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					                    Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Part One




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                      Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Warm-up




I. Questions 

II. Hand in Hand 




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                                                             Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




I. Questions


1. Please compare the society nowadays with
   the one ten years ago. What have remained
   unchanged and what have been changed?

2. What is behind the changes around you?




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                                                   Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




 I. Questions

3. In general, could you list some examples
  which show the positive aspecs of
  globalization?

4. Please list some examples which show the
  negative effects of globalization?




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                                                                Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II. Hand in Hand

   Please listen to the song and fill in the
   blanks in the lyrics.


  The 1988 Seoul Olympics Theme Song
                  Hand in Hand




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                                                                Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II. Hand in Hand
  We can see the five in the sky.                                             beating

  We feel the ____of our hearts together                                      rise

                                                                              chance
  This is our time to ____ above
                                                                              stand
  We know the _____ is here to live
                                                                              land
  forever

  For all time

  (Reffrain:)

  Hand in hand we ____

  All across the _____


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                                                                Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II. Hand in Hand
 We can make this world a ______ place in                                 better
 which to live                                                            understand

 Hand in hand we can                                                      Breaking

                                                                          walls
 Start to ______

 ______ down the ____ that come between us

 For all time

 Arirang

 Everytime we give it all



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                                                      Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II. Hand in Hand
                                                                  eternally

                                                                  hands
  We feel the flame ______ inside us
                                                                  sky
  Lift our ______ up to the ______                                calm

  The morning _____ helps us to live in                           harmony

  _______

  For all time




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                       Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Part Two




   W   B   T   L   E                 ENTER
                                 Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Background Information


I.   Author—Robert J. Samuelson

II. The Asian Financial Crisis

III. The European Union

IV. The World Bank

V.   The World Trade Organization

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I.       Author
         Robert J. Samuelson
         Samuelson is a 1967 graduate of
         Harvard University with a B.A. in
         government. Based in Washington,
         D.C., Samuelson began his
         journalism career as a reporter on
         The Washington Post's Business
         Desk in 1969. After four years he
         left the paper to freelance. He has
         been published by The Sunday


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                                                           Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




I.       Author

     Times (London), The Los Angeles
     Times, The New Republic and The
     Columbia Journalism Review.
     Samuelson joined The National
     Journal as an economics
     correspondent in 1976 and began
     writing the "Economic Focus"
     column. He became a contributing
     editor in 1981 and left the magazine


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                                                             Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




I.       Author
         in 1984. Robert Samuelson joined
         Newsweek as a contributing
         editor in 1984, and has become
         one of the magazine's most
         recognized writers for his
         biweekly columns analyzing and
         reporting socioeconomic issues.
         In addition to his Newsweek
         column, Samuelson writes a


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                                                              Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




I.        Author
         biweekly column which appears
         in The Washington Post, The
         Los Angeles Times, The Boston
         Globe and other papers.

         The Awards
         Samuelson has earned many
         journalism awards, including
         the 1993 John Hancock Award
         for Best Business and Financial
         Columnist and the 1993 Gerald


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I.       Author
          Loeb Award for Best
         Commentary. Samuelson earned
         the National Headliner Award for
         Feature Column on a Single
         Subject in both 1992 and 1993.
         He received another National
         Headliner Award in 1987 for Best
         Special Interest Column, and the
         Gerald Loeb Award for
         Commentary in 1986.

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I.       Author
         He was named a Loeb
         finalist in 1988 for his
         columns on the October
         1987 Wall Street crash.
         Before coming to Newsweek,
         Samuelson also won a 1981
         National Magazine Award
         and a 1983 Loeb Award.

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                                                             Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II. The Asian Financial Crisis
 The Asian financial crisis was initiated by
 two rounds of currency depreciation that
 have been occurring since early summer
 1997. The first round was a precipitous
 drop in the value of the Thai baht,
 Malaysian ringgit, Philippine peso, and
 Indonesian rupiah. As these currencies
 stabilized, the second round began with
 downward pressures hitting the Taiwan


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II.       The Asian Financial Crisis
 dollar, South Korean won, Brazilian real,
 Singaporean dollar, and Hong Kong dollar.
 Governments have countered the
 weakness in their currencies by selling
 foreign exchange reserves and raising
 interest rates, which, in turn, have slowed
 economic growth and have made interest-
 bearing securities more attractive than
 equities. The currency crises also have
 revealed severe problems in the banking
 and financial sectors of the troubled Asian
 economies.

