FY11 Annual Technologies Publication - ndcee

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FY11 Annual Technologies Publication - ndcee Powered By Docstoc
					Advanced 3D Safety Training Technologies
The Secretary of Defense established the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) to provide
governance on DoD-wide efforts to reduce preventable mishaps. Through its task forces, the

DSOC identifies and recommends pilot mishap-prevention initiatives for demonstration and
implementation within the DoD. The NDCEE supports the DSOC Integration Group and its task
forces in implementing DSOC initiatives. As part of this role, the NDCEE continues to support
a DSOC initiative for three-dimensional (3D) Safety Training for Installation and Industrial
Operations. FY11 represented the fifth year of developing and implementing 3D safety training.
The focus was to develop new videos and advanced training delivery methods to make safety
training more relevant, enjoyable, and more effective for a wider target audience.
Technology Description
3D Safety Training for Installation and Industrial Operations
With the aid of Wearable-Immersive Video Display (WIVD) Headsets, 3D Safety Training
couples purpose-made 3D videos with immersive 3D stereoscopic visual images and binaural
sound in light-weight, adjustable, head mounted displays. WIVD headsets were developed
to promote an experiential learning environment with mind-body integration, cognitive
restructuring, and a heightened emotional response; viewers experience a simulated 3D
learning environment designed to mimic a real-life experience. The Defense Logistics Agency
(DLA) led development of this new training concept with the 30-minute 3D video, “It’s All
About Choices,” and implemented it at 18 Defense distribution depots in 2005-2006. It
proved to be an effective method to reduce mishap rates and lost production days, improve
productivity, and assist employees in understanding their role in DLA’s mission. DSOC’s
Installations and Industrial Operations Task Force sponsored a 40-minute 3D video, “A Second
Chance,” with facilitated 3D training for 5000+ workers at four installations in 2007-2008.
This video helped workers increase their safety awareness, retain key messages, and improve
their ability to handle stress and make safer decisions. Experience with these efforts led the
Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) to develop four new 10-minute 3D videos and two
new training delivery methods for Pentagon workers in 2010.
3D Safety Training Delivery Tools
WHS and 3-D ETC, LLC demonstrated and deployed the 3D Kiosk and 3D Playback on
Demand (POD) system.
                                                                                                        Focus Area
3D Kiosk                                                                                                Safety Initiatives/
The kiosk is a self-operated, turnkey solution that shows                                                     DSOC
3D training videos to one person at any time, without a facilitator. The kiosk includes: a
carrel-like enclosure with comfortable chair, a locking
cabinet with 3D POD system, a video touch-screen
monitor with instructions, and a stereoscopic headset
with binaural sound. The headset hangs on a docking
station and connects to the POD with a video cable. A
kiosk user sits in the chair and touches the screen to
activate instructions. Once registered, the user selects
a video from an illustrated menu. Another video on
the monitor shows how to clean, adjust, and don the
headset. After donning the headset, the user watches
the selected video without distraction. When the video
ends, the user hangs up the headset (to turn it off) and
completes an on-screen viewer perception survey. The
user then has the choice to either select another video
                                                            A kiosk system at the Pentagon allows employees to participate in
                                                            3D training without a facilitator.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        or log out. Additional 2D and 3D videos can be loaded and played on the system, with similar
                        immersion benefits. The system administrator can download a record of system use and
                        survey responses.

                        3D POD System
                        The POD is a self-contained, mobile unit that can be used to show 2D and 3D videos to twelve
                        people at a time. The 250-pound POD is 30” wide x 30” deep x 40” high and rolls easily on
                        four wheels. It contains a video playback system, a pop-up touch screen monitor, two locking
                        drawers, and 12 headsets, each with a 25-foot coiled video cable. A user/instructor takes the
                        POD to any shop, office, or conference room with common electrical power. The video cables
                        are plugged into ports on either side of the POD. Viewers are instructed on how to adjust and
                        don the headsets, then select and play one or more videos. The pop-up monitor serves as a
                        system interface for the user/instructor. Headsets are disinfected with sanitary wipes and
                        replaced in drawer compartments, with cables disconnected and coiled.
                        3D Safety Videos
                        A professional scriptwriter, director, cast, and crew and more than 60 volunteer extras created
                        four highly relevant videos to show on the kiosk and POD in the Pentagon. Video topics, titles,
                        and run times are:
                            1.   Your Safe Work Day: “Angel in a Trench Coat” (9:32 minutes)
                            2.   Prevent Slips, Trips & Falls: “A Message from Michael” (8:40 minutes)
                            3.   Basic Office Safety: “What’s Wrong With This Picture?” (8:19 minutes)
                            4.   Emergency Readiness & Evacuation: “You and The Big What If?” (12:44 minutes)

                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	 Creates	a	unique	stereoscopic	visual	and	binaural	audio	safety	training	experience
                            •			 Emphasizes	greater	overall	safety	consciousness	for	the	participant
                            •			 Fosters	greater	appreciation	and	value	for	the	overall	Installations	and	Industrial	
                                 Operations missions
                            •			 Establishes	a	task-focus	“present	moment”	consciousness	with	consideration	and	
                                 appreciation for future consequences
                            •			 Provides	an	experiential	learning	environment	with	mind-body	integration,	cognitive	
                                 restructuring, and heightened emotional response

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 Training	is	not	yet	available	via	advanced	distributed	learning	methods	because	
                                specialized	equipment	is	required	for	delivery.	However,	this	appears	to	be	a	future	
                            •		 Training	requires	a	user-friendly,	self-service	kiosk	in	a	convenient	location	or	a	mobile	
                                POD with a knowledgeable user/instructor and no more than 12 viewers at a time,
                                unless additional PODs are available.
                            •		 The	3D	experience	is	intended	to	encourage	voluntary	training,	but	widespread	use	
                                requires promotion or mandatory training.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Continued	demonstrating	expanded	3D	safety	training	delivery	methods,	with	one	
                               kiosk and one POD for WHS
                            •	 Created	facility-specific	safety	training	materials	for	local	emergency	procedures,	and	
                               building features
                            •	 Installed	a	self-serve	kiosk,	in	the	Pentagon	(2nd	Floor,	A-Ring,	9-10	Apex),	that	was	
                               available for anyone to use 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

Economic Analysis
DLA indicated that this program played a key role in reducing preventable mishaps and their
associated	costs	at	DLA’s	world-wide	facilities.	Other	organizations	that	use	this	technology,	

including Ford Motor Company, Delta Airlines, and Kimberly-Clark, also indicated similar
successes. Based on these industry testimonials, use of 3D safety training technologies has
played a positive role in influencing mishap rate reductions.
Suggested Implementation Applications
3D technology is applicable to other training needs where real-life, decision-making is needed.
Specifically, the training could address stress management, safe driving, alcohol use, smoking
cessation, and other safety and health topics at all levels across the services. The technology
could be used to deliver effective training with existing and future 2D and 3D videos at
installations and industrial environments with similar missions and safety challenges.
Points of Contact
    •	   Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
    •	   Gerald	Bryant,	WHS,	703-697-5066,	gerald.bryant@whs.mil
    •	   Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
    •	   Greg	Jablunovsky,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6497,	jablunog@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
Mission Readiness across the Department of Defense (Task N.0613)

                 A POD system allows up to twelve users to view the 3D
                 instructional training simultaneously.

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Biobased Products
                            In accordance with the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) of 2002, government
                            agencies must give preference to the procurement of biobased products in categories

                            identified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) if they meet availability, cost, and
                            performance requirements. Biobased products are derived from renewable plant resources and
                            may be more environmentally friendly than their petroleum-based and synthetic counterparts.
                            To assist in DoD FSRIA compliance, the NDCEE has been supporting procurement of biobased
                            Technology Description
                            The NDCEE is supporting the DoD in its efforts to decrease reliance on petroleum based and
                            procure biobased products that meet the USDA criteria by:
                                1) Evaluating biobased products, validating the contents and establishing the
                                    real costs—from cradle to grave—of their use
                                2) Creating a database of biobased product data with the DLA Aviation.

                            The searchable product database includes biobased product performance and ESOHE data in
                            comparison to government specifications.
                            Biobased Product Evaluations
                            The NDCEE evaluated biobased penetrating lubricants. Penetrating lubricants are chemicals
                            designed to lubricate moving parts on equipment susceptible to rusting. Petroleum-based
                            products that are commercially available include WD-40 and Liquid Wrench. Although
                            biobased alternatives are also available commercially, none had been tested and demonstrated
                            for DoD use until now. After NDCEE testing, in late 2010, DLA Aviation requested National
                            Stock	Numbers	(NSNs)	for	these	biobased	products.	The	NSNs	were	granted	in	January	2011	
                            and biobased penetrating lubricant NSNs 9150-01-591-4213/4274/4281/4247 are now readily

           ESOHE              Biobased Product Database
                              The Biobased Products Database was developed for the storage, compilation, and evaluation
         Focus Area           of the collected product data. It is a web-based, highly functional database that can generate
                              a variety of reports. It was designed with the flexibility to expand for the evaluation of green
       Biobased Products/     products and processes in future green projects. The database currently contains information
       Green Procurement      for more than 500 products in categories that include: hydraulic fluids, penetrating
                              lubricants, diesel fuel additives, metalworking fluids, sorbents, adhesive and mastic
                                                                      removers, greases, firearm lubricants, glass cleaners,
                                                                      chain and cable lubricants, gear lubricants, corrosion
                                                                      preventatives, industrial and multipurpose cleaners,
                                                                      and parts wash solutions.
                                                                    The	NDCEE	utilizes	the	database	to	compare	
                                                                    performance and ESOHE data on the commercially
                                                                    available biobased products to existing government
                                                                    specifications. The database assists in identifying
                                                                    biobased products that meet government specification
                                                                    requirements.	The	database	is	also	utilized	to	identify	
                                                                    gaps in product manufacturer information that, if filled,
                                                                    would potentially allow a determination of the products
                                                                    ability to meet the target requirements. Product
                                                                    performance reports were generated for each product
   Before biobased products are introduced into the supply chain    based on the results of the gap analysis. These reports
   their performance must be validated in field demonstrations.     were shared with each company for its own products.

The	database	is	currently	available	to	the	DLA	Aviation	Hazardous	Minimization	and	Green	
Products	Branch.	The	Hazardous	Minimization	and	Green	Products	Branch	allows	select	

government personnel access to the database. It is planned that the database will be made
available to procurement personnel and government product end users to allow them to
identify biobased products that may meet their specific applications. The database is currently
managed by the NDCEE and is being used in the NDCEE Green Product Identification and
Evaluation Program as well as in the further evaluation of biobased products as the categories
are released by the BioPreferred Program.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 The	 Biobased	 Product	 Evaluation	 database	 increases	 visibility	 of	 commercially	
       available biobased products to DLA and offers reporting capabilities that help
       procurement personnel and product end users make informed conversion decisions.
    •	 Identifying	and	evaluating	biobased	products	facilitates	compliance	with	FSRIA,	
       Federal Aquisition Requirements (FAR), and EO requirements.

Technology Limitations
    •	 Product	evaluations	reflect	only	a	snapshot	in	time	and	require	periodic,	consistent	
       re-assessment to stay current.
    •	 The	database	is	currently	only	available	to	the	DLA	Aviation	Hazardous	Minimization	
       and Green Products Branch.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Updated	the	database	with	additional	biobased	product	categories	including	biobased	
       heat transfer fluids, multipurpose lubricants, and slideway lubricants
    •	 Helped	DLA	obtain	NSNs	for	biobased	penetrating	lubricants
    •	 Revised	database	to	allow	manufacturer	product	data	sheets	and	material	safety	data	
       sheets (MSDSs) to be uploaded and viewed in the database
    •	 Presented	at	the	2011	Environment,	Energy,	and	Sustainability	Symposium	(E2S2)
    •	 Identified,	contacted,	and	collected	information	from	biobased	multipurpose	lubricant	
       and heat transfer fluid manufacturers and commenced evaluation
    •	 Identified	manufacturers	of	biobased	heat	transfer	fluids	and	turbine	drip	oils

Economic Analysis
The product evaluations housed in the database offer basic and implementation cost
information on a range of biobased products. These data will inform end users of any
conversion issues and allow them to make well-informed decisions regarding adoption.
Suggested Implementation Applications
All government procurement offices and agencies will benefit from a complete and easy-to-use
database of biobased products that meet the USDA criteria. This is a critical step in a broad-
reaching ‘Greening of the DoD’ endeavor.
Points of Contact
    •	 Calvin	Lee,	DSCR-VBD,	804-279-2087,	calvin.lee@dla.mil
    •	 George	C.	Handy	II,	NDCEE/CTC,	803-641-0203,	handyg@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Green Product Evaluation and Implementation Program (Task N.0556)
Biobased Product Evaluation and Green Product Demonstration (Task N.0727)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Biodiesel in Tactical Vehicles
                            Requirements for using biobased fuels were included in the Energy Independence and Security
                            Act of 2007. To provide installation commanders with the resources to decide how and when

                            to use biodiesel blends, the NDCEE is demonstrating and validating performance of biodiesel in
                            non-deployed tactical vehicles. Ultimately, these results will help commanders decide how and
                            when to use biodiesel blends by providing data on biodiesel stability, accelerated deterioration
                            in high temperature environments, vehicle operation and fuel properties in low temperatures,
                            water affinity and microbial degradation, and material compatibility.
                            Technology Description
                            Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by the chemical reaction of alcohol and animal or
                            vegetable oils, fats, or greases. It can be used in petrodiesel engines in its pure form or in
                            different blends. Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100; B20 contains 20% biodiesel and 80%
                            petrodiesel and can be used in unmodified diesel engines. The NDCEE demonstration is
                            evaluating B20 biodiesel in non-deployed tactical vehicles and equipment.
                            Biodiesel can be made from a variety of feedstocks including soybean oil, animal fats, algae,
                            and vegetable oils. It ranges in color from gold to brown, has a high boiling point and low vapor
                            pressure, is immiscible with water, and has a tendency to gel at low temperatures. Biodiesel
                            may contain a small but problematic amount of water. Through a refining process called
                            transesterification, the glycerin, a byproduct that can damage engines, is removed.
                            Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                •	   Is	biodegradable	and	non	toxic
                                •	   Reduces	reliance	on	petroleum-based	fuels
                                •	   Meets	standards	of	the	1990	Clean	Air	Act
          ESOHE                 •	   Can	be	mixed	with	petroleum-based	diesel	to	expand	its	implementation	opportunities

        Focus Area              •	   Is	produced	from	renewable	resources

                             Technology Limitations
       Biobased Products/
                                •	   Decreased	storage	life	versus	petroleum	diesel
       Green Procurement
                                •	   Water	affinity	can	result	in	accelerated	microbial	growth
         Fossil Fuel            •	   Higher	cloud	points	when	compared	to	petrodiesel
     Conservation Studies       •	   Material	incompatibility	with	certain	engine	components	
                                •	   Gels	at	low	temperatures

                            NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                                •		 Completed	demonstration,	sampling,	and	analysis	activities	at	six	test	sites	spanning	
                                    all military branches and capturing data on biodiesel performance in different climates:
                                    – Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC), CA
                                    – Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) 29 Palms, CA
                                    – Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) Crane, IN
                                    – Moody Air Force Base (AFB), GA
                                    – Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH)
                                    – U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii (USAGH), Fort Shafter, HI.
                                •	 Performed	data	analysis	activities	to	identify	trends	in	laboratory	and	maintenance	
                                •	 Identified	that	incoming	fuel	quality	at	all	installations	met	specifications	as	defined	by	
                                    ASTM standards

    •	 Determined	that	B20	can	be	used	in	a	variety	of	tactical	vehicles	across	a	range	of	
       environmental and operational conditions
    •	 Recommended	a	more	encompassing	fleet	test	to	fully	validate	findings	and	provide	a	

       recommendation to use B20 in tactical vehicles

Economic Analysis
This demonstration showed no significant change in the cost of fleet tactical vehicle
maintenance and operation when using B20 within specific fuel quality and operational
Suggested Implementation Applications
The results of using biodiesel in tactical vehicles for this investigation indicate that B20 can
be used in a variety of tactical vehicles across a range of environmental and operational
conditions. However, blanket approval for the use of B20 in all tactical vehicles would not be
advised because the potential for problems over and above those typically encountered with
petroleum fuels is higher with the use of biodiesel. Further investigation, to include a more
encompassing fleet test, is required to fully validate the findings of this investigation and
provide a recommendation to use B20 in tactical vehicles. Additional consideration should also
be	given	to	determining	the	impacts	resulting	from	interchanging	between	B20	and	JP-8.
Emphasis on use of biodiesel generated from this activity supported MCBH in approvals
required to dedicate a 12,000 gallon storage tank to supply sustainable B20 to their white fleet.
Points of Contact
    •	 David	M.	Chavez,	Naval	Facilities	Engineering	Service	Center,	805-982-5314,	
    •	 George	C.	Handy	II,	NDCEE/CTC,	803-641-0203,	handyg@ctc.com	

Applicable NDCEE Task
Biodiesel Use in Ground Tactical Vehicles and Equipment (Task N.0555)

 Biodiesel blends are being tested in non-deployed tactical       Test data are collected and stored in a database for ease
 vehicles at diverse locations across the U.S.                    of manipulation and analysis.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Brass Ammunition Testing Alternatives to
                              Mercurous Nitrate

                              Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is an unexpected material failure that generally results from
                              a combination of residual material stresses on brass cases during processing operations.
                              To	minimize	the	material’s	residual	stress,	brass	ammunition	cartridges	undergo	a	thorough	
                              annealing process. However, they are still prone to SCC. Susceptibility to SCC is evaluated on
                              a lot acceptance test (LAT) basis, meaning that a representative sample of each lot produced
                              is evaluated prior to government acceptance. This test uses a mercurous nitrate solution; the
                              sample set of cases is immersed for a predetermined amount of time in solution, removed, and
                              inspected for stress corrosion cracks. If cracks are found, then that lot has failed and will be
                              Technology Description
                              Mercurous nitrate testing (ASTM B154), a form of destructive examination, is currently
                              performed to evaluate the susceptibility of brass ammunition cartridges to SCC. As the
                              name implies, mercurous nitrate testing is performed using a solution containing mercury,
                              a	hazardous	material.	During	testing	personnel	may	be	exposed	to	mercury	and	disposing	
                              of mercury-coated bullets and spent solution is costly. To support the DoD’s reduction in
                              hazardous	material	usage,	the	NDCEE	identified	three	testing	alternatives	to	mercurous	
                              nitrate: modified Mattsson’s solution test, ammonia immersion test, and ammonia vapor
                              test. The alternative test methods are currently used in industry; however, each is known to
                              require more time than current ammunition production demands allow. The NDCEE conducted
                              laboratory tests to evaluate each test alternative. Based upon evaluation results, ammonia
                              vapor testing performed the best and was selected for a more robust demonstration and
                              validation evaluation at Lake City Army Ammunition Plant (LCAAP) in FY12.
                              Ammonia vapor testing (ASTM B858-95) is a similar destructive examination technique
           ESOHE              to mercurous nitrate testing. It, too, can identify a susceptibility to SCC in brass and can

         Focus Area           be vented through a standard fume hood. However, conventional ammonia vapor testing
                              generally requires a dwell time of 12 hours. For this alternative testing technique to meet
                              the requirements at LCAAP, it had to be validated for a short duration test. The initial NDCEE
          Other Initiatives   laboratory evaluation demonstrated that ammonia vapor testing could detect SCC failures in
                              brass cases in less than two hours.
                                                                Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                                                					•	   Ammonia	vapor	testing	does	not	expose	personnel
                                                                          to mercury and eliminates disposal of mercury
                                                                          coated bullets, mercury vapor, and spent solution.
                                                                					•	   Ammonia	vapor	testing	is	expected	to	be	less
                                                                          costly to perform than the current testing
                                                                          technique due to significantly lower processing and
                                                                          disposal requirements.

                                                                Technology Limitations
                                                                The current test specification (ASTM B858-95) for ammonia
                                                                vapor testing requires a very long dwell time. To allow the
                                                                testing technique to meet production demands, this dwell
                                                                time must be significantly reduced. Additional testing is
 Testing brass cases for stress corrosion cracking exposes      required to verify that the results received from the ammonia
 personnel to hazardous mercury; the NDCEE identified and       vapor technique are defensible, when compared to the
 demonstrated alternative testing solutions.                    current technique.
                              NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Identified	alternative	test	methods	to	mercurous	nitrate	testing,	the	test	used	at	
    •	 Performed	testing	to	verify	that	ammonia	vapor	testing	can	detect	relevant	SCC	

       indications in brass cases, in less than two hours; additional testing is planned to
       determine if the test can meet LCAAP’s requirements for a one-hour dwell time

Economic Analysis
The	costs	associated	with	handling	and	disposing	of	hazardous	waste	generated	by	the	
current mercurous nitrate testing technique are significant. If an alternative testing technique
using ammonia vapor can achieve satisfactory results in approximately the same amount
of	time,	LCAAP	should	see	immediate	savings	resulting	from	reduced	hazardous	waste	
costs. Furthermore, mercury use is slated to be severely restricted, if not eliminated, from
all applications in accordance with a U.S.-endorsed United Nations Environmental Program
(UNEP) treaty. The UNEP treaty covers all uses and sources of mercury emissions and is in the
negotiations phase with a 2013 target completion date. If mercury use is eliminated and no
alternative test method is approved for use, LCAAP will be unable to maintain its production
Suggested Implementation Applications
The NDCEE investigation focused primarily on implementing an alternative test method at
LCAAP. Mercurous nitrate testing is not used at other ammunition manufacturing facilities.
Points of Contact
    •	 Mike	Hespos,	ARDEC,	973-724-3567,	michael.hespos@us.army.mil
    •	 Gino	Spinos,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2894,	spinosg@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Mission Critical Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Technology Transfer and Support
Program (Task N.0506)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Cadmium and Hexavalent Chromium
                             Free Electrical Connectors

                             Executive Orders (EOs) 13423 and 13514, as well as recent memos from the Office of the
                             Under Secretary of Defense (OSD) for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L), require
                             that	the	DoD	reduce	the	quantity	of	toxic	and	hazardous	chemicals	and	materials	acquired,	
                             used, or disposed of by the agency. Additionally, the OSD AT&L Hexavalent Chromium Policy
                             Memo, dated April 8, 2009, requires that hexavalent chromium not be used without a waiver.
                             Based on the requirements of these EOs and OSD AT&L memos, the United States (U.S.) Army
                             Tank Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) Life Cycle Management Command
                             (LCMC) has been working to eliminate/reduce the use of cadmium and hexavalent chromium
                             in ground systems. Electrical connector shells currently used in most ground systems are
                             cadmium plated and then sealed with hexavalent chromium. Several alternative coating
                             technologies were evaluated under the NDCEE Contract W74V8H-04-D-0005, Task 0470.
                             However, there are several gaps that still need to be evaluated. The NDCEE is further evaluating
                             alternative coatings for electrical connectors to comply with the requirements of the EO 13423,
                             EO 13514, and the OSD AT&L memos, as well as reduce total life cycle cost of the system.
                             Technology Description
                             Electrical connectors currently used in military ground systems are encased in protective
                             shells that are cadmium-plated and then dipped in a hexavalent chromium solution to provide
                             additional corrosion protection. Because both cadmium and hexavalent chromium are known
                             carcinogens, the DoD is seeking alternative coatings for connector shells.
                               The NDCEE will be evaluating the following coatings systems:
          ESOHE                  •	 Electroplated	aluminum	with	trivalent	chromium	post-treatment	(TCP)	–	a	proprietary	

       Focus Areas                  process in which a pure aluminum coating is electrolytically deposited onto a
                                    substrate that is immersed in a non-aqueous, fully-enclosed solution in an inert
     Alternative Coatings/       •	 Alkaline	zinc-nickel	with	TCP–	electroplating	processes	can	deposit	alloys	of	5-15%	
     Surface Preparation            nickel	(balance	zinc)	from	an	aqueous	solution
          Processes              •	 Composite	nickel	with	no	post-treatment	–	processes	involve	the	deposition	of	nickel	
                                    alloys incorporating particles of other materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, to
                                    impart additional properties

                             These coating systems will be tested on 6061 aluminum panels as well as 6061 aluminum
                             electrical connector shells that conform to MIL-DTL-38999.
                             Technology Benefits
                                 •	 Electroplated	aluminum	is	highly	versatile	as	a	coating.	It	can	be	topcoated	with	
                                     hexavalent	or	trivalent	chromium,	painted,	or	anodized.
                                 •		 Electroplated	aluminum	does	not	appear	to	impart	hydrogen	embrittlement,	a	concern	
                                     with cadmium plating.
                                 •	 Zinc-nickel	electroplating	processes	are	mature	and	commercially	available.
                                 •		 A	topcoat	is	not	required	for	composite	nickel	coatings.
                                 •		 Alternative	coating	processes	do	not	involve	arsenic	as	does	cadmium/hexavalent	

Technology Limitations
   •		 Solvents	are	used	during	the	electroplated	aluminum	process.	Although	the	process	
       is fully enclosed, it could potentially expose workers to minimal amounts of volatile

       organic	compounds	(VOCs)	and	hazardous	air	pollutants	(HAPs)	in	case	of	a	leak	or	
   •		 The	electroplated	aluminum	process	requires	the	use	of	highly	specialized	equipment,	
       which could result in high initial start-up costs if the technology could be licensed.
   •		 Recent	NDCEE	work	has	highlighted	the	fact	that	the	electroplated	aluminum	coating	
       must be combined with a dry film lubricant or other surface modifier to meet the
       torque-tension requirements established for cadmium in fastener applications.
   •	 Embrittlement	may	occur	with	some	zinc-nickel	coatings,	and	this	coating	has	been	
       reported to induce a significant fatigue debit in some studies.
   •		 Composite	nickel	coatings	do	not	corrode	sacrificially	and	may	cause	galvanic	
       corrosion issues when mated with legacy systems (such as cadmium) that are

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
   •		 Drafted	Test	Plan	and	Quality	Assurance	Plan;	tests	include:	salt	spray	corrosion,	
       cyclic corrosion, dynamic corrosion and outdoor corrosion. During outdoor corrosion
       testing, the connectors will be left in an outdoor, corrosive, coastal environment for
       12 months. Each month, the connectors will be unmated for 24 hours, and then re-
       connected. This test will simulate a real working environment for these connectors.
   •	 Completed	the	test	matrix	to	include	mixed	mode	connector	testing	for	outdoor	
       corrosion testing and cyclic corrosion.

             Alternatives coatings to those used on electrical connectors in ground
             systems, like the Stryker family of vehicles, are being evaluated.

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        Under	previous	efforts,	two	case	studies	were	conducted	as	part	of	a	CBA.	One	analyzed	
                        the cost impact of outsourcing the coating process using an alternative coating such as

                        electroplated	aluminum	in	place	of	cadmium	electroplating.	The	other	analyzed	the	costs	of	
                        implementing a full medical surveillance program, if such a program were to be required for
                        cadmium electroplating. Based on data from Naval Aviation Depot (NADEP) Cherry Point,
                        elimination of cadmium electroplating would save the facility more than $20,000 per employee
                        per year. No capital costs would be involved with outsourcing; costs per square inch for plating
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Electrodeposited aluminum and composite nickel coating systems (Durmalon) are currently
                        qualified	for	electrical	connector	shells	under	MIL-DTL-38999L,	MIL-AlumiPlate	for	some	Joint	
                        Strike Fighter application and Durmalon for all applications under the specification. MIL-
                        DTL-38999 connectors, Class W, Series III are the most commonly used connector type on
                        U.S. Army ground systems.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 James	Heading,	TACOM	LCMC,	586-282-5733,	james.e.heading.civ@mail.mil
                            •		 Jane	Pitchford,	NDCEE/CTC,	904-486-4012,	pitchfoj@ctc.com

                        Applicable Task
                        Cadmium and Hexavalent Chromium Free Electrical Connectors (Task N.0745)

Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load
Pilot Approach

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is leading a major initiative to establish and
oversee achievement of a strict “pollution diet” to restore the Chesapeake Bay and its network
of local rivers, streams, and creeks. EPA is working with its state partners to set restrictions
on nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment pollution through a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL),
a regulatory tool of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA). As part of TMDL implementation, EPA
is currently working with its partner states-- Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New
York, and West Virginia-- and the District of Columbia (DC) to develop individual Watershed
Implementation Plans (WIPs) and an overall TMDL implementation framework. The TMDL has
been divided by major basins among the states and DC, which will further divide the pollution
loadings among local point and nonpoint sources to improve their ability to target and achieve
reductions. The NDCEE is supporting the Army as it addresses TMDL requirements.
Technology Description
A TMDL is the calculation of the maximum amount of pollution a body of water can receive
on a daily basis and still meet state water quality standards designed to ensure waterways
are safe, swimmable, and fishable. The CWA requires that a TMDL be written for all segments
of a waterway that fail to meet water quality standards. Most of the Chesapeake Bay and its
tidal waters do not meet these standards and are listed as impaired.
In response to the EPA’s Chesapeake Bay TMDL initiative, Army facilities need to establish
their nutrient and sediment loads, evaluate existing storm water best management practices
(BMPs) to calculate load reductions, and work with local, state, and Federal regulators to
determine their individual allocations. These allocations will be used to set maximum pollutant
loads associated with existing and future permits for facility point sources, such as domestic        ESOHE
or industrial wastewater treatment plants, and nonpoint sources, such as urban storm water
runoff. EPA expects all Federal facilities in the watershed to account for existing storm water
                                                                                                    Focus Area
BMPs and to commit to installing new BMPs to meet target allocations.
                                                                                                   Water Management,
The NDCEE has developed a transferable process and guidance document that uses                        Conservation,
Geographic Information System (GIS) to compile land use data in coordination with current            Treatment, and
EPA	TMDL	modeling	to	establish	facility	loads,	evaluate	existing	BMPs,	and	prioritize	                  Recycling
compliance opportunities for Army point and nonpoint sources. A data collection tool was
developed	and	utilized	for	TMDL	gap	analysis,	TMDL	
baseline assessments, and BMP evaluations. In
addition, modeling methodologies and spreadsheets for
calculating nutrient and sediment loads and reductions
resulting from BMP implementation have been
developed and implemented for the TMDL baseline
assessments and BMP evaluations. Lastly, a Guidebook
and Training Curriculum were developed for use in
training Army, DoD, and Federal facilities and agencies
on conducting similar TMDL evaluations.
Technology Benefits
    •		 Using	TMDLs	to	reduce	pollution	within	the	
        Chesapeake Bay watershed will improve
        water quality for residents and for sensitive     Storm water detention ponds are common BMPs used for
        ecosystems.                                       management of storm water runoff.

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                           •		 Conducting	TMDL	gap	analysis,	TMDL	baseline	assessment,	and	current	and	future	
                               BMP	evaluation	activities	using	a	checklist	or	questionnaire	standardizes	the	data	
                               collection process and allows the process to be tracked and monitored.

                           •		 Using	a	checklist	ensures	the	appropriate	data	are	requested	and	the	relevant	
                               questions are asked.
                           •		 Data	collection	tools	can	be	used	to	track	available	data	and	documents,	ongoing	
                               storm water assessments and investigations, and identify missing components
                               necessary for TMDL evaluations.
                           •	 Conducting	the	TMDL	baseline	assessments	and	BMP	evaluations	using	consistent	
                               modeling	methodologies	and	assumptions	also	maintains	a	standardized	process	
                               and helps to ensure that the modeling methodologies are consistent with the EPA
                               modeling processes.
                           •	 The	nutrient	and	sediment	acreage	and	loading	data	provided	to	the	Army	installations	
                               can be altered to reflect changes in land use at the installations over time.

