WorldEntrepreneurshipForum2010 Livre Blanc by fredoche25


									 Shaping the World of 2050
with an Entrepreneurial Impact

       Proceedings of the third
    World Entrepreneurship Forum
    Lyon, France, November 2010

           White Paper

The White Paper of the World Entrepreneurship Forum is the result of a collective reflection
led by 110 entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs, politicians and academics representing 55

By sharing their best practices, ideas and recommendations with a global audience,
members aim to address our planet’s most pressing issues with an entrepreneurial vision;
creating wealth and social justice altogether.

Laying the ground for a better, more entrepreneurial world at the horizon 2050 was the
objective of the 2010 edition of the World Entrepreneurship Forum.

Four topics of importance for entrepreneurs and public decision-makers were discussed:
creating high-growth companies, disseminating entrepreneurial spirit at the Base of the
Pyramid, designing entrepreneurial cities and implementing entrepreneurial education.

From the discussions and debates, 26 case studies from 16 countries have been extracted.
These underpin the 13 ambitious yet actionable recommendations offered in this paper.

The World Entrepreneurship Forum is especially grateful to its partners for their trust and their
support of global entrepreneurship and is looking forward to receiving readers’ comments
and support in disseminating and discussing its ideas and proposals on a global scale.

Yves-Henri Robillard
World Entrepreneurship Forum

2    W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

The World in 2050 .........................................................................................                                 p. 7

I.   Accelerating the emergence of High-Growth and innovative
     companies.............................................................................................                                 p. 11

     Context ...................................................................................................                            p. 12

     Case studies
     1 - Keeping an innovative culture alive: Creaholic, Switzerland.......................                                                 p. 13
     2 - Entrepreneurs and banks cooperating for growth: The Prosperity Project,
         Groupement des Chefs d’Entreprise du Québec, Canada ..........................                                                     p.   14
     3 - Growing global: Lenovo, China .............................................................                                        p.   14
     4 - The importance of start-up funding: The Innovation Investment Fund, UK ......                                                      p.   16
     5 - The importance of start-up funding: ARCAP, Argentina ..............................                                                p.   16
     6 - Incubation and funding: Iris Ventures, Israel .............................................                                        p.   16
     7 - Innovation in the large corporation: Rhodia, France ..................................                                             p.   17

     Looking back from the future: workshops at the World Entrepreneurship Forum .                                                          p. 19

     Views from the Junior Forums ......................................................................                                    p. 20

     Recommendations .....................................................................................                                  p. 21
     1 - Creating international Master Classes of High-Growth Entrepreneurs
     2 - Creating a global network of high-growth incubators
     3 - Organizing commercial match-makings between MNCs and start-ups

     Individual commitments ..............................................................................                                  p. 22

II. Encouraging entrepreneurship at the “Base of the Pyramid” .........                                                                     p. 23

     Context ...................................................................................................                            p. 24

     Case studies
     1 - Creating 8 million jobs in 38 years: the BRAC approach, Bangladesh ........                                                        p. 26
     2 - Supporting Women at the Base of the Pyramid: The Self-Employed Women’s
         Association, India .................................................................................                               p. 26
     3 - Supporting Women at the Base of the Pyramid: Exim Bank, Tanzania .........                                                         p. 27
     4 - Products and services for the BoP: The Sanishop franchising Model
         by World Toilet Organization, Singapore ................................................                                           p. 28
     5 - Products and services for the BoP: 1001 Fontaines, France ........................                                                 p. 28

                                                         W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r    3

    6 - Integrating BoP entrepreneurs into larger value-chains: Adapta Sertão,
        Brazil ..................................................................................................   p. 29
    7 - Integrating BoP entrepreneurs into larger value-chains: La Base, Argentina ..                               p. 29
    8 - Education at the BoP: The Lira Integrated School, Uganda .........................                          p. 30

    The view from the Junior Forums ..................................................................              p. 31

    Recommendations .....................................................................................           p. 32
    1 - Fostering a change of mindset among the poorest populations
    2 - Law, regulation, and policy need to work together to promote market-based
        solutions for the BoP
    3 - Creating clusters and incubators through the ‘BoP Hub’

    Individual commitments ..............................................................................           p. 34

III. Designing entrepreneurial cities .........................................................                     p. 35

    Context ...................................................................................................     p. 36

    Case studies
    1- Singapore - Striving towards an Entrepreneurial Future ...............................                       p. 38
    2 - Making Montreal more entrepreneurial: the “Projet entrepreneuriat”,
        Canada ..............................................................................................       p. 40
    3 - IMAGEEN, A network of entrepreneurial European Cities ..........................                            p. 42
    4 - Using technologies to design smarter cities: IBM, USA ..............................                        p. 43

    The view from the Junior Forums ..................................................................              p. 45

    Recommendations .....................................................................................           p. 46
    1 - Develop its attractiveness for entrepreneurs, by formally and informally
        connecting research institutions, financial organisations, and sophisticated
        services businesses
    2 - Create a group of entrepreneurial ambassadors, with the Mayor at its head
    3 - Providing retail facilities at low-cost for entrepreneurs at the BoP

IV. Educating entrepreneurs for the world ..............................................                            p. 47

    Context ...................................................................................................     p. 48

4    W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

     Case studies
     1 - Sensitizing young people to entrepreneurship: Café Entreprendre, Tunisia ...                                                        p. 49
     2 - Sensitizing young people to entrepreneurship : Students in Free Enterprise,
         USA ...................................................................................................                             p. 49
     3 - Walking with a mentor: “Entrepreneurship walks”, E+L Foundation, Kenya ..                                                           p. 50
     4 - From entrepreneurship education to micro-enterprise development: the CMES
         programme, Bangladesh .......................................................................                                       p. 50
     5 - Grooming Technology Entrepreneurs: the Nanyang Technopreneurship
         Centre, Singapore ................................................................................                                  p. 51
     6 - Assessing and developing entrepreneurial skills: the EML competency
         framework, France ................................................................................                                  p. 52
     7 - Encouraging entrepreneurial culture within corporations: Harbinger Group,
         India ...................................................................................................                           p. 53

     The view from the Junior Forums ..................................................................                                      p. 54

     Recommendations .....................................................................................                                   p. 55
     1 - Design an accreditation system specific to the needs and the pedagogical
         methods required to foster entrepreneurial thinking
     2 - Develop new approaches to learning that encourage greater creativity,
         and a willingness to take appropriate risks.
     3 - Encourage governments, businesses, parents, teachers, and students to place
         a higher value on entrepreneurship, both social and economic.
     4 - Create a training programme to sensitize professors to entrepreneurship

     Individual commitments ..............................................................................                                   p. 56

About the World Entrepreneurship Forum ...........................................................                                           p.   57
Argentina Forum .............................................................................................                                p.   58
Chile Forum ...................................................................................................                              p.   58
The Junior Forums............................................................................................                                p.   58

White Paper coordination ................................................................................                                    p. 59

Special    acknowledgements          -   White Paper ..........................................................                              p.   59
Special    acknowledgements          -   Regional Forum ......................................................                               p.   59
Special    acknowledgements          -   Junior World Entrepreneurship Forum ........................                                        p.   59
Special    acknowledgements          -   World Entrepreneurship Forum - 2010 Edition............                                             p.   60

Members of the World Entrepreneurship Forum ...................................................                                              p. 61

Partners of the World Entrepreneurship Forum.....................................................                                            p. 68

                                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r    5
6   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

As we look towards 2050 it is clear that humanity is now at a crossroads.
There are many routes towards 2050, and the destination will look very different depending
on which one we choose. We could end up with a World in which we have found robust
and sustainable ways to create wealth and social justice, which can be shared by all. At the
other extreme, we could be facing an accelerating environmental catastrophe, widespread
shortages of food and natural resources, and growing unrest at local, national and
international levels.
The decisions we make now will help determine where 2050 lies on this spectrum from
peace and prosperity, to dearth and disaster.


Since the turn of the 21st century the landscape we’re living in has changed out of all
recognition. We have seen the rise of international terrorism, a growing backlash against
globalization, and final acceptance that climate change is already underway, and the time
available to prevent devastating consequences has shortened drastically.

According to some worst-case predictions, sea levels could rise by as much as several meters
by 2100, which is way beyond the 28-43 centimeters predicted by the Inter-Governmental
Panel on Climate Change. Even if we achieve the drastic carbon reductions needed to
prevent a rise of no more than 2o - and there has been a dismal lack of progress so far - we
will still see a contraction of the ice caps, an increase in extreme weather conditions, severe
droughts and drastic impacts on agriculture and biodiversity.

The practical implications of this are immense – for governments, policy-makers, individuals,
and industry.

Businesses will face higher costs as carbon reduction mechanisms such as the EU Cap and
Trade scheme become more widespread, and the price of natural resources that have
historically been either free or too cheap rise in price. It will demand enormous political
courage and leadership and force complex and difficult choices at all levels of society.
Tackling – or adapting to - climate change will also accentuate divisions between developed
and developing countries and spark potential conflicts over increasingly scarce natural
resources, not least because it will exacerbate issues that have been growing in scale and
seriousness for a number of years.

The most obvious of these is population growth. The World’s population is now
projected to grow from just under 7 Billion in 2009, to over 9 Billion by 2050. Merely
adapting to more than two billion extra people is momentous enough, but when one studies
these numbers more closely, the issue becomes even more daunting. This is because almost
all of the growth in World population will occur in developing or emerging countries - there

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   7

will be over two billion people in China and India alone, and the number of people living in
the least developed countries of all are projected to double from 825 Million to 1.7 Billion.
Moreover, around 70% of the World’s population will be living in cities, compared to 49
percent today.

The age profile of developing and developed countries is and will remain radically different.
By 2050, Africa will be the only continent in which the median age of the population will
be getting younger; westernized democracies, by contrast, are already facing the enormous
challenges associated with an ageing population, including necessary but difficult pension
reform, and increasing pressures on healthcare.

Global population growth is also inextricably linked to global poverty. Even now, at least
80% of humanity lives on under $10 a day, and up to 3 Billion survive on less than $2.50.
Poverty is likely to remain a severe and intractable challenge for the developing World,
while at the same time the rapidly growing middle class in countries like India and China
will shift to an ever more westernized diet, rich in animal protein, which will put ever greater
strain on an agricultural sector that will be increasingly affected by climate change, and
where food crops will have to compete with biofuels. Some estimate that food production
will have to increase by 70% to meet this - annual cereal production will need to rise from
2.1 Billion tons to around 3 Billion tons, and annual meat production from over 200 Million
tons to 470 Million tons.

The last issue we face is the depletion of natural resources. Again, this demonstrates
how closely global trends are, since the pressures on resources like water and energy will
be a direct result of a combination of climate change, economic development, and rising
population levels. If everyone on earth aspired to a North American lifestyle we would need
five planets to support us. Prosperity for all is clearly a valid and valuable aim, but we must
find another way to achieve it.

So WHAT Do WE nEED To Do ?

There are clearly many challenges to be faced if we are to forge a better World by 2050,
but for the Forum in particular, there are three main areas where we can hope to have an
impact. These are:

n   The need to create many more jobs that are socially, economically and environmentally

n   The need to reinvent our view of the World, with human beings, not profit margins, as
    the overriding priority

8     W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

n   The need for a new development model - a new industrial revolution - which reconciles
    the creation of wealth with social justice

With this in mind, what contribution can the World Entrepreneurship Forum make to achieve
these goals? We believe passionately that entrepreneurship, in all its forms, is one of the
most sustainable ways we have to find enduring answers to all three of these challenges.

Our ambition, therefore, is that the Forum should move from being a community of
entrepreneurs in the World, to being at the heart of an entrepreneurial World community,
and a source of entrepreneurial solutions to the World’s more serious challenges.