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                                                            Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




III. The European Union
It was founded in November, 1993 in
order to enhance political, economic,
and social cooperation among members.
It was formerly known as the European
Community or the European Economic
Community. It is headquartered in
Brussels, Belgium. The EU has grown in
size with successive waves of accessions.
Denmark, Ireland and the United
Kingdom joined in 1973 followed by


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III. The European Union
Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in
1986 and Austria, Finland and Sweden in
1995. The European Union welcomed ten
new countries in 2004: Cyprus, the Czech
Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,
Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and
Slovenia. Bulgaria and Romania expect to
follow in 2007; Croatia and Turkey are
beginning membership negotiations in
2005.

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III. The European Union
To ensure that the enlarged EU can
continue functioning efficiently, it needs
a more streamlined system for taking
decisions. That is why the Treaty of Nice
lays down new rules governing the size
of the EU institutions and the way they
work. It came into force on 1 February
2003. It will be replaced, in 2006, by the
new EU Constitution—if all EU countries
approve of it.


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                                                       Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




III. The European Union
The single currency—the euro—
became a reality on 1 January 2002,
when euro notes and coins replaced
national currencies in twelve of the
15 countries of the EU (Belgium,
Germany, Greece, Spain, France,
Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the
Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and
Finland).

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 IV. The World Bank
The World Bank is a vital source of
financial and technical assistance to
developing countries around the world.
One of the world’s largest sources of
development assistance, the World Bank
supports the efforts of developing
country governments to build schools
and health centers, provide water and
electricity, fight disease, and protect the
environment. The World Bank is not a


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 IV. The World Bank
“bank” in the common sense. It is one of
the United Nations’ specialized agencies,
and is made up of 184 member countries.
These countries are jointly responsible
for how the institution is financed and
how its money is spent. Along with the
rest of the development community, the
World Bank centers its efforts on
reaching the Millennium Development
Goals, agreed to by UN members in 2000
and aimed at sustainable poverty
reduction.


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 IV. The World Bank
It is made up of two unique development
institutions owned by 184 member
countries—the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
and the International Development
Association (IDA). Each institution plays
a different but supportive role in their
mission of global poverty reduction and
the improvement of living standards.
The IBRD focuses on middle income and
creditworthy poor countries, while IDA
focuses on the poorest countries in the
world.

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V. The World Trade Organization
Established in 1995, the World Trade
Organization (WTO) is a powerful new
global commerce agency, which
transformed the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into an
enforceable global commerce code. The
WTO is one of the main mechanisms of
corporate globalization. It is based in
Geneva.



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                      Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Part Three




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                               Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Text Appreciation

   I. Text Analysis
       1. Theme
       2. Structure
       3. Further Discussion

   II. Writing Device
       Parallelism


   III. Sentence Paraphrase


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I.       Text Analysis

             Theme of the Text


                     Globalization is a
                     double-edged sword:
                     a promise to help
                     everyone and a peril
                     to hurt everyone.




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                                                                 Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




    I.         Text Analysis
                   Structure of the Text

                               The author points out the topic—
Part 1 (Paras. 1— 2 ) about:   globalization is a double-edged
                               sword and what it will bring to
                               the one involved.

                               The author discusses the topic in
Part 2 (Paras.3— 34 ) about: detail by exemplification and
:
                               finds it hard to decide. We can
                               only wait and see.




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                                                                 Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




I.       Text Analysis
     Further Discussion About the Text

 How does the author define globalization? How
 does he explain the functions of the market? Why
 does the author say that in some respects
 globalization is merely a trendy work for an old
 process?
 The author said that after World War II, the market
 growth re-accelerated, driven by political pressures
 and better technology. What does he mean?
 What do you know about the establishment of the
 European Union? And do you think it is necessary?



