activity increased with
                                                                         increasing concentration of berry juices. In conclusion, red berry juice anthocyanins, as
                                                                         well as other phenolic compounds, act as antioxidants improving the oxidative stability
                                                                         of whey protein emulsions. However, the antioxidant protection is different towards
                                                                         protein and lipid oxidation, and is also affected by other components present.

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