In practice we can see this in action in four key ways:

n   Accelerating the emergence of high-growth and innovative companies as a way
    of providing jobs for all, and making a significant impact on a global scale.

n   Encouraging entrepreneurship at the ‘base of the pyramid’, both because it will
    help eradicate poverty and secure a decent life for all and because it will counter the
    emergence of terrorism, violence and extremism.

n   Promoting new models for more innovative and entrepreneurial cities, to address the
    massive migration towards cities that will occur in the next forty years.

n   Educating entrepreneurs for the world, through formal and informal channels, and
    throughout life as well as at the very earliest stages of childhood.

In the pages that follow we will look at each of these four themes in turn.
We will explore their implications, showcase some of the work already being done by Forum
members, and share the commitments we’re making for the next twelve months.

We will also include insights from the four Junior Forums that took place for the first time in
Five hundred young people took part in events in China, India, Singapore, and France.
I am delighted that this white paper is able to include the views of the next generation – a
that will, after all, be so directly involved in shaping the World of 2050.

Patrick Molle
President, EMLYON Business School
Co-President of the World Entrepreneurship Forum

                                             W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   9

We asked Forum members what they thought the World’s biggest challenges
will be in 2050.
Here are some of their answers…

Communication and collaboration between such a large and growing population.
Nikhil Agarwal, Director, Europe Asia Business School, India

The digital divide - education and access to new technology.
Barak Ben-Avinoam, CEO, Iris Ventures, Israel

Greed, and how to overcome it.
Den Huan Hooi, Professor, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Teaching children entrepreneurial values and behavior.
Rachael Hughes, Head of European Division, Homeserve - Domeo, UK

To bring the least developed countries, and the lowest 25% of the population there, into the
process, as often the social justice of global entrepreneurship eludes them.
Muhammad Ibrahim, Founder, Centre for Mass Education in Science, Bangladesh

The reluctance to set out a bold game-changing vision on the part of large corporations
and governments.
Vikas Joshi, Chairman, Harbinger Group, India

Complacency and apathy – it’s either ‘not my problem’ or ‘someone else’ will address it.
Jeffrey Nadison, Associate Provost, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

The fact that ‘wealth’ and ‘social justice’ are seen as separate goals.
Michele Rigby, CEO, Social Enterprise East of England, UK

To deploy the awesome power of creativity and entrepreneurship in the direction of growth
in happiness rather than in the accustomed direction of a cornucopian economy that
assumes infinite growth in physical terms.
Jean-François Rischard, International Consultant, Former VP Europe, World Bank, Luxemburg

10   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

               THE EMERGENCE
            OF HIGH-GROWTH AND

                   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   11
I - A C C E L E R AT I N G T H E E M E R G E N C E O F
H I G H - G R O W T H A N D I N N O VA T I V E C O M P A N I E S

This aspect of the Forum’s work is closest to the traditional understanding of what
entrepreneurship means. Sustainable long-term economic prosperity will depend on our
ability to create significant numbers of new jobs, which means developing hundreds and
thousands of successful new businesses – businesses that are agile, innovative, and above
all, fast growing. The Forum adopts the same definition of high-growth firms as that espoused
by the International Consortium on Entrepreneurship: enterprises with an average annualized
growth in employees greater than 20% per annum over a three year period.


The challenge here is that while high growth may be relatively easy to define, it is extremely
hard to achieve. Fewer than 5% of US businesses achieved high growth rates in the early
years of this decade, for example, and although a great deal of academic and practical
work has been done to analyze how successful innovation actually occurs, there is no simple
formula and no foolproof method to replicate it. Moreover, ‘innovation’ now encompasses
both conventional concepts of R&D, and the less tangible and more informal approaches
to developing new ideas that can lead to some of the most profitable ideas and ways of
working. The new product development now being done by Rhodia, one of our case studies
in this section, shows both aspects of the innovation process coming together to generate
real growth and competitive advantage.

Rhodia is a major international business as well as an innovative one, but in some ways
this makes it an exception: small dynamic enterprises are often much better than large
corporations when it comes to innovation. They have a passion for exploration and
experimentation, and are not only willing but also eager to challenge existing models and
approaches. The crucial issue for businesses like this is how they can scale their operations
and become international, rather than merely local or national players. All too few of them
break through this barrier, but another of our case studies – Lenovo – proves that it can be
done, even in a highly competitive and asset-intensive sector like computers.

There is also the challenge of maintaining the entrepreneurial energy of a start-up as the
business gets larger and becomes more bureaucratic. It can be hard to preserve the sort
of working environment that rewards lateral thinking and encourages employees to take
appropriate risks. Creaholic is a great example of one way of doing this.

12   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


Elmar Mock, the co-inventor of the Swatch, founded Creaholic 24 years ago. Swatch is
still one of the outstanding examples of groundbreaking product innovation, and one that
changed the whole dynamic of Swiss watch making, which what was, at the time, an
industry in crisis. Though as any successful entrepreneur knows, an industry in crisis is an
opportunity in the making.

Elmar Mock encourages the same attitude of creative iconoclasm in his own business, and
the results speak for themselves: Creaholic has registered over 50 patents, and has been
involved in over 600 innovation projects. The company also takes a fascinating approach to
the practice of innovation, which has allowed the business to grow without losing the spark
that initiated it in the first place. This is often the biggest single challenge small enterprises
face, and in Creaholic’s case it’s prompted some radical re-thinking about what a company
actually is, and whether there’s a new model of co-ownership that will allow people to
benefit more directly from their own ideas.

Elmar Mock sees innovation as a three-phase process from gas to liquid to solid. The
‘gas’ phase is pure chaotic creativity, characterized by free thinking, brainstorming and
inspiration. As some of these ideas start to crystallize they enter the ‘liquid’ or R&D stage,
and a small number of them will eventually prove to be robust enough to proceed to the final
‘solid’ phase, which is when they start to be developed as viable commercial propositions,
complete with budgets, business plans, marketing strategies, and all the rest.

Successful innovation demands that all three states co-exist within the same business and
work together, but the problem with the way most large businesses approach innovation
is that they operate in silos, with different teams working on invention, concept-creation,
product testing and business development. This has the effect of placing a ‘condom’ between
the different activities, which makes innovation harder, slower, and more incremental. This
goes some way to explaining why, as Elmar Mock says, “Everybody screams for innovation
and revolution, but what they really want is renovation and evolution. Humans actually don’t
like change – we prefer to adapt what we already have than deal with something new.”
Breaking through that barrier is the real challenge, and entrepreneurs can only do that if they
are driven by a dream, because “being a millionaire isn’t a dream – it’s just a by-product.”

                                            W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   13

2 - EnTrEPrEnEUrS AnD BAnKS CooPEr ATInG For GroW TH :

The Groupement des Chefs d’Entreprise du Québec established in 1974 is a long-standing
support network for entrepreneurs, with 1,600 members and 200 groups in Canada and
beyond. The guiding principle of the group is that “an isolated entrepreneur is in very bad
company”, and it puts that principle into practice through over 1,700 group meetings and
conferences every year.

One of the Groupement’s central initiatives is the ‘Prosperity Project’, which aims to promote
economic growth by encouraging the development of successful new small enterprises. There
are six aspects to this:

n    Helping business owners achieve profitability, growth, and long-term continuity
n    Sharing best practice in R&D
n    Promoting the social value and status of entrepreneurs
n    Sharing experiences among business owners
n    Creating an international support network
n    Contributing to the success of new entrepreneurs

One of the unique features of this project is the close involvement of prominent financial
institutions such as the Royal Bank of Canada and Business Development Bank of Canada as
well as government agencies in Quebec. The latest Prosperity Project meeting attracted over
250 participants.

“This project is unique of its kind: it’s a new way to cooperate between the entrepreneur,
the banker and the government in the joint objective of creating wealth. A more transparent
relationship, with more trust, allows all these participants to “plan big”.“
Lisa Fecteau, President of Regitex and President of the Groupement

3 - GroWInG GloBAl : lEnoVo, CHInA

As part of the Forum 2010 meeting, the Entrepreneur for the World award was presented to
Mr. Liu Chuanzhi, founder of Legend Holdings, the parent company of the Lenovo computer
business. Since it was founded in 1984, Lenovo has grown to become the fourth largest
IT business in the world, with over 22,000 employees and annual revenues of over $16
Billion. So how has this been achieved?

14      W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

Lenovo started out as an arm of the government-owned Computing Institute of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences, but became an independent company in 1984. In the early years,
the business struggled against a huge number of disadvantages, from a lack of funding, to
a lack of any experience of running a company. But the single biggest stumbling block was
the old Chinese planned-economy system. One obvious example was the fact that Lenovo
couldn’t obtain the necessary quotas needed to import basic components, which meant it
was difficult to get access to the US dollars they needed to grow the business.

The next significant challenge came when the Chinese computer market was opened
to overseas firms in the 1990s after the government decided that poor quality IT was
hampering the growth of the economy as a whole. Many domestic companies were simply
unable to compete on either quality or price and Lenovo was one of the only major players
to survive. In Lenovo’s case, it has been a question of survival of the fittest. When brands
like IBM, Compaq, and Dell entered the market Lenovo re-assessed its market and business
model and realized that the one thing working to its advantage was price: components
account for 84% of the cost of the computers, but prices can fluctuate wildly depending on
where particular manufacturers are in the upgrading cycle. Lenovo used its local knowledge
to get the maximum value out of its supply chain and reduce its inventory down to some of
the lowest levels in the World. So when prices fell six times in 1997 alone, Lenovo was able
to capitalize on this, unlike its foreign competitors, who were tied to global pricing scales.

Lenovo also made the long-term strategic decision to focus on cheaper mature technology,
rather than expensive new cutting-edge science, and as a result made a great deal of money
out of solving simple problems: one of its best-selling products was one that made it easy to
access the Internet in the early 1990s, at a time when dial-up modems were still the pre-
standard procedure.

In the years since then Lenovo has been a pioneer and a pathfinder, both for the domestic IT
sector, and for Chinese industry as a whole. It was one of the first to find a viable method
for commercializing the R&D developed by national research institutes, and to create a
share-based bonus scheme to incentivize employees. It was also one of the first to compete
successfully with global brands, which has indirectly contributed to China’s acceptance into
the WTO. It has successfully integrated the acquisition of IBM’s Global PC Business, despite
some market skepticism when the deal was announced and it has survived the recent world-
wide recession by radically restructuring its business organization and management team.

Mr. Liu attributes Lenovo’s success not only to its local knowledge but its ability to fuse
talents, management techniques, and best business practice from both East and West. The
company’s priorities are to build a leadership team, develop strategy and take its people
with it, all of which is underpinned by very strong corporate values. As Mr. Liu says, “We do
what we say; we own what we do.” It is no surprise, therefore, to find that Lenovo was cited
as one of Business Week’s top 50 Most Innovative Companies for 2009.
                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   15


NESTA, the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts, is one of the
key players tasked with encouraging successful entrepreneurship in the UK and has an
impressive track record. The research done by NESTA shows that 54% of the new jobs
created between 2002 and 2008 came from the 6% of businesses that grew the fastest
during that time. However, most attempts by government to help businesses like this failed to
deliver what they really needed.

The UK Innovation Investment Fund was created in the UK in 2010, in the wake of the global
financial crisis. The aim was to put innovative entrepreneurship at the heart of the country’s
response to that crisis, and £150 Million of public money was made available to invest in
early stage finance for businesses like this. This figure has since been more than matched by
private sector investment. The first two funds backed by the Innovation Investment Fund were
dedicated to high-tech ventures and green technologies, and are now making investments in
the high-growth businesses of the future.


The Argentine Association of Private Equity, Venture Capital and Seed Capital, or ARCAP,
is a non-profit organization set up in 2009 to help promote long-term investments in the
Argentine economy. It’s the first of its kind in Argentina, and now includes 40 different
organizations that have invested around $2 Billion. ARCAP works with domestic and foreign
private equity funds, as well as governments and private-sector organizations specializing
in this area of investment with the aim of encouraging investment in early-stage and unlisted


Iris Ventures is a unique partnership between the private sector, government and municipal
agencies and venture capitalists and angel investors. It aims to create new jobs and
attract inward investment to the Negev Desert; an area traditionally characterized by high
unemployment and limited employment opportunities.