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I.       Text Analysis
     Further Discussion About the Text


What is the general attitude of the poorer countries
towards globalization? Why are some countries so
anxious to join the WTO?
What are the two problems that can neutralize the
potential benefits of globalization and make it
highly risky?
What problems may threaten the future of
globalization?
What is your attitude towards globalization?


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                                                                 Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




II.        Writing Device
                   Parallelism
                                                                  similarity of
At the edge of a new century, globalization is a                  structure in a pair
double-edged sword: a powerful vehicle that                       or series of related
raises economic growth, spreads new                               words, phrases, or
                                                                  clauses
technology and raises living standards in rich
and poor countries alike,… (Para. 1)



       Three verb phrases are coordinatedly used
       as predicate of the attributive clause.


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II.       Writing Device
                  Parallelism
What we call the market is simply the joining of
buyers and sellers, producers and consumers
and savers and investors. (Para. 3)




      Three noun phrases are coordinatedly used
      as the object of preposition “of”.




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II.        Writing Device
                   Parallelism
Economic history consists largely of the story of
the market’s expansion: from farm to town,
from region to nation and from nation to nation.
(Para. 3)



 In this sentence, three prepositional phrases
 are used together to describe the market’s
 expansion.



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II.        Writing Device
                   Parallelism
Globalization’s other problem is political,
cultural and social. (Para. 29)




    Three adjectives are coordinated to show the
    other problems of globalization.




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II.       Writing Devices
                  Parallelism

parallelism of words:
She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and
delicate.

parallelism of phrases:
Singing a song or writing a poem is joyous.

parallelism of clauses:
Perch are inexpensive; cod are cheap; trout are
abundant; but salmon are best.

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                                                                           Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




   III. Sentence Paraphrase 1
At the edge of a new century, globalization is a double-edged
sword: a powerful vehicle that raises economic growth,
spreads new technology and raises living standards in rich
and poor countries alike, but also an immensely
controversial process that assaults national sovereignty;
erodes local culture and tradition and threatens economic
and social instability. (Para. 1)


                                    a thing having both
 the point just before
                                    positive and negative
 sth. very different and
                                    effects          go to 2
 noticeable happens

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   III. Sentence Paraphrase 1
At the edge of a new century, globalization is a double-edged
sword: a powerful vehicle that raises economic growth,
spreads new technology and increases living standards in
rich and poor countries alike, but also an immensely
controversial process that assaults national sovereignty;
erodes local culture and tradition and threatens economic
and social instability. (Para. 1)


                                     to attack
         to wear away; to reduce
         gradually                                  Back to 1


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   III. Sentence Paraphrase 2
A daunting question of the 21st century is whether nations
will control this great upheaval or whether it will come to
control them. (Para. 2)

  intimidating; disheartening


                              a great change, esp. causing
                              or involving much difficulty,
                              activity or trouble



                                                      go to 3



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 III. Sentence Paraphrase 3
In some respects, globalization is merely a trendy word for
an old process. (Para. 3)


                            of the latest fad or fashion


  To some extent, globalization is not new.
  The world has always been in the process of
  market expansion, which is referred to as
  “globalization”—a fashionable term used
  only recently.
                                                  go to 4



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III. Sentence Paraphrase 4
 Europeans saw economic unification as an antidote to
 deadly nationalism. (Para. 5)



a way of preventing or
acting against sth. bad


 Europeans regarded economic unification as a
 way to prevent nationalism.

                                             go to 5




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III. Sentence Paraphrase 5
A decade later, even after Asia’s 1997—1998 financial
crisis, private capital flows dwarf governmental flows.
(Para. 8)


           movement in one direction,
           esp. continuously and
           easily
                           to make sth. seem small
                          by comparison

   Ten years later, even after Asia’s financial
   crisis of 1997—1998, private capital flows are
   still greater in number than governmental
   capital flows.
                                                  go to 6



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   III. Sentence Paraphrase 6
  The recent takeover struggle between British and
  German wireless giants is exceptional only for its size
  and bitterness. (Para. 10)

the act of assuming control
or management of
                      a large company

