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					     ENGINEERING DESIGN OF ITER PROTOTYPE
        FAST PLANT SYSTEM CONTROLLER




Bruno Soares Gonçalves
on behalf of
J. Sousa, B. Carvalho, A.P. Rodrigues, M.
Correia, A. Batista, J. Vega, M. Ruiz, J.M.
López, R. Castro Rojo, A. Wallander, N.
Utzel, A. Neto, D. Alves, D. Valcárcel



Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear
Instituto Superior Técnico
Lisbon, Portugal
http://www.ipfn.ist.utl.pt


                                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , May 28, 2010 | RT2010
Control and Data Acquisition in Fusion




2                                       Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                       B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Control and Data Acquisition in Fusion
Safe operation and high performance




             Diagnostics




               Actuators




3                                            Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                            B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Control and Data Acquisition in Fusion
Safe operation and high performance



             Diagnostics
                            Controllers ensure
                            • Reliability
                            • Reproducibility
               Actuators    •Plasma & Machine
                             protection

                           Most stringent requirements
                           come from Fast Controllers
4                                            Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                            B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ITER Fast Plant System controllers




    To diagnostics and Plant   Systems in closed-
    control loops whose cycle times below 1 ms


    Dedicated industrial controllers with ability to
      – supervise other fast and/or slow controllers,
      – interface to actuators, sensors and high
      performance networks


5                                               Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                               B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Diagnostics Local control
e.g. ITER LIDAR
            VACUUM
            VESSEL
                                                                                  Inner-Wall
                                                                               Monitoring Unit
                               PLASMA                                          (to be defined)




                                                                                 Windows
                              Radial Port                                      Monitoring Unit
                               Labyrinth


                            Primary Vacuum                                    C   CCD      Primary
                                Window                                                     imaging mirror
            CRYOSTAT
                                                                              C   CCD       Blanket
                                                                                            penetration
                                          M4
                                                                              C   CCD       Back wall
                                M5




                            Cryostat Window                                    Alignment Optics
            PIT                                                                                                  Filter
                                                                   XY axis         Feedback
                                                                   XY axis                                    Spectometer
                                                                                   Controller
                 Linear                                 Linear
              Servomotors   Biological Shield        Servomotors

                                Labyrinth
                                                     Collected LightTransmission Line


                                                                                Laser Alignment                Gated Fast              Data Acquisition
                              PIT     C                  2 cameras
                            RELAYS
                                          CCD                                      Feedback                    Detectors               20 GSPS, 10-bit,
                                                                                   Controller                 (MCP PMTs)                6 GHz, 500 ps
                                         Laser
                                      Transmission
                                          Line


                            Beam Combiner                                                                       Detection
                                                                                Laser Controller                 System
                  7 beams                                                                                       Controller
                                                1 beam
                            7 beams
                                                                                                                       LOCAL CONTROL
            1064 nm             532 nm              Calibration
             Lasers             Lasers                Laser
                                                                                            Laser control, triggering, fault
                                                                                            detection and monitoring lines
6                                                                                              Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
                     MIMO Architecture

    Diagnostic

                             Controller                  Actuator
    Diagnostic


    Diagnostic
                             Controller                  Actuator
    Diagnostic


    Diagnostic               Elaboration
                                                       High Level
                                                        Machine
    Diagnostic
                                                       Protection



7                                 Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                 B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ITER will make extensive usage of fast controllers
up to 1 Mchannels


    Procured by Parties and            Choice of technology is
    their sub-contractors              strategic for ITER

    • IO in charge of the              • Standardisation
    integration on site and
                                       • Supply high quality
    the operation
                                       information on the
    • Need for homogenising            fusion process
    supporting technology
                                       • I&C technology
                                       evolving fast and ITER
                                       timescale - longevity

8                                              Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Fast controllers for fusion


    Challenges                             Implications
                                           • Massive processing power
    • Increasing number of
                                           (parallel, multi-processing
    interdependent
                                           support)
    parameters to be controlled
                                           • High bandwidth for data-
    • Increasingly faster loop-            transfer
    cycle response
                                           • Real-time multi-input-multi-
                                           output (MIMO) control
                                           • Advanced, intelligent, flexible
                                           timing & syncronization

9                                                  Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                  B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ITER Instrumentation & Control System
physical architecture




10                                                       Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                        B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ITER Instrumentation & Control System
Fast controllers




11                                                       Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                        B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
                                                                    DEVELOPMENT
                                                                   HOST / mini-CODAC

Prototype Fast Plant                                              Low level programming,
                                                                   (Control, Algorithms)
                                                                                                                  TCN
                                                                                                                                 PSH                   switch               CODAC / Mini CODAC




System Controller                                    HWM                                             DEV
                                                                                                     HOST
                                                                                                                                                        PON