16   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

The focus is on high-tech start-ups supported by local and regional incentive schemes,
matched funding for private investment from the Israeli government, coaching for young
entrepreneurs and a physical ‘technology campus’ offering targeted support services.

Iris Ventures now receives more than 300 requests for funding every year, which are whittled
down to 4-6 ventures that receive funding. The Iris team are heavily involved in assisting and
mentoring their portfolio of companies, both through weekly status meetings, assistance in
sales and business development and active participation in subsequent funding rounds. The
results so far have been significant: Iris Ventures portfolio companies dramatically outperform
comparable early-stage companies, and most manage to raise subsequent financing or
reach financial independence. Some have already been acquired by global corporations
like IBM, CA, Cisco, Microsoft, and Google.

7 - InnoVATIon In THE l ArGE CorPor ATIon : rHoDIA, Fr AnCE

Rhodia is one of the World’s largest specialty chemicals companies, developing and
producing many of the vital components used by major brands like L’Oreal, Procter &
Gamble, and Michelin. It has eleven business units, all of which are leaders in their own
markets, and now makes over half of its sales in developing markets and a fifth from
products less than five years old. The company has five international R&D centers and
900 researchers, a quarter of whom are based in Asia and Latin America. These teams
accounted for 20% of the 110 patents Rhodia registered in 2009.

As this suggests, the company prides itself above all on two things: its responsible and
sustainable approach to business, and its track record of innovation. Indeed, many of its
recent successes have been about finding new solutions to sustainability challenges like
carbon reduction. Some of these are new products and some have required new approaches
that meant changing the established rules of the game. Here are two examples from Rhodia
Silica, which were presented by Global Business Director Peter Browning at Forum 2010.

Rhodia Silica specializes in the manufacture of the raw materials used in tires. In essence,
it buys sand for $10 a ton, and converts it to high-spec silica worth a hundred times that.
Rhodia first used silica to develop energy-efficient tires for Michelin in the early 1990s and
has since turned this into a €100 Million business. The other thing that’s happened since that
time is the new surge of interest in the whole concept of energy efficiency. These days even
the drivers of supercars like Ferraris and Porsches are keen to reduce their environmental
impact, as long as that doesn’t mean compromising handling or performance. Pirelli is the
market leader in this highly specialized segment of the tire market, and Rhodia have been

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   17

able to successfully redesign their product to meet these exacting requirements and build
significant market share in this lucrative sector.

The Pirelli story was all about effective product development, and the same is true for the
second example, though this also involved a willingness to adopt a new way of working.
Hyundai is the fastest-growing car manufacturer in the World, and one of its key suppliers
is Kumho Tires. Hyundai wanted a new ultra-efficient tire for its new sedan model, due to
launch in 2010, but to meet these emissions reductions specifications Rhodia would have
to develop a completely new silica product especially for Kumho. This would normally
have taken five to six years, but the company was able to adapt its existing processes to
accelerate the timescale dramatically, and deliver what Hyundai wanted, when they wanted

Looking ahead, Rhodia has set itself the 2020 objective of finding new ways to reduce
the environmental impact of heavy trucks. These currently use natural rather than synthetic
rubber, and therefore can’t yet use the technology Rhodia has developed so successfully
for cars. As Peter Browning says, “Given that road transportation accounts for 20% of the
world’s CO2 emissions this could make an enormous difference to climate change. We
want to play our part in achieving that.”

18   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

The workshops were one of the more creative elements of this year’s Forum, with an
innovative format that allowed the attendees to ‘stand in the future and look back’. The
delegates worked in teams to brainstorm the commercial and social enterprise stories that
could be hitting the headlines in 40 years’ time, and how the entrepreneurs involved in them
might have overcome the challenges we can already see before us.

Some of the best ideas included a soy steak company that could revolutionize both
nutrition and agriculture; a clean agroforestry business; an environmentally-friendly aircraft
manufacturer in Africa that could be a pioneer for large high-growth, technological
entrepreneurship on the continent; a cost-effective and fuel-efficient vehicle developed in
China that could appeal equally to BoP and mainstream consumers; and a portable nuclear
fusion reactor that could provide unlimited energy at an affordable price.

Another story that really captured the collective imagination was written up under the title
‘Not enough waste for everybody’. As this suggests, the key idea behind the headline
was that cities would become ultra- efficient at re-using and recycling waste, using it to
generate energy, produce clean drinking water, and spur the creation of thousands of small

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   19

The Singapore meeting focused in particular on the theme of innovation in the Asia-Pacific
region, and looked at this in terms of four key factors:

n    Product innovation - new products and services
n    Process innovation - new ways of working
n    Positioning innovation - new markets for existing products, or new ways to sell them
n    Paradigm innovation - achieving change through a dramatic shift in thinking

The JWEF participants felt strongly that the most successful companies are those that
are innovative in more than one of these ways. They recommended a number of ways
of achieving this, including the creation of new ways for entrepreneurs to engage with
consumers (whether physically or virtually). A good example of this in action would be the
Asia Pacific Enterprise Experience organized during the Global Entrepreneurship Week
2009 in Singapore, where people from Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Australia entered
into an online dialogue with companies like the sushi chain Sakae Sushi, and the fashion
retailer bYSI, helping them to come up with new answers to their business challenges.

The recommendations from the event in France included:

n    Considering each idea as a potentially successful project
n    Valuing innovation at all levels
n    Promoting and developing centers of innovation in industrial clusters
n    Creating more efficient networks, as well as more opportunities for university and school
     students to network with professionals
n    Developing ‘junior incubators’ in large schools and universities

20      W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


These master classes would be aimed at enabling emulation from high-growth entrepreneurs
from all around the world, supporting their international perspectives, and share best
A global network of mentors should be created to support this initiative.


Local and regional start-ups are looking for opportunities to market beyond their borders
and their means, while many small businesses are also looking to complete their offerings to
satisfy customers’ demands. Emulation, best practices, and internationalization: creating and
branding a network of high-growth incubators could be another scheme to foster high-growth
and internationalization.


Many new businesses lack the technical skills and experienced managers they need
during the high-growth stage of their development. On the other hand, many multinational
corporations lack the agility and flexibility to maintain their innovation capacity and are
increasingly looking to outsource their product development. We can address this by helping
smaller businesses finding larger corporations, so they can benefit from their expertise and
experience, and support them to become genuinely international.

                                         W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   21

Many Forum members are also active, successful and high-profile entrepreneurs, with a
track record of successful and innovative business ventures. Here are some of their specific
commitments for 2011:

I will set up my country’s first angel investors club
Fernando Moncayo, Co-founder, Asiam Business Group, Ecuador

I will develop and launch an innovative new product in my market
Sakie Akiyama, Founder, Saki Corporation, Japan

I will provide angel investment for at least one new entrepreneur
Krishnan Nair Nandakumar, Founder, Sun Tec Business Solutions, India

I will develop a planning tool that will help entrepreneurs document their businesses, and
help them communicate better with investors, markets, and clients
Nyokabi Njuguna, Founder and President, E+L Foundation, Kenya

22   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

                AT THE BASE
              OF THE PYRAMID

                   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   23
AT T H E “ B A S E O F T H E P Y R A M I D ”

A recent publication of The Economist stated, “The World today is at ‘ground zero’ in its
struggle to create hundreds of innovative new products for the bottom of the pyramid and
in the process create millions of jobs to deal with the new population bomb.” The phrase
‘base of the pyramid’ dates back to the 1930s, but has gained particular currency in the
last decade or so, as a way of describing the 3 billion people who survive on less than
$2.50 a day. Eradicating such extreme poverty remains one of the World’s most intractable
challenges, and playing our role in doing this is a key objective of the Forum.


The old approach to the base of the pyramid sought to solve poverty through charity – in
other words by simply giving to the poor, but even if that were a sustainable model for the
future - which is questionable - there is less charitable aid available for an ever larger BoP
population, and many now see smart capitalism as the way forward. As the rich and middle
class marketplace becomes saturated by over-competition, the BoP marketplace is proving to
be a new and untapped source of attractive business opportunities. Indeed one has only to
look at the ubiquitous penetration of mobile phones in many African countries to realize that
the purchasing power of the poor may well have been substantially under-estimated

This is why so many companies are starting to see the poor as potential consumers, rather
than merely the recipients of aid. Major banks have started to make serious moves into
micro-finance, while consumer goods companies have re-designed whole new ranges
offering low-cost equivalents of conventional products, some of them in partnership with
NGOs. There are a number of factors driving these decisions: such business can be
profitable in its own right and even where that is not the case yet, it has the potential to
be so in the future, by starting the poor on a trajectory that could eventually bring them
within the scope of mainstream products and services. Likewise many multi-nationals see a
huge opportunity to learn from this enormous new market, and their employees are highly
motivated to get involved in finding better ways to tackle global poverty and leaders of these
businesses see a huge opportunity to learn from this enormous new market. Nonetheless,
critics of this model say that it merely ‘sells to the poor’, and neither addresses their real
needs nor offers any real solutions to the problems of long-term sustainable development.

24   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

These commentators advocate an approach in which the poor are genuine business partners
and products and services are developed together, in a way that builds local skills and
capabilities. There are, in fact, a number of different models that have been used to provide
essential services like water, sanitation, healthcare, transport, housing and energy, but none
of them has as yet been successfully scaled up. One of the reasons for this is that the BoP
supply chain is fragmented and lacks efficient market infrastructure or the necessary skills
of design, distribution, mass production, pricing and marketing. There is also a need to
promote entrepreneurship in the BoP since this is one of the most effective ways to create
wealth and jobs in a sustainable way.

It may be relevant here to recall Michael Porter’s recommendation that companies should
start to go beyond CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility - to CSV - Creating Shared Values:
developing and supporting BoP entrepreneurship is a convincing way to win customer
loyalty, reinforce a strong corporate culture, retain the best staff and – in due course –
improve the bottom line.

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   25

1 - CrEATInG 8 MIllIon joBS In 38 yEArS : THE Br AC APProACH,

BRAC – the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee – started life as a small relief agency
in 1972, but has since grown to become the largest NGO in the world. It has created 8
Million jobs in that time, and is now working in ten countries and directly employs over
50,000 people. It runs health and education programs through local village committees as
well as its own small factories, fisheries, livestock feed operations, artisan handcraft shops
and a bank. Indeed the BRAC bank is now the 6th largest in Bangladesh, lending around
$1.2 Billion in small and micro-loans to over 7 Million people.

As BRAC’s founder, Sir Fazle Abed, says, “People don’t have money, so you start by giving
them a loan so they can get into business, but I have also found that just giving them a
financial service doesn’t always work, because even if the farmer buys a cow it may die,
so you have to not only provide the cow but all the other support services, so that if the cow
survives you can help him improve the breed of the cow, so that he gets more milk later on.”

This is a perfect example of the BRAC approach in action: start by providing micro-credit to
help an individual farmer work his way out of poverty, and then support him to become an
entrepreneur by putting the infrastructure in place for him to sell the milk, buy another cow,
and grow his business over time. This is the sort of thinking that has made BRAC one of the
biggest players in the Bangladesh dairy industry, with small farmers providing about 27% of
the country’s entire milk market.

The BRAC approach is a living reflection of the principles and beliefs of Sir Fazle Abed,
who has always worked on the basis that the poor can find their own solutions, provided
that they get access to the services and resources they need and sufficient opportunities
to develop their skills, increase their confidence and grow their social capital. The Forum
believes this is perhaps the single most powerful model we have for creating both wealth
and social justice at the BoP, and will be actively exploring how it can be replicated in other
markets across the world.