  The only difference between the recent
  takeover struggle between British and German
  radio giants and other cases is that this
  takeover is much bigger and a lot bitter.
                                                      go to 7



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   III. Sentence Paraphrase 7
  Behind the merger boom lies the growing corporate
  conviction that many markets have become truly global.
  (Para. 11)

of corporations       a firm belief or a fixed opinion


  The reason for the merger boom is that more
  and more business people now believe that
  many markets have truly become global. They
  are no longer producing just for the people in
  their own country. They want to combine or
  merge with others to become multinational
  companies.                                 go to 8


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  III. Sentence Paraphrase 8
In Europe, the relentless pursuit of the “single market” is
one indicator. This reflects a widespread recognition that
European companies will be hard-pressed to compete in
global markets if their local operations are hamstrung by
fragmented national markets. (Para. 13)


 In Europe, the persistent and unremitting effort
 to turn all countries on the continent into a single
 market shows that there is a general agreement
 that if the European market remains divided into
 many small parts behind national borders, their
 companies will not be able to compete in the
 international market.                        go to 9


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 III. Sentence Paraphrase 9
Among poorer countries, the best sign of support is the
clamor to get into the World Trade Organization... And 32
are seeking membership. (Para. 14)



a noisy outcry



                            to try to join; to apply for
                            the membership

                                                  go to 10



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   III. Sentence Paraphrase 10

Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa—whose
embrace of the world economy has been late or limited—
fared much less well. (Para. 17)



  Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Sahara Africa,
  whose integration with the world economy has
  been late and limited, were not so lucky.


                                                 go to 11



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 III. Sentence Paraphrase 11
The global economy may be prone to harsher boom-bust
cycles than national economies individually. (Para. 19)


                         likely or inclined to do sth.



Once integrated with the world market, nations
will naturally be more vulnerable to the
fluctuations of the world economy. The capital
flows in and out of a country, for example, can
create a boom or bust very quickly and with
much harsher effects.                     go to 12



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 III. Sentence Paraphrase 12
The Asian financial crisis raised questions on both counts.
(Para. 20)


                     on both points under discussion



The Asian financial crisis brought these two
questions to people’s attention: investment funds
were not well used and trade flows became too
lopsided.

                                                 go to 13



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  III. Sentence Paraphrase 13

What prevented the Asian crisis from becoming a full-
 scale global economic downturn has been the
 astonishing U. S. economy. (Para. 22)


     It was the surprisingly vigorous growth
     of the U. S. economy that saved the
     Asian crisis from escalating into an all-
     round economic depression.
                                                 go to 14



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  III. Sentence Paraphrase 14
If the forecasts materialize—and the OECD’s growth
estimates for Japan exceed most private forecasts—they
will restore some balance to the world economy and
relieve fears of a global recession. (Para. 27)

                 to become actual fact; to come true
If the forecasts come true—and the OECD’s
growth estimates for Japan are higher than most
private forecasts—they will, to some extent, help
the world economy return to its earlier balance,
and reduce the fear of a worldwide recession.
                                                  go to 15



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  III. Sentence Paraphrase 15
It remains possible that abrupt surges of global capital, first
moving into Asia and then out, will have caused, with some
delay, a larger instability. (Para. 28)


                       a sudden and great increase

  It is still possible that sudden increase or
  withdrawal of the world’s capital, first moving
  into Asia and then out of it, will have made Asia
  more unstable.

                                                    go to 16



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 III. Sentence Paraphrase 16
But this does not mean that a powerful popular backlash,
with unpredictable consequences, is not possible. (Para.
33)


  an excessive or marked adverse reaction



But this does not mean that a powerful hostile
reaction from ordinary people, which will have
unpredictable consequences, is not possible.




