1 How are Tides related to the Phases of the Moon? NAME: 2 Tide Notes: Travel around the room to complete this page. Tides are a result of the gravitational interaction between what 3 solar system objects? 1. _______________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________ In your own words, explain how the moon affects ocean tides: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Label the Sun, Moon, and Earth and draw the appropriate tidal bulges in the two diagrams below. Then identify which diagram show a spring tide and which diagram shows a neap tide: Why is Isaac Newton on the wall today? ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Why are there 2 tides per day? _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ What phases of the moon result in spring tides? _________________________ and ____________________ What phases of the moon result in neap tides? _________________________ and ____________________ Why is the time for high and low tides different every day? _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 On Line Tide Activity Go to a computer and open the web page http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/ES17/ES17.html. Complete the “On Line Tide Activity” worksheet. Read the information on the left hand side of the page, scrolling as necessary. Answer these questions: 1. According to the web page, what causes high tide? 2. What causes low tide? Click one of the four circles around the Earth. 3. Choose a location and record it here: _____________________________ 4. Observe the water level at 12:00 am (that’s midnight). Click the hourglass to begin the day’s tide cycle. Observe the rise and fall of the water level for six hours of the tide cycle. 5. Read the measurement after the water level has reached the first low or high tide of the day. Record it by clicking the up and down arrows to scroll through the measurements. 6. Click the hourglass again and collect data for the next six hours of the tide cycle. 7. Click the hourglass again and collect data for the next six hours of the tide cycle. 8. Click the hourglass again and collect data for the next six hours of the tide cycle. 9. Click the “CHECK” button. If a measurement is recorded incorrectly, it will be highlighted yellow. Click the panel with the highlighted measurement and examine the water level. Select another measurement. Record your data here: Phase of the moon Date Highest low tide (record Highest high tide (record the higher of the 2 low the higher of the 2 high tides) tides) New Moon First Quarter Full Moon Last Quarter Now, graph your data as described below: 1. The title of your graph should be “Tides at _________” using the name of the location you examined in the blank. 2. The label for your x-axis is “date” and the label for your y-axis is “height (m).” 3. There should be TWO line graphs, one for HIGH tides (please indicate in a key what color line that is) and one for LOW tides (also please identify it in your key). 4. Label the points of the graph with the name of the phase of the moon. 4 After studying your graph of tide range data write a simple hypothesis which explains the relationship between tide range and phase of the moon. If you were living ten thousand years ago, perhaps as a member of a Chumash village, how might you be able to predict the best day of the month to collect shellfish from the low tide zone at the beach? Explain. 5 D Day – The Science and Technology of WWII Introduction: The D-Day invasion of June 6, 1944, has been called the climactic battle of World War II. It was probably the most carefully planned and executed military operation in history. It consisted of a combined amphibious and aerial assault across the English Channel against the beaches of France, which had been occupied be the German Nazis since 1940. The Supreme Commander of Allied forces was American general (and later president) Dwight D. Eisenhower. In addition to numerous political and military advisers, Eisenhower was guided in his choice of an invasion time and date by a team of astronomers and meteorologists. Why was their advice important? The Allied invasion was scheduled to begin by an aerial attack by paratroopers and glider-borne troops whose job it would be to land to the rear of the beaches, disrupt German communications and to seize roads and bridges to prevent a German counter attack. This air attack was scheduled to begin at about midnight on the night before the beach landings, which were scheduled to begin at the first light of dawn. Questions: 1. Why was the moon important to the Allied invasion plan? Why would the use of artificial lighting, like flashlights, be dangerous for the paratroopers? 2. In order to be useful to the Allies, on the night of the invasion, by what time should the moon be high in the sky? 3. During the times referred to in questions 2 and 3, in order to provide the most possible light to the paratroopers, what phase should the moon be in? 4. Would the night of a new moon be a good night to begin the invasion? Why or why not? 6 5. On the night of a full moon, where is the moon at sunset? Determining the best night for the invasion - By now you are an expert on lunar phases and their timing. You are ready to advise General Eisenhower of the best night to launch the aerial attack that will precede the landings at dawn on the beaches. General Eisenhower has advised you that the soonest date of complete readiness of the invasion force is Sunday, August 1*. You know that on that night, there will be a waxing first quarter moon. Carefully consult your information and determine what advice you will give to the general. (*You probably know that the D-Day invasion was actually on June 6, 1944, not in August. ) Your advice to the general: The aerial attack should begin at midnight, on (date) ____________ , followed by beach landings at dawn the next morning . Your reasons for giving the general this advice are as follows: 7 The Earth’s ocean tides are a result of variations in gravitational attraction between the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. 8 The Moon produces two tidal ‘bulges’ on the Earth. 1. Due to strong gravitational attraction, the sea is drawn towards the Moon at the location on the Earth closest to the Moon. 2. Another tidal “bulge” occurs simultaneously on the opposite side of the Earth, pulling away from the Moon. 9 Tides are periodic rises and falls of large bodies of water. Tides are caused by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the Moon. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon. Another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon (and away from the water on the far side). Since the earth is rotating while this is happening, two tides occur each day. 10 Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) was the first person to explain tides scientifically. His explanation of the tides (and many other phenomena) was published in 1686. 11 During each ‘tidal period,’ most of the Earth’s surface experiences two tidal crests (high tides) and two tidal troughs (low tides). 12 Some areas of the Earth experience only one high and one low tide per day. This is called a diurnal tide. 13 The Sun also influences the Earth’s tides. When the Moon, the Earth, and the Sun are in a straight line, the pull of the Sun and the Moon act together to create higher high tides and lower low tides, called spring tides. These tides occur every 14-15 days, during full and new moons. 14 Spring tides are especially strong tides (they do not have anything to do with the season Spring). They occur when the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon are in a line. The gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun both contribute to the tides. Spring tides occur during the full moon and the new moon. 15 When the moon, the Earth, and the Sun are at right angles to each other, neap tides are formed. Neap tides occur during the first and last quarter of the Moon, and consist of lower than normal high tides and higher than normal low tides. 16 Neap tides are especially weak tides. They occur when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another (with respect to the Earth). Neap tides occur during quarter moons. 17 Spring tides happen when the sun and moon are on the same side of the earth (New Moon) or when the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the earth (Full Moon). 18 When the Moon is at first quarter or last quarter phase (meaning that it is located at right angles to the Earth-Sun line), the Sun and Moon interfere with each other in producing tidal bulges and tides are generally weaker; these are called neap tides. 19 Spring tides and neap tide levels are about 20% higher or lower than average. 20 Since the moon moves around the Earth, it is not always in the same place at the same time each day. So, each day, the times for high and low tides change by 50 minutes.
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