The 2010 winner of the Social Entrepreneur for the World is Ela Bhatt, the founder of
the Self-Employed Women’s Association, of SEWA. Over 90% of Indian women are self-
employed in some way, either as street vendors, cart pullers, weavers, garbage collectors, or
trash pickers. For people living on the margins like this, success can sustain a whole family,
but the price of failure is hunger. The economic cycle for these women is not monthly or

26   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

weekly, but daily, and they become entrepreneurs not because they have a dream, but out
of the most basic survival needs. Women create these businesses from their own physical
labor, or what small assets they have, whether physical – like a sewing machine, loom, cow,
or cart – or intangible, like education, which few have, or a traditional skill, which many can
only exercise from home for social or cultural reasons.

Owning assets like this is the best and most sustainable way to help these women out of
poverty. They need access to the small amount of finance they need to buy these assets, as
well as a way to attain technical skills and market knowledge. They need healthcare and
childcare, and they need collective organized strength, so that they can participate fully as
citizens. SEWA’s mission is to help women acquire all of these things, and it now has 100
cooperatives across nine states, both in urban and rural locations.

As Ela Bhatt says, commentators often ask what role women like this can play in a global
economy, but in countries like India, they are the economy. They may currently be unskilled
and ripe for exploitation – even ‘undeserving’, but we need to find a way towards a more
diverse and dynamic economic model that can include these people – a model more
centered on people and their needs: “the traditional model has caused many of the problems
we now face, and we cannot hope to solve those problems with the same thinking that
created them.”


For the last three years the Exim Bank of Tanzania has been running a pioneering program
to encourage women entrepreneurs, especially those at the base of the pyramid. The Tumaini
program offers access to loans, banking services, lease finance, and savings accounts, with
the aim of helping women to acquire the assets they need to start and grow a successful
business. This is backed up with training programs in business skills, entrepreneurship and
financial literacy, which have already reached over 1,300 women. There is also a business
incubation fund, which has lent over $9.5 Million to women working in sectors as diverse as
education, leasing, tourism, mining, and construction.

“Our ambition is to help some of the most talented Tanzanian women become millionaires,
so they can then be role models for the next generation.”
Sabetha Mwanbenja, CEO, Exim Bank, Tanzania

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   27

Fr AnCHISInG MoDEl By WorlD ToIlET orGAnIzATIon,

2.6 Billion people across the World still do not have access to proper sanitation. Despite
efforts by the international humanitarian community, there has not been sufficient funding
to make a significant impact on the problem, and even where toilet facilities have been
installed many have not been adequately maintained.

The key to this problem is to find a means to involve local people in solving it through
aspirational marketing and a market-based model. The SaniShop franchising project aims to
do exactly this, by selling toilets instead of giving them away. This means that local people,
who get the chance to run their own small businesses as franchisees either making or selling
the low-cost sanitation systems, value toilets more highly.

A toilet factory can be set up for as little as $500, while those selling the systems require
no upfront investment to get started. 2,000 toilets were sold in the first six months alone in

“Having understood the key motivation system, product design and distribution strategy, the
Sanishop business model now has the potential to create thousands of sustainable micro-
businesses all over the world, by partnering major corporate and social organizations to
deliver health and dignity until there is one clean toilet in every home.”
Jack Sim, Founder of World Toilet Organization, Singapore

5 - ProDUCTS AnD SErVICES For THE BoP : 10 01 FonTAInES,

‘1001 fontaines pour demain’ was created in 2004 as a way of providing safe drinking
water to people in remote areas and thereby improve their health and quality of life. It does
this by using an entrepreneurship model that gives these communities control of their own
development. The process uses the ‘raw water’ already available at each site, to avoid the
need to build new infrastructure. Each water treatment and bottling unit is run by a member
of the village community, who thereby becomes a real entrepreneur while guaranteeing the
sustainability of the service provided to the neighbourhood.
There are already 30,000 beneficiaries in Cambodia and 3,000 in Madagascar, and
approximately 20,000 children now have daily access to safe drinking water.

28   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

“1001 fontaines aims to improve rural populations’ health by allowing them to meet their
drinking water needs in a sustainable manner, by themselves and without any specific
expertise. Our long-term strategy is to provide totally safe water in a sustainable way to
millions of villagers, in many countries, at an affordable price - currently $0.01 per liter -
and for an exceptionally low one-off investment cost - currently $6 per beneficiary.”
Virginie Legrand, Co-Founder, 1011 Fontaines

6 - InTEGr ATInG BoP EnTrEPrEnEUrS InTo l ArGEr VAlUE-

Adapta Sertão was established in 2006 to help reduce poverty and improve sustainable
agricultural productivity in a semi-arid region of Brazil. This has been done by vertically
integrating the food production chain of a group of small organic farmers.

 Adapta Sertão offers micro-finance, technological support and help with accessing new
markets. The farmers are learning new farming techniques that are especially suitable
to the local climate and will be more resilient as weather patterns start to change. The
crops produced by Adapta Sertão farmers are sold to food programs run by the Brazilian
government and in local and regional markets.

The initiative is a partnership between a number of NGOs, local municipalities, and the
Centro Clima department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

“Climate change is affecting agriculture and creating additional suffering in the semi-arid
regions of the world. It is urgent to develop new agriculture models that enhance climate
resilience and food security. What is perceived as a threat should be transformed into an
economic opportunity.”
Thais Corral, President, Network of Human Development, Brazil

7 - InTEGr ATInG BoP EnTrEPrEnEUrS InTo l ArGEr VAlUE-

La Base was set up in 2004 to offer short-term loans to small co-operatives and enterprises in
the Buenos Aires area. La Base helps them with business planning, financing, and decision-
making. To date, 160 loans have been granted to 47 cooperatives, and having proved the

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   29

value of its approach; La Base now aims to double the number of loans made every year.
The Ministry of Social Development is also interested in replicating the model in its own
micro-loan programme.


Lira Integrated School was initiated in 1995 by Ms Beatrice Ayuru and opened in 2000 with
a vision to provide quality, all round education to transform the illiterate, poverty stricken
community through the establishment of Nursery, Primary, Secondary and Agriculture
Ms Ayuru found the motivation as a her high- school student, when she felt she was denied
her rights because of being a woman. That experience motivated her to make the public and
traditional elders aware that women can make positive contributions to society if provided
with the opportunity to act. She used to say that she had a big vision but without capital,
this was seen as a youthful ambition by the public. Sharing her vision with her father, she
convinced him to give her a piece of ancestral land to begin the project. She suffered
torment by the traditional elders, as she was denying herself a bride price, and because
tradition does not allow a girl to own any property. However, her father defended her and
the battle ended.
She used the land to cultivate cassava. The savings she made from selling cassava helped
initiate a wheelbarrow business after recognizing an unmet demand in town. From this, she
opened the first canteen at nearby institution where she served students. Her fellow teachers
mocked her, saying that she was shaming them by operating such a business with her
degree. From the money saved from these operations, the construction of the Lira Integrated
School began on the very same ancestral land that Ms. Ayuru used for cultivating cassava.
The institution started with initial classes only and with enrolments as follows; Nursery – 6,
Primary – 46, and Secondary – 36. Total enrolment of pupil/student was by then 88 and 19
staff. Basing her project on delivering a high-quality education, improving local livelihoods,
and giving local people the skills to become entrepreneurs, Lira Integrated School now has
an enrollment of 1,500 students. It now offers a Savings and Credit Cooperative Society,
which is now making loans, and offering banking facilities.

“The Lira Integrated School and University is taking every opportunity to stimulate creativity,
innovation and entrepreneurship at all levels of learners and the community, in order to
respond to current economic, social, and technological challenges and to achieve prosperity
in today’s World.”
Beatrice Ayuru, Founder, Lira Integrated School

30   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

It’s no surprise that the participants in the Junior Forum in India were particularly conscious
of the importance of the BoP and were particularly inspired to help address its challenges.
Their recommendations included:

n   Creating socially-conscious services, such as the micro-finance loans and banking offered
    by Grameen Bank
n   Empowering the poor through wider use of information technology. One example might
    be to set up information kiosks for local farmers in rural areas, to help them improve their
    productivity, learn about new techniques, and share their learning.
n   Lobbying the government to encourage more micro-entrepreneurship

                                            W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   31


As Nobel prize-winning economist Amartya Sen has said, sometimes the poor cannot
escape their condition because they cannot imagine their lives any other way.
We need to find ways to help them picture a different future, using all the resources of
modern communications technology to promote the idea of entrepreneurship actively
supported by governments, NGOs and business organizations and by powerful role models
in their own communities.

At the same time, we need to change the mindset of donors and corporations that can play
an important role in building entrepreneurial capacity at the BoP.

2 - l AW, rEGUl ATIon, AnD PolICy nEED To WorK ToGETHEr

Entrepreneurship at the BoP is usually founded on necessity rather than opportunity, and
people focused on their survival are rarely concerned with – or interested in - creating jobs
for others.

This is where governments and official bodies need to take a more active role in designing
laws, policies and regulations specifically aimed at fostering self-employment and

This includes avoiding the use of subsidies that might create market distortions.


This hub would bring together all the key BoP players from finance, business, research
and technology, academia, the UN, and major donors. It would facilitate the sharing of
knowledge on such subjects as:

n    Aspirational marketing;
n    Replicating successful models through social franchising, which facilitates rapid up-scaling
     in an affordable way;
n    Engaging the poor as entrepreneurs, helping them to develop practical operating
     principles and fruitful alliances with other entrepreneurs, and between the social and
     private sector;

32      W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

n   Integrating best practice across sectors to harness resources and expertise from the private
n   Attracting investments to the BoP;
n   Developing a knowledge management system that can connect groups, broaden networks,
    share knowledge and capture learnings;
n   Leveraging existing resources, for example by actively reaching out to the Ashoka network,
    which has approximately 300 Fellows operating in BoP communities.
n   The BoP Hub can build on this knowledge base and help build capacity and engage
    corporations in collaborative CSR and for-profit programs;
n   Helping negotiate better terms for individual entrepreneurs through collective strength and
    the power of economies of scale. This will also facilitate better access to social capital
    providers who are looking for scalable social solutions.

                                            W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   33

Many Forum members are also running organizations that are working directly to address
all of these challenges. Here are some of their specific commitments for 2011:

“I will develop a new business idea that could employ at least 100 low-skilled and
disadvantaged young people in Belfast by March 2011, with the aim of having the business
up and running by September 2011.”
Maurice Kinkead, CEO, East Belfast Partnership, Northern Ireland

“I will work with one of the commercial banks in my market to launch a special loan scheme
for social businesses, and help to secure experienced businesspeople from to serve as
mentors and coaches to social entrepreneurs. I will also lobby the government to make
changes to the law that would make it easier for social enterprises to win public contracts.”
Neven Marinovic, Executive Director, Smart Kolektiv, Serbia

“I will work with social entrepreneurs around the world to develop affordable products and
services for the BoP market. I will also identify groups of financiers and manufacturers of
these products & services, both within Singapore and overseas.”
YY Lai, Nanyang Technological University Singapore

“I have launched BOP HUB, the first World Trade Center for the poor. Our approach is to
bundle multiple success models across sectors to weave synergistic solutions that can go to
scale as extreme affordability.”
 Jack Sim, Founder, World Toilet Organization, Singapore

34   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


                    W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   35


There’s one thing we do know about the World of 2050: it will be a World of cities. Cities
now account for over 50% of World population, and this will rise to nearly 70% by 2050.
And as people concentrate in cities, other resources like healthcare, culture, knowledge,
and money will follow. But there is a price to pay: cities are already responsible for 80%
of global greenhouse gas emissions and this can only worsen as the World gets ever more
urban. Cities, then, are at the heart of some of the key questions we have to address by
2050; but they could help us find the answers. This is because cities have always been the
centers of commerce, knowledge, creativity, education, and innovation. As Professor Peter
Hall put it in his 1998 study Cities in Civilization, “the biggest and most cosmopolitan cities,
for all their evident disadvantages and obvious problems, have throughout history been the
places that ignited the sacred flame of human intelligence and imagination.”