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                        Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Part Four




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                                Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Language Study

  I.   Word Study

  II. Phrases and Expressions

  III.Word Building

  IV. Grammar



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                                                       Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




 I.          Word Study
Word list:
  1. alien               10. constituent 19. irreversible
  2. antidote            11. daunting    20. maximize
  3. backlash            12. downturn    21. merger
  4. binge               13. dwarf       22. prevail
  5. boom                14. ensue       23. prone
  6. bust                15. erode       24. propel
  7. clamor              16. glut        25. retard
  8. complement 17. implode              26. slump
  9. conspicuously18. inept

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 I.         Word Study

1. alien
  a.   coming from a different country, race or
        group; foreign

  Examples:
      It’s a country that has had an alien
      government and an alien language imposed on
      it by force.
       I find the ideal of sending young children off to
      boarding school totally alien.



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I.         Word Study

alien n. a foreigner, esp. someone who lives
           in a country of which they are not
           legal citizen


Example:
     When war broke out the government
     rounded up thousands of aliens and put
     them in temporary camps.



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I.         Word Study
alienate v.
a. to stop supporting
b. to cause to feel very distant from or not
   welcome to someone lese


Examples:
  All these changes to the newspaper have
  alienated its traditional readers.
  Ten years in prison have alienated him
  from his family.
n. alienation


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I.         Word Study
2. antidote
 n. a chemical, esp. a drug, which limits the
   effects of a poison, or a way of preventing or
   acting against something bad

 Examples:
   Anemone was at the time believed to be an
   antidote for scorpion poison.
   Regular exercise is the best antidote to
   tiredness and depression.



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I.         Word Study
3. backlash
   n. a strong feeling among a group of people in
     reaction to a tendency or recent events in
     society or politics

   Examples:
     The new president encouraged the
     backlash against “moral laxity”.
     The accident has provoked/produced a
     backlash among local people who claim
     that the road is dangerous.



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 I.          Word Study

 4. binge
      n. an occasion when an activity is done in an
        extreme way, esp. eating, drinking or
        spending money

Examples:
      a drinking/eating/spending binge
      Her illness involved periods of binge-eating and then
      making herself sick.



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I.         Word Study

binge v. to eat in an uncontrolled way,
          sometimes as a part of an illness


Examples:
 I tend to binge on chocolate when I am
 watching TV!
 She went through periods of binging (also
 binge-eating).



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 I.          Word Study

5. boom
   n. a period of sudden growth, esp. one that
     results in a lot of money being made

   Examples:
     This year has seen a boom in book sales.
       The insurance business has been
       characterized by a vicious cycle of boom and
       bust as companies go in and out of
       businesses and prices rise and fall.



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I.         Word Study

boom v.


Example:
     Here, as elsewhere, the leisure industry is
     booming.




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I.        Word Study

6. bust
  n. a place where people are allowed to leave
     their rubbish (also a rubbish dump)

  Examples:
    I’m going to clear out the shed tomorrow
   and take everything I don’t’ want to the
   bust.
    His room is a bust.




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 I.           Word Study
bust v.
a. to break something
b. to arrest somebody


Examples:
   Oh no! I’ve busted his CD player.
   Harry and his girlfriend busted up last
   week.
   The police busted him because they think
   he’s involved with a terrorist group.

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I.           Word Study

bust n. an occasion when police arrest people
            who are thought to have broken the
            law


Example:
     In their latest drugs bust police entered a
     warehouse where cocaine dealers were
     meeting.


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 I.        Word Study
bust a. When a company goes bust it is
       forced to close because it is
       financially unsuccessful.


Example:
  More than twenty companies in the
  district went bust during the last three
  months.




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I.        Word Study
7. clamor = clamour
  n. a. a loud complaint about something or
        demand for something
     b. loud noise, esp. made by people’s
        voices

  Examples:
     After the bombing, there was a public
    clamor for vengeance.
     He preferred solitary walks in the
    wilderness to the clamor of the city.



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I.         Word Study
a. clamorous

Examples:
   The newspaper devoted seven pages to a
   clamorous call for independence.
   The air was filled with clamorous, excited voices.

v. clamor
Example:
    The residents are clamoring against the dumping
    of chemical waste near their houses.




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 I.          Word Study
 8. complement
     v. to match two different things together
       whose combined effect is greater than that
       of either separately

Example:
    Strawberries and cream complement each other
    perfectly.
a. complementary
Example:
      My family and my job both play an important part in
      my life, fulfilling separate but complementary needs.