                                                                                                                                                                                   Scientific
                                                                              Firmware                                         Configuration                                         Data
                                                                               [HMU]                                                                  Software                     Archiving
                                                                                                 Code                     Alarms and Status
                                                                                                                                                      Functions
                                                   Hardware                                      [RTP]                      Error & Trace Logs       (section 4.)
                                                Management Unit
                                                    (HMU)
                        Described                                                                                                                                                SDA
                            on
                         software
                                                                                                                                                                        Time &
                          section                                                                                                 Data Selection                         Sync
                                                                                                                                      [IDF]           Events            [TMG]
                                                                                                                                                    Management

                                                                                                                                      RT Events
                                                                                                                                                                 SDN
                                                           Time                                                                                                 Events
                                                          [TMG]       Internal Data Flow
                                                                                                                  Real-time Processor                                                       SDN
                                                                         Management                                                                                              SDN
                                                                                                                         [RTP]
                    Slow              Slow                                   [IDF]                                                           Sync [TMG]
                  Controller        Controller




                                                     [Sample,Status,Error]                                                                                                                      TCN
                  Interlock         Interlock                                                                                                                                    TCN


                                                            Sync                                 Sync                                                      Sync
                                                           [TMG]                                [TMG]                                                     [TMG]      Timing
                                                                         Data                                 Output
                                                                       acquisition                                                        Remote I/O                Functions
                                                                                                             generator
                                                                                                                                                                     [TMG]
                                                           [Analog signals]
                                                                                                                     [Analog signals]
                                                         Sync [TMG]                 [Status,Error]

                                            Fast Controller                Signal                              Signal                      Remote
                                                                           Input                               Output                        I/O
                  Provided by
                    ITER IO                                        Sync             Digital
                                                                                     Link
                  Implemented
                                                                      Input Signal                          Output Signal
                    in FPSC
                                                                      conditioning                          conditioning
                     project

                    Parcial
                  implementati
                       on                                                 Wiring                               Wiring
                  Out of scope
                    of FPSC
                    project

                                                                          Sensors                            Actuators

                  Interface Type

                                                                                                      Testbench         TCN
12                                                                                  Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                                   B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
                                                                                        PON                             SDN
Generic sensor with I&C



 Coil or
Sensor
  loop
                            Clock Joints
                               Many
                                      and
                                                                        Digital
                                   Connectors
                                                                       Isolation
                                                     Vout
       Vin
             Signal conditioning
               (e.g. Integrator)
                                            ADC ∫          ADC
                                                        Pre-Processing              Network



                            Status                  Vout
                                                            ADC
                         Signal Error
                                                                        Digital
                                     Low Bias                          Isolation




           Galvanic isolation up to 1 kV required!!
13                                                                   Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                    B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Generic sensor with I&C



 Coil or
Sensor
  loop
                            Clock Joints
                               Many
                                      and
                                                                         Digital
                                   Connectors
                                                                        Isolation
                                                      Vout
       Vin
             Signal conditioning
               (e.g. Integrator)
                                           ADC   ∫          ADC
                                                         Pre-Processing              Network



                            Status                   Vout
                                                             ADC
                         Signal Error
                                                                         Digital
                                     Low Bias                           Isolation




           Galvanic isolation up to 1 kV required!!
14                                                                    Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                     B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Data acquisition

                                                         Static errors table
               [Sample,Status,Error] or
           [Sample vector,Time,Status,Error]                       Time [TMG]
                                                     Pre-
     IDF
                                                  Processing

                             [Sample] or
                      [Sample vector,time-stamp]

                              Configuration
                                   Status
                                                    Digitizer
                             Sync [TMG]                                     [Status,Error]


                                   [Analog signals]


                               Sync [TMG]            Signal
                                                     Input


15                                                             Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Real-time processor




16                                     Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                      B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Internal data flow


                                                        To database




                                                             HPC



17                                    Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                     B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Output generator


                           Real-time
                           processor

               Digital signals


                                                 Configuration
        Sync [TMG]     Output generator
                       (actuator signal            Status
                         generation)


             Analog Signals


                              Signal
                              Output



18                                                 Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                  B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
When something fails…
When something fails…




19                                Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                 B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
When something fails…

Huge thermal loads
on Plasma Facing
Components occur

Plasma vertical position in
ITER must be robust    &
reliable to ensure a vertical
plasma position control loss
is a very   unlikely event

20                                               Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Control and Data Acquisition in Fusion
Demands of Steady-State operation

                                   Resilience to failure
                                          • sensors - backup set
                                          • redundant acquisition
                                          channels

       Risk                        Redundancy
                                          • power supplies
     reduction                            • data transport

                                   Shelf management
                                          • Monitoring
                                          • Fault detection
                                          • Maintenance
                                          • Redundancy management
21                                       Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                        B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ITER | Targeting redundancy and high availability
                                                                Error
                                                              Detection