One reason for this is that cities have always been the places where people go to share,
understand, learn, and collaborate. In the past, it was the nation-state that was the unit of
economic power; now the balance is shifting to key global cities. Likewise, in the past it was
the richest countries that had the largest cities; now the largest cities are not the richest: the
largest cities in the world are the biggest slums in the world, and the most productive cities
are not the largest but the most connected, the most educated, and the best financed, such
as Copenhagen, Paris, Amsterdam, and Milan.

It’s no accident that these four cities are all in the old developed World, where the average
age is rising steeply. The difference going forwards will be that 90% of urban growth in
the future will be in emerging regions, which have younger, more dynamic populations.
These people will flock to the new metropolises looking for work and a promise of a better
future and we know what they will do when they get there. Some will turn to crime, some
even to terrorism, but a significant proportion will look to realize their dreams by setting
up their own businesses. The challenge for their governments will be to make these new
conurbations into environments
 where entrepreneurship like this can flourish – to create, in effect, cities like Copenhagen in
countries like Ethiopia.

There’s no easy answer to this, but there are some obvious things cities can do. They need
to focus on providing basic education and literacy, developing their workforce, improving
access to start-up investment and support and offering specific education in business and
entrepreneurial skills.

36   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

They also need to create an active entrepreneurial community, which is related to, but not the
same as, an entrepreneurial environment. An environment is imposed externally; whereas all
its participants create a community. In a typical city this will include government agencies,
service providers, financial institutions, the media, business associations, educators at all
levels and support networks such as economic development agencies. The issue is how to
get all these disparate groups working together, since by definition there is no one player
with the authority or mandate to make that happen. Governments can certainly help by
setting the right policies, but all the evidence suggests that local implementation is vital, since
this will reflect local priorities and local circumstances. In essence, we need city leaders and
public servants to start ‘walking the talk’ by starting to act like entrepreneurs themselves.

However, there is also strong evidence that very few local policymakers are good at doing
this, and most are not spending anything like enough on it. There are, after all, very few
genuinely entrepreneurial hubs in the world. Silicon Valley, Singapore, Tel Aviv, Bangalore
and the Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces are good examples. In each of these cases,
there has been strong leadership from the public sector. Elsewhere, government efforts to
promote venture and entrepreneurial activities seem to share the same set of fundamental
design flaws, which doom them virtually from the outset.

                                            W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   37


Besides a high level of technology innovation, an entrepreneurial city is characterized by its
pro-enterprise infrastructure, including the hardware as well as softer aspects such as policies
and regulations, its entrepreneurial culture, and an ecosystem that supports enterprise
growth. While entrepreneurs largely drive entrepreneurship, building an entrepreneurial city
is a deliberate effort, often undertaken by the government.
When we mention entrepreneurial cities, the likes of Silicon Valley and Israel come to mind.
Both are characterized by innovation and vibrancy. Singapore also has the characteristics
of an entrepreneurial city and has come a long way in establishing itself in its short 45-year

Pro-Business Policies & regulations

Excessive bureaucracy can kill entrepreneurism. Pro-enterprise policies are essential for an
entrepreneurial city, and this is an area where Singapore is seen as a model. A large part
of Singapore’s success is attributed to the close collaboration between the private and
public sectors. The Action Community for Entrepreneurship (ACE) is a good example of such
collaboration; where the private sector not only provides valuable inputs to the government
in policy formulation, but also gets its hands dirty in driving entrepreneurship.
Realizing the value of feedback from the entrepreneurs in shaping policies and regulations,
the Pro-Enterprise Panel (PEP) was formed in 2000 to solicit feedback and suggestions from
the private sector on ways to improve business regulations. The Head of the Civil Service
chairs the Panel with senior members from both the public and private sectors, The PEP has
since implemented some 60% of the suggestions received and has established a pro-business
regulatory framework for government agencies in Singapore.
Through the efforts of ACE and the government, many enterprising initiatives have also been
introduced. For example, since 2004, government agencies are ranked annually by the
private sector on how pro-enterprise there are. These initiatives have made Singapore more
pro-enterprise and, consequently, made it easy for entrepreneurs to conduct their businesses

An Enterprising Culture

Unlike the strong entrepreneurship culture in many other cities, the entrepreneurship culture
in Singapore needed to be enhanced. Therefore, over the past seven years, ACE has
organized many high level conferences, campaigns and networking sessions to promote
entrepreneurship. These activities elevated the stature of entrepreneurs and promoted
entrepreneurship as a viable career choice.
ACE has also been working with the government to ensure that the education system
is conducive to entrepreneurship learning, that entrepreneurial youth are given the
opportunity to learn to be entrepreneurs. ACE partnered with SPRING Singapore to

38   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

launch the Young Entrepreneurs Scheme for Schools (YES! Schools) to help youths learn
entrepreneurship through hands-on experience while in school, and YES! Startups to help
entrepreneurial youths who are ready to launch their first entrepreneurial ventures (for more
info on YES! Schools, please refer to Forum’s White Paper devoted to Public Policies and

A Supportive Eco-system

The Singapore government also understands that many enterprises require support to
bridge access to knowledge, capital and markets. Various financing schemes have been
set up over the past years to cater to enterprises of various types and at different stages of
expansion. The government has also worked with banks in Singapore to introduce a Micro
Loan Program to help startups and small enterprises ease case flow issues by enabling them
to borrow without any collateral pledge or track record. The government has also set up a
Startup Enterprise Development Scheme (SEEDS), which is a seed equity funding program to
invest in innovative startups. With the high number of funding options, Singapore has built a
vibrant financing environment to assist budding entrepreneurs in growing their business.
The public and private sectors have been working together to develop the incubation
industry. Through the Incubator Development Program (IDP) administered by SPRING
Singapore, incubators and venture accelerators receive support to design outreach and
capability development programs for innovative startups. In addition, ACE saw the need
to create a close supportive network of entrepreneurs and have various BlueSky Exchange
events to facilitate networking and learning among entrepreneurs.

Showing results

Singapore has been consistently voted as one of the most competitive nations in the world.
According to the World Bank, it has been ranked as the easiest place to do business over
the past five consecutive years (2007 – 2011). The IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook
has also ranked it as the most competitiveness economy in 2010. From about US$500 in
1965, Singapore’s GDP per capita has grown more than 70-fold to US$36,000 in 2009.

The founding of new businesses has increased more than 50% since 2001. This
translates to 102 businesses for every 10,000 Singaporeans, which is significantly higher
than developed countries such as UK and Finland while catching up with traditional
entrepreneurial hubs like the US. Another proxy of Singapore’s entrepreneurial level is the
employment by start-ups - it has increased to 9.5% (2007 figure) from 7.5% (2002).

The efforts to inculcate an entrepreneurial mindset are beginning to show results. Besides
receiving accolades on the business infrastructure and environment, the propensity of youth
to consider entrepreneurship compares favorably among other countries in the latest
Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students‘ Survey (GUESSS). The results
show that the youth are increasingly attuned to being an entrepreneur.

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   39

With its open policy on foreign talent, the Singapore meritocracy system is also attracting its
fair share of foreign entrepreneurs. On average, some 3,000 foreign entrepreneurs would
seek to build a business in Singapore every year. This is an indication that Singapore is on
the right track to become a top entrepreneurial city. With the pro-business fundamentals in
place, the drive to enhance entrepreneurship and a dedicated government, Singapore is
truly gearing itself into a truly entrepreneurial city.

2 - M AKInG MonTrEAl MorE EnTrEPrEnEUrIAl :

The Projet Entrepreneuriat was established in 2006, in recognition of that fact that while
Montreal had many advantages, it was beginning to lag behind other comparable cities in
the developed world. The city knew that it had two challenges: to attract more entrepreneurs,
and encourage its own population to set up their own businesses.
The Projet working group was drawn from both the private and public sectors and came
together with a shared conviction that it was necessary to act and act quickly: fostering a
more entrepreneurial mindset is a long-term cultural shift that requires patience, hard work,
and tenacity.

Since 2006 there has been a coordinated plan of action on nine separate but related fronts:

Promoting and reinforcing an entrepreneurial culture

This starts with the recognition that this change of mindset needs to begin in the home and
at primary school. There have been a number of initiatives targeted specifically at schools
and colleges, and new partnerships have been encouraged between local businesses and
universities, and new Chairs in entrepreneurship established. Various events and conferences
have been organized to bring community and business leaders together, and there is also a
dedicated project website.

Encouraging business spin-offs

Experience has shown that spin-offs are an excellent way to grow new businesses, foster
innovation, and keep an entrepreneurial spirit alive within larger corporations. Projet
activities in this area have included sharing the experience of successful spin-offs, drawing
up practical how-to guides, and working with both large companies and local trade and
professional associations.

40   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

Giving preference to new innovative high-tech firms

This ranges from giving new ventures in this field specific support to help them grow
and expand, to providing access to new funding, in particular the Fonds des Entreprises
Innovantes du Québec, which now offers C$20M of new start-up grants every year.

Developing and consolidating entrepreneurial skills

Entrepreneurs need a very wide range of skills to succeed, both personal and professional.
This aspect of the project’s work focuses on supporting people to understand what those
skills are, and to develop them. Some of this has been about targeting existing services more
effectively, but there have also been a number of new pilot projects exploring alternative
approaches and new ways of exploiting existing resources.

Helping new businesses better prepare for their first approach to investors

Even if there is finance available for good new ideas, some new entrepreneurs are not very
good at accessing it. The Project is giving these entrepreneurs individualized support at this
crucial stage and focuses on developing practical tools and techniques.

Growing and reinforcing the business network

Entrepreneurs can learn a lot from meeting and talking with other businesspeople, both
those in a similar position and those who have faced similar challenges. The project is
encouraging more interaction like this, especially between large and small companies.

Supplying coaches and mentors to new entrepreneurs

The early stages of a new business are often vital to its eventual success or failure. Having
an experienced coach in place can make all the difference and the Projet is setting up a
network that makes it easier for new entrepreneurs to link up with mentors with relevant
experience in their field.

Adapting existing services to entrepreneurs with specific needs

Key groups here are women, minorities, young entrepreneurs, and social entrepreneurs. The
Projet is providing coaching, mentoring and training designed to help young businesspeople
get access to funding. They are also seeking prominent female role models, celebrating their
successes and sharing their experiences. They are also developing special types of support
for entrepreneurs from minority groups.

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   41

Developing more support services for entrepreneurs

Montreal already had some 85 public and private sector organizations providing services
that could be used by entrepreneurs. The challenge for the Projet was to make better use of
these rersources through better targeting and coordination.

Adapted from the report Entreprendre à Montréal: L’urgence d’agir ensemble, published in


Which methodologies could help with the measurement of the effect of entrepreneurship
policies? How to rationalize the practices and business support systems in order to improve
them across Europe in the future?

Lyon Chamber of Commerce and Industry is heading a European project aimed at
encouraging European countries to share best practices in helping individuals to set up
IMAGEEN (Improvement of Methodologies and Governance of European Entrepreneurship
Network) has detected 15 practices that have proven their impact on job creation and
growth. Partners include France, Germany, UK, Sweden, Spain, Italy and Poland.

Lyon proposed the ‘Lyon Ville de l’Entrepreneuriat’ governance model to share with its
European partners. Gothenburg developed innovative support methodologies pre- and
post-creation and implemented integrative approaches. The City of Munich established
strong partnerships with universities and the private sector to run a one-stop agency
for entrepreneurs. Turin has involved local key actors contributing to providing mobile
information services throughout the Piedmont region. Birmingham and Warsaw have strong
experience in customized approaches for deprived communities and for inhabitants of the
city of Warsaw. Grenada fosters online local partnerships to share information and receive
training on pre-creation issues, e.g. legal, administrative, financial matters.