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I.          Word Study

9. conspicuously


  ad. obviously; in a way that is easy to notice


  Example:
     The temple’s grand white arches rose
     conspicuously over the dirty decaying city.




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I.        Word Study
a. conspicuous

                                                    Antonym
Examples:
                                                  inconspicuous
 In China, where black hair is the norm,
 her blonde hair was conspicuous.
 He tried not to look conspicuous and
 moved slowly along the back of the room.


n. conspicuousness



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I.          Word Study
10. constituent

     n. a voter in a particular area of the country



Example:
      As a senator he was excellent—always talking to
      his constituents and hearing their problems.




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  I.            Word Study

constituency n. any of the official areas of a
                    country that elect someone to
                    represent voters nationally


Example:
       The MP’s constituency covers the city’s poorest
       areas.




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I.         Word Study
constitute v.   to form or make
           a./ n. constituent


Examples:
      Women constitute about 10% of the Parliament.
      What are the basic constituents of the mixture?
      Let’s consider separately the constituent parts of
      this sentence.




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 I.         Word Study
11. daunting
    a. intimidating; disheartening

Example:
    In spite of unification the country was still faced
      with the daunting prospect of overcoming four
      decades of division.


Antonym: dauntless




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   I.         Word Study

daunt v. to make someone feel slightly frightened
         or worried about their ability to achieve
         something; to discourage


  Example:
        She was not at all daunted by the size of the
        problem.




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  I.          Word Study
 12. downturn = downswing


   n. a reduction in the amount or success of
        something, such as a country’s economic
        activity


Examples:
   the continuing economic downturn
   There is evidence of a downturn in the
   building trade.



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   I.         Word Study

upturn n. (esp. in economics) an improvement or
         advantageous change to a higher level or
         value



  Example:
        Investors should not expect a sharp upturn in the
        economy.




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I.          Word Study

13. dwarf

  v. to cause to appear small by comparison


  Examples:
      The new skyscraper will dwarf all those
       near it.
      This new financial crisis may well dwarf
      most that have gone before.


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  I.           Word Study
dwarf n. a person who is much smaller than the
           usual size


Example:
  They have campaigned for many years against the
  discrimination experienced by dwarfs/ dwarves.


a. dwarf




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 I.         Word Study

14. ensue
      v. to happen after something else, esp. as a
       result of it


Examples:
    The police officer said that he had placed the man
    under arrest and that a scuffle had ensued.
    Boredom often ensues from inactivity.




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  I.          Word Study

a. ensuing


Examples:
  He lost his job and in the ensuing months became
  more and more depressed.
  An argument broke out and in the ensuing fight, a gun
  went off.




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 I.         Word Study
15. erode
      v. to rub or be rubbed away gradually

Examples:
    Wind and rain have eroded the statues into the
    shapeless lumps of stone.
    The cliffs are eroding by/ at several feet a year.
    His behavior over the last few months has eroded my
    confidence in his judgment.
a. erosion




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I.         Word Study
16. glut
     n. a supply of something that is much
      greater than can be sold or is needed or
      wanted


Examples:
  The fall in demand for coffee could cause a
  glut on/in the market, forcing some
  producers to cut prices.
  There is a glut of large, expensive houses
  lying empty and unsold.


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 I.         Word Study

17. implode
     v. to fall inwards with force
                                                                  Compare
Examples:                                                          explode
     The vacuum inside the tube caused it to implode
     when the external air pressure was increased.
     Their economy is in danger of imploding because of
     massive foreign debts.
n. implosion




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  I.         Word Study
 18. inept
       a. not skilled or effective


Examples:
   Someone had made an inept attempt to iron the skirts.
   He was always rather inept at sport.
   He was criticized for his inept handling of the situation.




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 I.            Word Study

n.    ineptitude


Examples:
     political/social/economic ineptitude
     The newspaper editorial correctly pointed out the
     government’s ineptitude in dealing with the ozone
     crisis.