                        Technology Limitations
                           •		 Nutrient	and	sediment	monitoring	is	not	conducted	by	Army	facilities	for	all	storm	
                               water discharge locations, resulting in incomplete data.
                           •		 All	sub-watershed	delineations	and	storm	water	discharge	locations	have	not	been	
                               identified by Army facilities, which require additional effort in order to evaluate storm
                               water flows at the facilities.
                           •		 Gathering	data	pertaining	to	the	TMDL	requires	coordination	with	a	variety	of	Army	
                               facility personnel, which can take significant time.
                           •		 If	facility	mapping	data	are	maintained	in	a	format	that	is	not	compatible	with	the	GIS	
                               format, they must be converted to a GIS format for the TMDL evaluation because GIS
                               data are needed to conduct spatial land use evaluations.
                           •		 Complete	BMP	inventories	of	storm	water	pollution	controls	are	not	available	from	
                               Army facilities, which are required in order to issue eligible reductions in nutrient and
                               sediment loads.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                           •		 Developed	a	step-wise	procedure	to	procure	facility	and	external	data	to	efficiently	
                               realize	objectives	and	transfer	the	process	to	other	installations
                           •		 Developed	gap	analysis,	baseline	assessment,	and	BMP	evaluation	data	collection	
                               tools to maintain consistency in the data collection process and increase efficiency
                               during site visits to Army installations
                           •		 In	October-November	2010,	completed	a	TMDL	gap	analysis	for	eight	Army	facilities:	
                               Fort Meade, MD; Letterkenny Army Depot, PA; Fort Belvoir, VA; Fort Indiantown
                               Gap Army National Guard, PA; Fort A.P. Hill, VA; Fort Detrick, MD; Scranton Army
                               Ammunition Plant, PA; and Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; gap analysis was
                               conducted to identify gaps in existing facility data and to determine what additional
                               data would be needed to prepare a TMDL baseline assessment and BMP evaluation
                           •		 Submitted	site-specific	TMDL	gap	analysis	reports	to	each	of	the	eight	Army	facilities	
                               in November 2010; reports indicate that, for the most part, Army facilities surveyed
                               have not yet developed all the tools and documents necessary to establish baseline
                           •		 Used	results	of	the	gap	analysis	to	support	the	Army	in	selecting	five	installations	
                               to complete a TMDL baseline assessment and develop a WIP model and TMDL
                               monitoring strategy (BMP evaluations)

    •		 Developed	TMDL	Baseline	Assessment	Reports	to	document	current	baseline	load	
        conditions by water body, provide GIS maps/layers by drainage area, include baselines
        of Army facility land-cover/use categories and activities, and provide a list of activities

        that may be affected by a state’s TMDL implementation plan for the five selected
    •	 Developed	WIP	Model	and	TMDL	Monitoring	Strategy	documents,	containing	
        existing and future BMP evaluations, for the same five Army facilities in order to
        assess existing BMPs for calculation of associated load reductions and to identify
        opportunities for installation of additional BMPs for future load reductions
    •		 Used	GIS	and	EPA’s	Phase	5.3	model	to	develop	modeling	processes,	tools,	and	
        spreadsheets consistent with the EPA modeling methods
    •		 Performed	parallel	model	runs	to	allow	comparison	between	loads	calculated	using	
        land use data from EPA’s Phase 3.5 model for Federal facilities versus more detailed
        and more accurate land use GIS data from the installations
    •		 Used	parallel	model	runs	in	both	TMDL	baseline	assessments	and	existing	BMP	
        evaluations, using EPA-approved BMPs and reduction efficiencies
    •		 Evaluated	potential	future	BMPs	planned	by	the	facility,	BMPs	needed	to	address	
        erosion issues, and BMP retrofit opportunities for addressing land uses with high
        loading rates, and provided cost estimates
    •		 Prioritized	future	BMPs	based	on	total	project	cost,	cost	effectiveness,	and	anticipated	
        load reductions
    •		 Developed	the	Chesapeake	Bay	TMDL	Compliance	Guidebook	and	Training	Curriculum	
        to document sequential activities recommended for implementation by Army facilities
        in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
    •		 Conducted	four	training	sessions	in	August	and	September	throughout	the	
        Chesapeake Bay Watershed to provide Army facilities with training opportunities for
        planning and preparing for TMDL compliance

Economic Analysis
As	part	of	the	project,	the	NDCEE	prioritized	future	BMPs	based	on	total	project	cost,	cost	
effectiveness, and anticipated load reductions. By accurately establishing its discharges to the
watershed, the Army may be able to reduce its cost of compliance with TMDLs.
Technology Implementation Opportunities
The load results for the TMDL baseline assessments and existing BMP evaluations from the
two	model	runs	and	the	prioritization	provided	in	the	future	BMP	evaluations	will	be	invaluable	
tools to Army installations. These results will aid installations in working with regulatory
agencies to determine target load allocations and track existing and future BMPs, both of
which are key aspects of compliance with the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. The methodology
developed for the Army facilities can be applied to other DoD facilities in the Chesapeake Bay
watershed and to DoD facilities in other watersheds where TMDLs are being implemented.
Points of Contact
    •	 Amy	Alton,	OASA	(IE&E),	410-436-7098,	amy.alton@us.army.mil
    •	 Corinna	Eddy,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5603,	eddyc@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Army Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load Pilots (Task N.0715)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Corrosion Prevention and Control
                            Process Improvements

                            Corrosion has a significant impact on readiness, reliability, maintenance, and cost of
                            ownership of weapon systems and support equipment. The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), like
                            other services within the DoD, must continually maintain equipment, vehicles, and facilities
                            against	the	effects	of	corrosion.	The	USMC	recognizes	the	pervasive	nature	of	corrosion	and	
                            its impacts on mission readiness and safety. Corrosion reduces the availability of vehicles
                            and equipment, contributes to deteriorating performance, and increases the total cost of
                            ownership of warfighting systems and infrastructure. The USMC Corrosion Prevention and
                            Control (CPAC) Program’s mission is to extend the useful life of all USMC tactical ground and
                            ground support equipment and to reduce maintenance requirements and associated costs by
                            identifying and implementing corrosion prevention and control processes, products, materials,
                            and	technologies	.	The	NDCEE	is	evaluating,	designing,	and	optimizing	corrosion	control	
                            systems and facilities to incorporate best practices across the Marine Corps.
                            Technology Description
                            The	NDCEE	evaluated,	designed,	and	optimized	corrosion	control	systems	and	facilities	for	
                            transition	and	to	incorporate	effective	strategies	and	technologies	across	the	USMC.	Utilizing	
                            an extensive background in coatings, painting operations, and corrosion resistance, the
                            NDCEE has identified best practices at the various corrosion repair facilities (CRFs) – Kaneohe
                            Bay, Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune– to recommend and implement CRF improvements from
                            both an environmental and production standpoint at other Marine Corps Bases. In certain
                            situations these upgrades save both time and money resulting from a reduction in disposal.
                            The NDCEE has visited and documented CRF operations stateside at Camp Lejeune, NC
                            and Camp Pendleton, CA and overseas at Camp Kinser, Okinawa. The NDCEE used lessons
                              learned and identified best practices at the various CRFs to recommend and implement CRF
          ESOHE               improvements at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH).

        Focus Area           These improvements included:
                                •	 New	abrasive	blast	booth	and	reclaim	system
     Corrosion Prevention          – Increases booth height
         and Control               – Improves lighting
                                   – Designed for aluminum oxide use
                                                   – Incorporates automated media recovery floor
                                                   – Improves spent media separation and dust collection
                                               •	 Paint	Booth	Modifications
                                                   – Extends existing paint booth by 10 feet
                                                   – Allows drive-through operation
                                                   – Increases air handling system and fire protection to match
                                                        booth volume
                                               •	 Roll-Up	Door	Relocation
                                                   – Aligns roll-up door and rear paint booth doors
                                                   – Provides new man-door
                                                   – Relocates air intake louvers above new man-door
                                                   – Maintains abrasive blast booth maintenance access
                                                   – Connects building to paved area with concrete pad
                                            •	     Tension	Fabric	Structure	for	Curing	
                                                   –    Accelerates equipment removal from paint booth, increasing
                                                        paint booth throughput
                                                   –        Provides environmental protection while coatings cure
                                            	      –	       Utilizes	existing	paved	area	behind	CRF
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Limiting	the	effects	of	corrosion	on	the	equipment	inventory	contributes	to	Force	
       Readiness and reduces costs associated with repairs and new purchases.
    •	 Upgrades	to	the	CRF	at	MCBH	increased	the	efficiency	and	throughput	of	the	facility.

Technology Limitations
    •		 Careful	study	needs	to	determine	the	best	CRF	strategies,	as	a	miscalculation	could	
        be costly.
    •		 Life	cycle	cost	must	be	considered	to	ensure	that	corrosion	prevention	and	control	
        costs do not exceed replacement cost over an item’s useful service life.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Relocated	the	rear	CRF	roll-up	door	to	provide	drive	through	capability	of	the	paint	
    •	 Procured	and	delivered	the	tension	fabric	structure	to	provide	weather	protection	for	
       assets treated at the CRF during cure
    •	 Secured	MCBH	and	Marine	Forces	Pacific	approvals	to	install	the	tension	fabric	
    •	 Recommended	modifications	to	TM	3080-50,	“Corrosion	Control	Procedures,	Depot	
       Maintenance Activities for Marine Corps Equipment” to incorporate current CPAC
       strategies and technologies

Economic Analysis
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has reported that the estimated annual cost
of corrosion to the DoD is between $10-20 billion. One third of these costs could have been
avoided by application of commercially available corrosion prevention and control techniques.
Optimizing	the	facility’s	approaches	used	for	corrosion	control	will	maximize	the	cost	savings	
available to the DoD.
Suggested Implementation Applications
Although the analysis and upgrades of corrosion control practices occurred at USMC facilities,
results are directly transferrable to any facility whose mission involves corrosion prevention
and control.
Points of Contact
    •		 Matthew	Koch,	MARCORSYSCOM,	703-432-6165,	matthew.e.koch@usmc.mil
    •		 Kevin	Merichko,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2503,	merichko@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Marine Corps Systems Command Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Process
Improvements (Task N.0614)
Engineering Support to USMC CPAC Program FY 10-11 (Task N.0723)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Defense Safety Enterprise System (DSES)
                              The NDCEE supports the DSOC in developing proofs-of-concept and implementing tools that
                              support the reduction of preventable mishaps across the DoD. In 2005, the NDCEE began

                              working closely with the Service Safety Centers and government champions to develop the
                              DSES, which has evolved from a “great idea” to a fully functional and valuable DoD tool. Since
                              2005, the DSOC Enterprise Information and Data Task Force have sponsored the DSES initiative
                              for on-going maintenance and enhancement each year.
                              Technology Description
                              The DSES is championed by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel &
                              Readiness) and is an enterprise-wide, web-based, decision-support tool. It provides timely
                              and actionable information to commanders on mishap, personnel, financial, casualty, medical,
                              medical	transport,	workers	compensation,	installation,	organization	structure,	and	operational	
                              data across the DoD, a capability that did not previously exist. By using DSES, leaders can
                              develop effective risk management strategies and direct actions that reduce mishaps and
                              improve both safety and force readiness.
                              The NDCEE, working with government stakeholders, developed the minimum data
                              requirements (MDR) for safety in 2008. The MDRs for safety are data taken from service safety
                              reporting systems and other government systems of record, ensuring a commonality among
                              the services’ mishap reporting information and the DSES. This also captures Occupational
                              Safety and Health Administration- (OSHA-) required data. As a result, the DoD can access and
                              analyze	injury	and	mishap-related	details.	The	services	have	indicated	that	they	will	continue	
                              to strengthen and expand the MDRs for safety as required to bring additional detail to the data
                              being	captured	and	analyzed.	

          ESOHE                Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                  •	 Provides	a	single	repository,	or	data	warehouse,	for	service	safety-related	data	as	well	
        Focus Area                   as for occupational injury and personnel data for active-duty, reservist, and federal
                                     civilian personnel
        ESOH Information          •	 Houses	safety	mishap	data	from	2001	from	the	Army,	Navy,	and	USAF	and	from	
          Management                 2004 from the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC); additionally, DSES houses data from
          Technologies               2001 regarding personnel and pay or active-duty, reservist, and civilian personnel;
                                     continuation of pay for civilian personnel (which is related to civilian lost work days);
        Safety Initiatives/          and occupational injury for the services
              DSOC                •	 Provides	metadata	about	data	origins	and	descriptive	information	about	data	available	
                                     for use in the system
                                  •	 Provides	authorized	DoD	personnel	with	near	real-time	data	access	and	metric	
                                     visibility across all levels in the chain of command
                                  •	 Provides	appropriate	parties	with	required	mishap	and	medical	case	reports,	
                                     command and unit metrics, and a data drill-down capability on demand

                              Technology Limitations
                                  •	 The	DSES	is	a	DoD-specific	application,	subject	to	Health	Insurance	Portability	
                                     Accountability Act (HIPAA), Privacy Act, which may limit access to the data.
                                  •	 DSES	analysis	is	driven	by	the	data	feeds	that	are	provided	from	other	data	systems.

                              NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                                  •	 The	DSES	data	warehouse	was	expanded	to	include	additional	data	and	attributes,	
                                     which	are	now	optimized,	merged	and	available	for	queries	and	reports.
                                  •	 The	Mishap	Entry	Tool	and	Unit	Hierarchy	Editor	are	available	for	use	by	DSES	users.	

    •	 The	DSES	team	continued	ongoing	system	support	and	data	analysis	to	ensure	the	
       system remains operational and all necessary mishap data and reports are available to
       senior DoD leadership.

Economic Analysis
Preventable injuries and illnesses cost the DoD an estimated $10–$21 billion annually,
according to the National Safety Council. The DSES empowers commanders to achieve cost
savings by quickly aggregating safety data across DoD installations world-wide, trending
mishaps, addressing the causal factors, and developing tactical mitigation strategies for
problem areas.
Suggested Implementation Applications
The DSES is accessible by unit commanders from anywhere in the world.
Points of Contact
    •	 Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
    •	 Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
    •	 Greg	Jablunovsky,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6497,	jablunog@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
Mission Readiness across the Department of Defense (Tasks N.0482/N.0517/N.0568/

Using DSES, leaders can develop effective risk management strategies to reduce mishaps.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Because the generation and disposal of solid waste consumes valuable time and resources
                            that can negatively affect personnel safety and operational readiness, the DoD has

                            aggressively explored and implemented many solid waste solutions. These actions have
                            successfully reduced the amount of solid waste that is being generated and sent to landfills
                            or incinerated. However, presently no installation has a 100% diversion rate and no deployed
                            forces	have	a	zero	solid	waste	footprint.	Consequently,	the	U.S.	Army	and	other	services	are	
                            continuing to seek alternative methods for addressing solid waste generation and disposal.
                            In 2011, the NDCEE evaluated densification as a solid waste reduction technology. The
                            technology evaluation focused on two applications: (1) confidential waste consisting of
                            classified and sensitive waste such as those found at U.S. Army facilities, and (2) typical
                            municipal solid waste (MSW) found at combat outposts (COPs) which includes canteen waste,
                            plastics, paper, and wooden pallets.
                            Technology Description
                            Densifiers are standard pieces of equipment in the recycling and waste management
                            industries, but they have not been extensively explored for military applications. They increase
                            the mass per unit of volume of the waste stream by shredding or grinding the waste to reduce
                            the	particle	size	and	then	compressing	the	waste	into	pellets	or	briquettes.	Under	pressure,	
                            natural adhesives in the waste are released allowing the particles to stick together. The
                            resulting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) can be used in many types of energy systems including
                            coal/biomass boilers and some waste-to-energy (WTE) systems based on gasification or
                            Pelletizing	is	a	molding	process	by	which	grounded	material	is	forced	through	a	cylindrical	die	
                              by	rollers.	Two	types	of	pelletizing	machines	are	available.	The	first	type	is	known	as	a	flat	
          ESOHE               die. This machine’s die is stationary while the rollers push the material through. The second

        Focus Area            type is known as a ring die, which is opposite of a flat die machine. A ring die machine
                              allows the rollers to stay stationary while the die spins, pushing the material through the
                              rollers. The final product is a cylinder with a diameter between 6 and 8 millimeters and no
       Recycle/Recover/       longer than 38 millimeters.
       Reuse of Materials
                              Briquetting is a molding process that allows dried material to be compressed into a
                              flammable block, which can be used as a source of energy or heat. A briquette machine
                            works by applying high temperature to the feedstock while it is undergoing pressure. These
                            high temperatures make the raw material liberate various adhesives that allow the briquette
                            to form. Briquettes differ from pellets because a briquette has a diameter that is at least 25
                            millimeters (approximately 1 inch or more). Like pellets, briquettes are extremely compacted,
                            making it is easier to transport and store than loose raw material. A significant advantage of a
                            briquette is its higher fixed carbon and calorific value.
                            Densification strength depends on two factors: (1) waste composition, and (2) system
                            capability.	In	addition,	the	smaller	the	hammer	size,	the	higher	the	pressure	rating.	Generally	
                            MSW briquettes are less dense than a paper-only briquette.
                            Technology Benefits
                                •	   Makes	waste	easier	to	handle
                                •	   Optimizes	transport	logistics
                                •	   Reduces	landfill	costs	
                                •	   Creates	an	RDF	that	is	suitable	for	some	biomass/coal	boilers	and	WTE	systems	
                                •	   Are	commercially	available	in	a	range	of	configurations	and	sizes
                                •	   Are	relatively	simple	and	easy	to	operate	and	maintain;	has	overall	low	maintenance	
                                     requirements compared to some types of mechanical technologies

   •	 Generally	have	long	life	expectancies;	one	vendor	reports	it	has	densification	systems	
      operating for over 40 years

Technology Limitations

   •	 Briquette	length,	diameter,	and	density	varies	depending	on	product	model.	A	
      briquette’s length and diameter is a determining factor for many gasifiers as briquettes
      that are too large cannot be effectively processed.
   •	 Waste	cannot	be	frozen	upon	entering	the	densification	system.
   •	 Excess	dust	and	dirt	are	abrasive	substances,	thereby	lowering	component	life.
   •	 Optimal	moisture	rate	is	10-15%	for	incoming	waste.	Waste	streams	with	large	
      quantities of wet waste (e.g., kitchen waste) will need to be mixed with fiber (paper/
   •	 Glass	and	metals	cannot	be	processed.	Usually	a	magnetic	separator	is	used	to	
      remove ferrous metal pieces.
   •	 Some	densification	systems	cannot	handle	trash	bags	as	the	thin	plastic	wraps	
      around the teeth of the shredder.
   •	 Although	densifiers	can	process	all	plastics,	high-density	polyethylene	(#2)	plastic	
      performs	the	best	while	polyethylene	terephthalate	(PET)	(#1)	plastic,	commonly	
      used in water bottles, can often be challenging for the technology to process. If the
      briquette	will	be	used	in	a	gasifier,	polystyrene	(#6)	plastic	may	need	to	be	removed	
      depending on the gasifier gas cleaning process. Many gasifiers use a less robust
      cleaning process to reduce capital and operating costs. During the gasification stage,
      polystyrene	produces	benzene,	a	regulated	substance.	Densifiers	are	typically	paired	
      with a shredder or grinder. These systems are loud, and an operator should wear
      hearing protection.

FY11 Accomplishments
   •	 Identified	15	vendors	and	3	distributors	with	a	densification	technology	potentially	
      applicable to military requirements

   The NDCEE tested four commercially available densification systems using simulated military
   waste. While product length and diameter varied, all of the systems met Army technical
   requirements for processing solid waste.

                                                                                           Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            •	 Produced	a	test	plan	that	was	designed	to	assess	technologies	based	on	Army	
                               technical	acceptance	criteria	and	customized	to	satisfy	a	fixed	installation	as	well	as	
                               COP requirements
                            •	 Demonstrated	four	densification	technologies	and	two	gasification	systems,	which	
                               used densification products

                            •	 Viewed	a	third	gasification	system,	but	did	not	see	it	in	operation	
                            •	 Conducted	a	CBA	that	evaluated	two	alternate	scenarios	using	the	four	briquetter	
                            •	 Produced	a	Demonstration	and	Validation	Report	that	documented	demonstration	
                               activities, findings, and conclusions/recommendations
                            •	 Produced	a	Final	Report	that	documented	all	of	the	activities	that	were	conducted	
                               under the task

                        Economic Analysis
                        The NDCEE conducted a CBA evaluating two alternate scenarios using the four briquetter
                        technologies. The four systems vary in cost from $40,000 to $400,000. Baseline costs were
                        obtained or derived mostly from data provided by Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; alternative
                        data were obtained or derived mostly from the equipment vendors. Alternate Scenario 1 is the
                        transportation of the generated briquettes to the county WTE facility to be used as feedstock.
                        Alternate Scenario 2 is to burn the briquettes in a hypothetical on-site biomass boiler at APG.
                        Data for a COP scenario were not available; and therefore, no CBA was produced for that
                        From a cost perspective, three of the four densifiers were shown to have a positive payback
                        period ranging from 0.5 – 5.5 years. However, recovery costs from use of the energy value of
                        the briquettes were not computed and, depending on the scenario, could impact the financial
                        finding.	Coupled	with	the	non-quantifiable	benefits	of	reducing	landfill	waste	and	realizing	the	
                        energy value of the briquette waste to reduce fossil fuel usage, implementing any of the less
                        expensive briquetting technologies could prove to be a responsible and economically sound
                        Selected Implementation Applications
                        For installations with confidential waste, a densification may be a cost-effective treatment
                        option. However, the Defense Security Service (DSS) will need to rule whether densified
                        confidential waste meets its destruction requirements.
                        For installations using coal, a densification technology may be beneficial as it would process
                        MSW while providing a fossil fuel alternative. RDF with a 6,000-8,000 British thermal unit
                        (BTU) per pound fuel value displaces bituminous coal at a ratio of 1.5-2 tons of RDF for every
                        ton of coal.
                        Many WTE systems consist of a shredder, densification system, and gasifier. The NDCEE
                        determined	that,	for	gasifiers,	on	average,	the	optimal	size	of	the	briquettes/pellets	is	
                        approximately 1 inch by 1 inch. While some gasifiers prefer “fluff,” shredded but not
                        compacted material, others cannot as the material will not burn properly. Unfortunately, most
                        densifiers produce briquettes that are currently too large for gasifiers. However, this situation
                        should not be difficult to remedy if the market for supplying to gasifiers grew.
                        Points of Contact:
                            •	 James	K.	Butts,	U.S.	Army	Environmental	Command,	210-466-1572,	
                            •	 Donna	Provance,	NDCEE/CTC,	919-303-4323,	provance@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Fielding of Mobile Solid Waste Reduction Systems/Waste-To-Energy Systems
                        (Tasks N.0458/N.0462-A2)

Deployable Waste-to-Energy System
Deployed forces and contingency operations generate tons of packaging and other waste that
must be buried, burned, or transported to disposal sites at great expense, a costly logistic

burden, requiring personnel, vehicles, and fuel that could otherwise be used for the warfighting
mission. Waste management facilities may also use large amounts of electricity provided by
diesel-engine fueled generators. At the same time this waste is a potential source of chemical
energy sufficient to power a field kitchen and/or other force sustainment systems.
In 2011, the NDCEE further advanced the Onsite Field-feeding Waste-to-Energy Converter-
Phase III (OFWEC III), a deployable WTE unit developed by Community Power Corporation
(CPC) and owned by the Army. The unit was field tested at Aberdeen Test Center, MD, in
January	2011,	and	then	at	Fort	Irwin,	CA,	in	March	2011	by	the	U.S.	Army	Natick	Solider	
Systems Center. While it successfully processed waste in 2011, the Army recommended
some upgrades. The NDCEE worked with CPC to design, fabricate, and install those upgrades
and demonstrate the improved WTE system.
Technology Description
The WTE conversion process can be broken down into three general challenges: feedstock
conditioning, conversion into a fuel product, and power generation. Feedstock conditioning
includes actions taken to improve the raw waste stream, including manual operations such
as sorting and segregation and mechanical processes such as shredding and densification.
Conversion includes the processes by which the prepared feedstock is transformed into a
gaseous or liquid fuel product. Power generation includes the means by which the fuel product
is converted into electricity, minimally to self-power the process, but ideally to generate a
surplus	that	can	be	used	to	power	organizational	equipment.	                                            ESOHE
The process begins with the trash feedstock entering a fuel processing system. The
processing system shreds and densifies the trash feedstock using power generated from
                                                                                                      Focus Area
the process. The densified feedstock, in the form of cylindrical “briquettes,” is augured into      Alternative Power and
an airlock feed gate assembly and then into the sealed gasifier. As the briquettes progress            Energy Solutions
through the patented gasifier, they undergo a pyrolysis reaction that reduces the briquettes
                                                                                                    Waste Management,
to charcoal by heat. The gas then is cooled during passage through an air-cooled heat
exchanger. Next, the gas is filtered in a baghouse filter housing to remove the entrained char/
                                                                                                      Treatment, and
The OFWEC operates from two 20’ ISO containers: a fuel processing system and CPC’s
BioMax® downdraft gasification system. The fuel processing
system consists of a shredder and a briquette system. The
briquettes are sent to a patented gasifier to be converted
into synthesis gas (syngas) and some residue char/ash. The
producer gas is very different chemically from natural gas,
but both can be burned to provide heat and/or power. The
OFWEC gas is sent to a standard Army-issued 60-kilowatt
Tactical	Quiet	Generator	(TQG)	adapted	for	bi-fuel	operation.
The OFWEC III gasifier consumes about 50 pounds (lbs) of
dry biomass per hour at full power and produces about 65
normal cubic meters per hour or approximately 40 standard
cubic feet per minute of producer gas. The yield of char/ash
is dependent upon the ash content of the feedstock, but is
usually less than 2% of the dry biomass fed or less than 1 lb/
hr. Trash typically has higher ash contents and higher char
                                                                 During the July 2011 demonstration, OFWEC III was able to
yield.                                                           reduce the weight of incoming material by 90%.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	   Reduces	nonhazardous	solid	waste	by	90%	or	more	based	on	weight
                            •	   Is	net	energy	positive;	designed	to	work	with	a	TQG

                            •	   Housed	and	operated	from	two	20’	shipping	containers
                            •	   Capable	of	handling	multiple	waste	streams	without	the	need	for	sorting
                            •	   Meets	or	exceeds	applicable	U.S.	Federal	emissions	guidelines
                            •	   Compatible	with	existing	Army	infrastructure	and	systems
                            •	   Produces	at	least	one	usable	byproduct	(energy)
                            •	   Has	operations	and	maintenance	requirements	that	require	little	specialized	training

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 Still	in	the	development	stages;	future	versions	may	be	developed	before	the	
                               OFWEC becomes commercially available
                            •	 Designed	for	dry	wastes	defined	at	no	more	than	20%	moisture	
                            •	 Requires	disposal	of	char/ash
                            •	 Requires	use	of	a	forklift	rated	18,000	lbs	to	move	shipping	containers

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Worked	with	CPC	to	design,	fabricate,	and	install	the	following	upgrades:	
                               – Improved vibrator mounts
                               – Improved gasifier material flow
                               – Ladder hoist
                               – Conveyor improvements
                               –		 Benzene	mitigation	and	testing
                               – Shear gates
                               – Surge hopper and auger
                               –		 Quick	disconnect	electrical	connections
                            •	 Conducted	two	OFWEC	demonstrations	in	summer	2011	to	evaluate	the	upgrades.	
                               These demonstrations also validated that the OFWEC III satisfies most of the other
                               WTE features that are desirable for Army operations
                            •	 Developed	an	animation	of	the	OFWEC	to	support	training	courses
                            •	 Produced	a	Strawman	Material	Fielding	Plan	that	will	assist	the	Army	with	deploying	
                               the OFWEC
                            •	 Produced	a	Demonstration	and	Validation	Test	Report	that	documented	test	activities	
                               and findings as well as results from CBAs

                        A ladder hoist transports waste to the top of the OFWEC (left photo). The waste falls into a shredder
                        (center photo); shredded waste is conveyed to a densification system and compressed into briquettes
                        (right photo).

Economic Analysis
Using an unburdened fuel cost of $3.95 per gallon, the payback period is estimated to be 99
years. Using a burdened fuel cost of $24 per gallon, the payback period falls to three years.

The analysis did not include intangible benefits associated with reducing a camp’s logistical
fuel tail. The conclusion that can be drawn is that by trying to calculate the actual project costs
with a burdened cost of fuel, even a small fuel savings can result in large variations in cost
over the life of a project.
Technology Transition Opportunities
WTE systems, such as the OFWEC III, could simultaneously solve two large logistical burdens
for deployed services: disposing of waste in an efficient and environmentally sound manner
while	maintaining	a	fuel	supply	sufficient	to	meet	operational	requirements.	During	the	July	
2011 demonstration, OFWEC III was able to reduce the weight of incoming material by 90%
while	displacing	up	to	34%	of	diesel	usage	by	the	TQG	within	the	baseline	process.	
Points of Contact
    •	 James	K.	Butts,	U.S.	Army	Environmental	Command,	210-466-1572,	
    •	 Donna	Provance,	NDCEE/CTC,	919-303-4323,	provance@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Fielding of Mobile Solid Waste Reduction Systems/Waste-To-Energy Systems
(Tasks N.0458/N.0462-A2)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Diesel Fuel Reclamation
                             The	Manchester	Fuel	Depot	(MFD)	reclaims	residual	North	Atlantic	Treaty	Organization	
                             (NATO) designated F-76 fuel from Navy vessels that are being prepared for overhaul or

                             decommissioning. Because of contamination from water, and/or lower grade petroleum
                             constituents (e.g., lubricating oils, marine gas oil, lower grade diesel fuels, and surfactants),
                             this fuel cannot immediately be placed back into defense fuel stocks. The contaminated fuel
                             is stored at MFD with a portion of it being sold as Fuel Oil Reclaimed (FOR), which is a low-
                             grade	fuel	oil	normally	used	as	boiler	fuel.	As	of	January	2011,	the	FOR	price	at	auction	was	
                             $1.05 per gallon, and the price for new F-76 fuel was $3.02 per gallon. The NDCEE identified
                             and demonstrated existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) or market-ready fuel reclamation
                             technologies on a pilot scale to recover this off-specification fuel.
                             Technology Description
                             Reclamation technologies use filtration, often in conjunction with coalescers, to clean
                             contaminated fuel for reuse. Three reclamation technologies were demonstrated at MFD
                             according to the protocol established in the Demonstration Plan. Equipment for each
                             technology was temporarily installed by the vendor and processed a known and tested
                             quantity	and	quality	of	contaminated	F-76	fuel.	Samples	were	collected	and	analyzed	by	
                             MFD to determine the level of technology performance. Each technology was evaluated not
                             only on the basis of performance, but also on the basis of purchase/startup, operating, and
                             maintenance costs.
                             The first technology's process adds an additional step to the traditional two-step process
                             involving filters and coalescers by employing a magnetic component to disperse the sediments
                             and act as a fuel conditioning device. This technology's fuel conditioning systems can be
                               purchased or leased, and can be custom-designed. The equipment consisted of three
          ESOHE                modules: 1) a 5-micron pre-filter, 2) a coalescer and pump, and 3) two parallel lines each
                               containing a 10-micron coalescer filter and two 3-micron water-block screw-on filters in
        Focus Area             series. Between the pump module and the filter module was a magnetic filter.
                               The second technology was a 30 gallon-per-minute (GPM) variable flow fuel filtration and
                               coalescer system which consisted of three modules plumbed in series: 1) a control unit
        Reuse of Materials
                               with a pump, two filters and a control panel, 2) a clay filter unit, and 3) a coalescer. The
                               filters in the control unit had a 7-micron and a 3-micron filter installed, in that order. An
                                                                  8,000-gallon tank trailer at MFD supplied the source fuel
                                                                  for the demonstration, and the filtered fuel was sent to a
                                                                  2,000-gallon vacuum truck. During the system test, water
                                                                  was repeatedly drawn from the coalescer to maintain the
                                                                  water level at the bottom of the coalescer sight glass. An
                                                                  additional vacuum truck was required to remove the large
                                                                  volume of water from the coalescer. Differential pressure
                                                                  gauges indicating the degree of flow restriction in the filters
                                                                  remained	at	zero,	thereby	indicating	that	the	filters	were	not	
                                                                  affected by the particulates in the sample fuel.
                                                                 The third technology uses an advanced membrane separation
                                                                 technology to remove free water, emulsified water, and dirt
                                                                 from fuels and solvents. Its reconditioning system consists
                                                                 of two stages. The first stage is a self cleaning pre-filter for
                                                                 solids separation, and the second stage contains a water
 Reclaiming and reusing off specification fuel would allow the
                                                                 selective membrane filter for water separation. The result is
 Navy to reduce its operating costs.
                                                                 a compact system that can process fuels and oils with high
                                                                 solids and high water content in a single pass.

The third technology consisted of a pump, pre-filter and membrane filter, designed for a 25
GPM flow. The system had a recirculation/backflush loop for injection of a fuel additive and
periodic backflush to clear the membrane filter. The system used low pressure air to manually

backflush the membrane filter to remove heavy deposits and recirculate them back to the
pre-filter for removal. A water collection tank below the membrane filter continuously drained
to a bucket during operation. The pre-filter consisted of eight, 1-micron filter elements. An
8,000-gallon tank trailer supplied the source fuel for the demonstration, and the filtered fuel
was sent to a 2,000-gallon
vacuum truck.
Two of the technologies showed promise during the pilot demonstration, and the third vendor
had to abort the demonstration due to equipment malfunction.
Technology Benefits
    •	 Allows	for	reuse	of	contaminated	fuel	and	reduced	consumption	of	new	fuel
    •	 May	be	available	on	a	lease	basis
    •	 May	be	customized	to	meet	site-specific	requirements

Technology Limitations
    •	 Technologies	have	not	been	validated	for	military	implementation;	additional	testing	is	
       required before implementation can occur. Regular maintenance is required, including
       replacement of filters.