Expedition Forward - a best practice of Business region Gothenburg

‘Expedition Forward’ is a program that supports SMEs to grow bigger and stronger. Carried
out by the economic services of the Gothenburg Region in South West Sweden, the program
targets SMEs with between 1 and 249 employees with a focus on small companies of
maximum 20 employees. Business Region Gothenburg provides consultancy, seminars
and workshops on a wide range of issues including marketing and sales, business plan
development, leadership, financing, recruitment, and corporate values. The content of the

42   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

seminar is tailored to the companies’ needs and based on experts’ experience, growth
theories and academic research. The program also provides business analysis tools. About
700 members of BRG use the program per year. In a 2010 evaluation, 66% of users have
increased their ability to prepare business and marketing plans and manage and organize
their activities and 60 % have increased their ability to market and sell, leading to the
creation of 1000 new jobs.


As we’ve observed, cities could exemplify both the best and the worst the world might
see by 2050: crime, pollution, unrest, and urban poverty on the one hand, or sustainable
progress and prosperity on the other. IBM’s vision of Smarter Cities is designed to ensure
that cities are part of the solution, not part of the problem.

Cities are enormous consumers – and wasters - of resources, which is one reason why their
carbon footprint is so high. Typical municipalities lose 20-% of their water through leaks.
Traffic congestion in the US alone costs 3.7 Billion man-hours and wastes 2.3 Billion gallons
of fuel every year. We need a smarter future for our cities that takes advantage of the fact
that new technology means that the world has never been more intelligent, interconnected,
or ‘instrumented’ – there are more than 4 Billion mobiles in existence already.

If we put these factors to work in cities, we can find ways to save resources improve the flow
of people and vehicles and make services like utilities, healthcare and education work better
together. In fact, IBM estimate that 5% of global carbon emissions could be saved in 2020
by using smart technologies that use energy and resources more economically and manage
transport, buildings and industrial processes more efficiently. The evidence to support this
claim is available:

Energy and utilities: Malta

Until recently Malta had three serious and inter-related challenges: the worst carbon footprint
in Europe, an almost total dependence on tourism with no ability to grow that industry
because the electricity network was already struggling to cope with existing demand,
not least because one of the major users of power was a desalination plant supplying a
significant proportion of the island’s water. A smart grid for both water and electricity was
an obvious way forward, but there was a huge stumbling block: the cost of installing it was
projected to be higher than the water company’s entire annual revenue.

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   43

The answer proved to be a partnership between IBM, the Maltese government and the
energy and water companies. 250,000 smart meters were installed, which has reduced
water waste by 20%, and postponed the need for a new power plant by ten years. The
meters have also helped individuals and businesses better understand their energy and
water use and make their own choices leading to savings, of and an overall reduction of
carbon emissions.

Transport: Stockholm

Stockholm‘s challenge to IBM was to help them improve the flow of traffic in the city, and
reduce the carbon emissions associated with transport. This started with a pilot scheme to
trial road charging, which was followed by a public referendum in which the reasons for the
new approach were discussed and put to the vote. Since the full scheme went live, traffic in
downtown Stockholm has been reduced by 20%, CO2 emissions have dropped by 12%,
public transport has received substantial new investment and an extra 40 000 people are
using the system. Stockholm is now the third most mobile city in the world. Cities as diverse
as Singapore and Brisbane have developed similar schemes of their own.

Both of these schemes are great examples of how much a smart approach can achieve, but
they also prove that all the players involved need to have courage and leadership to make it
work. IBM has now developed an online simulation game: ‘CityOne’, that shows other city
policymakers how smarter thinking could solve some of their own business, environmental,
and logistical problems.

44   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

This theme was a particularly fruitful one for the Junior Forums. The Singapore meeting
looked at four acknowledged entrepreneurial cities, and assessed the critical factors that
helped to create this positive environment:

n   Silicon Valley: a centre of technology and innovation, and a close and extensive network
    of mentors
n   Frankfurt: a pro-business environment, and a wide range of financing options Tel Aviv:
    a resilient population, and well-developed business and technical infrastructure Singapore:
    a transparent business culture, and supportive regulatory framework

The group in China focused on the interesting idea of managing a city as if it were a
company. They recommended appointing a leading local entrepreneur who would work
alongside local businesses and government officials to define the city’s key competitive
advantages (like those listed above), and then devise a marketing strategy and ‘business

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   45

By For M Ally AnD InFor M Ally ConnECTInG rESEArCH

Factors that make a city appealing to entrepreneurs include a supportive taxation system,
good transport infrastructure, an attractive environment and high quality of life. But it’s just
as important to have active collaboration and partnership between the research institutes
that will develop the next generation of innovative ideas, the financial institutions that can
fund them and the service businesses that can help start-ups reach their full potential. These
institutions should be recognized as part of a global network, they would act as “bridges” to
support internationalization and growth.


The most successful cities will be those who deploy their own network of entrepreneurial
ambassadors as part of a comprehensive plan to promote the city as a good place to
do business. The Mayor has a key role to play here, and should actively support the
importance of entrepreneurship to the social and economic life of the city, and beyond
discussing entrepreneurship in economic circles. The Mayor’s Office should integrate the
topic into its general policy communication.


Entrepreneurs at the BoP often struggle to get their activities onto a robust commercial
footing. Offering office or industrial space at low cost is one way to help them do this, and
can provide a major step forward to these valuable enterprises at a crucial stage in their

46   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

             FOR THE WORLD

                 W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   47

Just as entrepreneurship spans both wealth and social justice, so entrepreneurship education
covers both formal education at primary, secondary and tertiary levels, and lifelong
informal and formal learning. We need to inspire young people with the desire to run their
own businesses, or to become more entrepreneurial – or ‘intrapreneurial’ - inside larger
corporations. We also need to give more experienced managers the ability and agility to
face new business challenges throughout their lives.


As we’ve already discussed, Africa is the only continent with a growing population of young
people while the average age of the populations of Western countries is steadily increasing.
This means that people will have to become accustomed to working much longer. But people
over 55 have historically found it difficult to get and keep jobs because they struggle to keep
up with changes in the workplace and new technology. Lifelong entrepreneurship education
is one way of tackling this challenge.

The other challenge we face is to support the development of entrepreneurs who are
also business leaders – leaders who can not only develop new products and exploit new
opportunities, but also can do so in a way that is responsible, ethical and sensitive to
different cultural, social and political environments.

Work done at the Forum 2010 identified four key challenges in the education field. The
first is to improve the status, knowledge and professionalism of educators responsible for
teaching entrepreneurship. This includes everything from better terms and conditions of
service, to more hands-on experience in industry and more targeted training courses with
the aim of achieving a practical team-oriented approach to teaching, in which the teacher
becomes a consultant. In the long term there is a possibility of certification endorsed by the

The second challenge is to develop new approaches to learning that encourage greater
creativity, and a willingness to take appropriate risks. The aim here is to shift from learning
by rote with learning by doing. This might include the use of toys and games for younger
children, and developing entrepreneurial role models for older ones.

The third challenge is to induce governments, businesses, parents, teachers, and students
to look at entrepreneurship in a different way and to break down the barriers between
social and commercial entrepreneurship. One way forward can be a dedicated Ministry of
Entrepreneurship, such as the one already established in Singapore.

The last challenge is to make e-learning accessible to everyone. Universal Internet access
is the key objective here, though open-source educational materials can also make a big

48   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


Café Entreprendre is an initiative by the Tunisian Association for Entrepreneurship (ATUPEE).
It involves monthly meetings where young people have the chance to meet and listen
to experts on entrepreneurship. The aim is to encourage a better understanding of
entrepreneurship,and encourage young people to set up their own businesses. Recent topics
have included the role of banks in supporting new businesses, the Tunisian experience
of spin-offs, the value of entrepreneurship clubs and the way Canada is promoting

ATUPEE also runs a training program for teachers who run entrepreneurship clubs in
secondary schools. These are designed to encourage creativity, confidence and independent
thinking by allowing a team of children to work together to plan and execute their own

After attending a Café Entreprendre event in October 2009 the Chief of cabinet of the
Minister of Education said that “initiative training should be a mainstream part of the daily
education process, it should concern every discipline - initiative is a way of life and it is what
makes the difference between the best and the ordinary pupils.”


SIFE is an international non-profit organization that works with leaders in business and
higher education to encourage university students to make a difference in their communities
while developing the skills to become socially responsible business leaders. SIFE teams
teach families how to gain financial security, equip the unemployed with skills to find
productive employment, help aspiring entrepreneurs achieve success, and bring economic
development back to struggling neighborhoods. Along the way SIFE members develop the
kind of teamwork, leadership, and communication skills that can only come from real life

Students form teams on their university campuses and develop outreach projects that will
improve the standard of living for local people in need. The results of these projects are
presented at a series of regional and national competitions, where business leaders evaluate
them. The winners of each national competition go forward to the prestigious SIFE World

                                            W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   49

SIFE is now the world’s largest university-based free enterprise organization. More than
1,500 universities and 45,000 students from 39 countries take part, along with hundreds
of leading companies. KPMG is a major sponsor in France, providing both financial and
in-kind support.

“We at KPMG are proud to be supporting SIFE. This global organization helps students
realize the power they have in their own hands to actually change lives. Caring for either
close or remote communities is such an honorable way to start a meaningful professional
career and understand that at the end of the day, business is all about people.“
Jean-Luc Decornoy, CEO, KPMG France
President, SIFE France

E + l FoUnDATIon, KEnyA

The Entrepreneurship and Leadership Foundation in Kenya uses the idea of “walking with a
mentor” as a way of making an instantaneous impact on the lives of aspiring entrepreneurs.
Those who take part spend an hour and a half with a recognized business leader, talking to
them about their experience, and learning how they make decisions and face challenges in
their own organization.

The walks have been particularly successful with specific groups such as women and young
people, and have a very high success rate considering how quick and inexpensive they are
to implement. The project has been running since 2008 and the hope is that those who have
benefited from the walks will one day “pay it forward” and be a mentor on a walk of their


The Center for Mass Education in Science is an alternative education system designed for
disadvantaged young people who have dropped out of mainstream schooling. The scheme
provides technical training in skills that are in demand locally, with a particular emphasis on
equipping young people with the know-how they need to start their own businesses. Some
aspects of the scheme are targeted specially at young women and girls, who often need

50   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

special encouragement to help them to overcome social and cultural discrimination. This
aspect of the scheme is run in partnership with the Self-employed Youth and Women’s Social
Enterprise Microfinance scheme.

CMES has been running for more than 30 years, and its most recent focus has been on
helping young people who have been through the scheme to build more sustainable
enterprises. They face many challenges, including a lack of experience and confidence.
CMES is now running a dedicated short course designed to help them deal with these
difficulties, compete more effectively and develop new products. Examples include folding
furniture, mushroom products, and vermicompost as a bio-fertilizer.
Five hundred young people have already started their own small businesses in the 24 rural
areas of Bangladesh where CMES works.

5 - GrooMInG TECHnoloGy EnTrEPrEnEUrS : THE nAnyAnG

Through collaboration between Singapore’s Economic Development Board (EDB) and the
Nanyang Technological University (NTU), the Nanyang Technopreneurship Center (NTC)
was established in 2001 with the vision to become a leading center of excellence for
technopreneurship education.

NTC has trained and exposed scores of youths in the University to entrepreneurship
education in the ten years since its inception. By the end of 2011, more than 500 students
will have graduated from its Master of Science in Technopreneurship and Innovation
program (TIP), in addition to many others who have attended various entrepreneurship
courses and workshops organized by the Center.

The MSc TIP is a global entrepreneurship and innovation program that employs a unique
teaching pedagogy that combines institutionalized instruction with experiential learning,
through a global immersion program that takes candidates to leading technology hubs and
cradles for tech start-ups, such as Silicon Valley and Zhongguancun in China.
The program creates exceptional opportunities for students to network with technology
owners, start-ups, venture capitalists, government officials and an active and culturally
diverse alumni community, which forms a valuable ecosystem that the students can leverage
on when they pursue their own ventures. Many of the graduates had gone on to build
successful enterprises.