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I.         Word Study

19. irreversible
     a. not possible to change


 Examples:
    He listed some of the irreversible effects of
   ageing.
   Technology has had an irreversible impact
   on society.

 ad. irreversibly


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  I.        Word Study
20. maximize
    v. to make something as great in amount,                                  Compare
     size or importance as possible
                                                                              minimize
Example:                                                                      minimization
    To maximize our walking time, we should be ready to                       minimum
    start at dawn.                                                            minimal


n. maximization
Example:
     The company is striving for the maximization of
     profits.


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  I.         Word Study

n. maximum
to the maximum: to the greatest possible degree

a. maximal

Example:
    Even when the brain has attained its maximal size and
    structure, signals from the body and the environment
    are still constantly changing it.




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   I.        Word Study

  21. merger
    n. the union of two or more commercial
     interest or corporations

Examples:
    Their merger of the two companies would create the
    world’s biggest accounting firm.
    The German tyre company is holding merger talks
    with its Indian rival.



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 I.            Word Study
v. merge

Examples:
      The country’s two biggest banks are planning to
      merge in order to fight off competition from abroad.
      After a while the narrow track merges with a wider
      path.




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 I.          Word Study

 22. prevail

      v. to exist and be accepted among a large
       number of people, or to get a position of
       control and influence

Examples:
      This is a strange custom that still prevails.
      Did greed prevail over generosity?




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  I.         Word Study
a. prevailing/prevalent
n. prevalence

Examples:
    The prevailing mood is one of optimism.
    Under the prevailing law, the government cannot
    annul such marriages.
    These diseases are more prevalent among young
    children.
    The prevalence of drugs in the inner cities is
    alarming.


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  I.         Word Study
23. prone
    a. a. tending to suffer from an illness or
        show a particular negative
        characteristic
     b. lying on the front with the face down
Examples:
     You’re more prone to illnesses when you’re tired
     and your body is run-down.
     You have to bear in mind that Angela is rather
     prone to exaggeration.



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 I.         Word Study

      The photograph showed a man lying prone on
      the pavement, a puddle of blood about his head.


a. -prone: combining form
accident-prone, injury-prone




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 I.        Word Study
24. propel
   v. to cause something to move forwards
Examples:
 a rocket propelled by grenade
 Mr. Henry said that the country was being
 propelled towards civil war.
 A propelling pencil or mechanical pencil is a
 pencil in which the lead can be pushed forward
 by turning or pressing a part of the pencil.



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I.          Word Study

25. retard

      v. to make (something) slower

Examples:
      Icy roads retarded their progress through the
      mountains.
      A rise in interest rates would severely retard
      economic growth.



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  I.          Word Study
a. retarded
n. retardation
Examples:
       The program offers long-term care for the elderly and
       intermediate care for the mentally retarded.
       The drugs taken by the women while they were
       pregnant caused growth retardation in their children.




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  I.         Word Study
26. slump
      n. recession

Examples:
       There has been a slump in demand for beef ever
       since the recent health scare.
       The hotel industry, like most industries, is currently
       in a slump.
       There is fear that we are entering another economic
       slump as bad as the 1930’s.


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 I.          Word Study

slump v. (of prices, values or sales) to fall
        suddenly


Examples:
  The value of property has slumped.
  Car sales have slumped dramatically over the
  past year.




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II.       Phrases and Expressions
  List:
              1. a succession of
              2. be hard-pressed to do
              3. depart from
              4. in some respects
              5. abreast of




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  II.        Phrases and Expressions
1. a succession of

     a number of things or people following each other in
     time or order; a series

Examples:
    Last week we had a succession of visitors.
    A succession of accidents spoiled our automobile
    trip.
    A succession of cars passed us one after another.
    The poor man had a succession of misfortunes.




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 II.         Phrases and Expressions
 in succession        一个接一个,一连
    Victory followed victory in rapid succession.
    He has been awarded first prize for his roses three
    years in succession.
    His words came out in quick succession.

in succession (to) 继承(王位等)
     Who is the first in succession to the throne?
     The eldest son is the first in succession to his
     father’s property.