FY11 NDCEE Accomplishments
    •	 Developed	a	government-approved	Demonstration	Plan,	which	included	a	sampling	
       protocol, the identification of vendor technology for testing, and an execution plan for
       the pilot demonstration
    •	 Identified	technologies	for	demonstration	of	an	effective	COTS	technology	for	fuel	oil	
    •	 Completed	the	pilot	demonstrations	during	summer	2011	according	to	the	
       Demonstration Plan. This involved conducting the demonstrations using vendors’ fuel
       treatment	units,	analyzing	and	down-selecting	the	best-performing	technology,	and	
       documenting the findings and recommendations.
    •	 Prepared	a	Cost-Benefit	Analysis	(CBA)	of	a	full-scale	system	based	on	pilot-scale	

Economic Analysis
A simple cost evaluation was prepared for the pilot demonstration using the cost information
available from the pilot demonstrations. A cost matrix was compiled for the various cost
categories in an effort to compare the various technologies without requiring detailed cost
information. Based upon this simple cost evaluation, the overall preferred technology was the
second technology.
Technology Implementation Opportunities
Once validated, a fuel reclamation technology could be used to reclaim FOR at MFD and other
fuel depots across the DoD.
Points of Contact
    •	 Glenn	Schmitt,	Fleet	and	Industrial	Supply	Center	Puget	Sound,	360-476-9338,	
    	•	 Heather	Brent,	NDCEE/CTC,	412-992-5352,	brenth@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Pilot Project for Naval Fuel Reclamation and Treatment (Task N.0732)
                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Direct Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)
                             The NDCEE is assisting the U.S. Army’s Program Executive Office Ammunition with their
                             efforts to ensure sustainability of their ammunition industrial base facilities. Sustainability is

                             necessary	to	ensure	the	surge,	mobilization,	training,	and	production	capabilities	for	designated	
                             critical items and preserve unique capabilities in the area of ammunition components and
                             end items. To achieve this goal, the NDCEE is investigating and demonstrating commercially
                             available technologies to reduce energy usage and implement alternative energy solutions at
                             select ammunition facilities.
                             Technology Description
                             Fuel cells generate electricity through an electrochemical process in which the energy stored in
                             a fuel is converted directly into direct current electricity. Because electrical energy is generated
                             without combusting fuel, fuel cells are extremely attractive from an environmental standpoint
                             due to their low emissions and other factors. They can be used as stand-alone power sources
                             for off-grid, remote sites or as a backup power source to an on-grid site. Thermal output from
                             the fuel cell can be used for boiler makeup water heating, space heating, condensate return,
                             and hot water processing.
                             All fuel cells have the same basic operating principle. A fuel cell is a device that converts the
                             energy of a fuel (hydrogen [H2], natural gas, methanol, gasoline) and an oxidant (air or oxygen)
                             into	useable	electricity.	Direct	alkaline	fuel	cells	(AFCs)	utilize	primary	alcohols,	including	
                             methanol and ethanol, as anode fuels to generate electricity. They have been noted for having
                             extremely high efficiency levels, with the ability to reach electrical conversion efficiencies of
                             approximately 70%.
                               Traditional AFCs are susceptible to poisoning by even small amounts of CO2 in the air. To
           ESOHE               avoid CO2 poisoning, costly purification equipment and CO2 scrubbers were required. The
                               NDCEE identified a fuel cell design that is not susceptible to CO2 poisoning and does not
         Focus Area            require CO2 scrubbing. The new fuel cell design can operate on mixed alcohol fuels, primarily
                               methanol and ethanol. In addition to producing electrical power, the resulting by-products
     Alternative Power and     of the fuel cell conversion include two carboxylic acids – formic acid and acetic acid,
        Energy Solutions       respectively. Although these acids are not usable products for the select ammunition plant,
                               their commodity value would likely significantly offset the fuel costs or even generate a
                               return on investment for the input fuel.
                             Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                 •	 Uses	methanol	and	ethanol	for	feedstock,	which	significantly	reduces	the	storage	
                                    concerns	of	highly	pressurized	compressed	hydrogen
                                 •	 Improves	operational	flexibility	over	more	conventional	proton	exchange	membrane	
                                    (PEM) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) by providing increased responsiveness
                                    to load changes, no susceptibility to sulfur poisoning, and significantly lower operating
                                    temperatures than MCFCs
                                 •	 Produces	by-products	with	a	commodity	value	that	could	offset	a	significant	portion	of	
                                    the input fuel costs
                                 •	 Does	not	produce	carbon	dioxide	emissions

                             Technology Limitations
                                 •	 Ethanol	and	methanol	may	not	be	the	most	sustainable	feedstock.
                                 •	 Design	has	a	limited	continuous	operating	run	time	of	400	hours	and	less	energy	
                                    density than other fuel cell designs.
                                 •	 Current	manufacturing	time	is	intensive	and	capabilities	are	limited.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Evaluated	the	technology	and	a	proposal	by	a	consultant	to	demonstrate	an	AFC	that	
       utilizes	primary	alcohols	as	fuel	at	Milan	Army	Ammunition	Plant	(MLAAP),	TN	

    •	 Recommended	that	MLAAP	pursue	additional	validation	testing	prior	to	implementing	
       this technology
    •	 Conducted	a	technology	evaluation	to	identify	suitable	candidates	for	Army	
       ammunition plant (AAP) operations
    •	 Initiated	planning	of	a	demonstration	of	the	AFC	at	MLAAP	that	will	occur	in	FY12	
       utilizing	the	primary	fuels

Economic Analysis
Based upon vendor performance data, a 1-megawatt pilot facility could recoup the capital
investment	in	two	to	five	years.	Based	upon	the	ability	to	utilize	the	resulting	acid	by-products,	
either at MLAAP or at another AAP, the 10-year return-on-investment for this technology could
be approximately five times the installed costs.
Suggested Implementation Applications
This technology has the ability to provide significant energy cost savings and environmental
benefits for any large industrial manufacturing plant. In the case of plants that produce
cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), where acetic acid is used, the resulting by-products could
provide a number of synergistic advantages by reducing the acid acquisition, transportation,
and storage costs.
Points of Contact
    •	 Patrick	Dwyer,	PM	Joint	Services,	973-724-4411,	patrick.b.dwyer@us.army.mil
    •	 Gino	Spinos,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2894,	spinosg@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Ammunition Industrial Base Assessment (Task N.0707)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Distributed Wind Turbine
                            The NDCEE teamed with Ohana Military Communities to demonstrate a wind turbine system
                            at the Navy’s Pearl City Peninsula Family Housing Site. This demonstration assessed the

                            technology’s performance across operational, social, environmental, and financial parameters,
                            specifically for the military services located in the Hawaiian Islands. Installation of a turbine
                            system is a complex process; lessons learned from the demonstration will assist in transition
                            of wind turbine technology throughout the military.
                            Technology Description
                            Wind turbines convert kinetic energy from the natural motion or flow of air into mechanical
                            energy, which is transformed into electricity. The DoD is interested in wind turbines and other
                            renewable energy options to reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
                            Wind	turbines	can	have	a	vertical	axis	or	the	more	common	horizontal	axis.	The	three	main	
                            components	of	a	wind	turbine	(horizontal	or	vertical)	are	the	blades	or	rotor,	the	nacelle	that	
                            is	the	enclosure	that	houses	most	of	the	mechanism,	and	the	tower.	Turbine	size	can	vary	
                            from small single kilowatt (kW) standalone models that are attached to buildings or pumping
                            stations to large megawatt models that are grouped together on wind farms to provide power
                            into electrical grids.
                            The NDCEE conducted 1kW turbine demonstrations consisting of site selection, wind
                            assessment, project approval, system design and demonstration. Peak power was calculated
                            at	0.257	kW	(realized	at	a	wind	speed	of	6.1	miles	per	second)	and	a	total	cumulative	power	
                            generation was calculated at 29.8 kWh for the one-month demonstration period.
                            Technology Benefits and Advantages
          ESOHE                 •		 Low	air/water	pollution	emissions	are	associated	with	this	technology.
                                •		 Site	location	can	support	multiple	uses	in	addition	to	the	wind	turbine.
        Focus Area              •		 Capital	and	maintenance	costs	are	moderate	in	comparison	to	other	renewable	
                                    energy options.
    Alternative Power and
                             Technology Limitations
       Energy Solutions
                                •		 Power	production	depends	on	wind	flow.
                                •		 Visual	impact	can	be	a	drawback.

                            NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                                •		 Completed	site	selection,	wind	assessment,	project	approval,	system	design,	and	
                                    demonstration of the 1 kW turbine
                                •		 Conducted	a	demonstration	of	a	1	kW	wind	turbine	system	at	a	residential	housing	
                                    community site
                                •		 Conducted	a	CBA
                                •		 Produced	a	final	demonstration	and	validation	report	that	summarized	the	results	and	
                                    made recommendations for future turbine projects
                                •		 Provided	decision	support	information	for	the	military	on	the	difficulty	of	siting	wind	
                                    turbines and the expected outcome of renewable energy production
                                •		 Presented	a	poster	entitled	Implementing	Distributed	Wind	Power	at	the	2010	SERDP/
                                    ESTCP Symposium

Economic Analysis
A CBA conducted using commercial utility rates and projections showed a positive economic
return, however using DoD rates, the CBA did not indicate that a financial return on

investment was a sufficient reason for implementation of the turbine at the site. A CBA was
also conducted using commercial utility rates and projections and this did show a positive
economic return. The short term data used in the analysis is insufficient to draw accurate
conclusions. In addition, the costs used in the analysis are vendor estimates made during the
pre-commercialization	equipment	stage.	The	CBA	should	be	repeated	as	additional	data	is	
collected	and	the	product	is	commercialized	to	validate	the	system	over	a	longer	duration.
Suggested Implementation Applications
Depending on wind resources, wind turbines may be a cost-effective renewable energy source
for DoD housing developments as well as other DoD operations.
Points of Contact
    •	 William	Boudra,	Forest	City	Military	Communities	-	Hawaii,	
    •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Regional Sustainability Solutions (RSS) FY07 (Task N.0501)

   Radford Terrace Navy Family Housing Community Center Demonstration Site

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Electronic VPP (e-VPP) Tool
                              The Secretary of Defense established the DSOC to govern DoD-wide efforts to reduce
                              preventable mishaps at military installations by 75% by FY08. Because the safety program

                              improvements typically required to achieve OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP)
                              recognition result in, on average, a 50%–60% reduction in accidents, the DSOC established
                              the DoD Voluntary Protection Programs Center of Excellence (VPP CX). The VPP CX is
                              operated by NDCEE and assists installations with safety program improvements that are
                              targeted at reducing civilian employee accidents and achieving VPP recognition. As part of the
                              NDCEE efforts to serve as DoD’s in-house CX for deploying VPP compliant safety and health
                              management systems, the NDCEE developed the Electronic VPP (e-VPP) tool. In March of 2011
                              the	e-VPP	tool	won	for	Technology	Product	of	the	Year	at	the	TechQuest	PA	Awards.	TechQuest	
                              PA is the regional technology council in central Pennsylvania.
                              Technology Description
                              The e-VPP tool is used to streamline data gathering and application submittal for military sites
                              pursing OSHA’s VPP Star Status. This tool was adapted from a Department of Energy e-tool
                              and was originally developed using Active Server Pages (ASP), but is now maintained using
                              The e-VPP tool is continuously configured to meet the evolving needs of the VPP CX and
                              participating sites. It is hosted on a single server using a .org address accessible via Hypertext
                              Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer (HTTPS) and is password protected. The tool is
                              currently used by 321 military sites and supports 3,150 users at these sites. The e-VPP tool is
                                aligned to the four major VPP elements as defined by OSHA:
                                   •	 Management	Leadership	and	Employee	Involvement
          ESOHE                    •	 Work	Site	Analysis

        Focus Area                 •	 Hazard	Prevention	and	Control
                                   •	 Safety	and	Health	Training

       ESOHE Information        The e-VPP tool incorporates several features that simplify the application preparation and
         Management             submittal process, including:
         Technologies             •	 Online	completion	and	print	capability
      Occupational Health         •	 Customizable	metric	reports	displaying	dashboard	style	information	regarding	progress	
        Initiatives/VPP                at the sites in a user-determined format
                                                                                •	 Ability	to	sort/filter/print	action	plan
                                                                                •	 Ability	to	track	yearly	Total	Case	Incident	
                                                                                    Rates (TCIR) and Days Away, Restricted,
                                                                                    Transferred (DART) rates
                                                                                •	 Automatic	email	alerts	for	assigned	
                                                                                    actions and review process
                                                                                •	 Individual	user	guides	and	videos	for	
                                                                                    each user role
                                                                                •	 Application	Supplement	for	Process	
                                                                                    Safety Management (PSM) Standard
                                                                                •	 Current	examples	for	each	action	to	
                                                                                    assist users in completing action
                                                                                •	 Corporate	facility	application

 The eVPP tool generates an Action Plan for installations.

      Technology Benefits and Advantages
            •		 Streamlines	an	installation’s	VPP	efforts
            •		 Makes	it	easy	for	installations	to	print	the	application	to	send	to	OSHA	for	VPP	

            •		 Creates	a	central	data	repository	for	all	documentation	regarding	an	installation’s	

      Technology Limitations
            •		 Requires	installations	to	have	online	access,	authorizations,	and	personnel	with	
                knowledge to access and operate the system

      NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
      The NDCEE continued to increase the functionality of the e-VPP tool. The following table lists
      the improved functionalities.

 Metrics Functionality                                                   Action Plan                    OSHA Application                          Annual Report

•	VPP	Sites	by	Distribution	of	Civilian/Military	Personnel	Report   •	User E-mail               •	OSHA User Approval Workflow          •	Created an Annual Report Evaluation
•	DoD	Star	Site	TCIR/DART	vs.	Industry	Average	Report	                Address Report                                                     System
                                                                                                •	OSHA Application File Appendix
•	Civilian	and	Military	Lost	Work	Days	Rate	Report	                 •	Reuse of Attached                                                •	Allowing the OSHA User to
                                                                                                •	Civilian & Military Lost Work
                                                                      Documents and Links                                                Approve the Annual Report
•	Civilian	and	Military	Lost	Work	Days	Annual	Report	                                             Days/Total Case Incident Rate
                                                                    •	Action Plan Sort/Filter     (TCIR)/Days Away, Restricted
•	Civilian	and	Military	Lost	Work	Days	Rate	By	Service	Report
                                                                      by Element                  and Transferred (DART) reports
•	Aggregated	Completed	Action	Trend	Line	Report
                                                                    •	Action Plan Status        •	Universal Identification Code
•	Action	Details	in	Aggregate	Action	Report	
                                                                      Change History              (UIC) Location Mapping entry
•	Annual	Evaluation	Score	vs.	Trailing	Indicators	Report
                                                                                                •	Star Site Recognition entries

      Economic Analysis
      Installations that have successfully attained VPP recognition from OSHA have reported a 50%–
      60% decline in reportable health and safety incidents after VPP implementation. Regardless of
      an	installation’s	current	safety	performance,	zero	preventable	incidents	should	be	its	goal.	The	
      cost of even one preventable serious incident or fatality can outweigh the minimal incremental
      cost of prevention. Legal and medical costs from an accident can quickly exceed the projected
      cost of prevention. Industry experience with the VPP shows that return on investment can
      reach 150% with up to a 63% combined reduction in recordable injury and lost time cases and
      a 50% reduction in compensation claims.
      Suggested Implementation Applications
      The e-VPP tool can be used at all DoD installations, agencies, and commands that are
      participating in the VPP program.
      Points of Contact
            •	 Jerry	Aslinger,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-0367,	jerry.aslinger@osd.mil
            •	 Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
            •	 Greg	Jablunovsky,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6497,	jablunog@ctc.com

      Applicable NDCEE Task
      Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
      Council (DSOC) Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance Mission
      Readiness Across the Department of Defense (Task N.0568/N.0702)

                                                                                                                                  Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Energy Dashboard
                              The Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest consumer of energy in the Federal government,
                              and the US Air Force (USAF) is the largest consumer of energy in the DoD. The USAF has an

                              energy plan built on three pillars: reduce demand, increase supply, and change the culture.
                              The energy plan provides the framework for communicating goals, objectives, and metrics and
                              guiding overall energy management across all functional domains within the USAF. The NDCEE
                              developed, demonstrated, and determined the effectiveness of an interactive energy dashboard
                              to collect and report on energy based on the energy plan.
                              Technology Description
                              The Air Force Energy Dashboard is sponsored by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air
                              Force-Energy, SAF/IEN, and is designed to provide common-sight views of energy performance
                              throughout the USAF and provide access to valuable energy resources. The dashboard
                              leverages the flexibility and accessibility of Microsoft Office SharePoint®, which resides on the
                              Air Force Network Integration Center (AFNIC) Enterprise Information Services (EIS) site, and is
                              accessible by all authenticated USAF users. The dashboard supports the following focus areas:
                                   1. Energy Metrics
                                      a. Provide access to energy metrics tracked within the USAF to all Airmen
                                      b. Catalog all policy and guidance documents that drive each individual metric
                                      c. Show progress toward meeting USAF energy goals
                                      d. Document and validate metric calculation processes

          ESOHE                    2. Energy Library of Knowledge
                                      a. Create a document library to catalog all policy documents that impact energy
        Focus Area                       management
                                      b. Develop a library to house bullet background papers that contain energy equity
        ESOH Information              c. Provide an energy definitions list that shows how energy terms are defined in
          Management                     policy(s)
          Technologies                b. Develop an energy acronyms list

                                                                                 3.    Energy Awareness Training
                                                                                       a. Develop 10 energy training modules
                                                                                          that are accessible by all Airmen
                                                                                          (1 introduction and 9 energy

                                                                                 4.    Energy Goverance
                                                                                       a. Provide a scheduling capability
                                                                                          to energy governance meetings and
                                                                                          key agenda items
                                                                                       b. Develop views to track proposed
                                                                                          and funded energy initiatives
                                                                                       c. Develop tools to track budgetary
                                                                                          and Program Element data for
                                                                                          required reporting to OSD
                                                                                       d. Allow visibility into R&D efforts

 There is also a metrics dashboard that provides common-sight
 visibility of all energy metrics tracked at the enterprise level.               The dashboard uses an intuitive interface to

provide direct access to metrics and resources. The dashboard currently includes 26 different
metrics reported at different frequencies (annually, quarterly, monthly), shown in the graphic

Technology Benefits
    –   Is available to all USAF CAC holders
    –   Leverages available information from authoritative sources
    –   Provides improved energy management reporting, transparency, granularity, and

Technology Limitations
    –   Dashboard is not currently capable of
        providing direct access to the SIPR for
                                                        Activity                                                 Annual   Quarterly   Monthly
        the AF Senior Leadership Dashboard
                                                        Air Force
    –   Space is a concern for maintaining
                                                                            Energy Consumption Snapshot
        historical data
                                                                     Energy Consumption and Cost Trends
    –   Training is required for dashboard
        users                                           Aviation

                                                                                     Aviation Fuel Use/Cost

FY11 Accomplishments                                                            Aviation Fuel Consumption

    •	 Implemented	additional	interactive	                                         Installations with Alt Fuel

       dashboard capabilities:                                           Use of Domestic Alt. Aviation Fuel

       – Established base-level and monthly             Facilities

            reporting for ground vehicle fuel                                               Energy Intensity
            consumption                                              Federal Building Energy Efficiency Std.
       – Established a mapping capability to                                  Eligible Renewable Electricity
            show renewable fuel infrastructure                                   Facility Renewable Energy
       – Created a resources section to                                           New Renewable Sources
            track policy, bullet background                                         Potable Water Intensity
            papers, and energy terms/
                                                                             Use of Performance Contracts
    •	 Demonstrated	Dashboard	at	a	
                                                        Ground Vehicles
       variety of industry and DoD specific
                                                                        Total Fleet Petroleum Consumption
       conferences and events, including:
       GovEnergy, the Pentagon Energy                                           Total Fleet Alternative Fuel

       Security Event, the US Army and Air                              Mandated Petroleum Consumption

       Force Energy Forum, etc.                                             Mandated Alternative Fuel Use

    •	 Trained	the	entire	SAF/IEN	office	on	                                 Renewable Fuel Infrastructure

       the AF Energy Dashboard capabilities                                          AFV Acquisition Credit

       and gathered feedback                                                              AFV Use Waivers
    •	 Charts	from	the	AF	Energy	Dashboard	             Direct Energy
       are used to generate material for the                           Oil, Currency and Jet Fuel Snapshot
       Air Force Senior Leadership Dashboard            Outreach
       in order to improve common-sight                                                  Personnel Training
       transparency at all levels in the USAF           Acquisition RDT&E
    •	 Dashboard	highlighted	by	the	SAF/US	
                                                                               Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel
       in the Air Force’s annual presentation
                                                                                                Energy KPP
       to the Assistant Secretary Defense/
                                                                         Aviation Fleet Alt Fuel Certification
       Operational Energy Plans and
       Programs (ASD/OEPP)
                                                    Technology Benefits

                                                    –        Is available to all USAF CAC holders
                                                    –        Leverages available information from authoritative sources
                                                    –                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                                                             Provides improved energy management reporting, transparency, granularity, and c
                        Economic Analysis
                        With use of a dashboard, the USAF anticipates its operational costs should be reduced. The
                        tool	will	allow	the	USAF	to	collect	and	analyze	critical	metrics	and	identify	opportunities	for	

                        energy reduction and cost saving. Additionally, the dashboard will provide cross-functional
                        views of the USAF’s energy management performance, which will highlight areas that need
                        additional investments.
                        Selected Implementation Applications
                        Dashboard technology can be adapted for other services, and is scalable for systems and
                        systems	of	systems;	i.e.,	a	building,	a	base,	or	a	MAJCOM.	
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Omar	Mendoza,	SAF/IEN,	703-697-0785,	omar.mendoza@pentagon.af.mil	
                            •	 Nick	Rotteveel,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-956-9370,	rotteven@ctc.com	

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Air Force Enterprise Energy Management Framework and Dashboard Demo (Task N.0742)

Environmental Management Information
System (EMIS)

An effective Environmental Management System/Environmental Information Management
System (EMS/EMIS) can support DoD sustainability and manage the planning, integration,
monitoring, and reporting that meets the standards of ISO 14001. To this end, the U.S. Army
and the NDCEE successfully demonstrated and validated an EMIS system at the West Virginia
Army National Guard, Fort Benning, Fort Carson, Fort Detrick, Hawaii (HI) Army National Guard,
Hawaii Air National Guard, the U.S. Army Garrison – HI, the 9th Mission Support Command –
Hawaii, and Anniston Army Depot. The next step toward facilitating this technology transition
is to have the EMIS operating on a .mil environment rather than the .com environment on
which it currently resides. In FY11, the NDCEE developed and demonstrated an EMIS web-
based solution for air compliance at Fort Benning, GA and for greenhouse gas (GHG) and
energy management at Travis Air Force Base (AFB), CA.
Technology Description
The EMIS is a web-based tool for managing the planning, integration, monitoring, and reporting
requirements that are stipulated by a DoD EMS requirement that meets the ISO 14001
standard. The EMIS is an alternative to other methods that the DoD currently uses including
general environmental management information systems incorporated into headquarters-
based reporting systems down to, in many cases, pencil and paper systems at installations.
These systems vary in efficiency, often overlap in functionality among the services, and differ
between individual service commands and their respective installations.
The EMIS is housed at the application service providers’ locations and is accessible to
authorized	users	from	any	location	that	offers	internet	services.	The	system	functions	include	
database and data management, text document production, and electronic mail and calendar
management. The EMIS consolidates all installation data into one user-friendly database. The
EMIS streamlines and improves data collection by pushing it from headquarters into the field,
                                                                                                     Focus Area
improves management by providing more timely access to reliable data, improves monitoring            ESOH Information
by providing an electronic monitoring history, and reduces potential violations by automating a        Management
compliance calendar.                                                                                   Technologies
Through basic computer operations, installations can perform the necessary critical
functions including:
    •	 Managing	tasks,	documents,	and	citations
    •	 Tracking	events,	incidents,	and	logs
    •	 Receiving	and	sending	notifications	and	alerts	about	upcoming	certifications	and	
    •	 Automatically	uploading	data
    •	 Integrating	external	systems
    •	 Creating	ad	hoc	and	regulatory	reporting

Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •		 The	EMIS	automates	data	calculations	and	eliminates	the	need	for	time-consuming	
        manual calculations while decreasing the possibility of human error.
    •		 The	EMIS	is	customizable	to	each	installation	and	can	be	crafted	to	integrate	multiple	
        legacy systems. This type of integration helps to capture the site data and institutional
        knowledge that could otherwise be lost with job relocations and retirements.

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                                 •		 The	EMIS	has	a	high	potential	to	streamline	overall	environmental	operations	by	
                                     easing supervisory oversight. Because audits can be performed from anywhere, the
                                     need for travel is reduced. Additionally, because the EMIS system can quickly create

                                     reports regarding actions and compliance, management can easily remain informed,
                                     reacting quickly and proactively to breaches, thereby reducing the potential for
                                     fines. To this end, the EMIS is constantly updated with the latest Federal and state
                                 •		 The	EMIS	system	enables	users	to	input	ongoing	data	and	monitor	current	EMS/
                                     EMIS compliance and issues, while providing level-of-access and permissions
                                     controls for administrators. The system also tracks all actions taken and automatically
                                     notifies selected personnel of site requirement breaches and upcoming certifications,
                                     inspections, or other requirements.

                            Technology Limitations
                                 •		 Once	an	EMIS	has	been	selected	and	implemented	at	Army	installations,	training	
                                     would be required for all appropriate personnel.
                                 •		 The	EMIS	is	hosted	and	maintained	by	the	application	service	provider,	rather	than	by	
                                     installation personnel.
                                 •		 This	service	is	based	on	the	ability	of	users	to	have	and	maintain	internet	access.	

                            NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                                 •		 Continued	updating	the	Army	Portfolio	Management	System	(APMS)	for	EMIS
                                 •		 Demonstrated	additional	EMIS	solutions	at:	HI	Air	National	Guard,	the	9th	MSC,	HI	
                                     Army National Guard, the U.S. Army Garrison – HI, Fort Irwin, Fort Benning and Fort
                                     Carson. The EMIS continued being demonstrated at the three remaining sites.
                                 •		 Solution	at	Fort	Benning	focuses	on	using	EMIS	for	air	compliance
                                 •		 Continued	to	work	with	Fort	Benning	to	configure	the	draft	Title	V	Compliance	Report	
                                     query and initiated an Excel® macro to format the report into the Georgia state form

    The NDCEE customized the EMIS to manage air compliance at Fort Benning.

    •		 Created	and	tested	new	calculation	template	components	to	conform	with	EPA	
        requirements for reporting the number of missing data elements
    •		 Completed	Title	V	solution,	the	Harmonized	Emissions	Estimating	Solution,	and	the	

        “What-If” Solution
    •		 Completed	the	numeric	permit	conditions	by	configuring	Fort	Benning’s	data	input	
        which will be tied to data input for GHG calculations when applicable
    •		 Created	a	revised	report	format	for	the	Semiannual	Compliance	Report
    •		 Conducted	training	on	the	Title	V	Compliance	Solution,	the	Harmonized	Emissions	
        Estimating Solution, and the “What-If” Solution
    •		 Shared	the	results	of	the	solution	in	two	presentations	at	the	2011	E2S2
    •		 Conducted	a	CBA	using	data	from	U.S.	Army	Garrison	–	HI
    •		 Began	web-based	solution	for	GHG	and	energy	management	at	Travis	AFB
        – Conducted initial meeting with Travis AFB to discuss project requirements
        – Conducted data collection visit to gather cost-benefit data and sources for
            greenhouse gas and energy solutions
        – Began modeling the EMIS solutions for GHG and energy management
    •		 Continued	working	with	the	Defense	Information	Systems	Agency	(DISA)	on	
        transitioning the EMIS from a .com environment to a .mil environment. DoD
        Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP) approval was
        received; however, the EMIS has not been fully transitioned to the .mil environment

Economic Analysis
The CBA, conducted in 2011, captured hard cost savings in addition to savings associated
with cost avoidance. Data were gathered from the U.S. Army Garrison – HI. The EMIS showed
a payback of 1.79 years at the Garrison.
Suggested Implementation Applications
The EMIS technology can be used at any installation to facilitate the overall management,
reporting,	and	tracking	of	environmental	data	used	by	the	DoD.	Furthermore,	it	can	be	utilized	
by anyone who requires environmental management, tracking, and reporting.
Points of Contact
    •	 Peter	Heinricher,	ERDC-CERL,	217-398-5510,	peter.m.heinricher@us.army.mil
    •	 Angie	Degory,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2704,	degorya@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Demonstration of a Commercial Environmental Management Information System at DoD
Installations – FY09 (Task N.0704)
Ft. Benning Air Program Support (Task N.0711)
Demonstration of a Web-based EMIS Solution for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Management at
Travis Air Force Base (Task N.0731)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Field Injury Tracking Support (FITS) Tool
                              In support of the DSOC, the NDCEE demonstrated the FITS tool in 2009 to provide company
                              commanders, drill instructors, military health care providers, and battalion and brigade

                              commanders with systematic, real-time visibility of recruit injuries and illnesses. FITS is
                              designed to improve coordination and communication among and between commanders,
                              health-care providers, and safety representatives. This tool should support reduction of lost
                              training time, recruit recycles, and injury-related early discharges.
                              Technology Description
                              FITS is a web-based, real-time injury and illness recording and tracking system that (1)
                              captures categorical cause and injury event information, (2) links information from various
                              stakeholders and establishes a coordination infrastructure, (3) provides a dashboard reporting
                              and analysis functionality that can be tailored for the end user (e.g., recruit training unit
                              commander, brigade commander, drill instructor, and medical commander), (4) provides an
                              automated DD Form 689 “Sick Slip,” and (5) is linked to e-Profile. The tool also complies with
                              required HIPAA guidelines to protect personal information and imports existing administrative
                              information systems (e.g., personnel information) to complete the injury record.
                              The following are highlights of the FITS functionality:
                                  •		 Input	process:	The	web-enabled	FITS	application	allows	soldiers	to	scan	the	bar	
                                       code on their CAC, which already contains basic information, and then quickly and
                                       easily provide specific details to report their injury and/or ailments. This record
                                       can then be appended at key points in the injury management process (including
                                       follow-up evaluations and treatment) at various workstations across an installation.
                                       Accountability/Appointments and the soldier’s Disposition (e.g. “Confined to
          ESOHE                        Quarters,”	“Sick	Bay,”	etc.)	can	be	reviewed	at	any	time.
                                  •		 Dashboard:	The	dashboard	allows	real-time,	“big-picture”	visibility	of	injuries	and	the	
        Focus Area                     injury management process. The dashboard provides a graphical display of injury
                                       episodes along with metrics and report generation capability.
        Safety Initiatives/       •		 Administrative	Functions	–	Alerts:	Alerts	can	be	created	that	will	automatically	send	
              DSOC                     an email to user-defined recipients when a specific set of criteria are met, to include
                                       Injury/Illness Type, Body Part and/or Training Site. When creating the alert, the user
                                                                 specifies a threshold and a start and stop date. Once the
                                                                 threshold is reached with the start and stop dates, the email
                                                                 is sent. Any or all of the criteria may be used in defining
                                                                 an alert. Additionally, alerts can be locally tailored based
                                                                 on circumstances for a specific post or location (e.g., if the
                                                                 injury involves an ergonomics concern, the local ergonomist
                                                                 can be notified).

                                                                 Phase I and Phase II of the FITS application were produced
                                                                 and	piloted	at	Fort	Jackson,	SC.	The	technology	is	scheduled	
                                                                 to be demonstrated in FY12 at the 7th U.S. Army (7A)
                                                                 Joint	Multinational	Training	Center	(JMTC)	and	U.S.	Army	
                                                                 Garrison (USAG) Grafenwoehr. Several enhancements and
                                                                 system modifications were required prior to the anticipated
                                                                 demonstration	at	the	JMTC	in	Grafenwoehr,	Germany.	
                                                                 Successful	demonstration	of	the	tool	to	the	JMTC	would	
  FITS provides graphical representation of injury and illness   likely lead to further deployments among the Army training
  data in a dashboard view.                                      commands and even transition to other services.

Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •		 Maintains	accountability	during	medical	evaluations	and	treatments	to	reduce	losses	
        of valuable training time

    •		 Captures	injury	or	illness	information	electronically	while	in	the	field	or	from	
        the barracks
    •		 Provides	an	automated	DD	Form	689	with	a	barcode	that	may	be	scanned,	viewed,	or	
        printed; the form is populated based on the information entered on the electronic
        Sick Slip
    •		 Tracks	and	reports	metrics	for	an	individual	unit	or	an	entire	command
    •		 Allows	health	care	providers	to	review	injury	or	illness	incident	information	online	
        while performing medical evaluations
    •		 Can	be	customized	based	on	end-user	requirements
    •		 Provides	checks	and	balances	for	effective	injury	management	that	minimizes	
        training impacts

Technology Limitations
    •		 Technology	is	at	the	prototype	stage
    •		 Users	must	have	a	CAC

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
Based	upon	successful	demonstration	and	implementation	of	FITS	at	Fort	Jackson,	the	NDCEE	
prepared	to	deploy	and	demonstrate	the	technology	at	the	JMTC	in	Grafenwoehr.	Upgrades,	
enhancements, and bug fixes were completed in anticipation of this event. FITS was deployed
to	the	CTC	Demilitarized	Zone	(DMZ)	site	that	provides	the	ability	to	demonstrate	the	system.	
Successful	internal	testing	of	the	DMZ	site	was	completed.	
Economic Analysis
FITS, once fully functional and implemented by the DoD, is expected to yield substantial cost
savings in areas such as improved recruit accountability and tracking (reduction in lost training
time); improved command, health care, and safety responsiveness to injuries; improved
medical management and coordination of limited duty prescriptions; reduced number and
severity of training-related injuries; and reduced injury-related attrition.
Suggested Implementation Applications
FITS, when fully matured, could be used at any installation to facilitate the overall
management, coordination, and command visibility of injuries. This tool can incorporate legacy,
current operational, and future systems by any department, for any service, within
the DoD.
Points of Contact
    •		   Jerry	Aslinger,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-0367,	jerry.aslinger@osd.mil
    •	    Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
    •		   Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
    •		   William	Capone,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2677,	caponew@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
Mission Readiness across the Department of Defense (Tasks N.0568/N.0712)

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                                Fluorescent Penetrant Wastewater Processing
                                The NDCEE is working with the AMCOM and the Aviation Center Logistics Command (ACLC)
                                to demonstrate and document the efficiency of a feasible fluorescent penetrant wastewater

                                processing system for filtering the marine pollutants in wastewater discharged at Fort Rucker
                                into the wastewater treatment facility.
                                Technology Description
                                The	Splitter™	JR	penetrant	waste	processing	system	can	filter	hazardous	pollutants	commonly	
                                emitted during nondestructive inspections (NDIs). An aviation maintenance contractor
                                performs NDIs on machined aircraft parts in two locations at Fort Rucker. The product used to
                                perform these inspections contains constituents that are listed as marine pollutants, as well
                                as constituents that may harm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes in the wastewater collection
                                system. Because of this, contractors are currently drumming wastewater and disposing it off-
                                site as a non-regulated waste.
                                The	Splitter	JR	filters	pollutants	from	NDI	wastewater	to	levels	that	will	permit	discharging	it	
                                to the wastewater treatment facility. The ultra-filtration (U/F) system uses a semi-permeable
                                membrane to separate water-based solutions, emulsions, and suspensions. When under
                                pressure, smaller molecules such as water can pass through the membrane and larger
                                  molecules like oils cannot and are left behind.
          ESOHE                   The	Splitter	JR	is	designed	to	process	the	penetrant	wastewater	in	batches,	usually	out	of	an	
                                  open-top drum or process tank. The liquid being processed is pumped from the tank through
        Focus Area                the U/F unit and back to the tank using a constantly re-circulating loop. As the liquid passes
                                  through the U/F unit, a small amount of water is forced through the membrane. The volume
     Water Management,            of waste in the tank slowly drops as its contents become increasingly concentrated with
        Conservation,             contaminants. This practice continues until no more water can be extracted, at which point
       Treatment, and             the batch is done. The concentrated contaminants in the tank are then emptied to a waste
          Recycling               drum or tank for eventual disposal. The process tank can be refilled with a new batch of
                                                    According to the vendor, the membranes typically last for 1 to 1.5 years. To
                                                    keep the membranes performing properly, a detergent solution should be
                                                    run through the U/F unit to remove the contaminants that build up on the
                                                    membrane surface. The frequency of cleaning varies with the nature and
                                                    level of contaminants. Cleaning may be conducted after every batch and is
                                                    required on a weekly basis.
                                                    Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                                        •		 Minimal	specialized	training	is	required	to	operate	the	Splitter	JR.
                                                        •		 If	proven	successful,	the	Splitter	JR	should	significantly	decrease	
                                                            the amount of wastewater that is drummed and disposed off site.
                                                        •		 The	small	size	and	portability	of	the	Splitter	JR	allows	this	
                                                            technology to be used for most NDIs; its only requirements are
                                                            access to a 120-volt wall outlet and clean water to prime the

                                                    Technology Limitations
                                                        •		 If	suspended	solids	are	present	in	the	penetrant	wastewater,	they	
                                                            will clog the membrane until no water can pass through it.
                                                        •		 Cleaning	must	be	performed	at	least	weekly.
 Splitter Jr. Ultra-Filtration (U/F) system