                                         W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   51

Apart from conducting the MSc TIP and undergraduate programs, NTC also organizes
various events like the Chua Thian Poh public lecture series, which invites distinguished
speakers in the entrepreneurship space to address and engage students and the local public
in dialogues on entrepreneurship issues. The Ideas.Inc. Business Challenge, a nation-wide
business plan competition, is another successful initiative to engage and encourage youths to
transform their innovative ideas into commercial enterprises.


The EML competency framework is a collaboration between EMLYON Business School and
Dolmen Human Capital. The original idea grew out of a realization that most appraisal
techniques designed to assess entrepreneurial skills and potential suffer from two major
misconceptions: that we know what competencies are necessary for success in this field, and
that we already have tools that can evaluate them.

Why is this so? Most psychometric tests measure managerial skills, but good entrepreneurs
are rarely good managers. Likewise intelligence tests fail to capture the type of ‘street smart’
acumen that characterizes a typical entrepreneur. The EML approach is designed to help
actual and potential entrepreneurs to understand the factors at work in their own careers and
experience, and the character traits that might either help or hinder them.

The first step is EML-Experience, which provides a personal report of an individual’s skills,
talents, drive, and competencies. It identifies obvious strengths, and areas that need
improvement. This can then be followed by EML–Potential, which maps each person against
235 observable competencies, including qualities like perseverance, flexibility, conflict
management, openness to others, planning, and strategic thinking. Each one is assessed in
terms of the individual’s actual mastery, their appetite to develop it, and their potential future
mastery. It also ranks each in terms of how difficult or easy it will be to do this.

52   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

CorPor ATIonS : HArBInGEr GroUP, InDIA

Harbinger Group is a high-growth software company based in India serving customers in 50
countries worldwide, and one of Red Herring’s Top 100 global technology companies. The
company owes its success to date to its entrepreneurial spirit, but it is also very much aware
that this can be hard to sustain as the business grows.

With this in mind Harbinger has developed an original and imaginative approach to
ongoing learning. ‘Base Camp 2010’ exploits all the resources of the web, including blogs,
online games, podcasts, chat-rooms, and social media like Twitter. The key here is that
people learn through collaboration, which has been instrumental in sharing the insights
gained throughout the whole organization. The four central themes of the program are
innovation, vision, leadership, and strategy. Early evidence suggests that it is helping to
foster the development of the next generation of Harbinger leaders.

As Vikas Joshi, the company’s Chairman and founder says: “Base Camp 2010 has been a
great platform for sharing experience, developing new ideas and building a shared sense
of entrepreneurial excitement. Ninety percent of those who initially took part are still with the
company and of those, 14% have started new initiatives. Of those who’ve since left, 25%
have started their own businesses. We’re already planning Base Camp 2011.”

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   53

The group in Singapore was particularly concerned with finding ways to encourage more
students to set up new ventures in the fields of engineering, science and technology, citing
the estimated 25,800 companies founded by MIT alumni, which employ over 3 Million
people and generate annual World sales of some $2 Trillion.

The students in China focused on the cultural changes needed to change current
misconceptions about entrepreneurship and improve its social prestige. Parents have a
very powerful influence on the choices made by young Asian people, but while there are
a number of successful entrepreneurs in China, society in general does not see this as an
aspirational career choice.

54   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


Entrepreneurs are not administrators, and accreditation systems designed to measure the
quality of masters of business administration programs (MBAs) are not appropriate.


The recommendation here is to develop new courses in creativity at all levels of education.
The aim should be to encourage independent critical thinking, teamwork, and a greater
willingness to take risks.


This recommends the establishment of a post of Minister of Entrepreneurship until a robust
entrepreneurial ecosystem is secured. This ministerial post should work closely with the
Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Education.

There should also be a major “Kinderpreneurship programTM” teaching critical thinking,
lateral thinking and problem-solving skills in primary schools.

This program should also raise awareness of norms and mores that hinder and suppress
entrepreneurial spirit in society.

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   55

Many Forum members are also active in successful projects working with children and young
people. Many of these use games and play as a way of nurturing creativity, and fostering a
willingness to take reasonable risks. Here are some of their specific commitments for 2011:

“I will start a twitter campaign to persuade politicians that access to the Internet is a human
right for everybody. I will also promote open-source education and encourage government to
reward universities that share knowledge.”
James Baker, CEO, Age Concern, Brighton, Hove & Portslade, UK

“I will work with the Ministry of Youth to include a program on entrepreneurship for young
people as part of national service.”
Sibusisiwe Precious Bango, Executive Director, EMPRETEC, Zimbabwe

“I will encourage the charities I work with to develop their social enterprise concepts and
give them practical help to develop their business plans. I will also hold a seminar for them
on legal and governance issues for social enterprises.”
Mary Chadwick, Director, Primetimers, UK

“I will lobby my government to make entrepreneurial education in schools a national policy.”
Nana Tweneboa-Boateng, CEO, Empretec Ghana Foundation

56   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

The World Entrepreneurship Forum is a global think-tank of entrepreneurs, social
entrepreneurs, experts and politicians, chosen for their entrepreneurial achievements and
their commitment to society. As of 2010, 110 members of 55 countries are active in the
World Entrepreneurship Forum.

The think-tank aims at preparing a more entrepreneurial world, creating wealth and social
justice through 4 key levers:

n   Creating Innovative and High-Growth Companies to create millions of jobs around the
n   Disseminating Entrepreneurship at the Base of the Pyramid to alleviate poverty and create
    new, markets;
n   Shaping Entrepreneurial Cities, being tomorrow’s centers for innovation;
n   Implementing Entrepreneurial Education to disseminate entrepreneurial mindset, skills and
    competencies throughout society, on a lifelong basis.

As a result of its works, the World Entrepreneurship Forum publishes an Annual White Paper,
aimed at disseminating its findings and influencing the global agenda of entrepreneurship.

The World Entrepreneurship Forum is active in 55 countries, through Regional Chapters,
its members, and Junior World Entrepreneurship Forums, mobilizing hundreds university
students around the world.

Each year, through the “Entrepreneur for the World Award”, the World Entrepreneurship
Forum recognizes outstanding international entrepreneurs for their entrepreneurial
achievements and their commitment to society.

It has been founded in 2008 by EMLYON Business School, France, KPMG France, joined in
2011 by Nanyang Technological University and Action Community for Entrepreneurship.


Press relations:
Twitter: @WorldEntreprene, #WEntrepreneurshipF
Facebook Page: World Entrepreneurship Forum
Linked In Group: World Entrepreneurship Forum

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   57


Argentina was the first country to organize its own national event modeled on the main
World Entrepreneurship Forum. More than 200 participants gathered together for two days
in August 2010, in an event sponsored by KPMG Argentina. Commercial entrepreneurs,
social entrepreneurs, academics, students and elected politicians shared experiences and
success stories, and looked at ways to tackle common challenges. They also examined
specific case studies with a view to formulating policy recommendations.


A delegation of higher education institutions representatives and entrepreneurs from
Chile’s Bio Bio region attended the 2009 edition of the World Entrepreneurship Forum and
subsequently decided to organize a local forum based on Chile’s main entrepreneurial issues
in November 2010:

1. Rebuilding the country after the earthquake of Feb 2010
2. Foster entrepreneurial and innovative cities
3. Training new entrepreneurs

About 260 people participated in the 3-day event, from different regions of the country, and
led to formulate a set of recommendations aimed at developing a regional action plan for
entrepreneurship alongside with CORFO and Innova Bio Bio.


The Junior Forums are the students’ version of the World Entrepreneurship Forum, and bring
together hundreds of students from different countries for events lasting three or four days.
This year’s Forums gave the students the chance to meet successful entrepreneurs, social
entrepreneurs, academics and politicians, and work together to write their own White
Papers on the main Forum’s four topics. They then coordinated their findings with the other
Junior Forums, and sent delegations to the main Forum to present their findings. 500 young
people took part in events in China, India, Singapore, and France in Summer 2010.

58   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


Coordination: Yves-Henri Robillard, Director; Caroline Le Brun, Deputy Director
Writing: Lynn Shepherd


Michel Coster, Professor, EMLYON Business School
Alain Fayolle, Professor, EMLYON Business School
Ignasi Marti, Professor, EMLYON Business School
Jeffrey Nadison, Associate Provost, Innovation, Nanyang Technological University
Jack Sim, Board Member, BoP Track Leader, World Entrepreneurship Forum
Board Members – World Entrepreneurship Forum


Alberto Schuster, Diego Medone, KPMG Argentina: Argentina Forum
Mercedes Laxague: Argentina Forum
Victor San Juan & the Chile Delegation: Chile Forum


Dr. LC Seet, Prof. Ph.Silberzahn: Global Junior Coordination
Heloïse Pancher, organizer of Junior France and coordinator of Global Junior
Bruno Bonnell, Founder, Robopolis
Jose Mulero, CEGID Education
Omar Berrada, Student & President of Junior Entreprise, EMLYON Business School
Dr. LC Seet, Ngiam Tee Woh and Singapore Junior team, Nanyang Technological University
Nikhil Agarwal and Pune Junior team, EABS, India
Eve Berger, Wang Siwen and the Shanghai Junior team, EMLYON Business School

                                         W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   59

WorlD EnTrEPrEnEUrSHIP ForUM – 2010 EDITIon

EMLYON Business School: Bénédicte Bost, Daniela Sutan, Cathy Mathieu, Daniel S. Evans,
Bérengère Dieval, Sounita Klinguer, Lassina Traore, Grégory Palayer, Jérôme Bourgeois,
Géraldine Guigue, Gregory Furter, Franck Dojat, Bernadette Espin, Marie-Pierre Thomassot,
Marc Campo, Elisabeth Mounier and the Alumni Team and colleagues at EMLYON Business

Chintan Jadwani, GEP student, and his participating classmates, GEP Program Director
Frédéric Delmar
Juliette Bourque, Msc in Management student.
Groupe 361: Philippe Mauchamp, Valerie Lacroix, Anne Laure Rigaud, Martin Cuel and
their team.

LSP: François Garcia, Dany Morsilli, Bernard Buffard, Charlotte Robelin
KPMG France: Aurélie Girod, Michel Jean, Caroline Croce-Spinelli
KPMG Lyon: Alain Chamak, Doug Mac Lean, Marie Chambodut
Lenovo France: Catherine Ladousse, Bérengère Fantin
Rhodia: Peter Browning, Fabienne Perolini, Emmanuel Butstraen
Orange France: Lisa-Mary Durban, Christine Duchesne-Reboul
IBM France: Sylvie Spalmacin-Roma, Anne Carrière, Laurence Denis
Euronews: Christophe Midol Monnet, Chinda Bandhavong, Walid Chamak
Les Echos: Sarah Kroichvili

60   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

Note: Country = member’s nationality


Africa - Middle East
Ms. AYURU Beatrice, Founder, Lira Integrated School, Uganda
Mr. BEN AVINOAM Barak, CEO of Iris Ventures, Maayan Ventures, Israelian
Mr. KERDJOUDJ Nassim, President & CEO, Net Skills, Algeria
Ms. MWAMBENJA Sabetha, Managing Director & CEO, Exim Bank Tanzania Limited,
Ms. SAMBO Sibongile, Founder & Managing Director, SRS Aviation, South Africa
Ms. WALLA Kah, Founder & Director, Strategies!, Cameroon