                      In-vessel
                                   75
                                    /   DAQ A1                                    Decisor
                        Set A                       75
                                                     /
                                   75            75           Checker /
                                    /   DAQ A2    /           Selector
                                                    75
                                   75                /
                                    /   DAQ A3
                                                                           ≤ 75
                                                                             /               ≤ 75
                                                                                   Signal
                                                                 Error            Selector     /
                                                               Detection     /               Hardware
                                   75                                      ≤ 75                 level
                       In-vessel                                                             redundant
                                    /   DAQ B1      75
                         Set B                                                                  data
                                                      /
                                   75              75
                                                        Checker /
                                    /   DAQ B2      /
                                                    75 Selector
                                                      /
                                   75
                                    /   DAQ B3




                       Ex-vessel
                                                         60
                          Set                             /

                                                     140
                         HF set                       /




     Substitution and replacement strategy for the vertical speed measurement
22                                                                              Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                               B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Control and Data Acquisition in Fusion
Demands of Steady-State operation




     High-availability                  Awareness
     Failure detection                  ofsystem
     and mitigation                     status at all
     Redundancy                         time


23                                        Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                         B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
     Hardware management




      Integration with EPICS required
24                     Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
      B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
     Software architecture




25                                     Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                      B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
     IOC Module




26                                 Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                  B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
     Software architecture | possible solution




              Using MARTe as an IOC
27                                         Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                          B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
                           How will it look like?

     PXIe
                                                                  1 Gb/s Ethernet

                                  CPU / Network
                                  Chassis

                                                            PCIe




                                 IPMC




            2 form factors - Similar functions
28                                             Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
                                                                        Summary




     • Deep understanding of the plasma control and plasma                 diagnostics
     is required to define a fast controller for ITER

     • Functional specification has progressed and are challenging to
     implement

     • PXIe and ATCA form factors will be extensively tested against
     specification

     • This effort is important to ITER   standardisation effort
29                                                             Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
30                    Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
     B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
Fo st e r i n g i n n ov a t i o n o n
instrumentation technology
L o o k i n g t o w a r d s t o m o r r o w ’s e n e r g y




31                                                                    Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                     B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
JET Vertical Stabilization system


                  192 input
                  signals




     Front view               Rear view
32                                             Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
JET Vertical Stabilization system


                  192 input
                              • 192 signals acquired by
                  signals     ADCs and transferred at each
                              cycle
                              • 50 ms control loop cycle time
                              with jitter < 1 ms
                              • Always in real-time (24 hours
                              per day)
                                   •1.728 x 109 50 ms
                                   cycles/day
                                   •Crucial for ITER very long
     Front view                    pulses
33                                             Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                              B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
ATCA-CONTROLLER-                   ATCA- MIMO-ISOL                         ATCA-SR-TR
PCIe
                                   •32 analog input channels               •Data transfer rate of up to
•twelve ATCA fabric channels                                               800 Mbyte/s over x4 PCIe to
(x4 full-duplex PCIe)              (digitizer/transient recorder)
                                                                           the host processor.
•multicore processor (currently    • 8 analog output channels
                                                                           •Choice of resolution
over 40 GFLOPS)                    (waveform generator).
•SIMD instructions plus signal                                                   •250 MSPS @ 13-bit,
                                   • 8 digital input/output channels
processing libraries                                                             •400 MSPS @ 14-bit,
•RTOS (RTAI for linux)             • Customizable carrier boards                 •500 MSPS @ 12-bit
•one PCI legacy slot               and rear transition modules
                                                                           •Maximum pulse rate of 5
•wide availability of components   • Both types of analog I/O can          Mpulse/s;
with low cost upgrades             be present on the carrier board
                                   and on the RTM.




34                                                                    Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                     B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
IPFN’s ATCA-MIMO-ISOL
“the star of the show”




                                                             RTM
 ADC module
35                                        Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                         B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event
General Purpose Board for CDAQ systems
     • 32-Channel ADC Board (ATCA_MIMO-
     ISOL) (Soft-X-Ray/Mirnov)
        • isolated ( KVolts ) 2 MSPS ADC Modules w/ high
        bandwidth/signal response and signal linearity


     • 32 Channel Chopper Amp/Integrators
     Board for Magnetic Diagnostics
        • 20 KSPS/12 bit, Switching time 1 ms, Switching
        transition time 40 us, Hi-pass filter 10 Hz (still under
        development)




     • 8-Channel ADC Board for very High-
     Speed Sampling (Thomson Scattering, etc.)
        • 400 MSPS/14 bit per channel, digital decimation
        filter, full mesh backplane interconnect



36                                                                     Author’s May 28, 2010 | RT2010
                                                      B. Gonçalves | Lisboa , name | Place, Month xx, 2007 | Event

				
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