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
The NDCEE began planning for a one-week demonstration at Fort Rucker in FY12. The team
produced a government-approved Demonstration Plan, which included a Sampling and

Analysis Plan.
Economic Analysis
A CBA will be completed using the Environmental Cost Assessment Methodology (ECAM®).
The CBA will compare the cost of the baseline operation of drumming, transporting, and
disposing of the wastewater, to the alternative of purchasing and operating the Splitter
JR	system.	The	focus	of	the	CBA	will	be	on	the	economics	of	the	potential	replacement	
operation and maintenance of the system over a 15-year period, and whether a viable return
on	investment	can	be	realized.	Both	direct	and	indirect	costs	will	be	considered;	all	recurring	
costs will be considered on an annual basis.
Suggested Implementation Applications
The	Splitter	JR	could	be	used	at	any	site	where	NDI	is	performed	as	long	as	the	system’s	
minor electricity and water requirements are met.
Points of Contact
    •	 Mark	Feathers,	AMSAM-ENV-TI,	256-842-7355,	mark.g.feathers@conus.army.mil	
    •	 Joe	Jackens,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2589,	jackensj@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Fluorescent Penetrant Wastewater Processing (Task N.0738)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Detection and
                              Removal System

                              Foreign object damage (FOD) costs the aviation industry approximately $12B worldwide.
                              FOD accounts for approximately 4% of total USAF mishap costs with an average cost per
                              FOD mishap of $300K and a median cost per FOD mishap of $118K. FOD has destroyed three
                              aircraft at a cost to the taxpayers of more than $66M. FOD can also injure DoD personnel when
                              jet blast propels FOD at high velocities.
                              FOD is preventable. Historical data indicates that most foreign objects are found on the ramp
                              and taxiway areas with about 5% of the debris on the runway. On behalf of DSOC’s Acquisition
                              and Technology Programs (ATP) TF Aviation Safety Technology Working Group, the NDCEE
                              identified and demonstrated a foreign object removal system at Dyess AFB and Yuma Marine
                              Corps Air Station (MCAS). The FY11 demonstrations showed the technology has the potential
                              to greatly decrease the man hours currently spent on FOD mitigation efforts at DoD airfields,
                              while at the same time decreasing the number of FOD incidents.
                              Technology Description
                              FOD detection technologies use radar and/or electro-optical sensors. Currently, aircrew
                              members and airfield maintenance personnel serve as the primary “sensors” to detect foreign
                              objects during FOD walks. Airfield managers report spending (on average) 1,800+ man hours
                              each month on FOD walks. FOD walks are supplemented with FOD sweepers. Using advanced
                              technology to locate FOD will improve efficiency and reduce man hours spent on FOD walks.
                              The NDCEE demonstrated the Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) FOD Finder that detects,
                                maps, and removes FOD from all areas of an airfield. The system is mounted on a vehicle.
          ESOHE                 It includes a radar sensor with video capture capabilities and on-board data processing
                                controlled by a tablet computer, which serves as the interface with the user. The radar
        Focus Area              incorporates	a	78-81gigahertz	(gHz)	sensor	mounted	on	a	reciprocating	platform	that	
                                allows scanning a field of approximately 80° in front of the vehicle. The antenna tilt is fixed
        Safety Initiatives/     in relation to the vehicle, scanning at the rate of 30 images per minute and providing a
              DSOC              detection distance in front of the vehicle of approximately 200 meters (m) with a detection
                                “cell” of approximately 1m by 1m.
                              The FOD Finder system also features a high quality Global Positioning System (GPS) that can
                              be calibrated to reach near differential GPS accuracy. A camera can be mounted to the roof of
                              the vehicle. As the FOD is retrieved, it is photographed, and the system generates a label for it.
                              The label includes date, time, and location information in print and bar coding. FOD items are
                                                                                             numbered sequentially in order
                                                                                             of detection. The display also
                                                                                             includes a data table requiring
                                                                                             user action to confirm the
                                                                                             disposition of FOD items detected.
                                                                                             Each photograph is stored with
                                                                                             other FOD information in the on-
                                                                                             board computer.
                                                                                            During demonstration testing,
                                                                                            neither test location had a FOD-
                                                                                            related incident during the time
                                                                                            the FOD Finders were in operation.
 Based on the NDCEE demonstration, FOD Finders may be                                       The foreign object removal
 applicable for use across the DoD.

systems had a Fully Mission Capable (FMC) rate of 98.2% at both locations, well above the
targeted 95% rate. At Dyess AFB, the FOD Finder detected 12,430 items with 289 items (3%)
found on the runway and 12,141 items (97%) found on the taxiways/ramp. At Yuma, the unit

detected, in a shorter period of time, 2,954 items with 1,056 (35%) being detected on the
runway and 1,898 (65%) found on the taxiway/ramp.
Technology Benefits
    •		 Covers	the	same	area	nearly	three	times	as	fast	and	in	nearly	half	the	time	as	the	
        current sweeper
    •		 Can	be	configured	to	meet	the	specific	needs	of	each	installation

Technology Limitation
    •		 The	radar	system	is	under	continuous	improvement	to	enhance	its	ability	to	
        differentiate foreign objects from the background clutter.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Identified	commercially	available	FOD	detection	and	removal	technologies
    •		 Drafted	and	coordinated	Concept	of	Operations	(CONOPS),	Memoranda	of	
        Understanding (MOUs); identified and trained wing personnel on how to operate the
        FOD Finder system
    •		 Produced	a	government-approved	test	plan	that	listed	test	goals	and	evaluation	
        criteria; initiated operational test and evaluation of the system (six months of data
    •		 Conducted	periodic	reviews	of	the	program	and	system	effectiveness	to	determine	
        modifications to equipment or operations
    •		 Determined	system	effectiveness,	configuration	operations,	and	number	of	systems	
    •		 Coordinated	feedback	with	the	stakeholders	
    •		 Submitted	Final	Report	for	the	Foreign	Object	Detection/Removal	System	
        Demonstration Initiative

Economic Analysis
In a cost comparison, the annual cost of a FOD finder and operator, $128,305, was more cost
effective than the cost, $277,500, of the current FOD clearance method using FOD walk and a
Suggested Implementation Applications
FOD detection and removal technologies are applicable
at military and commercial airfields.
Points of Contact
    •	 Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	
       703-614-4616,	laura.macaluso@osd.mil
    •	 Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	

Applicable NDCEE Task
FY 2010 Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and
Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight Council
(DSOC) Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Increase
Sustainability Enhance Mission Readiness Across the      Airfield managers report spending an average of 1,800 man hours
Department of Defense (DoD) (Task N.0712)                each month to detect items like these found during a “FOD walk.”

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Geographic Information System for Facilities
                            Management (GIS/FM)

                            To help Tobyhanna Army Depot (TYAD) cost-effectively maintain, repair, expand, and manage
                            its physical facilities, the NDCEE continues to develop a comprehensive GIS/FM. The NDCEE
                            has grown the installation’s GIS from a stand-alone program for individual use within the
                            Environmental Management Division to a depot-wide enterprise-level system that is accessible
                            to all TYAD personnel. For example, the system enables the Department of Public Works,
                            Engineering Division to access geographic data that is specific to physical features of the
                            depot (i.e., buildings, utilities, and roadways). In addition, the system can create 3D models of
                            the depot that are helpful for radar, test range, and antenna placement activities.
                            Technology Description
                            The GIS technology links spatial data (lines, points, and polygons) or imagery data
                            (orthophotography) with tables of related attributes. It permits storing and querying of
                            information, combining text search and geographic search to allow analysts and decision-
                            makers to find and see relevant information faster. A GIS/FM allows the user to access,
                            evaluate, manage, and display a wide variety of geographically related information to meet
                            specific program or project needs. System capabilities have been expanded to include
                            environmental	factors	such	as	hazardous	or	toxic	materials/contaminants	that	are	present,	
                            dates/types of past spills or discharges, and environmental restrictions or permit requirements.
                            As part of its support to TYAD, the NDCEE converted the original layers of data and tables
                            into a geospatial database that complies with the Spatial Data Standards for Facilities,
                            Infrastructure and Environment (SDS/FIE), an industry standard for data compliance. The
                            conversion facilitated the automation and integration of 200-plus layers of data for simplified
                            access to crucial environmental monitoring data as well as topographic, hydrographic, and
                            situational data for rapid response to environmental crises.
                             Among other items, TYAD’s geodatabase contains maps of utilities (water, steam, and gas
           ESOHE             lines),	dates	and	types	of	past	spill	events,	locations	of	hazardous	material	and	fuel	tanks,	
                             and relevant infrastructure. It also provides current and reliable information on the features
         Focus Area          and characteristics of physical resources such as building dimensions; construction,
                             maintenance, and repair dates; and improvement/ refurbishment activities.
         ESOH Information
           Management        The NDCEE has imported and corrected interior layouts of buildings, which were created
           Technologies      from computer aided drafting (CAD) composite drawings. TYAD uses these layouts for
                             evacuation planning, cost center monitoring, and tenant accounting, calculating accurate
                             square (and cubic) footage by use, directorate, and division. Interior areas (rooms, closets,
                                                        pipe chases) continued to be topologically corrected and include
                                                        ceiling heights, floor types, and cost center information for the
                                                        industrial area of the depot.
                                                          Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                                              •		 Consistency: Due to the nature of spatial standards,
                                                                  features throughout the DoD are mapped using the
                                                                  same attributes and relational database architecture.
                                                                  This consistency allows easy interaction between
                                                                  installations and eases data gathering operations and
                                                                  data modeling.
  3D overview of TYAD

    •		 Flexibility:	The	GIS	allows	maps	to	be	produced	on	the	computer	screen	or	on	paper,	
        at any scale, covering various levels of theme detail and to variable extents. Turning
        layers	“on”	and	“off”	results	in	different	thematic	maps	and	can	be	customized	to	

        end-user	needs.	It	also	allows	different	models	to	be	visualized	by	changing	individual	
        variables “on-the-fly.”
    •		 Security:	Because	the	GIS	consists	of	a	central	computer	database	of	all	spatial	
        data, it is available to all users for simultaneous use and editing. As hardcopy maps
        are often damaged, lost, or misplaced, the GIS results in additional security and
        conservation of the data.
    •		 Efficiency:	Traditionally,	much	of	a	map’s	detail	is	duplicated	in	other	hardcopy	
        maps due to redundancy in the process of updating and gathering installation data.
        Complicating matters, information is often duplicated at different scales and updated
        at different times and by different individuals or departments. Often this situation
        results in incomplete data or inconsistent timeliness. Because the GIS contains only
        one layer of data for each data theme, duplication of data is eliminated. When a
        revision is made in the GIS database, all users immediately have access to the most
        current data. Moreover, revisions can be made to GIS map data more efficiently than
        the laborious updating of hardcopy data.
    •		 Searchability:	Visually	comparing	two	hardcopy	map	sheets	can	be	cumbersome	
        and time-consuming. With GIS technology, spatial and attribute queries allow quick
        analysis and comparison and can easily highlight features of interest. Because GIS
        map features are linked with their attributes, users need to only highlight features that
        meet the query criteria or point to a map feature to see its attributes.

Technology Limitations
    •		 Requires	increased	integration	of	many	databases	to	maintain	current	data	for	all	
    •		 Demands	additional	training	to	support	usage	by	depot-wide	personnel

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
The NDCEE continued to support TYAD’s GIS/FM Program. Specific accomplishments included:
    •		 Integrated	Headquarters	Installation	Inventory	System	(HQIIS)	Real	Property	Unique	
        Identifiers (RPUIDs) GIS data for all buildings on the depot
    •		 Completed	rooftop	heating,	venting,	and	air	conditioning	features	data	for	the	GIS;	
        updates will continue as needed
    •		 Delivered	a	functional	Field	Antenna	Spectral	Management	and	Recording	System	
        (FASMARS) to the computer desktop; planning additional levels of functionality to
        FASMARS application
    •		 Delivered	“Using	Diverse	Data	Sources	in	an	SDS/FIE	Compliant	Geodatabase”	
        presentation at Army Installation Geospatial Information and Services (IGI&S)
    •		 Conducted	monthly	Environmental	Systems	Research	Institute®	(ESRI®)	ArcGIS™	
        tools and Functionality II classes for TYAD staff
    •		 Discussed	requirements	for	producing	an	Integrated	Surveillance	and	Reconnaissance	
        (ISR) application that integrates U.S. border surveillance data with GIS
    •		 Provided	formal	classroom	and	ad	hoc	training	depot-wide	to	users	of	the	GIS

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        With use of a GIS/FM among facilities, the DoD anticipates that operational costs should be
                        reduced	by	process	streamlining	and	centralization	based	on	locality.	Additionally,	substantial	

                        savings	in	safety,	planning	for	construction	conflicts,	and	utility	management	should	be	realized	
                        through increased compliance with DoD standards, consistency throughout all installations,
                        and improved emergency management practices. Additional operational savings are expected
                        due to eliminating redundant work efforts and increased planning for construction impact and
                        disruption of workflow.
                        Benefits that have been accrued from use of TYAD’s GIS/FM include avoidance of costly fines,
                        lawsuits, and environmental and/or logistical disasters and better and more accessible tracking
                        of all spills and compliance factors. Furthermore, the accurate mapping of all underground
                        utilities allows for a more complete picture of the subsurface before breaking ground for any
                        repair or new construction project. Maintenance on all structures can be better monitored and
                        planned when all activity for each location is visible and up-to-date.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        This technology can be implemented at any DoD installation to improve facilities management,
                        environmental management, and real property inventory. In addition to force protection
                        initiatives,	a	GIS	also	tracks	environmental	factors	such	as	hazardous	materials	storage	and	
                        remediation, spill plan details, containment areas, and live-fire and radar test range planning.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 Ray	Watkins,	TYAD,	570-615-6018,	ray.watkins@us.army.mil
                            •		 Greg	Hafer,	NDCEE/CTC,	717-565-4402,	haferg@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Onsite Geographic Information System Support at Tobyhanna Army Depot (Task N.0734)

                       Wells, water sources, and wellhead protection      Sensors placed at well and tank sites, HazMat
                       areas are identified on a GIS layer.               holding sites, and lift stations are also included
                                                                          in the GIS.

Geothermal Heat Pump System
Like the other services, the National Guard Bureau (NGB) is striving to reduce energy usage
and increase use of alternative fuels and renewable energy systems to help reduce pollution;

improve energy security; and meet Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and EO 13423, Strengthening
Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, mandates. In addition to
Federal renewable energy initiatives, Pennsylvania has enacted the Advanced Energy Portfolio
Standard (AEPS), which requires all electricity suppliers in Pennsylvania to provide 18% of their
energy from renewable energy sources within 15 years (2019-2020), with 8% coming from
Tier I (solar, wind, low-impact hydro, geothermal, fuel cells, biomass, coal mine methane). This
act further stresses the importance of energy as a key sustainability issue in Pennsylvania. To
help the Pennsylvania National Guard (PANG) at their largest installation, Fort Indiantown Gap
(FTIG), meet regulatory requirements, the NDCEE assessed whether geothermal heat pump
systems provided lower life-cycle costs than traditional split system air-conditioning/propane
gas furnace heating systems.
Technology Description
Geothermal heat pumps (also referred to as geo-exchange, earth-coupled, ground-source,
or water-source heat pumps) use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange
medium	instead	of	ambient	air.	Just	a	few	feet	below	the	earth’s	surface,	the	ground	
temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year (45-75°F, depending on latitude).
The geothermal heat pump system takes advantage of seasonal temperature variances by
exchanging heat with the earth through a ground heat exchanger. These systems basically
move or “pump” the heat from the earth into the building in the winter to help warm it and pull
the heat from the building in the summer and discharge it into the ground.
The basic components of a closed water-loop geothermal heat pump system include:
underground	piping,	pumps,	a	liquid	antifreeze	solution,	a	water	source	heat	pump,	and	an	
air	distribution	system.	A	geothermal	system	consists	of	wells	drilled	either	horizontally	or	
vertically in the ground. Loops of pipes are placed in the wells that are buried adjacent to the
                                                                                                      Focus Area
building and the ground loop is connected to a heat pump inside the building. Pumps circulate       Alternative Power and
the	water-antifreeze	solution	through	the	heat	pump	unit,	which	accepts	or	rejects	heat	               Energy Solutions
depending on whether it is heating or cooling and exchanges temperature with the ground as
needed to satisfy the refrigeration cycle.
PANG’s design is a combination of vertical wells averaging 220 feet in depth and a 20%
bentonite/80% silicon dioxide (SiO2)	sand	grout.	The	design	also	used	a	non-pressurized	flow	
center for its simplicity, increased system reliability, and ease of use in isolating wells if a
problem should be encountered.

FTIG Green Building Design

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        During planning meetings, the stakeholders determined that Buildings 4-201 and 4-202 were
                        the best venues for the NDCEE demonstration. These buildings are mirror images of each other.
                        Thus, one could be used as a baseline for comparison during the evaluation. Both buildings

                        were constructed within the last three years and feature the most updated energy-efficient
                        fixtures. Building 4-201 was selected for installation of the geothermal heat pump system
                        because utility lines ran through the area required for the well-field for Building 4-202. These
                        buildings are located near the airfield and are approximately 4,890 square feet each. They
                        are constructed with an open floor plan and are used primarily as sites for Soldier Readiness
                        Processing (SRP) for units departing on and returning from military deployments.
                        As part of the NDCEE demonstration, energy usage data were acquired from both Building
                        4-201 and 4-202 for a 12-month period. The data acquired from Building 4-202 served as the
                        baseline against which the energy savings from the geothermal heat pump system, located in
                        Building 4-201, were compared. Both buildings contain electrical power monitoring equipment
                        (Square-D model CM4250 Energy Meters) installed at the electrical service entrances to
                        each building. These meters monitored overall building electrical energy consumption time.
                        In addition to monitoring the overall building energy use, separate electrical power meters
                        (Square-D model ION-6200) were installed in the mechanical equipment rooms for both
                        buildings. Data were acquired at one-minute intervals from each of the power meters. The data
                        included voltage, current, apparent power, real power, reactive power, energy use, and power
                        factor. Each data record was time stamped with the date and time the data was recorded.
                        Based on the results of the technology demonstration, planning for a second geothermal heat
                        pump system is underway. This system will be installed in a new building and a strategy is
                        being developed to achieve a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEEDTM) silver
                        rating for the new construction.
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	 Energy	savings	–	According	to	the	California	Energy	Commission’s	Consumer	Energy	
                               Center, studies show that 70% of the energy used in geothermal heat pump systems
                               is renewable. The other 30% is used to operate the pumps and fans. Geothermal heat
                               pump systems are also estimated to use 25-50% less electricity than conventional
                               heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
                            •	 Durability	–	Geothermal	heat	pumps	are	durable	and	require	less	maintenance	than	
                               traditional HVAC systems because they have fewer mechanical components. All of
                               the components are housed indoors or underground, sheltered from the weather. The
                               underground piping system is typically guaranteed for 25-50 years. The components
                               inside the building are small and easily accessible for maintenance.
                            •	 Cost	–	Cost	savings	are	realized	by	eliminating	the	fuel	source	(propane,	natural	gas,	
                               oil) and instead exchanging heat at comparatively smaller temperature differences
                               with the ground, which remains relatively constant throughout the year, rather than
                               with the extreme ambient temperature differences that occur during winter and
                               summer months that is necessary with conventional systems. The energy saved
                               from the geothermal heat pump system is typically recouped within 5-10 years for
                               residential systems.
                            •	 Design	Flexibility	–	Because	the	hardware	requires	less	space	than	that	needed	
                               by conventional HVAC systems, equipment rooms can be greatly scaled down for
                               new	construction.	These	types	of	systems	also	provide	excellent	“zone”	space	
                               conditioning, allowing different parts of the building to be heated or cooled to different
                               temperatures. Geothermal heat pump systems are also relatively easy to install as
                               retrofits to existing buildings—provided adjacent land is available for the well field.

    •	 Environmental	Stewardship/Sustainability	–	A	geothermal	heat	pump	system	
       eliminates GHGs produced on site by the current propane heating system as well as
       GHGs emitted in the transportation of propane to the building for periodic tank refills.

Technology Limitations
Geothermal heat pumps typically cost twice that of a regular heat pump system. In addition
to the cost of a heat pump unit and its installation costs, well drilling costs must be taken into
account. Drilling costs vary depending on many local and terrain factors such as the geology
of the area and the depth and number of wells required. Although initial costs are higher for
geothermal heat pump systems, operating costs are lower.
NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Submitted	the	PANG	Technology	Demonstration/Validation	Report	that	documented	
       demonstration activities, results, and recommendations
    •	 Conducting	monthly	LEED	design	team	meetings	for	the	new	building;	began	
       development of the energy model
    •	 Developed	a	project	poster	for	the	2010	SERDP/ESTCP	Symposium	
    •	 Completed	the	35%	design	drawings	for	FTIG	
    •	 Developed	baseline	energy	model;	design	comparisons	have	been	made	between	
       ASHRAE 90.1 (minimum code requirements) and FTIG standard building designs.
       Additional design iterations incorporating potential energy saving design elements
       were also conducted. A summary report of the energy usage impact of the various
       designs was submitted to FTIG and NGB. A full model was presented at the FTIG
       design meeting.
    •	 Under	a	separate	NDCEE	effort,	conducted	a	Geothermal/HVAC	Study	at	LCAAP	to	
       determine if geothermal technologies would be more cost effective than installing a
       conventional HVAC system. This study was used as an analysis to verify a proposal
       submitted to the government from the LCAAP’s operator was accurate.

Economic Analysis
The initial calculations made during the technology assessment indicated a payback of
approximately 11 to 16 years for geothermal heat pump systems. To evaluate the economic
value of the FTIG system, energy usage and cost data were collected for 12 months to
evaluate the technology’s performance throughout the year. Geothermal technologies are most
advantageous during winter and summer months.
Energy	usage	was	recorded	for	Buildings	4-201	and	4-202	from	July	2009	through	the	end	
of	June	2010.	The	data	revealed	that	Building	4-201,	which	housed	the	geothermal	ground-
source heat pump system, consumed approximately 40% less electrical energy than the
baseline, Building 4-202. This consumption included heating of the buildings in the winter
months, and the cooling of the buildings in the summer months.
To properly calculate the monetary energy savings from FTIG using the data gathered from the
electrical panels, billing rates were obtained from the utility provider. According to the rates,
a total monthly cost difference of $69.13 was saved by using the geothermal system. This
difference would correlate to an approximate average savings of $829.56 over the life of the
12-month demonstration period.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Heating energy was also recorded by comparing the propane usage in both buildings. The
                        propane	tanks	were	topped	off	prior	to	the	start	of	the	demonstration	in	July	of	2009	and	each	
                        fill was documented.

                        When comparing the total amount of gallons consumed, the NDCEE took into account that
                        Building	4-201	was	utilized	approximately	70%	more	than	Building	4-202.	Assuming	that	under	
                        normal occupancy conditions the buildings would consume the same amount of fuel, and even
                        with the over occupancy of Building 4-201, the geothermal system still saved FTIG 1,541.5
                        gallons of propane. When looking at the rate paid for propane during the demonstration period,
                        $2.4136/gallon, the propane savings during the demonstration period totaled approximately
                        When combining the monetary savings from both the energy and propane used, an average
                        total saving for the demonstration period comes to approximately $4,550. Because the
                        approximate cost for the ground-source geothermal heat pump system was $52,000, the
                        estimated payback period for the system is 11.43 years, in the range of the initial payback
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Geothermal systems may be applicable to heat and cool buildings at installations across the
                        DoD if they are located in areas with applicable geology.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Monsoor	Rashid,	National	Guard	Bureau,	703-607-7976,	monsoor.rashid@us.army.mil	
                            •	 Donna	Provance,	NDCEE/CTC,	919-303-4323,	provance@ctc.com
                            •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        FY07 Regional Sustainability Solutions (Task N.0501)
                        Pennsylvania National Guard Energy Efficient Building with Geothermal Heat Pump
                        (Tasks N.0615-A4)

                        Ammunition Industrial Base Assessment (Task N.0707)

Green Automated Munitions Evaluation and
Recovery System (GAMERS)

Historically, Class C explosive devices known as spotting charges have been used to spot and
score training ordnance. While they achieve their intended purpose, these spotting charges
may	contaminate	ranges	and	are	a	potential	safety	hazard.	To	ensure	range	sustainability	and	
safer range clearance/maintenance, use of spotting charges must be reduced or eliminated.
To evaluate the performance of the proof-of-concept GAMERS technology, an alternative to
spotting charges, the NDCEE, working with Control Systems Research, Inc. (CSR), conducted a
one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) demonstration. These system demonstrations
represent a high fidelity prototype, designed to validate the technology’s hardware and
software integration.
Technology Description
The GAMERS technology can identify the impact location of munitions to provide near-
immediate feedback to a training unit. Developed by CSR, the GAMERS system uses chirped
Radio Frequency (RF) with an encoded data link. The system can be enhanced to document
impact locations – including impacts after ricochet or broaching– for later range clearance.
Military scoring and recovery systems have unique requirements based on range configuration,
the ordnance fired and regulations in Title 10 of the U.S. code. These requirements must be
balanced with the DoD’s responsibility to train the force. While numerous refined systems
and approaches can provide accurate data and scoring of small arms munitions (i.e., less than
30 millimeters), scoring systems for larger caliber weaponry are generally dated, expensive
to maintain, labor intensive, and confined to a designated area. Their capability to provide               ESOHE
feedback to the training unit is also limited. These limitations are very evident at tactical
ranges designed for air-to-ground weapons training, which typically lack a comprehensive
                                                                                                         Focus Area
scoring/evaluation system or a system for integrated debris recovery of small and large                  MEC/UXO/Range
caliber munitions.                                                                                        Sustainability
                                                                                                          Restoration of
                                                                                                        Contaminated Sites

The system provides near-immediate feedback to the   Munition position is found using same principles as GPS.
training unit.

                                                                                           Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	 An	automated	scoring	system	identifies	the	impact	location	of	the	munitions	to	
                               provide near-immediate feedback to the training unit.

                            •	 The	technology	increases	range	sustainability	and	personnel	safety	by	documenting	
                               the location of impact to assist in recovery/range clearance.
                            •	 The	RF-based	scoring	system	will	help	the	services	to	better	manage	their	range	
                               training facilities, both in terms of land management for exercises and in terms of
                               environmental impact.

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 System	complexity	of	the	selected	technology	is	relatively	high	in	terms	of	
                               development and integration of the hardware and software required, compared to that
                               of several of the alternatives investigated.
                            •	 To	accurately	locate	and	record	the	final	location	of	munitions,	the	on-board	RF	
                               antenna must survive the impact.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Investigated	and	selected	the	demonstration	technology	from	a	total	of	10	unique	
                            •	 Interviewed	range	operators,	NSWC	Corona	staff,	training	personnel,	and	other	
                               potential range users to identify the requirements for the GAMERS technology
                            •	 Planned	a	1D	and	2D	demonstration	of	the	chirped	RF	with	an	encoded	data	link	
                            •	 Identified	Ruckel	Airport	in	Niceville,	FL	as	the	location	to	conduct	the	1D	and	2D	

                        Economic Analysis
                        Site-specific unexploded ordnance (UXO) recovery costs are difficult to obtain, but the most
                        time consuming part of this process is detecting, locating, and identifying the ordnance.
                        GAMERS positively identifies the ordnance location, which would significantly reduce the
                        costs associated with UXO recovery. This reduces range clearance man-hours, significantly
                        increasing the amount of time that the ranges would be available to range operators.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The GAMERS technology would be beneficial to DoD and its services. The USMC and Army
                        would benefit by implementing this technology on their mortar and artillery ranges, while the
                        USAF and Navy would benefit by implementing this technology on their air-to-ground ranges.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Carlos	Hathcock,	USMC,	703-784-2841,	Carlos.n.Hathcock@usmc.mil
                            •	 Emily	McCauley,	NDCEE/CTC,	843-460-6313,	mccaulee@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Green Automated Munitions Evaluation and Recovery System (GAMERS) (Task N.0716)

Ground Vehicle Energy Absorbing Seat
Occupant survivability is a top priority when designing a combat or tactical vehicle system.
The ability to protect the occupants from blast and crash events has become a major challenge

with current and new vehicle platform designs. The NDCEE is supporting the TACOM LCMC
by designing, developing, and demonstrating a seat system for military vehicles to protect
occupants from blast effects.
Technology Description
Many systems are involved in providing a system-level protection package that incorporates
technologies and design principles such as hull design and shape, armor materials, occupant
compartment layouts and obstruction reduction, occupant placement, and seat design. Each
vehicle system responds differently to blast and crash situations, and therefore, the occupants
absorb varying amounts of energy. Most underbelly blast events subject vehicles to extreme
vertical accelerations followed by a return to ground impact. It is this multi-hit loading event
which needs to be addressed via seat system design to improve warfighter safety, vehicle
survivability, and mission readiness.
The objective of the NDCEE effort was to develop an innovative, robust blast mitigating seat
design	that	maximizes	occupant	safety	during	blast	and	crash	events.	To	accomplish	this	
objective,	the	seat	design	utilizes	an	Energy	Attenuation	(EA)	system	with	a	reset	mechanism	
that protects the occupant during both the blast and ground impact events. A further
objective of this effort was to demonstrate the viability of the EA concept through subscale
testing, and to generate test data for correlation with CTC’s dynamic Finite Element Model
(FEM). The NDCEE worked with U.S. Army’s Tank and Automotive Research, Development,
and Engineering Center’s (TARDEC) to develop requirements that enhance survivability and
minimize	injury	risk	during	a	blast	event.	As	a	threshold,	the	seating	system	was	designed	to	
protect an Army 50th percentile male with a dressed weight of 280 lb during a 200g 5ms half
sine blast pulse. The Dynamic Response Index (DRI) was used to quantify the risk of occupant
injury during a blast event.
The prototype seat design consists of two major components: a structure that is fixed to the
vehicle floor and a bucket structure that can stroke during a blast/ground impact event. The            Focus Area
motion of the stroking bucket structure is governed by the EA system. When a blast occurs
the inertial force causes the EA wire to permanently deform as the seat bucket strokes                   Safety Initiatives
downward. The seat can stroke up to 8-in, but the actual amount of stroke will be dependent
on the severity of the blast event and the weight of the
occupant. After the seat reaches its maximum stroke,
springs cause the bucket to return upward. The EA system
can then stroke in the same manner during the ground
impact event.
In addition to the EA system, the seat has several other
noteworthy design features. The seat includes features
which allow it to withstand deformations of the vehicle floor
during a blast event. The seat also incorporates a five point
restraint harness with a single action release latch. Finally,
the seat incorporates a removable back cushion to allow
soldiers to ride comfortably while wearing a backpack or
hydration system.                                                The NDCEE used numerical analyses to evaluate blast stresses
                                                                 on military vehicle seats, developing a meshed seat system
To test the EA concept without incurring the cost of building
                                                                 (left) and modeling the results of the analysis to show initial
a complete seat, a subscale test fixture was developed. The
                                                                 finite element stress contours (right).
test fixture is fabricated from rectangular mild steel plates

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        to keep costs low. An adjustable mass representing the occupant can be varied by adding or
                        removing steel plates to test a wide range of simulated occupant weights. The test fixture can
                        be	configured	with	or	without	the	return	spring,	can	accommodate	two	different	size	EA	wire	
                        rollers,	and	can	utilize	a	wide	range	of	EA	wire	profiles.	

                        Blast data results from TARDEC were used to identify vehicles with the highest challenges/
                        threats. Attributes associated with vehicle features, production, trend analysis, and other
                        product/production parameters were gathered to establish product quality criteria.
                        Technology Benefits
                            •	 A	seat	with	an	EA	system	will	reduce	the	risk	of	injury	during	ground	vehicle	
                               blast events.
                            •	 The	seat	will	be	applicable	to	many	vehicles.

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 While	the	design	is	applicable	to	many	vehicles,	it	will	need	to	be	refined	for	a	
                               specific vehicle.
                            •	 The	seat	is	in	the	test	phase.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Worked	with	TARDEC	to	develop	requirements	that	enhance	survivability	and	minimize	
                               injury risk during a blast event. Delivered a Requirements Summary Technical Report
                               that provides a technical summary of these activities and results.
                            •	 Performed	a	trade	study	to	evaluate	multiple	EA	design	concepts.	Moved	forward	with	
                               a wire bender style EA system.
                            •	 Developed	a	robust	blast	mitigating	seat	design	that	maximizes	occupant	safety	
                               during blast and crash events. The EA system incorporates a reset mechanism that
                               protects the occupant during both the blast and ground impact events.
                            •	 Delivered	a	Technical	Data	Package	(TDP)	that	consists	of	Level	2	drawings.
                            •	 Investigated	additional	tertiary	systems	including	restraint	systems,	floor	warpage	
                               mitigation technology and seat cushions.
                            •	 Developed	an	explicit	dynamic	FEM	that	can	accurately	predict	the	performance	of	the	
                               seat and EA system. The FEM will be validated by subscale fixture testing performed
                               on TARDEC’s drop tower.