Mr. InAMorI Kazuo, Founder, Kyocera and KDDI, CEo, jAl, japan,
Entrepreneur Award 2009 (Honorary Member)
Mr. lIU Chuan-zhi, Founder, legend Holdings, China, Entrepreneur Award
2010 (Honorary Member)
Mr. AGRAWAL Rajesh, CEO & Co-Founder, RationalFx, India
Ms. AKIYAMA Sakie, Founder, Chairman & CEO, Saki Corporation, Japan
Mr. ALI Syed Babar, Founder, Packages Limited, Pakistan
Ms. CHEW Elim, Founder and President, 77th Street Pte Ltd, Singapore
Mr. IIZUKA Tetsuya , Founder & CEO, Thine Electronics, Inc., Japan
Mr. JOSHI Vikas, Chairman and Managing Director, Harbinger Group, India
Mr. NANDAKUMAR Krishnan Nair, Founder & President, Sun Tec Business Solutions Pvt Ltd,
Mr. PATHAN Iftekhar, Co-Founder, Solar Gem, India
Mr. RAO Sanjeev, Founder and CEO, Gateway 2 India (G2i), India
Mr. SABOO Yasho, Founder & CEO, KDDL Limited , India
Ms. SOEDIBYO Mooryati, Founder, Mustika Ratu, Indonesia
Mr. SUZUKI Kiyoyuki, Founder & CEO, Advanced Media, Inc., Japan

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   61

Mr. BorEl Daniel, Co-Founder, logitech, Switzerland, Entrepreneur Honour
Award 2008 (Honorary Member)
Mr. GATTAz yvon, Founder, ASMEP, France, Entrepreneur Honour Award 2009
(Honorary Member)
Mr. BERGAN Kristoffer, Co-founder & CTO, bMenu, Norway
Mr. BOJAR Gabor, Founder & CEO, Graphisoft SE Europai Rt., Hungary
Mr. BONNELL Bruno, President & CEO, Robopolis, France
Ms. KRUCKAS Gintaras, CEO, Mobiliuju Telefonie Techninis Centras UAB, Lituania
Ms. MORAND Geneviève, President of the Muse Foundation, Muse Creativity Center, Switzerland
Ms. VAN NUFFEL Christine, Director, I-Magine, Belgium
Ms. ZAMANPUR Aysen, Founder & CEO, Silk & Cashmere, Turkey

north America
Mr. BERTHIAUME François, Founder & President, Dolmen, Canada
Ms. BRATTINA Anita, Founder, President & CEO, AllFacilities Inc., USA
Mr. BUNDOCK Michel, Senior Vice-President and General Manager, Groupement des chefs
d’entreprise du Québec, Canada
Ms. CAVANAGH Teri, CEO / Head, Strategy Marketing & Communications, TLC Connections /
Global Banking Alliance for Women, USA
Ms. DANIELS Carol, Co-founder & CEO, Aircraft Technical Publishers, USA
Ms. DELANEY Laurel, Founder, GlobeTrade, USA
Ms. DIAMOND Kathleen, Founder, President and CEO, LLE - Language Services, USA
Ms. FECTEAU Lisa, Founder & President, Régitex Inc., Canada
Mr. GIRARD Mario, President & CEO, Fondation de l’Entrepreneurship, Canada
Ms. KERRIGAN Karen, President & CEO, Small Enterprise Business Council, USA
Ms. KILCREASE Laura, Managing Director, Triton Ventures, USA
Mr. ROBICHAUD Claude, President, Falpaco Plastic and Rubber Inc., Canada
Mr. STRAUSS Steve, Founder, MrAllBiz, USA

Mr. FROOD David, Author, The Thinking Corporation, Australia

62   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

South America
Mr. MONCAYO Carlos, Founder and CEO ASIAM Business Group, Ecuador
Mr. SAN JUAN Victor, Founder AEREUS, Chile


Ms. HUGHES Rachael, Head of European Division, HomeServe - Domeo, France
Ms. LOMBARD Marie-Christine, Group Managing Director, TNT Express, France
Mr. DECORNOY Jean-Luc, CEO, KPMG SA France, France

South America
Mr. SCHUSTER Alberto, Senior Partner, KPMG, Argentina


Africa - Middle East
Ms. DEAN-SMITH Zoe, Managing Director, Visionary Growth & Development Consultants,
Ms. KISYOMBE Victoria , Founder & CEO, Sero Lease and Finance Ltd., Tanzania
Ms. NJUGUNA Nyokabi, Founder and President, Entrepreneurship & Leadership Foundation,

Sir ABED Fazle, Founder, BrAC, Bangladesh, Social Entrepreneur Award 2009
(Honorary Member)
Ms. BHATT Ela ramesh, Founder, Self Employed Women Association, India,
Social Entrepreneur Award 2010 (Honorary Member)
Ms. HAQUE Suraya, Executive Director, Founder & Executive Director, Bangladesh
Mr. IBRAHIM Muhammad, Founder and Chairman, Centre for Mass Education in Science
(CMES), Bangladesh
Mr. ISMAWAN Bambang, President, Bina Swadaya, Indonesia
Mr. SIM Jack, Founder, Chairman & CEO, World Toilet Organization, Singapore

                                        W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   63

Mr. VIRAVAIDYA Mechai, Founder & Chairman, Population & Community Development
Association, Thailand

Mr. BAKER James, Chief Executive, Age concern Brighton Hove & Portslade, UK
Mr. BLACKMORE John, CEO, Action Acton, UK
Ms. CHADWICK Mary, Director, PrimeTimers, UK
Mr. KANG Arun, CEO, Sporting Equals, UK
Mr. KANGASLAHTI Antti, Founder,, Finland
Mr. KINKEAD Maurice, Chief Executive, East Belfast Partnership, Ireland
Ms. LEGRAND Virginie, Co-Founder, 1001 Fontaines, France
Mr. MARINOVIC Neven, Executive Director, Smart Kolektiv, Serbia
Mr. SARI Mustafa, Founder, Doga Gözcüleri Dernegi, Turkey
Mr. SEDLACEK Vojtech, Founder, Agentura ProVás s.r.o., Czech Republic
Ms. VAN DULLEMEN Caroline, Founder and Director, World Granny, Netherlands
Mr. WEETJENS Bart, Founder, Apopo, Belgium

north America
Mr. CAPE Geoffrey, Founder & Leader, Evergreen, Canada
Mr. GRZYWINSKI Ronald, Co-Founder, ShoreBank Corporation, USA
Mr. PEPIN John, Director, JPA Europe Limited, UK

South America
Ms. BENITEZ Marcela, Founder, Responde Organization, Argentina
Ms. CORRAL Thais, President, Network of Human Development, Brazil


Africa - Middle East
Ms. BAMAZI Clarisse, Executive Director, Bourse Régionale des Valeurs Mobilières (BRVM), Togo
Ms. BANGO Sibusisiwe Precious, Executive Director, EMPRETEC Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
Mr. LAHCHIMI Miloud, Chief in charge of executive education, Ministry of Education of
Morocco, Morocco

64   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

Mr. TWENEBOA-BOATENG Nana, CEO, EMPRETEC Ghana Foundation, Ghana

Mr. Nikhil AGARWAL, Director, Zensar Centre for Business Innovation, India
Ms. AKIZAWA Hikari, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Chuo University, Japan
Ms. CHEW Mok Lee, Deputy Group Director, SPRING, Singapore
Mr. GAO, Jian, Professor, Tsinghua SEM, China
Mr. HOOI, Den Huan, Faculty member, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Mr. KHAN Iqbal, Senior Fellow Entrepreneurship, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Mr. LIU Ji, Honorary President, China Europe International Business School, China
Mr. LU Hongjun, President, Shanghai Institute of International Finance, China
Mr. SEET Lip Chai, Managing Director, DM Capital, Singapore

Mr. TWAAlFHoVEn Bert, Founder European Foundation for Entrepreneurship
research (EFEr), The netherlands, Expert Award 2009 (Honorary Member)
Mr. ATAMER Tugrul, Dean of Faculty, EMLYON Business School, Turkey, France
Mr. BOURGIN Patrick, Director, CENTRALE Lyon, France
Mr. CELMS Harolds, Director of the Publications, European Union’s Office of Publications, Latvia
Mr. COSTER Michel, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Director of Incubator, EMLYON Business
School, France
Mr. DELMAR Frédéric, Professor of Entrepreneurship, EMLYON Business School, Sweden
Mr. GOSSET David, Professor, CEIBS, France
Ms. KRYLOVA Tatiana, Head of the Enterprise Branch, Division on Investments and Enterprise,
United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD), Russia
Mr. MARTI Ignasi, Associate Professor, EMLYON Business School, Spain
Mr. PAWLOWSKI Krzysztof, Founder & President, Wyzsza Szkola Biznesu - NLU, Poland
Mr. RISCHARD Jean-François, International Consultant, Former VP Europe, WorldBank,
Mr. WESTLAKE Stian, Executive Director of Policy and Research, NESTA, UK

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   65

north America
Prof. STEVEnSon Howard, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Sarofim-Baker
Chair, Harvard Business School, USA, Expert Award 2010 (Honorary Member)
Mr. ACS Zoltan, Director, Center for Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, George Mason
University, USA
Mr. FILION Louis-Jacques, Professor of Entrepreneurship & Rogers - J.A. Bombardier Chair of
Entrepreneurship, Canada
Ms. GREENE Patricia, F.W. Olin Distinguished Chair in Entrepreneurship, Babson College,
Mr. JEANNET Jean-Pierre, F.W. Olin Distinguished Professor of Global Business, Babson
College, USA
Mr. LEVESQUE Rino, Executive Director, Transformation & Strategic Initiatives Branch,
Department of Education of New Brunswick, Canada
Mr. NADISON Jeffrey, Associate Provost (Innovation), Nanyang Technological University, USA

South America
Mr. COTA RIVAS Rafael, Consulting Director - Global Projects, Tecnologico de Monterrey,
Mr. DOLABELA Fernando, Author, Brazil
Ms. GASCON UTRERAS, Silvia Andrea , General Manager, INETEC, Chile
Ms. TORRES CARBONELL Silvia, Executive Director, Entrepreneurship Center, IAE (School of
Business of Universidad Austral), Argentina
Mr. VALDES Mauricio, Director Of Management And Business School, Fundación Instituto
Profesional Duocuc, Chili
Mr. VALENZUELA DIAZ Ivan, Dean of Faculty of Business Management (economics),
Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile
Mr. VIVEROS CIFUENTES Andres Jesus, Director, Regional Agency for Productive Innovation
and Development of BioBio Region, Chile

66   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r


Africa - Middle East
Mr. BOULOS Jawad, Member of Parliament, Parliament of Lebanon, Lebanon
Mr. MANCHAM James , Founding President, Republic of Seychelles, Seychelles
Ms. ZGHAL Riadh, Senator, Tunisian Chamber of Councillors, Tunisia

Ms. LEE Yi Shyan, Minister of State, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Entrepreneurship,
Mr. SINGH Inderjit, Entrepreneur and Member of Parliament, Singapore Parliament, Singapore

Ms. lAGArDE Christine, Minister of Economy, France, Politician Award 2010
(Honorary Member)
Ms. roBInSon Mary, Former President of Ireland, Un Commissioner for
Human right, Ireland, Politician Award 2009 (Honorary Member)
Ms. CLUCAS Flo, Deputy Council Leader/President, City of Liverpool/Alliance of Liberals and
Democrats for Europe in the EU’s Committee of the Regions, UK
Mr. KIMELFELD David, Vice-President of Economic Development, Greater Lyon, France

                                           W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   67

                                               O FFI CI A L PA RT N ERS

                                                   M ED I A PA RT N ERS

68   W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r

                                      PA RT N ERS

                                          W o r l d E n t r E p r E n E u r s h i p F o r u m 2 010 | t h E W h i t E p A p E r   69
Shaping the World of 2050
W i t h a n e n t r epr en eu r i a l i m pac t

                                                                                        World Entrepreneurship Forum - March 2011 - Non-contractual document - All trademarks deposited - Photographies: P.Schuller - P.Thomas / Sipa Press - P.Fayolle - M.Leroy - Code: WEF04/11.

                                 WORL D EN TREP REN EU RS HIP FORUM
                                            EMLYON Business School
                            23 avenue Guy de Collongue - 69134 Ecully cedex - FRANCE
                             Tel.: +33 (0) 4 72 18 46 80 - Fax: +33 (0) 4 78 33 78 55

To top