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 II.        Phrases and Expressions

2. be hard-pressed to do
    to have a lot of difficulties doing something


Examples:
    The latest education reforms have put extra pressure
    in teachers who are already hard-pressed.
    Because of shortages, the emergency services were
    hard-pressed to deal with the accident.




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 II.        Phrases and Expressions
3. depart from
   背离,离开;不按······行事
Examples:
    We cannot depart from our regular practice in
    such cases.
    I’d like to depart from the main subject of my
    speech for a few moments.
    The chairman departed from the normal
    procedure by allowing reporters to be present
    during Council business.

departure from
     The new system is a departure from our usual
     way of keeping records.



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 II.         Phrases and Expressions
4. in some respects
      在一些方面
  Examples:
      In many respects, John is the best boy we have
      had in the school.
      This proposal differs from the last one in some
      respects.
      The house is in a fairly good condition and, in this
      respect, contrasts with the rest of the street which
      is in a state of disrepair.
      The plan is faulty in every respect.



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II.         Phrases and Expressions

5. abreast of

      being informed about the most recent facts about
       a subject or situation

Examples:
    She’s always abreast of the current political
    situation.
    I try to keep abreast of what’s happening in
    psychology.




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                              Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




 III. Word Building
List:


            1. Prefix–multi
            2. Prefix–sub




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 III. Word Building
           prefix


multilateral

   multi-: prefix, from Latin, meaning “many,
   much, multiple, many times, more than
   one, composed of many like parts, in
   many respects”

   multicolored,        multivitamin,      multilateral,
   multinational



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 III. Word Building
               prefix

multilateral

mono-: prefix,      from    Greek,    meaning                “one,
single, lone”
monarch,                monastery,       monochrome,
monogamy,               monogram,         monograph,
monolingual,            monotonous,      monosyllable
bi-: prefix, from Latin, meaning “twice, two”
biennial, bisect, bicentennial, biped, bigamy,
binoculars, bilateral, biweekly




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 III. Word Building
                prefix

multilateral

 In some words referring to time periods, the
 prefix bi- has two meanings: “twice a+-” and
 “every two+-s”. Thus, biannual means both
 “twice a year” and “every two years”.
 tri-: prefix, from Latin, meaning “three”
 triatomic, trilateral
 quadri-: prefix, meaning “four”
 quadrilateral, quad


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 III. Word Building
               prefix

multilateral


penta-: prefix, from Greek, meaning “five”
pentagon
sex-: prefix, from Latin, meaning “six”
sexpartite (having six parts or divisions)
octa-: prefix, from Greek, meaning “eight”
octagon




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 III. Word Building
               prefix

multilateral

 deci-: prefix, from Latin, meaning “ten”. This
 meaning now appears in the names of units of
 measurement that are one tenth the size of the
 unit named by the second element of the
 compound.
 decibel, deciliter
 poly-: prefix, from Greek, meaning “much,
 many”
 polyglot, polyandry (the custom of having
 many husbands)


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 III. Word Building
        prefix

sub-Saharan
   sub - :

 1. “under, below, beneath” from Latin,meaning
       subsoil, subway
 2. “just outside of, near”
       subapline, subtropical
 3. “less than, not quite”
       subhuman, subteen
 4. “secondary, at a lower point in a hierarchy”
       subcommittee, subplot


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IV. Grammar
Appositive clause
The appositive clause is used after these
nouns to explain the noun: fact, news, idea,
hope, report, opinion, order, question,
problem, belief, truth, answer, theory,
decision, discovery, conclusion, statement,
promise, rumor, possibility, etc.

 Example:
 The news that he intended to come gave
 us much pleasure.




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IV. Grammar
Appositive clause

More examples:
  Suddenly the thought came to him that he
 could go blind.
  It is difficult to answer your question how
 I did it.
  The question often comes up in my mind
 what I shall say when he comes.
  Fame and fortune—what others sought
 after with zest—was all rubbish to him.



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                        Lesson 8—Globalization’s Dual Power




Part Four




                        This is the end of
                        Lesson Eight.

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