                        Economic Analysis
                        While an economic analysis was not conducted as part of the design development, reducing
                        fatalities and injuries from vehicle blasts and crashes will reduce medical costs.
                        Suggested Implementation Opportunities
                        The energy absorption device will be applicable to other vehicles. The device will be presented
                        to military Program Executive Offices (PEOs) and their respective Program Managers (PMs) for
                        usage/application in many new and modified ground vehicles. The knowledge gained during
                        the project may be leveraged to scale up/down the device to accommodate new or emerging
                        blast scenarios. Other military branches may take advantage of the technology to address
                        shortcomings during high impact events.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Risa	Scherer,	Ground	Systems	Survivability	–	Blast	Mitigation	Team,	
                               586-282-0864,	risa.scherer@us.army.mil
                            •	 Kenneth	M.	Sabo,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6819,	sabok@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        TARDEC Occupant Protection Seat Development (Task N.0730)

Hand-Arm Vibration Reduction Gloves and Tools
The NDCEE teamed with several task forces of DSOC to ensure that procurement guidelines
are applied properly for products that will reduce workers’ exposure to repetitive stress injuries
and illnesses such as hand-arm vibration. For example, low-vibration power tools and certified

anti-vibration (A-V) gloves can reduce vibration exposures. The NDCEE team focused on
increasing the availability and use of low-vibration tools and gloves in key processes.
Technology Description
While power tools, such as drills, grinders, and sanders, have expedited the hand work needed
in many maintenance activities, their use has unintended consequences. Prolonged exposure
to vibration causes small blood vessels in the hands to constrict. The resulting effects,
called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), are progressive and crippling, leading to loss of
sensation and dexterity, compromising the ability to work, and in severe cases leading to the
atrophy and even loss of fingers. HAVS affects many DoD maintenance and support workers
particularly in shipyards and airframe maintenance. Many populations studied have shown
disease incidence of 30% or greater.
Several key processes/issues were identified as having a profound impact contributing to the
onset of HAVS among workers within the DoD:
    •	 Reciprocating	Hand	Saws	(Sawsall)	in	Submarine	Maintenance
    •	 Riveting/Air	Frame	Maintenance
    •	 Needlegun	for	Shipboard	Corrosion	Control
    •	 Availability	of	A-V	Gloves
    •	 Contract	Guidelines	on	High	Risk	Process	(Jackhammer)	Impact	Wrenches	for	
         Tire Maintenance
The NDCEE effort focused on drafting new standard General Services Administration (GSA)
procurement guidelines for the Riveting/Airframe Maintenance Process. This riveting process
is	still	widely	utilized	today,	more	so	than	any	of	the	other	processes	combined.	The	intention	
of the new guideline was to drive a cultural change based on the awareness of HAVS.
DoD training centers currently provide ear and eye protection but do not address the HAV
damage potential. Providing A-V gloves to the students launches them to their parent
work center with all the required protective clothing/gear to perform their job. Making
students aware of A-V tools versus the standard ones used today should foster a change in
procurement patterns that is anticipated to save the DoD a significant amount of money in
                                                                                                      Focus Area
disability claims and doctor visits as a result of HAVS.                                              Safety Initiatives/
The links between process improvements that reduce HAV exposure and the reduction of                        DSOC
personnel exposures to reduced risk of disease and disability were communicated to the
working group in educational and outreach materials. An example
of a production improvement that reduced personnel exposure
was using a glove box to remove paint from small aircraft
parts. The initial process of hand sanding to remove paint and
corrosion required three to four hours and created significant HAV
exposures, as well as potential contamination of the work area
and worker exposures to lead and chromium in paint. Conducting
the operation in a glove box allowed the work to be done in about
twenty minutes and virtually eliminated HAV exposure, as well as
the concurrent risks of airborne exposures to chromate-containing
paint. It also reduced noise exposures.
Videos are an effective method for conveying a message. The
Working Group began its quest to educate the target audience,
                                                                       HAVS can affect workers who use needle-guns to remove
identified through process managers and other points of contact
                                                                       corrosion during ship maintenance and repair.
(POCs), by enhancing and building upon a video produced by
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in
                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                       the early 1980s on HAV awareness. Since the original video was made, HAV prevention has
                       advanced, and A-V tools and gloves are now used by and readily available to the industrial
                       worker. The new video incorporated this information in the script, bringing it up to date.
                       Technology Benefits
                           •	 A-V	gloves	and	low	vibration	or	A-V	tools	reduce	vibration	and,	therefore,	reduce	

                              vibration effects on workers.

                       Technology Limitations
                           •	 Workers	must	understand	the	effects	of	vibration	and	use	the	protective	equipment	for	it	
                              to be effective.
                           •	 Procurement	guidelines	and	NSNs	must	be	in	place	to	expedite	procurement	of	A-V	
                              gloves and tools.

                       NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                           •	 Identified	process	managers	and	important	POCs	who	either	are	directly	involved	in	
                              high-risk operations and, therefore, at risk of this disease or manage operations and
                              processes where HAVS is a risk. Their participation was crucial for demonstrating the
                              need for change and the overarching benefits of that change, and as a consequence,
                              implementing those changes.
                           •	 Produced	a	HAV	Safety	and	Awareness	video	for	DoD
                           •	 Revised	the	section	of	Military	Standard	(MIL-STD)	1472	addressing	segmental	vibration,	
                              developed tool purchase guidance document, and provided various input to guidance
                              and standards documents to recommend modification to current procurement and safety
                           •	 Prepared	Procurement	Guidance	on	Ordering	Low	Vibration	Tools
                           •	 Provided	systems	engineering	improvements	for	HAV	into	Defense	Standardization	

                       Economic Analysis
                       Preventing HAV can save the DoD significant money by reducing disability claims and medical
                       expenses. A business case analysis needs to be conducted comparing the cost of the personal
                       protective equipment and the cost of the A-V tools versus the medical and disability costs of
                       treating and compensating for HAVS.
                       Implementation Opportunities
                       Once workers understand the risks of HAV and how to prevent its effects, the team will improve
                       the availability of improved protective equipment within the DLA and at industrial work locations.
                       They will complete efforts to make DLA-established stock numbers for certified A-V gloves
                       available and expedite the procurement process. It is also envisioned that the use of A-V tools
                       and gloves will become Special Interest Items on the Inspector General checklist. The appropriate
                       Service Safety Regulations/Manuals will also be updated to reflect the mandatory use of A-V
                       gloves and tools when workers are engaged in certain types of maintenance activities.
                       Points of Contact
                           •	 Mark	Geiger,	DSOC	Government	Initiative	Lead	and	Task	Force	POC,	703-695-4703,	
                           •	 Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
                           •	 Sirena	Bustle,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5647,	bustles@ctc.com

                       Applicable NDCEE Task
                       Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
                       Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance Mission
                       Readiness Across the Department of Defense (Tasks N.0482/N.0517/N.0568/N.0613/N.0712)

HAP-Free Cleaning and Degreasing
To comply with the EPA’s proposed Residual Risk standards under the National Emission
Standards	for	Hazardous	Air	Pollutants	(NESHAP)	for	Halogenated	Solvent	Cleaning	to	reduce/

eliminate the facility-wide emissions of trichloroethylene (TCE), the NDCEE supported the
US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), and TARDEC efforts to
identify, test, and evaluate environmentally friendly alternatives to TCE. ANAD was using TCE
for vapor degreasing of small arms and removing plating wax from miscellaneous components
of combat vehicles. Using its current processes, ANAD will be unable to comply with the
proposed TCE limit without installing costly and burdensome pollution control devices.
Alternative solvents and technologies were needed, but evaluation was needed prior to
Technology Description
The NDCEE evaluated environmentally friendly solvent cleaning in three bench-scale
technology applications, specifically ultrasonic cleaning, cabinet washing, and vapor
degreasing. Based on the results of the bench-scale testing, the project team selected two
dual frequency ultrasonic cleaning technologies for small arms cleaning and degreasing and
plating wax removal to support maintenance and sustainment operations at ANAD.
With ultrasonic cleaning, the parts to be cleaned are immersed in a liquid, which is then
subjected to ultrasonic energy. The ultrasonic energy is generated by a transducer that creates
rapid oscillation of longitudinal waves through the liquid. These waves, where they create
expansion in the liquid, form millions of extremely small cavities/bubbles. As the pressure
waves oscillate, the bubbles implode when the pressure creates a compressive effect. The
implosion of these millions of tiny bubbles creates a strong scouring action where the liquid is
in contact with the part. The phenomenon is called cavitation.
Cavitation occurs at different frequency levels and is dependent on several factors associated
with the liquid, namely, vapor pressure, density, temperature, viscosity, and surface tension.
The	bubbles	created	by	high-frequency	waves	(e.g.,	40-80	kilohertz	[KHz])	are	small	and	
                                                                                                     Focus Areas
well-suited for precision cleaning applications. Conversely, the lower frequencies (around           Alternative Coatings/
25	KHz)	create	larger	bubbles,	which	are	more	aggressive	and	better	suited	for	removing	             Surface Preparation
larger	contaminants.		This	25-40	KHz	range	is	typical	of	automotive	type	cleaning.		In	the	               Processes
production of electronics, tiny contaminants are encountered and require much smaller
bubbles,	obtained	by	frequencies	as	high	as	90	KHz.		Cavitation	removes	soils	from	parts	
through a mechanical effect. Soluble soils are
then dissolved by the solvent, while oils are either
dissolved or emulsified depending on the cleaning
media (aqueous versus solvent).
Small Arms Cleaning System
The small arms cleaning system is a six-station,
dual frequency ultrasonic cleaning system
which incorporates wash, rinse, dry, and rust
preventative application into a complete cleaning
cycle.		The	system	utilizes	ultrasonic	agitation	
capable of operating at multiple frequencies in
wash, rinse, and preservative stages to aide in the
efficient removal of fouling and field contamination
as well as to accommodate varied part mass and
geometry. The system combines a low frequency          Vapor Degreasing is used at ANAD for cleaning components from
                                                       combat vehicles.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            (25	and	40	KHz)	initial	cleaning	stage	to	handle	a	majority	of	the	contaminant	removal	with	
                            subsequent	high	frequency	(40	and	80	KHz)	wash,	rinse,	and	rust	preventative	stages.		Wash,	
                            rinse, and preservative tanks are heated and capable of operating up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit

                            (°F) at steady state without overheating. The system also includes features to remove
                            contaminates from all wet stations (wash, rinse, and preservative) through filtration.
                            Plating Wax Removal System
                            The plating wax removal system is a four-station, dual frequency ultrasonic cleaning system
                            which also incorporates wash, rinse, dry, and rust preventative application into a complete
                            cleaning	cycle.		As	with	the	small	arms	system,	the	wax	removal	system	utilizes	ultrasonic	
                            agitation capable of operating at multiple frequencies simultaneously in the wash, rinse, and
                            rust preventative stages to aide in the efficient removal of plating wax from the part. Since the
                            plating wax requires an aggressive cleaning stage, the system includes only a single cleaning
                            stage	(25	and	40	KHz)	with	an	integrated	coalescing	wax	separator	and	filtration	system.		
                            Wash, rinse, and preservative tanks are heated and capable of operating at 180°F at steady
                            state without overheating.
                            Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                 •	 Effective	at	cleaning,	including	removing	fouling,	and	degreasing	within	tiny	crevices	
                                    and holes
                                 •	 Softens	rust,	making	rust	removal	easier
                                 •	 Prevents	rust	better	than	TCE
                                 •	 Will	not	damage	chrome	plated	surfaces
                                 •	 Will	not	damage	intricate,	lightweight,	or	easily	damaged	parts
                                 •	 Does	not	have	line-of-sight	restrictions

                            Technology Limitations
                                 •		 High	cleaning	power	obtained	at	the	low	end	of	the	ultrasonic	cleaning	frequency	
                                     range produces a noisy environment.
                                 •		 Cleaning	solutions	may	degrade	the	ultrasonic	cleaning	tank.
                                 •		 Large	loads	are	not	cleaned	as	quickly	as	small	loads	due	to	energy	absorption.

 Small Arms System Set-up (Partial View)                        Plating Wax Removal System (Front View)

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Conducted	a	drawing	review	and	facilities	meeting	at	ANAD	
    •	 Worked	with	the	vendor	to	modify	system	drawings	based	on	Army	needs	and	ease	

       of use
    •	 Approved/signed	Zenith’s	technical	drawings	and	specifications	for	both	ultrasonic	
    •	 Installed	the	small	arms	system	in	Building	129	and	the	wax	removal	system	in	
       Building 114 at ANAD, and supported start-up
    •	 Completed	the	full-scale	demonstrations,	including	more	than	30	trial	runs	of	the	small	
       arms system
    •	 Completed	a	CBA	
    •	 Submitted	a	Full-Scale	Demonstration	Report	

Economic Analysis
The total annual savings of installing the ultrasonic cleaning systems is approximately $42,000
per year.
Suggested Implementation Applications
The small arms system and wax removal system have been transitioned to ANAD. Based on
the successful demonstrations, ultrasonic cleaning would be applicable to any DoD installation
that currently uses TCE or other HAP-containing degreasers for small arms (precision) cleaning
and degreasing and plating wax removal. Additional test efforts are needed to make the wax
system operational ready.
Points of Contact
    •	 Wayne	Ziegler,	ARL,	410-306-0746,	wziegler@arl.army.mil
    •	 Mary	Bush,	NDCEE/CTC,	904-486-4004,	bushm@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
HAP-Free Degreasing for Critical Weapon Systems Applications (Task N.0527-A2)

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions
                             Assessment (HUMMA) Technologies

                             Between 1919 and 1970 - when the DoD outlawed the practice - excess, obsolete, or
                             unserviceable munitions were disposed in U.S. coastal waters including those off Oahu, HI. The
                             NDCEE is supporting the DoD in conducting research to locate and identify sea disposal sites,
                             identify the types of munitions at each site, and evaluate the potential impact of sea disposed
                             munitions on human health and the environment.
                             Technology Description
                             A	variety	of	technologies	have	been	used	to	characterize	Site	Hawaii-05,	a	munitions	disposal	
                             site approximately five miles south of Pearl Harbor suspected to contain conventional
                             munitions and chemical warfare material. Working with the University of Hawaii,
                             methodologies evaluated during the study included Side-Scan Sonar, Towed Video Arrays
                             (TVAs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), and Human Operated Vehicle (HOVs).
                                  •	 Side-Scan	Sonar
                                      –		 Kongsberg	Simrad	EM1002-hull-mounted	multibeam	sonar	operated	at	95	kHz	
                                          with optional spatial resolution of 2m; simultaneously collected bathymetry and
                                          side-scan backscatter data that were GPS navigated
                                      – IMI120 sonar-towed at 50-75m and 75-100m above the sea floor using layback
                                          correction; IMI120 data were correlated with EM1002 data during data analysis
                                  •	 TVAs:	Towed	camera	system	included	a	color	charge	coupled	device	(CCD)	camera,	
                                     video-to-fiber converter, power supply, and two 500 Watt (W) underwater lights and
          ESOHE                      was rated to full ocean depth (6000m); deployed on a wire using non-conductive

        Focus Area                   strength member clipped to a fiber optic line; towed at 3m above the sea floor at an
                                     optimal speed of 1-2 knots, it produces a swath 5m wide.
                                  •	 HOVs	(submersibles):	Two	individual	vehicles,	Pisces	IV	and	Pisces	V,	each	equipped	
         MEC/UXO/Range               with two video cameras, one facing forward and one facing down, as well as lighting;
          Sustainability             video images were recorded on digital media inside the crafts during dives and later
                                     transferred for analysis and interpretation; each craft carried three passengers and
                                                                           was able to hover 1-3m above the sea floor at
                                                                           a speed of 0-2 knots; Pisces IV was used for
                                                                           sample collection and Pisces V with superior video
                                                                           cameras and newer batteries that allowed it to
                                                                           operate longer, was used for reconnaissance.
                                                                      •	 ROVs:	RCV-150	was	deployed	over	the	side	of	a	
                                                                           research ship; at about 10m from the sea floor,
                                                                           an ROV was released from its cage; still tethered,
                                                                           it was able to roam in an 8-10m circle and was
                                                                           not affected by the motion of the ship above it;
                                                                           with scanning SONAR and down-facing cameras
                                                                           it was used for nighttime surveys to assess how
                                                                           it would perform locating munitions in trails that
                                                                           were identified by side-scan sonar, but not imaged
                                                                           by HOVs; towed at a speed of 1-2 knots, it used a
                                                                           ultra-short baseline system for navigation.
 Remotely operated vehicles, deep-sea human-occupied vehicles,
 and side-scan sonar navigation and ranging technology were
 employed to determine the distribution and integrity of discarded
 military munitions in the coastal waters off Oahu, HI.

Samples of sediment, seawater, and biota were also collected by teams on the HOVs using
specialized	equipment	developed	for	the	task.	A	push	core	sampler	was	used	to	collect	
sediment samples as well as samples of sediment-dwelling organisms. A container with ball

valves at each end and a handle that could be manipulated by the HOV operator was used to
collect seawater samples. Data from analysis of the samples were used to prepare ecological
and human health risk assessments.
Technology Benefits
    •	 The	ROV	is	a	useful	night	time	tool	for	evaluating	debris	trails	for	potential	munitions.
    •	 Submersibles	can	be	used	to	collect	samples	close	to	targets.
    •	 Sediment	scoops	and	water	samplers	used	by	the	submersibles	can	collect	intact,	
       discrete samples.
    •	 Analytical	methods	used	to	detect	energetic,	metals,	and	chemical	agents	in	HUMMA	
       samples are effective.

Technology Limitations
    •	 Stratigraphic	preservation	of	infauna	samples	collected	during	the	submersible	dives	
       may be challenging when the muddy/sandy substrate is very fluid.
    •	 Sample	weight	and	corresponding	basket	space	are	limiting	factors	for	the	

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Conducted	video	tows	to	establish	dive	sites	
    •	 Used	submersible	and	ROV	to	verify	sonar	data	
    •	 Collected	and	analyzed	samples	of	the	water	column,	sediment,	and	biota	(fish	and	
       infauna) at the disposal site and background control areas
    •	 Evaluated	ecological	and	human	health	risks	
    •	 Evaluated	effectiveness	of	undersea	assessment	methodologies
    •	 Presented	final	letter	report	and	project	briefing

Economic Analysis
No economic or cost-benefit analyses were conducted for these technologies because
the scope of the assessment focused on initial applicability and performance. Location
identification, reconnaissance, and removal of undersea munitions are costly elements, and
efficient, effective technologies will help the DoD reduce costs and increase protection for
human health and the environment.
Suggested Implemental Applications
Following World War II, sea dumping was considered the safest and most efficient method for
disposing of surplus stocks of munitions in Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States, and
the Pacific. Technologies that can locate, identify, and assess the condition of sea-disposed
munitions can be applied worldwide at undersea disposal sites as well as underwater impact
areas and training ranges.
Points of Contact
    •	 J.C.	King,	ODASA	(ESOH),	703-697-5564,	jc.king@us.army.mil
    •	 Caroline	Harrover,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5676,	harroverc@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
HUMMA Sonar Survey (Task N.0728)

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                               Helicopter Brownout Minimization

                               Brownout is a condition that occurs during rotary wing landing and takeoffs from sand or
                               dirt	landing	zones	(LZs).	At	these	LZs,	debris	is	picked	up	by	the	air	currents	created	by	the	
                               helicopter rotors, making it difficult for pilots to see the surrounding area, much like being
                               in	whiteout	conditions	during	a	blizzard.	According	to	a	study	on	rotorcraft	survivability	
                               completed by the Office of the Director, Defense Research & Engineering (ODDR&E)/Acquisition
                               Technology and Logistics (AT&L) in September 2009, 80% of helicopter losses are not due
                               to hostile action; rather, the largest portion (31 of 130) of rotary wing combat non-hostile
                               losses are instead, due to brownout. On behalf of the DSOC ATP Task Force (TF), the NDCEE
                               conducted flight validation of the Brownout Landing Aid System Technology (BLAST), a
                               potential alternative to other emerging brownout technologies such as the Army Helicopter
                               Autonomous	Landing	System	(HALS)	radar	and	the	USAF	3D-	LZ	laser	radar	(ladar).	
                               Technology Description
                               BLAST	is	a	radar-based	technology	designed	to	minimize	the	effects	of	brownout	conditions.	
                               It is a potential alternative to other emerging brownout technologies such as the Army HALS
                               radar	and	the	USAF	3D-	LZ	ladar.	
                               BLAST	consists	of	a	94	GHz	monopulse	radar	integrated	with	processor	modules	for	radar	
                               control, signal processing and display functions to produce a real-time 3D synthetic image
                               of	the	LZ.	An	inertial	aided	GPS	is	used	to	provide	the	navigation	solution	to	correlate	the	
                               radar data with a terrain database. The radar is installed in a mounting tube and bolted to a

           ESOHE                 platform on the nose of the UH-1 Iroquois helicopter along with the navigation sensor unit
                                 (NSU). The sensor is mounted with a 16 degree pitch down offset to account for typical look

         Focus Area              down	angles	of	the	antenna	when	scanning	the	LZ	during	approach.	For	purposes	of	the	
                                 demonstration, the remaining equipment was installed in a rack in the cargo area where test
                                 operators were able to control BLAST and view the synthetic vision display in real time while
         Safety Initiatives/     collecting data.
                                 During	the	flight	test	planning	phase,	the	NDCEE	planned	for	the	typical	hazards	associated	
                                                                    with flying an aircraft in brownout conditions. The focus
                                                                    was on detecting both small and large objects as well as
                                                                    terrain	features	within	an	LZ.	Specific	hazards	included:
                                                                    •	 Urban/suburban	structures	
                                                                    •	 Terrain	
                                                                    •	 Standing	and	prone	personnel	
                                                                    •	 Moving	vehicles	
                                                                    •	 High	tension	power	lines	

                                                                         Once	the	hazards	were	identified,	the	team	planned	
                                                                         scenarios to test the system’s ability to process and
                                                                         mitigate	these	hazards.	

 Brownout and controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) are leading causes
 of aircraft and aircrew loss in the DoD helicopter fleet.

Technology Benefits
    •	 Increasing	pilot	awareness	will	reduce	loss	of	aircraft	and	loss	or	injury	of	air	crews.

Technology Limitations
    •	 Additional	development	is	required	for	real-time	data	and	display	processing	in	order	
       to	provide	sufficient	fidelity	imagery	for	large	and	small	obstacles	and	surface	hazards	
       on the cockpit displays.

FY11 NDCEE Accomplishments
    •	 BAE,	a	member	of	the	NDCEE	initiative	team,	configured	the	COTS	software	and	
       hardware to the UH-1 Iroquois using appropriate interface components.
    •	 Flight	operations	conducted	during	the	tests	included	approach	to	hover,	approach	to	
       hover	taxi,	and	approach	to	landing	tests	at	Oasis	LZ	dust	and	obstacle.	In	addition,	
       Honeywell’s Smart View 3D synthetic vision was used for real time post processing of
       the BLAST data collected during flight operations.
    •	 The	team	prepared	and	submitted	a	final	report	on	the	technology	demonstration.

Economic Analysis
Reducing brownout mishaps will correspondingly reduce medical and aircraft
replacement costs.
Implementation Applications
Subject to approval and funding, the U.S. Army Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) program
office, Huntsville, AL, is preparing to acquire 10 BLAST systems to be deployed at the Aviation
Company level for the UH-60A/L for a Limited User Evaluation (not a program of record). The
other candidate is the U.S. Army “HALS” radar. If sufficient funding becomes available, both
systems will be deployed.
Points of Contact
    •	 Dr.	Pete	Mapes,	OSD/P&R,	703-693-9821,	Peter.mapes@osd.mil
    •	 Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
    •	 Tony	Sampedro,	NDCEE/CTC,	803-929-6069,	sampedra@ctc.com

NDCEE Task/Number
Enhancements to Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense
Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and
Enhance Mission (Task N.0613/N.0712)

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Hydrogen Embrittlement Prevention in
                             High-Strength Steel

                             On behalf of the AMCOM, the NDCEE investigated if either Brulin 815 GD or Daraclean 282
                             causes hydrogen embrittlement in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) E4340 steel (4340).
                             While high-strength steel is accepted as being sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement, the
                             strength level at which this phenomenon exists has been debated. The sensitivity to hydrogen
                             embrittlement	of	high-strength	steels	utilized	in	magnesium	housings	was	evaluated	by	testing	
                             to failure 4340 steel coupons that were subjected to the solvents Brulin 815 GD and Daraclean
                             Technology Description
                             Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which metals become brittle and crack following
                             exposure to hydrogen. Generally, high-strength steels are the most susceptible to hydrogen
                             embrittlement. As the strength of the steel increases, so does the probability of brittle
                             failure. This hardness increase, or flexibility decrease, does not allow for the space an added
                             hydrogen molecule(s) would require. These hydrogen molecules add stress on the surrounding
                             molecules, increasing the probability of crack development. With time hydrogen embrittlement
                             can cause the metal to fracture and fail.
                             Hydrogen embrittlement requirements for cleaning solutions used on high-strength steel
                             generally necessitate a post-cleaning bake process to ensure any hydrogen infused in the
                             component is driven out. Successful bake processes have traditionally been 23 hours in
                             duration, with additional time needed for cool down prior to further processing. This step
                             represents a substantial amount of time and waste in the process and is an ideal candidate for
                               optimization	or	elimination.
          ESOHE                Brulin 815 GD is a cleaning detergent used in immersion and ultrasonic applications. For
        Focus Area             the NDCEE evaluation, Brulin 815 GD was used at a maximum concentration of 30% and
                               a minimum concentration of 10%. Exposure consisted of a sealed environment of the
                               applicable diluted cleaner submerged in a 170°F constant temperature water bath for the
        Coatings Removal
                               prescribed duration.
         Processes and
          Technologies         Daraclean 282 is a low-foam alkaline liquid all-purpose cleaner that has been specially
                               formulated	to	be	non-aggressive	toward	aluminum	and	zinc	alloys.	For	the	NDCEE	evaluation,	
                                                    Daraclean 282 was used at a maximum concentration of 25% and
                                                    a minimum concentration of 10%. Exposure consisted of a sealed
                                                    environment of the applicable diluted cleaner submerged in a 175°F
                                                    constant temperature water bath for the prescribed duration.
                                                    MIL-PRF-680 Type II was used as the baseline solvent.
                                                    The test specimens were AISI air melted E4340 steel, heat treated to
                                                    260-280 kilopounds per square inch (ksi). Specimens were plated with
                                                    cadmium and Ion Vapor Deposition (IVD) Aluminum. Prior to testing, all
                                                    specimens were baked at 375°F for 23 hours to ensure no hydrogen
                                                    was present in the specimens. No coating was applied to control
                                                    specimens. They were subjected to the same bake out processing
                                                    as the plated specimens. The bake out processing was defined as
                                                    375±25°F for 23 hours.
   Demonstration specimens were lowered into a      The NDCEE hydrogen embrittlement testing incorporated elements of
   cleaning solution to expose them to hydrogen.    the ASTM F519-08 “Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen

Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments.” A minimum
of four specimens were used for each test. The specimens were subjected to sustained load
testing (SLT) at 75% of their predetermined notched bend fracture stress (NFS). According

to F519, solvent or environment was considered non-embrittling if none of the exposed test
specimens fractured after 200 hours of exposure to the sustained load. When a specimen
fractured, scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the root cause of the failure.
Based on the testing, cadmium-plated specimens proved to be unaffected by the interaction
with the candidate cleaners, with the exception of the 30% Brulin. It should be noted that
the high concentration of the Brulin is a worst case scenario. The IVD-coated specimens
(without the benefit of a post immersion bake) failed at all immersion times that were tested,
independent of the cleaning solvent. Use of the two candidate cleaners with IVD coated parts
proved to be embrittling. Subsequent exposure with a post relief bake showed acceptable
results for use of the candidate cleaners with IVD coated parts. Therefore, it is recommended
that a post immersion bake of at least four hours be conducted by the end users.
In summary, both candidate cleaners at a lower concentration may be used for cadmium-
plated parts and may be used with IVD plated parts with either a minimum 8 hour relief bake or
an extended hold time prior to further processing or use.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Eliminating	or	reducing	the	baking	process	will	increase	throughput	when	cleaning	
       metal parts.
    •	 Documenting	that	the	baking	process	can	be	eliminated	or	reduced	would	reduce	
       costs and increase depot efficiency.

Technology Limitations
    •	 Demonstration	data	are	limited	to	the	solvents	and	steel/plating	combinations	tested	
       in this application.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Produced	the	final	report	that	summarized	project	activities,	findings,	and	

Economic Analysis
While no formal economic analysis was conducted as part of the task, reducing the length of
post-process baking and increasing throughput may increase depot efficiency and
reduce costs.
Suggested Implementation Applications
While the data from this demonstration are most applicable to steel parts used in magnesium
housings, the information may be valuable to those who must address hydrogen embrittlement
in high-strength steel used in other applications.
Points of Contact
    •	 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
    •	 Jerry	Baughn,	NDCEE/CTC,	904-486-4006,	baughnj@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Demonstration/Validation of Hydrogen Embrittlement Sensitivity of Steel Parts in Magnesium
Housings (Task N.0527-A1)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Improved Non-Lethal Technologies
                              TASERs are being used in larger numbers by some of the services since this non-lethal
                              technology is becoming the choice alternate means of force. Since the successful introduction

                              of the TASER X26, a new TASER device called the TASER X3 has become available, offering
                              new capabilities that may fit into the force protection services or other escalation of force
                              missions. The NDCEE assessed the new device for military applications.
                              Technology Description
                              A TASER is an electronic control device (ECD) that uses electrical current to disrupt voluntary
                              control of muscles, thus incapacitating a subject. Its manufacturer, TASER International,
                              calls the effects “neuro-muscular incapacitation” and device’s mechanism “Electro-Muscular
                              Disruption (EMD) technology.” Someone incapacitated by a TASER experiences stimulation of
                              his or her sensory and motor nerves, resulting in strong involuntary muscle contractions.
                              The NDCEE conducted an operational utility assessment of the current TASER X26 and
                              TASER X3, to validate the device’s performance and functionality. The non-lethal technology
                              operational utility assessment was primarily focused on two critical operating issues (COI)
                              – can the TASER X3 effectively execute required non-lethal weapons applications and is
                              the TASER X3 compatible and suitable for required non-lethal applications. Through the
                              assessment, the NDCEE compared the performance of the two devices for the following
                              parameters: technical data, training, maintenance, compatibility with service specific
                              equipment, reliability, safety, availability, maintainability, sustainability (operational energy
                              alternatives to ensure battery life meets manufacturer specifications/duty cycles), range,
                              accuracy, and engagement of multiple targets.
                               While many of the operational utility assessment tests performed favored the TASER X3 over
          ESOHE                the TASER X26 because of its multiple shot capability, several limitations present operational
                               concerns about fielding the device. The NDCEE test team did not support military fielding of
        Focus Area             the TASER X3 without addressing, correcting, and retesting several identified watch items.
                               Technology Benefits and Advantages
          Other Initiatives    The manufacturer of the device has published the following advantages of the TASER X3 over
                               previous TASERs:
                                  •	 Increased	battery	capacity
                                  •	 Better	cold	weather	performance
                                  •	 Two	back	up	cartridges
                                  •	 Improved	Range	Adjusted	Dual	LASER	System

                                  The NDCEE conducted an operational utility assessment of the current TASER X26 and
                                  TASER X3, to validate performance and functionality.

Technology Limitations
    •	 The	TASER	X3’s	performance	and	reliability	has	not	been	sufficiently	validated	by	
       the DoD.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Performed	an	operational	utility	assessment	of	the	TASER	X3	to	determine	if	the	
       subject device is capable of supporting USAF and joint security force non-lethal

Economic Analysis
According to the current pricing information available, the new TASER X3 model device
costs approximately 1.96 times that of the currently fielded X26 model. Cartridges for the
X3 device also include a price premium of approximately 25%. The utility assessment was
unable to determine if other operational and maintenance costs of the X3 model would differ
significantly, but at the time they are believed to be comparable to the X26 model.
Suggested Implementation Applications
Once validated, the TASER X3 could be implemented across the services.
Points of Contact
    •	 Salvador	Hernandez,	AFSFC,	210-925-5015;	Salvador.hernandez@us.af.mil	
    •	 Kimberly	Peek,	NDCEE/CTC,	573-329-8764,	peekk@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
TASER X26 and X3 Operational Utility Assessment (Task N.0739)

                                                                                     Transitioning Technology Solutions
                                JP-8 Reforming System
                                The DoD is focusing on improving energy sustainability by researching new and unique
                                energy technologies that efficiently enhance mission effectiveness. Fuel cell power generation

                                systems offer distinct advantages over conventional diesel engine generator systems, due to
                                their system operating efficiency. However, one of the critical roadblocks hindering introduction
                                of	fuel	cells	into	the	military	is	the	need	to	operate	with	a	single	battlefield	fuel	(JP-8)	in	a	
                                field environment. The NDCEE worked with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to
                                develop	and	demonstrate	a	JP-8	reforming	system	suitable	for	operation	with	pressurized,	
                                autonomously operated molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs).
                                Technology Description
                                JP-8	is	the	designated	single	battlefield	fuel	for	both	the	U.S.	Army	and	USAF.	With	many	
                                types of different fuel cells available, operational requirements/specifications become critical
                                in	selecting	the	proper	type	to	meet	DoD’s	need	to	use	JP-8.	For	this	particular	application	
                                (high power, transportable to an austere deployed location, and continuous operation), an
                                MCFC proved to be the best choice. MCFCs accept hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO),
                                and methane (CH4)	as	input	fuels.	For	an	MCFC	to	operate	on	standard	JP-8,	a	suitable	fuel	
                                pretreatment	(reforming)	process	is	necessary	to	convert	JP-8	into	the	gaseous	hydrogen	
                                that	feeds	the	fuel	cell.	Additionally,	a	desulfurization	process	must	be	used	to	remove	sulfur	
                                compounds from the input fuel because sulfur can severely degrade an MCFC system. Military
                                JP-8	fuel	specifications	allow	sulfur	contents	to	be	up	to	3,000	parts	per	million	(ppm).	
                                The particular cell design is essential for introducing fuel cells to military power and
                                transportation systems. Combined with the unique military requirements for robustness
                                  (reliability, maintainability, and transportability), fuel reforming makes an MCFC system a
          ESOHE                   viable	battlefield	resource.	The	technology	to	reform	JP-8	for	fuel	cells	has	been	only	partially	
                                  demonstrated in isolated cases and under special conditions, but a demonstration of broad
        Focus Area                military application has not been conducted.
                                  The NDCEE designed, fabricated, tested, and validated an MCFC prototype to ensure such a
    Alternative Power and         system can meet the military requirements needed for a battlefield energy system. Based on
       Energy Solutions           experience gained during design and fabrication, testing results, technical investigations, and
                                  analytical studies, the NDCEE made the following conclusions:
                                                   •	 The	demonstrated	JP-8	plasma-arc	reformer	can	produce	reformate	
                                                      suitable for operating an MCFC.
                                                   •	 The	evaluated	reformer,	when	mated	with	the	evaluated	desulfurizer,	
                                                      can	operate	on	3,000	ppm	sulfur	JP-8	(maximum	sulfur	content	within	
                                                      military specifications) with an output of no greater than 1-2 ppm.
                                                   •	 Projections	from	reduced-scale	desulfurizer	testing	predict	a	500-hour	
                                                      life	of	the	desulfurizer	medium	at	50	kW	maximum	output	and	3,000	
                                                      ppm	sulfur	concentration	fuel.	The	life	of	the	desulfurizer	charge	would	
                                                      be increased to 3,750 hours when using more standard 400 ppm sulfur
                                                   •	 The	desulfurizer	module	meets	military	size	limitations.	The	deployable	
                                                      reformer module on a skid with control box has a space claim of
                                                      48	inches	x	48	inches	x	72	inches,	and	the	desulfurizer	module	is	
                                                      comparable at 48 inches x 48 inches x 54 inches.
                                                   •	 The	reformer	design	may	be	able	to	be	scaled	for	capacities	greater	
                                                      than 50kW; however, it may be more practical to scale using a
 A MCFC may provide power at deployed                 modular or cluster concept to facilitate maintenance of the reformer.
 locations if it is able to use JP-8 as a fuel.   •	     The	tests	performed	lead	to	the	conclusion	that	net	combined	

        system	power	efficiency	from	an	MCFC	with	the	JP-8	reformer	supplying	the	fuel	
        is	32%	at	full	load,	which	is	comparable	to	that	of	a	similarly	sized	diesel	generator	
        when running at full rated output. A potential fuel cell system efficiency of 39% can

        potentially be achieved when the reformer is fully integrated to a MCFC fuel cell.

Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Allows	the	DoD	to	generate	power	for	battlefield	applications	using	fuel	cells	that	
       operate	on	the	single	battlefield	fuel,	JP-8
    •	 Provides	sustainable	energy
    •	 Reduces	the	logistical	challenge	of	providing	a	separate	fuel	for	the	fuel	cells.

Technology Limitations
The technology is not ready for implementation. Based on the technical issues encountered
during validation testing, a redesign of the reformer is required, followed by an operational
demonstration and validation under field conditions.
NDCEE FY11Accomplishments
    •	 Completed	design	and	fabrication	of	the	prototype	JP-8	reformer,	to	include	the	sulfur	
       removal	system;	prepared	and	submitted	the	JP-8	Reformer	Design	Report
    •	 Prepared	and	submitted	the	JP-8	Reformer	Owners/Technical	Manual	and	the	JP-8	
       Reformer Technical Data Package/Drawings
    •	 Completed	testing	of	the	prototype	JP-8	reformer;	prepared	and	submitted	the	JP-8	
       Reformer Final Report

Economic Analysis
While an economic analysis was not conducted as part of the technology demonstration and
validation, this technology may be able to help reduce energy costs in theater.
Suggested Implementation Applications
Once the stability and reliability of the plasma reformer can be validated, the next step in
development would be to integrate the reformer and
desulfurizer	with	a	solid	oxide	fuel	cell	(SOFC)	or	
MCFC fuel cell. The integration would better define the
optimum efficiency capable for a fuel cell assembly
powered	by	JP-8.	This	effort	would	not	only	establish	
the integration of the reformer and fuel cell, but would
finalize	the	control	system	so	that	field	operation,	as	
opposed to a laboratory environment, can be validated.             JP-8
                                                                                                      Plasma Arc JP-8
Points of Contact                                                                                        Reformer
    •	 Omar	Mendoza,	SAF/IEN,	703-697-0785,	
    •		 Blaise	Kordell,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6566,	                   Air
Applicable NDCEE Task
Development	of	a	JP-8	Reforming	System	Suitable	
For Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (Task N.0534)

                                                            JP-8 reforming with plasma arc technology provides low-sulfur
                                                            feedstock to MCFCs.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)
                              Due to increasing environmental regulation of lead, many suppliers have already begun
                              eliminating lead in electronic solder and circuit board finishes for both military contracts

                              and commercial industry. Mixing leaded and lead-free solders during repair of circuit boards
                              can lead to serious reliability problems and potential equipment failures during flight, ground
                              vehicle, or computer operations. While DoD contract specifications clearly require lead-based
                              solder, the military needs a real-time capability to detect and identify lead-free solders and
                              coatings on electrical circuit boards and components.
                              Technology Description
                              The NDCEE assessed a prototype laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical
                              device in a laboratory environment. This device detects lead-based solders and identifies
                              specific lead-free solders used in Army circuit board repairs. By demonstrating and validating
                              this technology, data were generated to determine the technical and economic feasibility of
                              LIBS equipment for use at DoD maintenance facilities.
                              A LIBS device measures material composition by directing a highly focused laser pulse to
                              ablate	(remove	by	vaporizing)	a	tiny	portion	of	a	sample’s	surface.	That	small	amount	of	
                              material (in the range of nanograms to picograms) instantaneously becomes plasma, with a
                              temperature of 9,700-19,700°C. At this temperature, the material breaks down into excited
                              ionic and atomic species. As the plasma cools, it expands at supersonic velocities, at which
                              time the atomic emission lines of the elements can be observed. A spectrometer detects these
                              characteristic emission lines, which are used to match the elements of the sample with known
                              values in the energy spectrum, thereby identifying the composition of the solder/component
                              finish. The laser pulse lasts less than one second, and the entire process (pulse to spectrum
                              production) takes approximately three seconds. LIBS claims to be sensitive to all elements
                                 in a sample, with typical detection limits of 10-200 ppm. The vendor claims that no sample
           ESOHE                 preparation is needed and no consumables are required.

         Focus Area            In the NDCEE demonstration, the LIBS device was installed on a movable cart, which
                               permitted easy access to the sample chamber and included a suitably mounted extendable
          Other Initiatives    keyboard laptop controller. A movable cover was included in the design, which provided
                               Class 1 laser safety operational parameters and contained an eye-safe view port for sample
                               positioning and the camera. The sample chamber was equipped with a vacuum extraction
                                                                      device and a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)
                                                                      filter to prevent the buildup of toxic vapors and
                                                                      facilitate removal of suspended particulates without
                                                                      potential health risks to operators.
                                                                       The most critical aspect of successfully identifying
                                                                       metal composition with the LIBS technology is
                                                                       correlating the measured LIBS spectra with the
                                                                       actual sample types and elemental concentrations.
                                                                       Intensity of LIBS emission is known to depend on the
                                                                       sample matrix and the laser parameters. The LIBS
                                                                       analysis software was designed using chemometric
                                                                       calculations to match sample solder spectra against
                                                                       a spectral database library, which was developed
                                                                       using the solder samples provided by NDCEE and
                                                                       AMCOM. The software matched the sampled material
 The LIBS unit has a sample chamber capable of sampling a wide         spectra with a known solder type using classification
 range of circuit board sizes.

algorithms and a library of spectra. The software output provides easily usable information to
identify the type of solder in the samples. The demonstration performed by the NDCEE included
an assessment of the sensitivity of the LIBS device to discriminate between very similar types

of solder.
Technology Benefits and Advantages:
    •	 Significant	reduction	in	the	probability	of	failure	of	a	critical	electronic	component
        – The failure of an electronic component could result in the catastrophic loss of
             equipment and/or life.
    •	 Improved	readiness	because	of	less	frequent	repairs	–	Equipment	downtime	for	repair	
       is a key element of readiness. With the current operational tempo, military units
       frequently have nine months of training time between deployments. When equipment
       is down for repair, potential training time for that piece of equipment is reduced. As a
       result, readiness is reduced as warfighters have less equipment for training and are
       less proficient at operating the assigned equipment.
    •	 Data	on	lead-free	prevalence	within	the	military	supply	chain	–	LIBS	analysis	could	
       provide information about the suppliers and the lead content of the parts supplied.
       These data could be uploaded into a database and used to monitor trends by linking
       manufacturer/vendor information with component finish data and could be useful to
       DoD-wide	organizations	such	as	the	DLA,	Defense	Micro-Electronics	Agency	(DMEA),	
       and others.
    •	 Immediate	feedback	for	a	production	environment,	including	the	military	specification	
       compliance of a component – This information can be used to determine if the
       component should be released to the repair/rework shop to be incorporated into
       equipment. This increased quality control measure at the depot could ensure that
       only components which meet military specification requirements are being used for

Technology Limitations
    •	 The	demonstration	revealed	that	several	improvements	and	additional	evaluation	were	
       required before field implementation. The main concern raised was the ability of the
       LIBS unit to differentiate between similar metal compositions. The unit frequently
       returned a false positive, as the library database and corresponding algorithm did not
       allow for a result of UNKNOWN or NO MATCH.
    •	 Information	on	lead	content	is	only	as	accurate	as	the	information	in	the	data	library	
       for the technology tested by the NDCEE.
    •	 Initial	purchase	costs	of	LIBS	units	could	be	high	and	a	thorough	return	on	investment	
       analysis still needs to be completed.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Planned	an	on-site	demonstration	of	the	LIBS	technology	at	Corpus	Christi	Army	
        Depot (CCAD)
    •		 Re-evaluated	the	performance	criteria	that	were	previously	developed	under	the	first	
        phase of the project and circulated the criteria to stakeholders for review
    •	 Developed	procurement	package	for	submittal
    •	 Attended	2010	SERDP/ESTCP	Symposium	for	lead-free	track
    •	 Developed	a	standard	operating	procedure	(SOP)	for	use	with	current	shop	SOP	and	
        LIBS device manual during demonstration at CCAD
    •	 Coordinated	installation	and	set-up	of	LIBS	device	at	CCAD	Avionics	shop	for	
        demonstration, including training, installation requirements, and meetings

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        During an earlier demonstration, a CBA compared the cost impact of integrating a LIBS system
                        configured for specific and relative solder classification in Fort Rucker rework areas against

                        Fort Rucker’s status quo baseline process that does not include solder classification. Capital
                        investments for the LIBS-supported inspection process were identified and estimated. Annual
                        and periodic operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were also included in this analysis.
                        Based on CBA results, the NDCEE concluded that LIBS technology may be cost-effective when
                        compared to the risks and costs associated with not implementing a testing and screening
                        capability. Control over integration of lead-free components into the supply chain is essential to
                        ensure equipment readiness and mission performance. The LIBS technology offers additional
                        benefits including allowing production personnel to make an on-the-spot assessment of lead
                        content in components and solders so that they may mitigate the risks associated with lead-
                        free electronics.
                        Suggested Implementation Opportunities
                        Once validated, the LIBS technology could benefit maintenance facilities across the DoD where
                        metal content of solder must be identified to ensure that compatible materials are used in
                        repairs.	Additionally,	data	from	the	technology	would	be	useful	to	DoD	organizations	such	as	
                        the DLA and the DMEA to provide data on lead-free prevalence within the military supply chain
                        and monitor trends by linking manufacturer/vendor information with component finish data.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
                            •	 Janelle	Yerty,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-248-7941,	adamsj@ctc.com
                            •	 Angie	Degory,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2704,	degorya@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Environmental Technology Integrated Process Team (ETIPT), Demonstrate Laser-Based
                        Spectroscopy (LIBS) Identification of Specific Lead-free Solders Used in Army Circuit Board
                        Repairs (Task N.0473-A4)
                        FY09 Environmental Technology Integrated Process Team (ETIPT) Projects, Appendix A9, Phase
                        II Effort to Fabricate and Demonstrate a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Device
                        to Evaluate Electronic Circuit Board Components and Solders (Task N.0615-A9)

Lead-Free Electronics Impact Training
The NDCEE is demonstrating, validating, and fielding technologies in a joint environment to
increase weapon system performance, safety, and readiness in response to lead-free electronic

equipment entering the DoD supply chain.
Technology Description
Lead-Free Surveillance and Analysis System (LSAS) is a web application that was developed
to understand the true nature of the lead-free problem within the DoD’s supply chain. It was
developed	with	ASP.NET	2.0	that	accesses	a	Microsoft	SQL	Server	2005	database.	The	LSAS	
complements the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analytical technology, which has been validated for
use to identify lead content in solder at any DoD installation where lead-free solder is an issue.
The LSAS application contains a built-in search engine that permits several types of searches.
Users can view individual scan records and export search results to an Excel spreadsheet.
Output measurement data on lead characteristics of electronic components from the
Fischerscope X-Ray XDAL equipment can be automatically stored in the database for searches,
viewing, and export. Manual data input is also possible. Information available to LSAS users
     •	 Number	of	parts	scanned	using	a	measurement	tool,	such	as	XRF	technology,	and	the	
         number of items that were confirmed to be lead-free
     •	 Elemental	composition	and	thickness	of	component	finishes	
     •	 Information	about	new	electronic	pieces	including	manufacturer	name,	Commercial	
         and Government Entity (CAGE) Code, and roll-up percentage value of parts found to be

Select LSAS users also have access to data provided by the Federal Logistics Information
System (FLIS) without having to use sources outside of the LSAS.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Enables	rapid	identification	and	characterization	of	lead-free	components,	
       component manufacturers, and suppliers
    •	 Provides	a	readily	available,	reliable	DoD	information	resource	for	collection	and	
                                                                                                     Focus Area
       storage of lead-free component data                                                            Other Initiatives

Technology Limitations
    •	 In	its	current	configuration,	automated	data	input	for	
       LSAS must accompany the Fischerscope X-Ray XDAL
       unit, although data can be input manually.
    •	 The	technology	is	limited	to	military	personnel.

                                                                   XRF technology was transitioned to Tobyhanna Army Depot
                                                                   after a successful NDCEE demonstration.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Designed	a	course	entitled	Lead-Free	Electronics	Impact	on	DoD	Programs	for	lead-
                               free electronics awareness training. The course has been uploaded to the DAU

                               website for qualified users. It is available at https://dap.dau.mil/career/log/blogs/

                        Economic Analysis
                        Costs of weapon system failures can be catastrophic. Controlling the integration of lead-free
                        components into the military supply chain is essential to ensure equipment readiness and
                        mission performance. The LSAS allows the DoD to manage lead-free components within its
                        supply chain.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The LSAS database is currently located at http://lsas.ctc.com. Transition of the LSAS is
                        expected to occur to a government site, where it will be housed and maintained on a
                        government-owned server. The database will be accessible to any DoD installation. Access to
                        the LSAS is limited to .mil users and is password protected.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
                            •	 Robert	Ernest,	NAVAIR,	301-757-0442,	robert.ernest@navy.mil
                            •	 Gino	Spinos,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2894,	spinosg@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Mission Critical Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health Technology Transfer and Support
                        Program (Tasks N.0462-A1/N.0506/N.0566)

Method for Determining the Fully Burdened
Cost of Waste

On behalf of the Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI), the NDCEE developed methods
for determining the fully burdened costs (FBCs) of fuel and water resources in support of
contingency operations. Based on the success of that work, the AEPI tasked the NDCEE to
develop	a	method	for	understanding	the	FBCs	associated	with	solid,	hazardous,	and	medical	
waste. The NDCEE developed and tested the method using Bagram AFB, Afghanistan, as the
case study.
Technology Description
The NDCEE has developed a fully burdened cost of waste (FBCW) method. It creates a
framework including non-cost categories, such as waste generation rates, and cost categories,
such as infrastructure and equipment costs, in an Excel® workbook to estimate the total
waste costs for a given scenario specified by the user.
The NDCEE created the FBCW method using a bottom-up approach due to the lack of
standardized	reporting	and	tracking	mechanisms	for	waste	generated	in	theater	operations.	
The first step was to develop process flow diagrams for all types of forward operating
bases, from small patrol bases and combat outposts to large, enduring joint bases. The next
step was to identify the infrastructure, transportation and personnel resources needed to
manage	the	waste.	Standardized	rates	for	personnel	and	waste-related	infrastructure	could	
then be incorporated. Information about the rates of generation (such as pounds per person)
required consultation with various published reports, interviews with personnel in theater and
interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs).
The	method	was	utilized	to	estimate	costs	for	a	base	case	(Bagram	AFB).	This	type	of	
camp was selected because it represents the most complex cost analysis and has the
most available data. Once costs for managing waste at this location were determined, the
NDCEE then demonstrated the capability of the method to incorporate alternative technology
                                                                                                    Focus Area
scenarios. Two readily available technologies – Oil Change Alternative Technology (CAT)            Waste Management,
waste oil recycling and Reverse Osmosis Water Purifying Units (ROWPU) – were used                     Minimization,	
for hypothetical application at Bagram. Outputs from a method demonstration based on                 Treatment, and
implementation of these technologies were inconclusive, primarily due to lack of reliable data          Disposal
sources about the waste streams at Bagram. Other issues revolved around the many options
for waste oil disposal, because the waste oil can be sold to local nationals or burned in solid
waste incinerators. The option chosen impacts potential cost savings. Also, Bagram has a
recycling program and plastic bottles are segregated and recycled locally.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Represents	a	waste	management	cost	calculation	method	in	a	commercially	
       available and transportable software to ensure easy transfer to potential users and/or
    •	 Demonstrates	the	method	using	available,	unclassified	data	and	reasonable	scenarios	
       approved by the government
    •	 Builds	on	lessons	learned	from	recent	deployments	to	ensure	cost	calculations	
       correspond with standard procedures and practices in theater

Technology Limitations
    •	 Each	contingency	base	is	unique,	and	the	cost	estimating	method	will	need	to	be	
       modified	to	address	local	context.	For	instance,	hazardous	waste	cannot	be	shipped	
       out of Iraq for treatment, while it can be shipped out of Afghanistan.

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            •	 Basic	waste	generation	data	is	lacking.	Cost	calculations	are	estimates	only.
                            •	 Hazardous	waste	and	medical	waste	management	is	conducted	through	logistics	
                               contracts, and thus requires different estimating steps than solid waste. Also, cost

                               information is difficult to obtain.
                            •	 Waste	generation	is	highly	dependent	upon	mission.	In	some	locations	solid	waste	
                               costs	will	dominate,	in	others	hazardous	waste	costs	are	higher.
                            •	 Current	cost	estimating	methods	do	not	capture	non-monetary	risks	and	liabilities	
                               that are associated with waste generation, management, and disposal in contingency
                               operations. These items are unique to each base and include air pollution from
                               incinerators, untreated wastewater discharge, and liabilities from landfills left after
                               base closure.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Presented	a	government-approved	poster	at	the	2010	SERDP/ESTCP	Symposium
                            •	 Conducted	a	final	briefing	on	the	task	at	AEPI	on	December	16,	2010	

                        Economic Analysis
                        The method will allow waste management costs to be taken into account during military
                        planning and decision making. The NDCEE applied the method using Bagram AFB as a
                        case study. The study showed that the annual FBC of solid waste was nearly $17M, with
                        approximately $175,000 in projected savings with the implementation of an alternate waste
                        management technology. The FBC of used oil was a savings of $53,000 due to current
                        recycling practices. That savings was increased to $58,000 (nearly 10%) with the use of an
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Initially the method will be made available to each SME who participated in the study for
                        validation, revision, and use. This method represents an important first step in incorporation of
                        waste management costs into life cycle assessments and can help improve decision-making
                        up through the supply chain.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Marc	Kodack,	AEPI,	703-604-2310,	marc.kodack@us.army.mil
                            •	 Elizabeth	Keysar,	NDCEE/CTC,	770-631-0137,	keysare@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Fully Burdened Cost of Managing Waste in Contingency Operations (Task N.0609)

                       The NDCEE developed a cost estimating tool that can be used to evaluate alternative technologies for
                       managing waste generated in theater.

Modified Decomposition/Hydrolysis (MDH)
The NDCEE, teaming with Battelle Memorial Institute, modified a Catalytic Hydrothermal
Conversion (CHTC) unit developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research

and Development Center-Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) under
the SERDP. This modified technology ultimately supports the maintenance and sustainability of
The disposal of explosive residues is an important issue within the DoD because of the
inherent danger and stringent regulations regarding it. Current disposal of explosive residues is
performed by explosive detonation. In many instances, explosive detonation does not consume
all explosive material and can increase the amount of contamination on the range. Additionally,
explosive detonation is associated with large minimum stand-off distances and high costs if
operations have to be repeated due to low order or incomplete destruction.
Technology Description
An alternative to OB/OD, the MDH system is a decontamination/treatment method for
detonation debris containing energetics at former and active, live-fire military training/testing
sites. It uses a caustic solution, heating, and agitation to separate the explosive material from
the	metal	scrap	and	hydrolyze	it	in	solution.	Designed	to	withstand	the	rugged	conditions	
present on military ranges, the system is completely self-contained and transportable on a
single skid or single-axle utility trailer. The technology is designed for use on energetic material
that originates as either chunks or as cast fill in ordnance fragments.
Munition residues and chunk energetic materials are placed into the MDH reactor, which
operates at 103°C and atmospheric pressure. Sodium hydroxide and water are fed to the MDH
reactor. Once the contaminated material is covered, the reactor is then heated and agitated
to	neutralize	energetic	residue	from	the	metal	placed	into	the	unit.	The	resulting	hydrolysate	
is treated with phosphoric acid, which thickens the hydrolysate and reduces pH. Remaining                 ESOHE
scrap metal is rinsed with water and can be recycled or disposed.
                                                                                                        Focus Area
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •		 Supports	range	maintenance	and	sustainability	by	reducing	potential	range	                      MEC/UXO/Range
        contamination from energetic materials                                                           Sustainability
    •		 Assists	a	location	with	meeting	future	regulatory	requirements	
    •		 Demonstrates	ruggedness	and	reliability	in	the	field
    •		 Treats	widely	used	energetic	materials,	such	as	
        trinitrotoluene (TNT) and Composition B
    •		 Is	operable	in	inclement	weather
    •		 Is	mounted	on	a	single-axle	trailer	and	can	be	
        transported by High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled
        Vehicles (HMMWV) or similar vehicle
    •		 Contains	safety	features	to	protect	the	operator,	
        such as machine guarding, automatic shut down or
        safe point, and reasonable surface temperatures
    •		 Processes	hydrolysate	generated	from	the	treatment	
        of up to 10 kilograms (kg) of explosives in less than
        8 hours of operation

                                                                  A 55-gallon condensate tank and quench water tank are
                                                                  mounted above the reactor to collect condensate and provide
                                                                  water to the reactor in the event of a low level alarm or
                                                                  runaway reaction, respectively.

                                                                                           Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Limitations
                            •		 Capital	costs	are	higher	than	the	traditional	OB/OD	method	of	explosives	removal.
                            •		 A	screening	process	is	required	to	separate	materials	entered	into	the	system.		

                            •		 Caustic	hydrolysis	alone	does	not	sufficiently	decompose	fresh	C4	in	block	form	to	
                                produce a suitable liquid MDH feed stream. The caustic reacts with the energetics
                                contained in C4 but not with the polyisobutylene binder. The binder acted as a barrier
                                which prevented almost 90% of the energetics from decomposing.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •		 Completed	MDH	system	fabrication	and	conducted	shakedown	testing
                            •		 Developed	the	Overall	Use	and	Safety	Procedures	Manual,	which	will	be	used	to	guide	
                                the safe operation of the MDH system
                            •		 Initiated	data	gathering	for	a	CBA	to	compare	the	benefits	and	savings	associated	
                                with the MDH system to traditional decontamination techniques
                            •		 Prepared	and	presented	Active	Range	Restoration	Via	Caustic	Hydrolysis	of	
                                Explosively Contaminated Metal Parts at the 2011 E2S2

                        Economic Analysis
                        From a capital cost perspective, removing energetic materials through OB/OD is less expensive
                        than with a MDH system. However, in many instances, explosive detonation does not
                        consume all explosive material and can increase the amount of contamination on the range.
                        Additionally, explosive detonation is associated with large minimum stand-off distances
                        and high costs if operations have to be repeated due to low order or incomplete destruction.
                        Conversely, the MDH system is expected to treat most energetic materials encountered at a
                        range or training/test site, thereby reducing range contamination and subsequent remediation
                        and other costs.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The MDH requires additional demonstration/validation. Once validated, the MDH system should
                        be applicable to any site with a need to decontaminate and treat detonation debris.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Gregory	Jacobs,	USAEC,	210-466-0570,	gregory.b.jacobs@us.army.mil
                            •		 Samantha	Oreskovich,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6239,	oreskovs@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Munitions Metals & Residues Treatment for Active Ranges - Restoration (Task N.0466)

Net-Zero Hybrid Energy Building
For several years, the NDCEE has been supporting the DoD in its efforts to build cost-effective,
energy-efficient structures. As the military’s focus on energy savings and improving energy

security	increases,	interest	in	achieving	net-zero	energy	buildings	has	also	increased.	Because	
cost-effective energy-efficient strategies and technologies vary based on climate, the NDCEE is
continuing to help the DoD investigate regional solutions that will ensure future readiness and
mission capabilities, enhance environmental stewardship, and strengthen community relations.
Technology Description
Net-zero	energy	structures	require	no	net	utility	energy	and	provide	security	from	utility	
outages or shortages. To achieve this goal, the energy demand of the building is reduced
through innovative design, energy-efficient technologies, and construction techniques.
Buildings could then be powered using renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. The
NDCEE conducted a computer simulation analysis to determine the feasibility of constructing a
net-zero	energy	building	at	Fort	Drum	in	northern	New	York	State		
The NDCEE evaluated the Enertia® Building System which uses integrated design principles to
optimize	the	design,	allowing	it	to	operate	as	a	net-zero	energy	structure.	This	system	consists	
of “energy-engineered wood walls” that replace siding, framing, insulation and paneling. An air
flow envelope runs beneath and around the building, just inside the walls, regulating indoor air
temperature. The building needs to be situated so that southerly facing windows act as a solar
collector during the day. The solar-heated air naturally circulates around the exterior envelope
of the building and boosts existing geothermal energy obtained from beneath the floor. Enertia
Building System structures are expected to meet or exceed the highest rating of the USGBC
LEED® standards.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Although	higher	initial	construction	costs	are	expected	in	comparison	to	traditional	
       buildings,	a	net-zero	(or	even	near	net-zero)	hybrid	energy	building	would	provide	
       significant operating cost savings as a result of reduced operational energy
       requirements.                                                                                   Focus Area
    •	 Net-zero	energy	structures	increase	energy	security	by	reducing	dependency	on	
       outside energy sources.                                                                       Alternative Power and
                                                                                                        Energy Solutions
Technology Limitations
    •	 Although	net-zero	energy	buildings,	such	as	the	
       Enertia Building System, require substantially less
       energy for heating and cooling, they still require an
       additional energy source to provide supplemental
       heating, dehumidification, and plug load requirements.
       This additional energy source may be provided using
       one or a combination of on-site photovoltaic, solar hot
       water, wind or hydro turbine, or even electrolysis.

                                                                  Air flows due to buoyancy effects of heated air

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 The	total	system	energy	was	simulated	for	a	one-year	period	using	Integrated	
                               Environmental Systems Virtual Environment (IES-VE) software, version 6.2. The model

                               validated the expected air flows provided by the manufacturer and calculated the
                               heating load for the building as substantially less than a comparable structure.

                        Economic Analysis
                        Although	current	construction	costs	for	net-zero	hybrid	energy	buildings	like	the	Enertia	
                        Building System are expected to be higher, building owners should obtain a return on
                        investment during the building’s economic life. Many factors will have an impact on the overall
                        cost efficiency. These factors include location, climate, usage, utility rates, and other external
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Net-zero	hybrid	energy	buildings	can	be	constructed	for	commercial	and	residential	
                        applications. They can help installations meet Federal energy requirements and significantly
                        reduce the overall requirement for external energy sources.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Stephen	Rowley,	IMCOM,	315-772-5433,	stephen.rowley@us.army.mil
                            •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        FY08	Regional	Sustainability	Solutions	–	Net	Zero	Hybrid	Energy	Building	(Task	N.0561-A1)

Nonmetallic Materials Compatibility with
Reduced Sulfur Fuels

Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) Patuxent River is the lead center for
Naval Tactical Fuels RDT&E efforts. The Naval Fuels & Lubricants Cross Functional Team (NF&L
CFT) has a program in place to evaluate and certify fuels for tactical naval use. This program
tests all aspects of fuel chemistry, performance, and materials compatibility to ensure that any
new fuel will work in current tactical propulsion systems without requiring modifications. The
NF&L CFT has identified fuel-wetted materials and is now testing these materials to ensure
compatibility with new fuels.
Technology Description
Efforts to reduce pollutant emissions have encouraged regulatory restrictions and reductions
of the sulfur content of most petroleum fuels. Although this provides significant environmental
benefits, historical trends indicate that reducing sulfur content in fuels has resulted in several
undesired effects. As the sulfur content has been reduced in petroleum fuels, fuel aromatic
content is also reduced. Certain types of nonmetallic materials are much more prone to
problematic conditions, such as seal swell, with lower aromatic fuel.
In coordination with the NF&L CFT, the NDCEE is performing up to three laboratory evaluations
to determine the characteristics of various materials in a variety of fuel types. The first test is
being performed using 13 selected materials immersed in 2 variations of F76 fuel at elevated
temperature for 28 days. This test is designed to assess the effect of seal swell on nonmetallic
components immersed in a variety of fuel types. Depending on the outcome of the first
evaluation, the second and third laboratory evaluations will assess low aromatic content fuel
effects and switch loading effects between high and low aromatic fuels. The findings of these
laboratory evaluations will be used to validate nonmetallic material compatibility of naval
system components.                                                                                           ESOHE
Technology Benefits and Advantages                                                                         Focus Area
Validating the compatibility of nonmetallic materials, in the presence of reduced sulfur fuels,
will ensure system reliability, maintain equipment capabilities and warfighter readiness,                   Other Initiatives
and reduce maintenance costs and downtimes. By identifying materials which provide a
significant response to the reduced sulfur and
aromatic fuels, engineers and equipment designers
can implement material substitutions to reduce the
risk of component failure.
Technology Limitations
Although 13 commonly used nonmetallic fuel-wetted
materials are being evaluated, a comprehensive
evaluation of all fuel-wetted materials may be
required to validate material compatibility.
NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Conducted	literature	research	to	gather	
       information and begin formulating a
       research based recommendation; submitted
       Draft Historical Trend and Impact of
       Decreasing Sulfur Content in Fuel
    •	 Began	planning	the	materials	compatibility	
       testing                                     Reduced sulfur fuels may cause problems with nonmetallic materials in
                                                         aircraft; the NDCEE is evaluating compatibility of these materials with
                                                         the new fuel.

                                                                                            Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        Although most fuel-wetted nonmetallic materials are simple and inexpensive, they often serve
                        critical functions. The failure of even a single fuel pump seal can render an entire military asset

                        immobile. Equipment maintenance and operating costs will be reduced by substituting critical
                        components with compatible materials.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        As emissions reduction efforts and regulations have significantly reduced the sulfur and
                        aromatics content of petroleum fuels, all commercial and military vehicles are being operated
                        using these reduced sulfur fuels. The results of the material compatibility testing will be
                        applicable to all military vehicles and fuel transfer equipment.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Sherry	Williams,	Naval	Air	Systems	Command,	301-757-3380,	
                            •	 Bob	Wertz,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6848,	wertzr@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Nonmetallic Fuels Protocol and Historical Trend and Impact of Decreasing Sulfur Content in Fuel
                        (Task N.0746)

Oven Heating for Removal of Cosmoline
In coordination with the Transmission and Engine Cleaning Shops at CCAD, the NDCEE will
conduct a full-scale demonstration and validation of an oven heating method to remove

cosmoline from metallic parts. To establish possible savings and increase depot throughput,
the NDCEE is evaluating the oven heating method as well as the possibility of cosmoline re-
sale for alternative uses.
Technology Description
Cosmoline is a petroleum-based product that is commonly used to protect metallic parts from
corrosion. Removing cosmoline is currently labor intensive. The traditional method is to scrape
or	wipe	off	most	of	the	cosmoline	from	small	and	medium	sized	parts	using	rags	and	cleaning	
solvent. Large parts are placed in Heat Transfer Oil (HTO) and H2O immersion tanks and then
typically steam cleaned, or a combination of hand-wipe, HTO, and steam is used. This process
generates waste solvents and requires an infrastructure of piping and pumps for the water and
steam washes. Heat is an accepted effective method to remove cosmoline, and while oven
heating has been used to remove the substance from items such as surplus military rifles,
performance data for oven heating are not available.
The NDCEE demonstration at CCAD facilities will validate whether oven heating methods
are effective for removing cosmoline. Testing will involve determining the ideal temperature
and heating time. Cosmoline melts at 135-162°F and has a flashpoint of 350°F. During
the demonstration, metal part specimens will be placed in CCAD’s oven and heated for a
prescribed time. This process will be completed at temperatures of 160°F, 170°F, and 180°F.
A time determination will be conducted using similar parts at times of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30
minutes with the oven set at the ideal temperature identified in the process above.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
The following benefits are in comparison to the traditional removal methods of hand-wiping,
HTO immersion, and steam cleaning.                                                                 Focus Area
    •		 Increases	throughput	of	cleaned	cosmoline-coated	parts	                                    Coatings Removal
    •		 Reduces	solvent	usage                                                                       Processes and
    •		 Reduces	disposal	of	waste	solvent	and	saturated	HTO                                          Technologies
    •		 Reduces	labor	costs	for	parts	cleaning	as	well	as	maintenance	of	pumps	and	pipes	
        that have become blocked with cosmoline melt
    •		 Allows	for	reclaiming	and	potential	selling	of	the	cosmoline	that	is	removed	from	
        metal parts

Technology Limitations
    •		 Size	of	the	available	oven	may	limit	the	number	of	parts	that	can	be	treated	at	any	one	
        time and may affect throughput.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Began	planning	a	technology	demonstration,	scheduled	for	November	2011
    •		 Produced	a	Technology	Test	Plan	

Economic Analysis
A CBA will be conducted once data are available to compare the performance of the burn-
off oven with cosmoline removal methods that are currently used. The CBA will include the
potential	savings	that	might	be	realized	by	recycling	and	selling	recovered	cosmoline.	As	

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        part of the technology demonstration, the NDCEE will collect baseline data with the current
                        methods of removing and disposing cosmoline. Factors including the cost of towels, disposal
                        fees, labor, and electricity usage, will be taken into consideration.

                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        This technology may be applicable for cosmoline removal at other Army depots and at facilities
                        that receive cosmoline-coated parts and equipment. The NDCEE will develop a process
                        standard for use of the burn-off oven that will allow it to be transitioned to potential users.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
                            •		 Jane	Pitchford,	NDCEE/CTC,	904-486-4012,	pitchfoj@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Demonstration/Validation of Oven Heating for the Removal of Cosmoline
                        (Task N.0615 Project A7)

                                   A part coated with Cosmoline.

Photovoltaic Arrays
Over the past several years, the NDCEE has assisted several military installations with
designing and building cost-effective, energy-efficient buildings that meet the USGBC LEED®

standards for new construction and neighborhood developments. That assistance has resulted
in demonstrating a variety of renewable energy technologies. In 2010, the NDCEE initiated a
demonstration of two photovoltaic (PV) systems at Fort Hood, TX.
Military outposts on remote islands face particular challenges in providing the power and
energy that they need to perform their missions. Since most islands do not have fossil fuel
resources, fuel for vehicles and generators must be shipped in, a costly option for the DoD.
Renewable energy technologies may be especially applicable on remote bases. To address this
need, the NDCEE is demonstrating a PV system at Camp Katuu, Palau.
Technology Description
PV solar cell systems convert the light of the sun directly into electricity. Numerous types of
technologies are available to collect and use solar energy.
In 2010, two types of PV technologies, thin film and crystalline panels, were installed on
a carport at Fort Hood. Monocrystalline PV panels are covered with single-cell silicon
crystal wafers; thin film panels have one or more layers of a thin film—amorphous silicon
in the NDCEE demonstration—applied to a substrate. The system components include:
monocrystalline PV panels, thin film PV panels, DC combiner boxes, a DC disconnect to isolate
the PV panels from the inverter, an alternating current (AC) disconnect to isolate the inverter
from the utility grid, and an inverter to convert the DC power generated by the PV panels into
AC electricity to be used by the site. The NDCEE gathered data during the demonstration
period to quantify installation issues, hourly power generation, peak power generation, total
energy generation, efficiency, output degradation, maintenance requirements, and cost savings
(procurement, maintenance, output).
At Camp Katuu, the PV array has a nominal DC rating of 42kW, and is roof mounted on the
Builder’s Shop. Final power rating and design of the PV system was based upon capabilities
and requirements associated with base loads, base generation, and the local utility to ensure
compatibility.	The	system	was	designed	to	maximize	the	system	rating	while	including	
access ways for easy installation, maintenance, and repair. A pre-engineered roof top fall
                                                                                                          Focus Area
protection safety rail system was also incorporated to enhance sustainability by supporting             Alternative Power and
PV panel’s installation and maintenance requirements. Since Palau is a warm, humid climate                 Energy Solutions
with salty sea air, corrosion of the PV array is a concern. To mitigate the corrosion concern,
the selected PV module has
been tested and verified
to withstand corrosion
by the manufacturer. In
addition, a barrier material
was installed between roof
connections to prevent
galvanic corrosion. Finally,
the fastening hardware
for the frame mounting
system was assembled and
subjected to ASTM B117
corrosion testing to confirm
the system’s ability to limit    Members of the A/249th Engineering Battalion and the Civil Action Team installed a photovoltaic
corrosion levels.                system on the Builder’s Shop at Camp Katuu, Palau.

                                                                                            Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •		 All	PV	types	emit	low	air/water	pollution.	
                            •		 All	PV	types	use	solar	energy,	which	is	unlimited.

                            •		 Building-integrated	PV	systems	have	a	small	ecological	footprint	because	they	are	
                                incorporated into the buildings.

                        Technology Limitations
                            •		 Photovoltaics	can	be	expensive	to	purchase	and	install;	they	are	a	long-term	
                            •		 Shady	places	or	areas	with	extended	cloudy	seasons	have	lower	PV	benefits	than	
                                places with more sunshine.
                            •		 PV	technology	and	price	are	continually	improving,	so	a	system	may	soon	be	
                                outpaced by a smaller, cheaper alternative.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                        Fort Hood
                            •		 Monitoring	of	the	PV	panels	began	in	
                                September 2010 and continued until
                                September 2011. A production analysis
                                was conducted at four-months and
                                six-months; the systems have exceeded
                                production estimates.
                            •		 A	project	poster	was	presented	at	the	
                                2010 SERDP/ESTCP Symposium.

                        Camp Katuu
                           •		 The	NDCEE	teamed	with	U.S.	Pacific	
                               Command (PACOM) and A/249th
                               Engineering Battalion (Prime Power)
                               to execute a design validation for a PV
                               System based on a technical site visit to
                               Palau in November 2010.
                           •		 The	NDCEE	is	providing	engineering	        Photovoltaic cells were installed at Fort Hood.
                               support for the demonstration by
                               collecting	and	analyzing	operational	data.

                        Economic Analysis
                        Despite high startup costs, a well-designed PV system can reduce electricity use and costs,
                        increase energy security and supply stability, reduce greenhouse gases, and improve living
                        environments. A cost-benefit analysis of the two PV systems at Fort Hood is being conducted
                        to inform the Army’s decision support process for future PV technology implementation

To reduce Camp Katuu’s monthly operating budget and its diesel fuel dependency and to
increase energy reliability, solar energy was selected as a potentially viable option. Camp
Katuu currently relies on power provided by the Palau Public Utility Company’s unreliable grid

and a 60 kW generator for backup power. The camp’s electricity costs average $7,500 per
month or 33% of the operations budget; this does not account for the fuel required to run the
Suggested Implementation Applications
At Camp Katuu the NDCEE trained members of the A/249th Engineering Battalion to install
and operate the PV power system and oversee the installation of the system with assistance
from a Civil Action Team (CAT). PV demonstrations will provide data to help the DoD evaluate
lifecycle costs of these systems and the value of using them at military installations. The
technology can be transitioned across the military services.
Points of Contact
    •	 Jennifer	Rawlings,	US	Army	Garrison	–	Fort	Hood,	254-287-9734,	
    •	 John	Horstmann,	ARCENT,	803-885-8206,	john.horstmann@arcent.army.mil
    •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com
    •	 Elizabeth	Keysar,	NDCEE/CTC,	770-631-0137,	keysare@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
FY06 Sustainable Installations Initiative (Task N.0465)
Reduced Footprint Base Camps (Task N.0720)

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Reactive Information Propagation and Planning
                              for Lifelike Exercises (RIPPLE)

                              The NDCEE has been working with the USMC Systems Command, Program Manager for
                              Training	Systems	(PM	TRASYS)	on	the	Marine	Corps	Range	Modernization	and	Transformation	
                              (RM/T)	effort.	In	support	of	the	modernization	effort,	the	NDCEE	is	helping	transition	the	
                              Reactive Information Propagation and Planning for Lifelike Exercises (RIPPLE) Version 3.0
                              software to several DoD installations.
                              Technology Description
                              RIPPLE is a software system that facilitates the design and implementation of complex, role-
                              playing	training	exercises.	It	was	identified	as	a	key	technology	in	modernizing	USMC	training	
                              exercises.	The	NDCEE	has	been	training	users	and	customizing	the	RIPPLE	technology	for	
                              the Marine Corps Air Ground Task Force Training Command (MAGTFTC) primarily at USMC
                              Twentynine Palms, but also at Kaneohe Bay, Camp Lejeune, and Camp Pendleton.
                              The USMC strives to create realistic training exercises to prepare troops for the situations
                              they will face in deployment, covering the gamut of full-spectrum operations from maneuver
                              warfare to dealing with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to acting as a mediator in local
                              discussions. These training exercises often span multiple days, include hundreds of volunteer
                              role-players and require careful planning. RIPPLE software facilitates this planning process.
                                At Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center in Twentynine Palms, for example, RIPPLE
          ESOHE                 has successfully been used to facilitate the Mojave Viper exercises. MAGTFTC uses these
                                comprehensive exercises in the Mojave Desert to prepare Marines for deployment. They use
        Focus Area              live-fire scenarios, the heat and sand of the desert, simulations of the towns where Marines
                                will be deployed, and Iraqi-American role-players.
          Other Initiatives
                               RIPPLE provides training facilitators with tools for building timelines, maps populated with
                               satellite	imagery,	and	utilities	for	organizing	the	fictional	backgrounds	and	biographies	of	the	
                                                        hundreds of role-players that participate in the role-playing exercises.
                                                        It	helps	training	facilitators	to	create,	gather,	and	organize	the	data	
                                                        required to run effective, immersive training scenarios, using the
                                                        following components:
                                                           1) An Exercise Planning Module: includes a map to plot units,
                                                               events,	and	tactical	graphics	and	a	timeline	to	synchronize	
                                                           2) An Exercise Threading Module: allows the user to chart
                                                               complex chains of cause-and-effect events
                                                           3) An Exercise Role Player Management Module: complete with
                                                               robust	Social	Networking	and	Genogram	tools	for	organizing	
                                                           4)	 A	Customizable	Report	Module:	allows	users	to	export	
                                                               custom work products in standard Microsoft® Office file

Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Helps	trainers	to	run	effective,	immersive	training	scenarios,	including	those	across	
       joint forces

    •	 Creates	exportable	work	products,	including	maps	and	rotation	timelines	in	
       PowerPoint	as	well	as	role-player	identification	cards,	to	help	facilitators	organize	and	
       implement the training event
    •	 Reduces	costs	associated	with	conducting	training	scenarios

Technology Limitations
    •	 Requires	training	for	some	of	the	more	complex	features

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Supported	training	activities	at	Camp	Pendleton,	Kaneohe	Bay,	Camp	Lejeune,	and	
        Twentynine Palms and deployed RIPPLE to each of these sites
    •		 Developed	the	Phase	6	(Kaneohe	Bay),	Phase	7	(Camp	Pendleton),	and	Phase	8	(Camp	
        Lejeune) Final Reports
    •		 Developed	the	Phase	6	(Kaneohe	Bay)	and	Phase	7	(Camp	Pendleton)	Technical	Data	

Economic Analysis
While quantifiable savings are difficult to assess, RIPPLE reduces the costs associated with
manually	organizing	the	fictional	data	required	for	the	hundreds	of	role	players	needed	to	
create realistic scenarios. Prior to RIPPLE, several personnel wrote the role players’ fictional
biographies and created their social networks and family tree. With RIPPLE, staff members can
focus on those aspects of creating a realistic exercise that require human attention.
Suggested Implementation Applications
RIPPLE can be used across the joint forces to facilitate large training exercises. It will be
incorporated at other USMC installations, but also has a place at Army Combat Training
Centers and with the USAF. Integrating full-spectrum joint training will be a key part of future
military strength.
Points of Contact
    •		 Brad	Valdyke,	Brad.valdyke@innovativereasoning.com	
    •	 Paul	Garrod,	paul.garrod.nz.ctr@usmc.mil
    •		 Kamal	Gella,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6291,	gella@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Reactive Information Propagation and Planning for Lifelike Exercises (Task N.0500)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                            Recycled Degreasing Solvent for
                            Aviation Equipment

                            Recycled MIL-PRF-680 Type II is currently used to clean non-aviation parts, but there is no
                            criterion that would allow recycled solvent to be used to clean aviation parts. The NDCEE is
                            qualifying the use of this recycled solvent for cleaning aviation components.
                            Technology Description
                            MIL-PRF-680 Type II is a performance specification for degreasing solvents and includes types
                            I – IV, rated by flash point. Type II, has low odor with a high flash point and is intended for use
                            where a solvent with a higher flash point is desired. Solvent conforming to MIL-PRF-680 Type
                            II, used at Fort Rucker, AL to clean aviation components, can be recycled. Since there is no
                            criterion for using recycled MIL-PRF-680 Type II for cleaning aviation components, virgin MIL-
                            PRF-680 Type II is used for all aviation component cleaning.
                            Fort Rucker uses MIL-PRF-680 Type II solvents in approximately 80 parts washers that are
                            located throughout the base. Each of these washers is one of two models, both of which are
                            operated	using	a	brush	and	flexible	gooseneck	nozzle.	Used	solvent	is	filtered	through	a	dual	
                            canister	system	that	is	capable	of	0.5-micron	particulate	filtration.	Both	systems	utilize	a	
                            patent-pending, Tortuous Path baffle system that allows the pump to pull the cleanest solvent
                            in the tank while contaminants and sludge settle toward the bottom of the tank. Once these
                            washers are filled, they are replenished with a relatively small amount of solvent.
                            Fort	Rucker	utilizes	one	portable	solvent	filtration	unit	to	recycle	MIL-PRF-680	Type	II	in	all	80	
                            of the parts washers. In 15 minutes, the system can complete three to four filtration cycles on
                               a single parts washer. The filtration system uses two hoses: one that is placed into the parts
          ESOHE                washer and another that flows into an external container, which is typically a 55-gallon
                               drum.	The	system’s	capacity	is	limited	only	by	the	size	of	the	external	container.	The	system	
        Focus Area             is normally operated on a closed loop, meaning that solvent is returned to the same parts
                               washer from which it was initially extracted.
       Recycle/Recover/       To qualify recycled degreasing solvent, the chemical properties and materials compatibility
       Reuse of Materials     of the following scenarios of recycled MIL-PRF-680 Type II are being evaluated:
                                •		 Virgin	MIL-PRF-680	Type	II	(will	be	used	as	a	baseline	for	comparison)
                                •		 Recycled	MIL-PRF-680	Type	II	(material	that	will	be	recycled	after	four	months	of	
                                    regular use)
                                •		 Twice	recycled	MIL-PRF-680	Type	II	(material	that	will	have	been	recycled	twice,	after	
                                    four and eight months of use)

                            Tests used in the evaluation include ASTM and Army test methods, where applicable, for
                            the following characteristics: flash point, solvent cleaning power, total chlorine content,
                            vapor pressure, acid number of petroleum products, base number of petroleum products, ash
                            content, water content, copper strip corrosion, sandwich corrosion, total immersion corrosion,
                            and stress corrosion of titanium alloys.
                            Technology Benefits
                            This work has the potential to increase the lifetime of MIL-PRF-680 in relation to cleaning
                            aviation components.
                            Technology Limitations
                            The	amount	of	solvent	that	can	be	recycled	may	be	limited	by	the	size	and	number	of	units	that	
                            are available.

Economic Analysis
Currently depots purchase and use virgin solvent because the recycled degreasing solvent is
not qualified for use on aviation components. Using and then disposing of spent MIL-PRF-680

Type II increases depot operating costs. Using recycled solvent would reduce these costs.
A CBA will be conducted after testing and data analysis has been completed.
NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Informally	coordinated	the	Draft	Test	Plan	with	Aviation	Engineering	Directorate	(AED),	
        AMCOM, and Fort Rucker. All three provided comments, and concurrence on the
        proposed testing.
    •		 Coordinated	with	Fort	Rucker	for	testing	to	officially	commence	on	November	1,	2010	
        and continue until November 2011
    •		 Visited	Fort	Rucker	in	March	2011	to	see	the	recycling	processes	and	collect	data	to	
        conduct a CBA
    •		 Tested	solvents	in	accordance	with	the	test	plan

Technology Transition Opportunities
If effective, this work could be transitioned to other depots and Aviation Center Logistics
Commands who have shown interest in using recycled MIL-PRF-680 for cleaning aviation
Points of Contact
    •		 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
    •		 Jane	Pitchford,	NDCEE/CTC,	904-486-4012,	pitchfoj@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
FY09 Environmental Technology Integrated Process Team (ETIPT) Projects - Aviation
Requirements for Use of Recycled MIL-PRF-680 (Task N.0615 Project A6)

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                             Removal Technologies for Cadmium
                             Containing Water

                             Letterkenny Army Depot (LEAD) generates cadmium and other heavy metal wastes during
                             maintenance, rebuilding, and cleaning operations on Army vehicles and equipment platforms
                             that contain cadmium coatings. Removing cadminum from wastewater is challenging, and
                             permissible concentration levels will decrease by 35% in 2012 to 0.002 milligrams per liter
                             (mg/L). LEAD’s industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) has, on several occasions,
                             exceeded the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit discharge
                             limits of 0.003 milligram per liter (mg/L) for cadmium. To ensure that LEAD’s IWTP remains
                             in regulatory compliance, the NDCEE conducted demonstration/validation activities on four
                             technologies to determine their ability to remove cadmium from industrial wastewater.
                             Technology Description
                             To prevent NPDES permit violations now and in the future, the NDCEE evaluated four
                             technologies for the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewater at LEAD: 1)
                             electrocoagulation; 2) ion exchange; 3) chemical precipitation using sodium borohydride
                             (NaBH4); and 4) chemical precipitation using ferric chloride (FeCl3).
                        Electrocoagulation	utilizes	aluminum	or	iron	plates	that	serve	as	anodes	and	cathodes	for	
                        electrical current and are stored within a tank or enclosure called the reactor. Wastewater
                        flows through the reactor to be electrochemically treated. When direct current is applied to the
                        reactor, the anode plate becomes sacrificial and is broken down at the ionic level, depending
                          on the material used, and aluminum ions (Al3+) or iron ions (Fe2+) become coagulants for

          ESOHE           many	pollutants	in	the	wastewater.	The	negatively	charged	electrons	neutralize	positively	
                          charged metal ions dissolved in solution as they pass between the plates. When the metal
        Focus Area        ions	are	neutralized,	they	are	brought	out	of	solution	and	removed	as	solid	particles	within	
                          a flocculent. The amount of power applied to the reactor positively influences how quickly
                          the anode plate is broken down and subsequently how many metal ions are released into
      Water Management,
                          the wastewater. This sacrificial process can be thought of as internal chemical dosing. The
                          Kaselco electrocoagulation pilot trailer was selected for this study and installed inside the
        Treatment, and
                          granular activated carbon (GAC) building.
                                                                  Ion Exchange
                                                                  The ion exchange process operates by using resins
                                                                  that have an ionic charge to attract suspended
                                                                  species of an opposite charge in a solution. In this
                                                                  case, negatively charged resin will be used to attract,
                                                                  capture, and remove the positively charged cadmium
                                                                  from the wastewater. The resins will also attract other
                                                                  positively charged contaminants in the wastewater
                                                                  stream that could potentially limit the amount of
                                                                  cadmium effectively removed from the wastewater
                                                                  stream. Due to this issue, different types of resins
                                                                  were evaluated prior to installation to evaluate the
                                                                  effects of different resins on the influent wastewater
                                                                    Bench testing for the ion exchange process was
 NDCEE personnel adjusting the voltage and amperage (left)          conducted with a column breakthrough test, which is
 and reactor flow (right) settings on an electrocoagulation unit
 during a cadmium removal study.
                                                                    used to determine the breakthrough curves of various

ion exchange resins and generate adsorption, elution, cross-regeneration, and rinse profiles.
Three different resins were tested. The ion exchange system was provided by Calgon Carbon
Corporation. The L120 pilot unit was constructed of 20 rotating 3-inch diameter PVC cylinders

mounted on a steel box frame.
Chemical Precipitation Using Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4)
Chemical precipitation removes dissolved metal ions from solution via reducing and
coagulation agents as well as flocculation and settling methods. The addition of chemicals
such as sodium borohydride, ferric chloride, and sodium sulfide combine with soluble heavy
metal ions or salts to form insoluble compounds that aggregate and fall out of solution.
Sodium borohydride is a powerful reducing agent that can be used to precipitate heavy metals
from wastewater. It is added to the wastewater to react with the dissolved cadmium ions.
Upon reacting, sodium borohydride dissolves and releases sodium (Na) and borohydride
ions. Free cadmium ions combine with free borohydride ions and precipitate out of the
solution. Free sodium ions combine with other ions to form various species depending on
wastewater composition. Because of issues regarding safety and stability, it is often used
in a stable aqueous mixture in the treatment of wastewater. For the NDCEE effort a mixture
of aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride was used. The solution contains
sodium borohydride and caustic soda, which increases pH. With the aid of polymer AP1120,
a chemical to promote precipitate aggregation and form a floc, this solution will remove
dissolved cadmium ions from solution and allow them to be collected as sludge. The chemical
precipitation	process	utilizes	the	Intuitech	S200	precipitation/sediment	module.	
Chemical Precipitation with Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
Ferric chloride has a long history of use in metal removal in wastewater treatment. It is very
effective because it appears to work using coagulation, co-precipitation, and flocculation
mechanisms. Chemical precipitation and clarification is used to remove the regulated heavy
metals in the waste stream, including cadmium. Wastewater treatment plant personnel have
indicated that this technology could be implemented by leveraging the current system in
place, reducing cost of transfer. Additionally, the ferric chloride system is compatible with the
reducing agent sodium sulfide. Sodium sulfide can generate another co-precipitating effect
influenced by iron sulfides, which can further aid in removal of the target metals. The chemical
precipitation	process	utilizes	the	Intuitech	S200	precipitation/sediment	module.
Technology Benefits and Limitations
   Technology                                   Benefit                                                      Limitations
 Electrocoagulation   1. Requires no addition of chemicals to waste stream                 1.   Sacrificial anodes need to be replaced
                      2. Proven method of heavy metal removal                              2.   Requires high conductivity
                                                                                           3.   Does not specifically target cadmium
                                                                                           4.   Location within the IWTP is critical

 Ion Exchange         1. Works well as a polishing unit                                    1. Resins need regenerated, and are not permanent
                      2. Proven method of heavy metal removal                              2.		Regeneration	requires	hazardous	chemicals
                                                                                           3. Cannot be used in presence of organic solvents,
                                                                                               oil, and grease
                                                                                           4. Some resin types are expensive

 Precipitation        1. Promotes heavy metal flocculation                                 1.   Extremely reactive and corrosive
 with NaBH4           2. Could limit other chemical usage                                  2.   Severe skin or eye irritation
                                                                                           3.   Sensitive to materials that impede flocculation
                                                                                           4.   Explosive in pure form
                                                                                           5.   Not commonly used for wastewater treatment.

 Precipitation        1.   Proven method for heavy metal removal                           1. Reactive and corrosive
 with FeCl3           2.   Safer alternative to NaBH4                                      2. Sensitive to materials that impede flocculation
                      3.   Relatively cost-efficient compared to other treatment methods
                      4.   Common chemical used in industrial wastewater treatment

                                                                                                               Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •		 Conducted	bench-scale	testing	to	identify	effective	treatment	parameters
                            •	 Configured	and	operated	pilot	treatment	systems	and	collected	field	data	and	samples	

                                for laboratory analysis to down-select the best alternative

                        Economic Analysis
                        Economic analysis for use of precipitation with FeCl3 is the most favorable. Conversion of the
                        existing treatment process to ferric chloride will require a minimal investment in equipment
                        and up front materials. System conversion will require the installation of a liquid chemical
                        dosing system to replace the current dry dosing system. The new system will involve adding
                        a chemical feed pump and feed lines from the ferric chloride system to the mixing chamber.
                        According to the LEAD personnel, much of this equipment is already on site and will only need
                        to be installed.
                        Current chemical costs are as follows:
                                    Requirement                                                        Dollars
                                   Ferrous sulfate ($0.31 per pound x 135,000 pounds per year)         $41,850
                                   Hydrated lime ($0.21 per pound x 72,000 pounds per year)            $15,120
                                   City water ($0.005 per gallon x 3.12 million gallons per year)      $15,600
                                                                                               Total   $72,570

                        Proposed chemical pricing with ferric chloride is as follows:
                                    Requirement                                                        Dollars
                                   Ferric chloride ($0.21 per pound x 117,000 pounds per year)         $24,460
                                   Hydrated lime ($0.21 per pound x 117,000 pounds per year)           $24,460
                                   City water ($0.005 per gallon x 1.56 million gallons per year)      $7,800
                                                                                               Total   $56,720

                        The proposed treatment would save the IWTP $15,850.00 per year. The total yearly savings
                        is based on current and proposed feed rates for each chemical and a reduction in city water
                        usage due to the use of liquid ferric chloride. Ferrous sulfate is being replaced by ferric chloride
                        which is $0.10 cheaper per pound and requires a reduced concentration from 808 ppm to
                        700 ppm. Hydrated lime will still be used, but the dosing rate will increase from 438 ppm to
                        700 ppm. City water usage will be cut in half because one of the solid feed systems (ferrous
                        sulfate) will be eliminated. Lime will continue to be added by a solid feed system.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Ferric chloride could be used for cadmium-containing wastewater at any IWTP. Likely
                        beneficiaries include DoD facilities with coating removal operations since many vehicles and
                        equipment have coatings containing cadmium.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 Randall	Quinn,	AMLD-EN,	717-267-9022,	randall.quinn@us.army.mil
                            •		 Thomas	Hite,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-569-1165,	hitet@ctc.com	

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Demonstration of Compliant Removal Technologies for Cadmium Containing Wastewater
                        (Task N.0714)

Renewable Energy Screening Tool (REST)
Historically, the Army has passed the responsibility of meeting all renewable energy goals
directly to installations without regard to the required resources or expertise. These goals

stem	from	Federal	mandates	and	DoD	directives	to	reduce	GHG	emissions,	net	zero	energy	
initiatives at multiple installations, and efforts to increase energy security. While this approach
has successfully achieved progress for some goals, it has not worked well for renewable
energy where installations have been hampered by insufficient capabilities and an absence of
consistent and efficient processes. The NDCEE team refined the Renewable Energy Screening
Tool	(REST),	developed	by	Booz	Allen	Hamilton	under	a	previous	Army	contract,	to	help	the	
Army improve its ability to identify and evaluate renewable energy technologies, negotiate
with utilities, and manage the construction, operation, and maintenance of large-scale
renewable projects, either with Army funding or in concert with private sector investment.
Technology Description
The REST was created to assist the Army in conducting an initial screening to identify
Army-wide renewable energy opportunities. The REST identifies top-tier renewable energy
opportunities across four resource categories: solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal. More
specifically,	for	each	resource	category,	the	tool	performs	a	three-phase	analysis	utilizing	policy	
and financial incentives, land and resource availability, electricity prices, construction costs,
and market demand as filters to screen energy opportunities. While the national laboratories
have quantified resource data that can determine the technical viability of projects, state-level
mandates, incentives and energy market conditions impact renewable energy development
and are difficult to quantify and compare. The REST assigns weightings to resource, policy, and
market	factors	that	impact	overall	project	viability,	as	characterized	by	industry	developers.
Used in early stages of the project development phase, this tool evaluates the potential
viability of renewable energy technologies across Army installations. Specially, the tool
examines resource availability (based on Department of Energy [DOE] national laboratory
data and installation-specific data), and it combines this with a rigorous industry-validated
assessment of policy and market factors, including state renewable policies and incentives,
utility characteristics, and development costs. Key factors and relative weights include:              Focus Area
Development Costs (~10%), Financial Incentives (~15%), Generation Mix (~25%), State
Renewable Policy (~50%), and Utility Costs. Overall weights for key factors are broken up              ESOH Information
into critical sub-elements and sub-elements are assigned weights according to their relative             Technologies
importance for spurring renewable energy development. Relative weights can be altered to
consider utility-scale versus small-scale projects.
The end result is a scored list of the most-promising
states and installations for further analysis. The list of
potential projects is based on an Army enterprise-wide
framework that applies a systematic evaluation of
potential opportunities against the Army’s goals and
likelihood of success. This list of potential projects will
help to streamline the renewable energy development
processes and provide the Army with an opportunity
to attract private sector investment in the development
of large-scale renewable energy opportunities on Army
land. The REST can export Excel reports to include
Army bases and States Net Metering, State Financial
Incentives, U.S. Electricity Rates, Percent Renewable       The REST helps users identify top-tier renewable energy
Generation, and Military Construction (MILCON) Area         opportunities.
Cost Factors.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                  Technology Benefits and Advantages
                      •		 Creates	an	initial	screening	list	of	potential	Army	renewable	energy	opportunities	that	can	
                          make a significant impact on meeting renewable energy mandates and potentially enhance

                          energy security
                      •		 Assigns	weightings	to	resource,	policy,	and	market	factors	that	impact	overall	project	viability

                  Technology Limitations
                      •	 Needs	to	be	updated	regularly	to	accurately	reflect	the	evolving	renewable	energy	market
                      •	 Provides	an	initial,	geographical	focus	and	should	not	be	seen	as	determinative	of	project	

                  NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                      •		 Revised,	refined,	and	updated	the	REST	and	continued	development	of	an	Army	renewable	
                          energy	project	prioritization	tool	
                      •		 Prepared	and	presented	a	briefing	for	stakeholders	describing	the	tool	and	showing	its	
                          application under several scenarios

                  Economic Analysis
                  The Army has successfully completed a variety of renewable energy projects on its installations,
                  funded primarily through appropriated funds such as the Energy Conservation Investment Program;
                  Sustainment, Restoration, and Maintenance funds; and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
                  (ARRA). In total, these funding streams have supported the development of projects that provide the
                  equivalent of 2% of the Army’s electric energy consumption in FY10. This falls short of the 5% goal
                  prescribed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and presents a significant challenge for meeting the 7.5%
                  target for FY13. The Army’s current reliance on self-funded projects will also likely make meeting the
                  long-term	25%	goal	by	2025,	as	mandated	by	the	National	Defense	Authorization	Act	(NDAA)	of	2007,	
                  and a more intermediate goal set by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) of 18.3% by FY20
                  cost prohibitive. With the aid of REST and other tools and processes under development, the Army
                  will	be	better	able	to	capitalize	on	renewal	projects	and	renewable	energy	opportunities	that	will	offer	
                  desirable return on investment rates and enhanced energy security and other benefits. These tools and
                  processes will also reduce risk to developers and will help the Army attract private sector investment
                  in developing large-scale renewal energy opportunities on Army land.
                  Suggested Implementation Applications
                  The Army established the Energy Initiatives Task Force (EITF) on September 15, 2011, to strengthen
                  Army energy security and sustainability by developing a comprehensive capability and planning and
                  executing a cost-effective portfolio of large-scale renewable energy projects by leveraging private
                  sector financing. In doing so, the EITF will be reviewing and assessing all available planning and
                  prioritization	tools	and	available	data	to	be	considered	as	part	of	the	Army’s	streamlined	process.	The	
                  REST will be considered in this effort.
                  Points of Contact
                      •	    Alan	King,	ASA(IE&E),	703-601-0364,	alan.d.king20.civ@mail.mil
                      •	    Caroline	Harrover,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5676,	harrovc@ctc.com
                      •		   Aubris	Pfeiffer,	NDCEE/BAH,	860-304-9474,	pfeiffer.aubris@bah.com
                      •		   Scott	Thigpen,	NDCEE/BAH,	210-244-4346,	thigpen.scott@bah.com

                  Applicable NDCEE Task
                  Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Energy & Sustainability (DASA[E&S]) Renewable Energy
                  Project Strategy (Task N.0722)

Roadmapping Tool
The NDCEE is conducting strategic planning by developing technology roadmaps in support
of the TARDEC Ground Vehicle Power Mobility (GVPM) Office and is conducting capability

based planning in support of the U.S. Army’s Installations and Environment (I&E) communities.
Technology roadmaps enable Army strategic planners to improve their capability, technology,
and acquisition management plans by ensuring these plans best support the Army’s long-
term vision including the Army Sustainability Campaign Plan. Further, the roadmaps facilitate
collaboration by bringing combat developers and materiel developers closer together with
Science and Technology (S&T) and Research & Development (R&D) managers to better align
technology projects and ideas.
Technology Description
Technology roadmaps support strategic planning by mapping projects and acquisitions to
strategic goals. Mapping is critical because it allows the Army to produce fundamental
decisions	and	actions	that	shape	and	guide	what	an	organization	is,	what	it	does,	and	why	
it does it, with a focus on the future. To develop technology roadmaps and manage the new
product development lifecycle, the NDCEE is using a suite of product lifecycle management
software tools from Sopheon called Vision Strategist™ and Accolade®.
Vision Strategist allows users to collaboratively enter: 1) capability requirements and needs,
2) acquisition schedules, and 3) product and technology information. The software then
graphically depicts that information in a multi-dimensional roadmap—a visual portrayal of the
status and dependencies of an opportunity.                                                               Focus Area
Vision Strategist features a number of different screens and tools:
     •	 Roadmap	Canvas:	Contains	a	pictorial	representation	of	technology	projects,	                         Other Initiatives
         customer needs, and acquisition milestones while allowing filtering of data to
         provide different views for different audiences
     •	 Color-Coded	Legend:	Allows	users	to	view	different	variables	
         such as technology readiness level or financial commitment
     •	 Relationship	Browser:	Visualizes	relationships	and	
         dependencies across roadmaps that are individually created
         by the user
     •	 Integration:	Exports	roadmaps	to	Microsoft™	PowerPoint®
         and Microsoft™ Excel® for easy creation of presentations and

Accolade automates new product development processes and stores
all relevant project data in a central database. The data are then
accessible as a collection of projects facilitating collaboration between
product development teams. Accolade provides flexible, web-based
software to streamline the new product development process by
integrating information with decision points—from concept to
implementation through the acquisition cycle.
Accolade and associated processes help decision makers consistently
pick the best products to develop, and they are ultimately developed
quickly and efficiently. The process consists of a series of alternating
periods of (1) stages during which activities are performed to gather
information about a product and its development, and then (2) gates
during which decisions are made about whether to continue to develop Vision Strategist helps visually depict technology
the product. Data regarding each project's stages and gates are stored roadmaps, providing the right technology…at the
                                                                            right place…at the right time.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        in the Accolade database for reference by other new product teams.
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages

                            •	 Sensitive	information	can	be	shared	in	a	secure	manner.
                            •	 Meaningful	planning	information	can	be	communicated	across	distributed	teams	and	
                            •	 Graphical	roadmap	displays	are	linked	to	product,	technology,	market,	and	resources	
                            •	 Documents	can	be	attached	to	roadmaps	to	provide	a	centralized	document	database	
                               to ensure users have the latest supporting information.
                            •	 Centralized	and	controllable	views	provide	various	levels	of	roadmap	details.
                            •	 Automatic	e-mail	notifications	are	sent	to	roadmap	users	when	changes	are	made	in	
                               roadmaps that affect strategic planning.
                            •	 The	web-based	Roadmap	Viewer	enables	external	stakeholders	to	view	snapshots	of	
                               roadmaps remotely and in real-time.

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 Training	is	required	for	users.
                            •	 The	roadmap	is	a	living	document;	accurate	and	timely	data	must	be	entered	regularly	
                               into the software database.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Identified	the	key	areas	to	help	the	Army’s	I&E	communities’		capability	requirements	
                               contend for resourcing among other Army priorities
                            •	 Determined	the	need	for	a	comprehensive	Capability	Based	Planning	(CBP)	process	
                               to	identify,	evaluate,	prioritize,	and	synchronize	Army	I&E	capabilities	that	accounts	
                               for capability needs input from all I&E stakeholders in support of the Army’s future
                               warfighting capabilities
                            •	 Transitioned	strategic	planning/Vision	Strategist	capability	into	the	newly	formed	
                               Ground Domain Planning and Integration (GDP&I) Division at TARDEC. GDP&I was
                               established to serve as the TARDEC Enterprise strategic planning entity, and therefore,
                               the natural entity to house the strategic planning and roadmapping capability.
                            •	 Initiated	Accolade	into	the	Defense	Information	Assurance	Certification	and	
                               Accreditation Process (DIACAP). The DIACAP defines a DoD-wide formal and
                               standard set of activities, general tasks, and a management structure process for the
                               certification and accreditation (C&A) of a DoD IS that will maintain the information
                               assurance (IA) posture throughout the system’s life cycle.

                        Economic Analysis
                        As Federal budget deficits increase and multiple warfronts are pursued, there is increased
                        scrutiny of Federal research and development and agency procurement dollars. Technology
                        roadmaps developed through the use of Vision Strategist provide a defined path forward (and
                        increased awareness) that enables more sound fiscal decisions in technology investments, and
                        thus, yield a greater return on investment on S&T and R&D initiatives.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Technology roadmaps are being developed in many different ways by the various services

across the DoD. Vision Strategist can facilitate effective capability-based planning and
strategic	planning	activities	for	DoD	organizations.	Use	of	effective	planning	tools	helps	ensure	
the warfighter is provided the right technology at the right place at the right time.

Points of Contact
    •	 Dan	Bryant,	U.S.	Army	TARDEC,	586-282-7717,	daniel.j.bryant42.civ@mail.mil
    •	 Hany	Zaghloul,	U.S.	Army	Engineer,	Research,	and	Development	Center	(ERDC),	
       217-373-3433,	hany.h.zaghloul@usace.army.mil
    •	 Bob	Wertz,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6848,	wertzr@ctc.com
    •	 Chris	Brown,	NDCEE/CTC,	843-460-6303,	brownc@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Tasks
TARDEC GVPM Strategic Planning FY09 (Task N.0563)
TARDEC GVPM FY11 (Task N.0747)
Capability Needs Based Planning through an Integrated Roadmap for the Army’s Environment
and Installation Communities (Task N.0726)
Reduced Footprint for Army Contingency Bases – Systems Integration Support (N.0720)

        Centralized and controllable views provide various levels of roadmap details.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Simulator Operations Quality Assurance (SOQA)

                              Between FY02 - FY09, the DoD suffered 455 aviation fatalities and lost 413 aircraft due to
                              accidents. Each loss represents lost combat capability and is considered preventable and
                              unacceptable. The NDCEE is working with the DSOC to use statistics generated from full
                              flight simulator (FFS) training sessions for comparison with statistics from actual Military
                              Flight	Operations	Quality	Assurance	(MFOQA)	data	to	reduce	the	number	of	preventable	
                              aviation	accidents.	The	resulting	Simulator	Operations	Quality	Assurance	(SOQA)	will	provide	
                              instructors the potential to develop evidenced based training scenarios using objective
                              flight	data	from	known	MFOQA	events	or	mishaps	as	well	as	collect	valuable	information	on	
                              emergency procedures rarely seen in operations.
                              Technology Description
                              The	SOQA	leverages	actual	flight	data	by	extending	the	accident	and	near-miss	data	into	
                              simulator	training.	By	capturing	and	analyzing	hundreds	of	simultaneous	data	points	and	
                              linking	event	sequences	in	routine	operational	measurement	(ROM),	the	SOQA	identifies	ROM	
                              triggers,	which	may	indicate	a	high-risk	event.	The	software	algorithms	can	analyze	complex	
                              ROMs. For example, it can combine the type of aircraft with its altitude, bank angle, and speed
                              parameters to determine an over-bank condition and whether that over-bank is moderate,
                              severe,	or	extreme.	By	allowing	the	software	to	continuously	analyze	these	flight	dynamics,	
                              which may not alarm the pilot, the pilot and instructor can safely correct and learn from these
                              objective events.
                                The	initial	SOQA	evaluation	was	conducted	on	a	Boeing	737	FFS	at	CAE	SimuFlite	in	Dallas,	
          ESOHE                 TX. Both the USAF and Navy fly the C-40 military version of the 737. The aircraft type was
                                chosen for the demonstration due to its commonality with commercial aviation operations.
        Focus Area              The evaluation used CAE Flightscape’s Insight flight data analysis and flight animation
                                software technology. The USAF Safety Center’s Mishap Animation and Analysis Facility
        Safety Initiatives/     (MAAF) at Kirtland AFB, NM, has been using Insight for flight data analysis of mishaps since
              DSOC              its	inception	in	1996	and	selected	the	new	Insight	Flight	Animation	product	for	its	MFOQA	
                                program	in	2006.	Using	the	same	technology	for	analyzing	MFOQA	events	and	mishaps	and	
                                                                   for debriefing simulator sessions increases collaboration
                                                                   on the DSOC demonstration/validation initiative. Flight data
                                                                   analysis technology can facilitate increased connectivity
                                                                   between	MFOQA	safety	programs	and	the	synthetic	
                                                                   training environment to help train pilots how to prevent
                                                                   mishaps by exposing them to training scenarios based on
                                                                   actual	MFOQA	events	and/or	mishaps.
                                                                  Technology Benefits and Advantages
                                                                    •	 Improved	training	scenarios	can	be	developed	
                                                                       to make simulator training more effective with
                                                                       relationships between simulator data and actual
                                                                       flight data.
                                                                    •	 Collection	of	data	around	rare	emergency	procedures	
                                                                       will improve training, crew coordination, and the
                                                                       procedures themselves.
                                                                    •	 With	a	shift	in	training	from	live	flight	to	simulation,	
    Air Force and Navy stakeholders fly a demonstration                a richer set of flight data analysis information will be
    simulator session to collect data.                                 available	to	characterize	trends	over	time	and	the	full	
                                                                       crew population.

    •	 “Real	world”	mishaps	will	be	reduced	by	exposing	pilots	to	recoverable	and	
       preventable in-flight scenarios during simulated training.

Technology Limitations
    •	 Because	the	data	analysis	technology	is	highly	detailed	and	aircraft	specific,	extensive	
       data are required for each specific aircraft type.
    •	 Diverse	data	formats	among	simulators	demand	development	of	interfaces	for	each	
       manufacturer and potentially for each aircraft platform.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Completed	a	demonstration	of	the	SOQA	system’s	event	detection	and	aggregation	
       capability, which included 246 total flights and nearly 24 hours of recorded data. Of
       the 246 flights, 115 (approximately 47%) included one or more statistically significant
       severity events.

Economic Analysis
The	SOQA	has	the	ability	to	provide	incalculable	ESOHE	benefits.	The	DoD	loses	roughly	$1.5	
billion a year as a result aviation mishaps. Any improvements that can be made to increase the
effectiveness of simulator training will reduce the likelihood of these preventable mishaps.
Suggested Implementation Applications
Solar thermal radiant floor heating of this demonstration effort will assist the DSOC and DoD in
determining	follow-on	SOQA	actions.	If	successful	for	USAF	C-40	aircraft,	this	technology	has	
the potential to be transitioned across other USAF and DoD platforms.
Points of Contact
    •	   Jerry	Aslinger,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-0367,	jerry.aslinger@osd.mil
    •	   Dr.	Peter	Mapes,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-693-9821,	Peter.Mapes@osd.mil
    •	   Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
    •	   Greg	Jablunovsky,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6497,	jablunog@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
FY 2009 Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety
Oversight Council (DSOC) Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
Mission Readiness across the DoD (Task N.0568)

         Simulator session data are compared to live flight statistics and extends this to rare
                                                                                                  Transitioning Technology Solutions
                               Solar Thermal Radiant Floor Heating
                               In remote locations, where fuel transport is cost prohibitive or increases risks to the health
                               and safety of DoD personnel, renewable solar energy can be used to offset utility costs and

                               decrease dependence on fossil fuel supplies. The NDCEE is currently working with the Army to
                               demonstrate/validate commercial solar thermal radiant floor heating at the Pohakuloa Training
                               Area (PTA) in Hawaii.
                               Technology Description
                               In FY11, the NDCEE began a one-year demonstration of an integrated solar thermal in-floor
                               hydronic radiant heating system at the PTA, which is located in a rural area on Hawaii Island.
                               The NDCEE installed the solar thermal radiant heat flooring system in one of PTA’s barracks
                               buildings. Following a technology assessment, the team selected a closed-loop system with
                               heat transfer fluid. The main components of the system are solar collectors, a storage tank, a
                               radiant heat emitter in the floor, circulation pumps, a thermostat and electronic controls, and a
                               heat dissipater. In addition to supplying heat, the system could be modified to include domestic
                               water heating.
                               The system design includes seven 4-foot by 10-foot flat panel collectors with an output of
                               35,600 BTU/day. They are arranged side-by-side on the south-facing pitch of the roof racked
                               at	a	30	degree	angle	to	maximize	collection	of	winter	sun.	Based	on	the	flow	rate	of	the	
                               system and the number of collectors, a tank capable of storing approximately 585 gallons
                               was selected. This tank has a vertical orientation for a small footprint and better stratification.
                               Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing was installed over the existing concrete floor and
                               another layer of concrete was poured over the tubing. Solar-heated fluid flows through
                                 approximately 4,000 feet of tubing in the floor, emitting heat to the room at night.
          ESOHE                  Technology Benefits and Advantages
        Focus Area                  •		 Potentially	decreases	reliance	on	petroleum	and	increases	the	usage	of	
                                        renewable energy
    Alternative Power and           •		 May	be	a	cost-effective,	environmentally-friendly,	efficient	way	to	heat	barracks	and	
       Energy Solutions                 other buildings in remote locations

                                                                          Technology Limitations
                                                                            •		 Relatively	new	technology	with	unknown	
                                                                                performance, system integration, and cost

                                                                          NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                                                                            •		 Technology	installation	began	September	7,	
                                                                                2010. Interior construction was completed
                                                                                in October, and exterior construction was
                                                                                completed in December.
                                                                            •		 Technology	performance	is	being	monitored	
                                                                                for one year. Monitoring includes: solar
                                                                                radiation, outdoor temperature and humidity,
                                                                                indoor temperature, supply and return water
                                                                                temperatures from the solar panels and the
                                                                                radiant floor heating system, and electrical
  Tubing is installed in the floor to carry solar-heated fluid and warm
                                                                                energy from the installed HVAC and control
  the room.

Economic Analysis
Upon completion of the demonstration, the NDCEE will conduct a cost-benefit analysis to
include a lifecycle cost and performance evaluation.

Suggested Implementation Applications
Solar thermal radiant floor heating could have wide implementation applications, especially at
installations in cold but sunny climates.
Points of Contact
    •		 Gene	Arter,	U.S.	Army,	808-969-2480,	eugene.arter@us.army.mil	
    •		 Heather	Brent,	NDCEE/CTC,	412-992-5352,	brenth@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Solar Thermal Radiant Heating (Task N.0561-A2)

 Installed copper under soffit to                Solar panels attached to existing
 equipment pad                                   metal roof with special clips

 Setting equipment at pad                        Installed solar panels

                                                                                      Transitioning Technology Solutions
                           Strategic Operations and Product Management
                           Model (SOPMM)

                           Army ammunition plants produce the ammunition that our service men and women depend
                           on to carry out their mission. The Program Executive Office Ammunition (PEO Ammo) and
                           Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) have identified the need
                           to capture current and relevant data related to the production of munitions, projectiles, and
                           other key weapons and ammunition. To this end, the NDCEE has built a SOPMM that will store
                           manufacturing and supply chain data.
                           Technology Description
                           The NDCEE coordinated with PEO Ammo and ARDEC to develop the computer-based SOPMM.
                           The framework has been completed, and baseline process information is being collected on
                           four ammunition products to use as the test case. The products are nitrocellulose, hydra 70,
                           candle production, and M795 melt pour.
                           The SOPMM framework is a compilation of the data for each product including but not limited
                           to raw material data, manufacturing process flow maps, and standard operating procedures.
                           After the data are compiled, the NDCEE coordinated with the government stakeholders to
                           create an entity relationship diagram which will define the relationships for the database. The
                           data are then loaded into the database and a gap analysis will be performed to determine what
                           additional information is still required.
                           Technology Benefits and Advantages
                               •		 The	SOPMM	will	provide	a	computer-based	framework	for	PEO	Ammo	and	ARDEC	to	
                                   house information related to ammunition production.
          ESOHE                •		 This	system	will	compile	data	from	various	sources	and	combine	it	into	a	single	
                                   system, saving time and improving efficiency. By using the data in this system,
        Focus Area                 engineers can quickly solve processing problems.

        ESOH Information    Technology Limitations
          Management           •		 Requires	that	data	be	updated
          Technologies         •		 Requires	Information	Technology	(IT)	services	support	as	well	as	access	rights	to	
                                   be	utilized

                           NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                               •		 Established	data	framework	based	on	feedback	from	stakeholders	on	data	types	
                                   utilized	regularly
                               •		 Created	entity	relationship	diagram	for	the	SOPMM	database	to	define	the	
                                   relationships between data elements
                               •		 Collected	process	data	for	each	product	and	compiled	into	the	SOPMM	database	

                           Economic Analysis
                           Costs of ammunition production process failures can be very detrimental. The SOPMM is
                           designed	to	be	a	quick,	user-friendly	database	that	is	organized	by	process.	Quickly	identifying	
                           any issues within a process can save time, money, and keep production continuous.

Suggested Implementation Applications
The SOPMM database is designed to support AAP manufacturing processes. The long-term
goal is for the SOPMM to feature all active AAP products.

Points of Contact
   •		 Ray	Colon,	PM-CAS,	973-724-7617,	ray.colon@us.army.mil
   •		 Ettiene	Rickels,	NDCEE/CTC,	973-321-4959,	rickelse@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Strategic Operations and Product Management Model (SOPMM) (Task N.0736)

                                                                               Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              Sustainable Sandhills Model for
                              Regional Sustainability

                              The NDCEE supported the public engagement efforts of Fort Bragg through a unique non-profit
                              organization	called	Sustainable	Sandhills.	Sustainable	Sandhills	is	a	community	action	model	
                              Fort Bragg developed in partnership with the North Carolina (NC) Department of Environment
                              and Natural Resources (DENR) to help build a healthy, thriving region driven by concepts and
                              practices of sustainability. Shortly after completing its first Installation Sustainability Planning
                              (ISP)	workshop	in	early	2001,	Fort	Bragg	realized	that	its	long-term	viability	was	dependent	
                              upon partnering with the communities in the region and incorporating mutually beneficial
                              sustainability practices.
                              Technology Description
                              The Sustainable Sandhills public engagement model was created in 2003. Since its creation,
                              the outreach, coordination, educational, and technical work of Sustainable Sandhills has helped
                              to advance the sustainability goals of Fort Bragg. The model consists of three main elements:
                              Administration and Governance, Capability Areas, and Core Products and Services.
                              All	organizations	require	administrative	and	governance	systems	to	guide	decision-making	
                              and day-to-day activities. Sustainable Sandhills relies on a combination of volunteers and paid
                              professional	staff	to	conduct	its	mission.	The	organization	has	a	volunteer	Board	of	Directors	
                              and a paid, full-time Executive Director. Sustainable Sandhills has a Strategic Plan that is
                              updated	annually.	The	accomplishments	of	the	organization	are	compared	to	its	strategic	
                              goals	in	an	Annual	Report	to	Membership.	The	organization	seeks	a	diverse	funding	stream	
                                that currently includes Federal support from the Army, Federal and other government grants,
          ESOHE                 grants from nonprofit foundations, membership dues, donors, and event fees.

        Focus Area             Sustainable Sandhills conducts its activities on a foundation of capability areas, or program
                               areas. These are the areas in which it seeks to provide subject matter expertise and
                               regional	stakeholder	knowledge.	The	areas	have	shifted	over	time	as	the	organization	
     Sustainable Facilities    has become more aware of interest areas within the local communities, but reflect core
      and Infrastructure       sustainability concerns. A capability area may represent staff expertise or it may represent
                               a collection of contacts and resources that the staff can direct stakeholders to. In other
                                                                      words, Sustainable Sandhills does not seek to be the
                                                                      expert in all things sustainability; rather it seeks to be
                                                                      a repository of resources and an agent of coordination
                                                                      to link community activists to each other, to other
                                                                      organizations	and	to	other	resources.
                                                                       Several core services and products are provided by
                                                                       Sustainable Sandhills that draw on the capability
                                                                       areas. These all involve the underlying service of
                                                                       the	organization,	which	is	to	raise	awareness	and	
                                                                       educate the community members about sustainability.
                                                                       The	organization’s	primary	engagement	tool	is	the	
                                                                       Community Action Team (CAT). CATs are focused
                                                                       on individual counties in the Sustainable Sandhills
                                                                       region, one CAT for each county. Sustainable Sandhills
                                                                       schedules, promotes, and facilitates CAT meetings
                                                                       once every other month for the eight counties within
  The Sustainable Sandhills Model                                      its region. A CAT is a forum for people with ideas

and concerns related to sustainability to form networks and identify projects to act on
these concerns. It is a venue for community activists to share their projects with the public.
The outcomes of CAT meetings include: 1) awareness of possible projects for community

member involvement; 2) identification of champions within the community to help move
existing projects forward, or to start new projects; 3) education and training, as requested by
community members in support of projects.
Other services provided by Sustainable Sandhills are focused on particular projects or
events that reflect interest among CAT attendees, membership, the Board of Directors or the
community resource teams. One example is the Green Business Program that certifies local
business for conducting environmentally friendly actions, such as recycling, temperature
controls, or switching to green products. Another is an annual Regional Sustainability
Technology Benefits and Advantages
Sustainable Sandhills has benefited Fort Bragg by establishing a community forum for
improved communication and awareness. This forum has been a two-way communication
process; the installation’s sustainability program has gained insights from the interaction
as much as the community members. This interaction serves to promote quality of life in
the region, and addresses the “community” aspect of the Triple Bottom Line. Education and
awareness takes time, especially in a large and diverse region, so any transfer of this model
should be founded on a long-term commitment by the installation and the DoD. The outreach,
coordination, educational, and technical work of Sustainable Sandhills has helped to advance
the sustainability goals of Fort Bragg.
Technology Limitations
    •		 Challenges	for	implementing	this	type	of	regional	sustainability	model	include:	low	
        membership, lack of diverse funding stream, diversity of counties within the region,
        and	size	of	the	region.	Another	challenge	is	that	sustainability	may	not	appear	to	be	
        clearly relevant to community members.
    •		 Communication	and	outreach	may	require	extensive	one-on-one	engagement	with	
    •		 Building	trust	and	soliciting	input	from	individuals	and	organizations	takes	time.	There	
        is	no	tried	and	true	way	to	gain	immediate	trust	for	any	organization	without	first	
        proving	the	organization’s	worth	and	intent.
    •		 Time	must	be	spent	on	nurturing	relationships	with	potential	champions	who	can	help	
        spread	the	word	about	sustainability	and	the	organization’s	efforts.	The	foundation	of	
        the Sustainable Sandhills model is that educated people will take action.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Prepared	and	submitted	the	Regional-Scale	Baseline	Assessment	and	Final	Technical	
        Report, which served to capture overall results from the NDCEE task.

Economic Analysis
While an economic analysis has not been part of the scope of this regional technology
project, addressing regional sustainability issues can add to the economic viability of a region.
Engagement in sustainability projects by community members has supported Fort Bragg’s
sustainability efforts, which are also difficult to capture in economic terms.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Sustainable Sandhills must address two main challenges going forward. The first is a need to
                        address the diversity of the counties within the region and the resulting variation of interests in

                        sustainability	issues.	The	second	is	the	need	for	effective	organizational	management.	
                        The Sustainable Sandhills model likely could be transferred to other military installations. Public
                        outreach	organizations	of	this	type	can	have	significant	impact	for	military	installations	and	
                        the regions in which they operate. If each military installation had this type of partnership,
                        the impact environmentally, economically and culturally would be immeasurable. Sustainable
                        Sandhills has learned that educating and empowering the public inspires and encourages them
                        to take action and make positive changes in their community.
                        Based on the lessons learned through Sustainable Sandhills, a successful transfer of its
                        model to another region will require certain conditions. The sponsoring installation needs to
                        fully implement an ISP to ensure an appreciation that many of its sustainability issues do
                        not respect installation boundaries. An engaged community outside the fence is also critical.
                        Dedicated volunteers and project champions are essential to building a new institution. Strong
                        partners are needed in government and businesses. These relationships lead to additional
                        external	support	of	the	organization	as	partners	share	the	sustainability	story	with	others	and	
                        become ambassadors in the community. Finally, a solid funding stream is necessary, and it can
                        come from several different sources, such as major endowments, bequests, and grants.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 David	Heins,	Fort	Bragg,	910-396-8207,	david.a.heins@us.army.mil
                            •		 Elizabeth	Keysar,	NDCEE/CTC,	770-631-0137,	keysare@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Sustainable Sandhills (Task N.0602)

Tactical Digital Camouflage Wraps
To conceal military vehicles on the battlefield, armies have traditionally used camouflage paint,
changing camouflage patterns by repainting. The process is time-consuming, limits vehicle

throughput at maintenance facilities, exposes maintenance personnel to HAPs and VOCs,
and limits the types of camouflage patterns that can be used. The NDCEE is demonstrating a
camouflage vehicle wrap technology that combines state-of-the-art pattern development with
efficient and environmentally compliant application.
Technology Description
Applying camouflage patterns with paint actually restricts the type of pattern that can be
used; the most effective patterns cannot be practically applied with paint with current
painting technologies. Vinyl wraps offer a potential alternative to traditional camouflage paint
that is both environmentally friendly and easy to apply. Because the patterns are developed
graphically and then printed onto the vinyl, specific and highly complex camouflage patterns
can be developed.
Weapon system requirements dictate that a coating technology be functional and durable in
multiple service conditions and include specifications for gloss, color (reflectance), accelerated
weathering, hydrocarbon resistance, resistance to super tropical bleach used to decontaminate
vehicles, exclusion of toxic solvents, thermal cycling, and adhesion/ water resistance. The
vinyl wraps used for camouflage generally meet these specifications. Standard graphic
equipment and materials are widely available; in the NDCEE application, preference was given
to materials that reduced VOCs and waste.
Using a non-paint vehicle wrap technology allows more flexibility in developing camouflage
patterns. Fractal patterns, a geometric form that is self-similar across ranges of scale and is
commonly found in nature, were identified as the optimal pattern type. An area and scene of                 ESOHE
interest from which background images will be obtained is identified, and photographs are
taken, preferably on a day with cloud cover to reduce contrast and to diffuse the illuminating            Focus Area
light. Photos should include basic features present within the terrain such as shrubs, bushes,
trees and grass. Target coupons are also photographed as a reference for reflectance: 0%                 Alternative Coatings/
(2.4% actual) representing black (i.e., no reflectance) and 100% (93% actual) representing               Surface Preparation
white (i.e., fully reflective). These coupons allow calibration of the whole image. These                     Processes
pictures	are	then	utilized	for	camouflage	pattern	generation.
Once the images are collected and cropped, colors are
                                                                  Photo taken at 102 meters
calibrated using data from calibration coupons. This
information is then used with a fractal-based texture
synthesis	algorithm	to	develop	the	optimized	camouflage	
pattern shape design. Colors for the shapes are then
optimized	using	a	color	correction	algorithm	to	ensure	
consistency.	Once	merged,	a	pattern	of	optimized	shapes	
and colors is generated that has the ability to be expanded
to	accommodate	any	size	vehicle.	Tactical	wrap	materials	
are	created	by	processing	the	optimized	pattern	within	
imaging	software	to	best	fit	the	vehicle	and	to	minimize	
the number of overlapping seams. This process is referred
to as the layout and tiling process. Tiling reduces the
amount	of	overlapping	material	by	utilizing	the	vehicle’s	
body panel gaps and doors as endpoints for the vinyl
wrap. Once each tile is established, the image will be          Vinyl wraps, seen here on a test vehicle, provide
                                                                camouflage for changing seasons or terrain.

                                                                                              Transitioning Technology Solutions
                              cropped to fit within the constraints of the tile. The back, driver’s side, and passenger’s side
                              window sections of the vehicle are printed on a 50% perforated media to allow for visibility
                              from within the vehicle. Perforated material allows the camouflage pattern to be visible without

                              fully blocking the operator’s view. Perforated material is also applied to brake lights, headlights,
                              turn signal indicators and other reflective surfaces to reduce day-time reflection while still
                              maintaining functionality.
                              Once all tiles have been assigned to areas, the team prints and labels each piece according to
                              its assigned location. Once this process has been completed for a certain vehicle type, it can
                              be reused regardless of the camouflage type. The image may be changed without changing the
                              tiling	or	alignment.	The	patterns	are	then	adjusted	to	fit	within	printer	media	width	to	minimize	
                              waste and print time. Once the layout process is complete, the media may be printed and
                              laminated. After lamination, the patterns are cut out of the material on a cutter/plotter and are
                              ready for installation. Beginning at the rear of the vehicle, the wrap sections are installed in
                              overlapping layers so that rain and wind will pass over the seams.
                              Technology Benefits
                                   •		 Reduces	application	time	and	material	costs	and	eliminates	exposure	of	personnel	to	
                                       hazardous	substances
                                   •		 Provides	infinite	digital	resolution	and	color	palettes	and	allows	development	of	
                                       terrain and season-specific patterns generated from scientific environment-matching
                                   •		 Is	rapidly	deployable	and	allows	soldiers	to	change	patterns	without	specialized	
                                   •		 Can	be	delivered	to	vehicles	in	theater	instead	of	transporting	vehicles	to	maintenance	
                                       facilities with paint booths
                                   •		 Allows	installation	of	multiple	layers	with	different	patterns	on	vehicles;	removing	
                                       layers provides camouflage for changing seasons or environments
                                   •		 Can	be	maintained	with	low	pressure	washes	to	remove	excess	dirt	and	mud	
                                   •		 Extends	the	life	of	chemical	agent	resistant	coating	on	military	vehicles	and	weapon	

   Photographs of natural backgrounds             Vinyl wraps are printed on standard graphic   A heat gun is used to apply camouflage
   are used to generate theater-specific          equipment.                                    wraps to a test vehicle.
   camouflage patterns.

Technology Limitations
    •		 Vehicles	with	complicated	geometries	may	be	more	difficult	to	wrap.
    •		 Wraps	have	a	vehicle	service	life	of	two	to	three	years.

    •		 Vehicles	must	be	thoroughly	cleaned	prior	to	installation	of	the	wrap;	to	optimize	
        installation, it may be necessary to trim the wrap and remove mirrors, door handles
        and other hardware from the vehicle.
    •		 Finishing	and	inspection	of	vehicle	wraps	requires	use	of	a	heat	gun	and	felt	

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Completed	industry	survey	of	11	types	of	laminate	and	graphic	media;	conducted	
        testing; based on results two types of graphic media and one over laminate were
    •		 Defined	the	physical	and	optical	properties	required	for	this	application
    •		 Identified	fractal	patterns	(geometric	form	that	is	self-similar	across	ranges	of	scale,	
        commonly found in nature) as the optimal pattern type
    •		 Created	fractal	based	pattern	generation	algorithms	to	develop	patterns	from	a	
        background image of natural scenery
    •		 Provided	results	of	the	activities	in	a	series	of	reports	including	Requirements	
        Identification and Analysis Report, Demonstration Report, Technical Data Package,
        Technology Assessment Report, Test Plan, Prototype Report, and Final Report

Economic Analysis
Vinyl wraps reduce application costs by using commercially available materials and equipment.
They also improve logistics and reduce logistical costs because wraps are delivered to
vehicles; vehicles do not need to be delivered to maintenance centers.
Suggested Implementation Opportunities
Vinyl camouflage wraps may be applied to weapons systems and equipment that are routinely
camouflaged with paint.
Points of Contact
    •		 Ross	Tweten,	TARDEC,	586-282-6749,	ross.tweten@us.army.mil	
    •		 Thomas	P.	Creeden,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2823,	creeden@ctc.com

Applicable NDCEE Task
Tactical Digital Camouflage Wraps for Army Weapons Platforms (Task N.0713)

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                               Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS)
                               The DSOC Acquisition and Technology Programs Task Force (ATP TF) and its Aviation Safety
                               Technology Working Group sponsors efforts to reduce aviation safety-related incidents that

                               lead to fatalities and/or equipment loss. On behalf of the ATP TF, the NDCEE is helping to
                               facilitate the transition of the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) technology to Army
                               and USMC helicopter platforms. These activities include the demonstration and validation of a
                               functional electrical/mechanical TSAS situational awareness device for use in Degraded Visual
                               Environments (DVE) including brownout, whiteout, night vision goggle (NVG) operations, and
                               instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) in rotary wing aircraft.
                               Technology Description
                               The	TSAS	is	designed	to	minimize	pilots’	susceptibility	to	loss	of	situational	awareness	(SA)/
                               spatial disorientation (SD), which in turn leads to Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) and DVE/
                               brownout mishaps. Initial TSAS prototype demonstrations have shown that TSAS augments
                               visual and aural displays to improve SA.
                               The TSAS components include small tactors/sensors incorporated into a garment or vest and
                               integrated with the aircraft’s avionics system. Data from the avionics system provides tactile
                               clues as to pitch and roll, drift, threats, and target location. This tactile data, combined with the
                               standard instrument cross check, greatly enhances aircrew situational awareness, especially
                               in brownout, or other DVE situations. Original TSAS designs used pneumatic tactors; however,
                               new systems rely on more efficient electromechanical tactors developed by Engineering
                               Acoustics Inc. (EAI). The tactors are a matrix of tactile stimulators embedded in either a flight
                               vest or built into the aircraft seat cushion and safety belt system to provide information from
                               available on-board sensors currently in aircraft. The new hardware will be incorporated into the
                               UH-1 and UH-3 helicopters, and has already been installed in the full motion UH-3 simulator

          ESOHE                  at the United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) at Fort Rucker,
        Focus Area               To support TSAS demonstrations at conferences and meetings, Real Sims Inc. developed
                                 a new, highly portable simulator. With its bolt-on roof section, this simulator fits through a
         Safety Initiatives/     standard 36” wide by 80” doorway. It is equipped with a conversion kit for transforming a
               DSOC              110 volt AC system to a 28 volt DC. Consequently, the simulator can contain a TSAS control
                                 unit from actual helicopters.
                                                                         The new simulator was designed to be easily
                                                                         transported by two people in the back of a small
                                                                         truck or trailer. The simulator contains a realistic
                                                                         representation of the Bell 206B Flight Control System,
                                                                         which is installed into the cockpit enclosure and
                                                                         includes: dual-cyclic control system with working
                                                                         Bell 206 grips, Dual Ganged Collective system with
                                                                         working	twist	throttle	and	pre-wired	Jet	Ranger	
                                                                         Control Box, and Dual Ganged Anti–Torque pedal
                                                                         controls, and a single USB interface that supports
                                                                         X-Plane or Microsoft Flight Simulator X. A Bell 206B
                                                                         Style Center Instrument Console is installed into the
                                                                         cockpit, which also houses a radio stack, including:
                                                                         Distance Measuring Equipment (DME), Transponder,
 The portable TSAS simulator was demonstrated at the
                                                                         Communications 1&2, Navigation 1&2, Audio Panel,

Auto Pilot, Automatic Direction Finding and Omni Bearing Selector, Navigation and Very
High Frequency Omnidirectional Range rotary dials. Three 55” Light Emitting Diode/Liquid
Crystal Display monitors are provided for scenery rendition; one is mounted to the nose of the

simulator and the other two are provided on separate stands placed on each side.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •		 Provides	tactile	clues	as	to	pitch	and	roll,	drift,	threats,	and	target	location;	this	tactile	
        data, combined with the standard instrument cross check greatly enhances aircrew
        situational awareness, especially in brownout, or other DVE situations
    •		 Includes	lightweight,	tactile	stimulators,	distributed	electronic	systems,	and	garments	
        with more torso coverage
    •		 Presents	basic	flight	information	intuitively	through	the	sense	of	touch

Technology Limitations
    •	   Pilots	may	become	overly	reliant	on	tactor	technology
    •	   TSAS	may	affect	vertigo
    •	   Pilot	acceptance	of	the	technology	is	unknown
    •	   Cost,	approximately	$40K	per	aircraft,	may	be	an	issue

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •		 Developed	Outreach	Material	and	Web	site:	The	TSAS	team	developed	a	brochure,	
        computer animations, and a web site to promote awareness of the TSAS technology
        to a wider audience. The intent of the material is to reach out across service
        boundaries and provide a DVE solution applicable to all services, as well as other
        Federal agencies and those interested in civilian aircraft safety.
    •		 Built	a	Portable	Simulator	to	Support	TSAS	Demonstrations:	The	team	developed	a	
        relatively lightweight, portable simulator based on the Bell 206B. The Bell 206B was
        chosen because it is the most common trainer in use, and most helicopter pilots are
        familiar with the cockpit layout.
    •		 Conducted	TSAS	Demonstrations:	The	team	conducted	multiple	TSAS	demonstrations	
        at	Fort	Rucker	utilizing	the	new	portable	simulator,	as	well	as	at	trade	shows	and	
        events around the country. Specifically, demonstrations occurred at the following
        – U.S. Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, November 29 - December 2, 2010
         –   Warfighter Capability Demonstration Center (WarCap), Pentagon,
             March 10-15, 2011
         –   Army Aviation Association of America Conference, Nashville, TN,
             April 17-20, 2011
         –   Defense Safety Oversight Council Conference, Arlington, VA, April 27, 2011
Economic Analysis
Based on a study by the USAARL, TSAS could have prevented a significant number of DVE-
related helicopter accidents where the aircraft were completely destroyed and lives were lost.
From 2001 to 2003, 26 Class A mishaps occurred involving helicopters. In 21 of the accidents
investigators were able to determine cause. Of the 21, 14 (66%) were avoidable if the TSAS
technology had been installed on the aircraft. During 2008-2010, 27 Class A helicopter mishaps
occurred; 23 investigators had sufficient information to determine cause. Of those 23, 11 (48%)
were avoidable with the TSAS technology. These determinations were made by a joint panel of
Army and Navy pilots. The current estimate to install TSAS on a helicopter is $40,000. Given

                                                                                             Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        the 33 aircraft and crew losses that this study identified, implementation of TSAS could offer
                        significant savings in cost and human life, as well as increased mission effectiveness and

                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The Naval Aviation Center for Rotorcraft Advancement (NACRA) at NAVAIR and the USAARL
                        (Fort Rucker) are integrating the technology into specific platforms (UH-1and H-60 Blackhawk
                        at minimum) and are using the associated simulators to train pilots before flight. The TSAS
                        hardware is configurable for use in either the actual aircraft or the simulators, with only minor
                        modifications for integration. The technology may also be useful for other services and could,
                        for example, mitigate operations in brownouts for the Air Force’s V-22 Osprey aircraft.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Dr.	Angus	Rupert,	USAARL,	334-255-6865,	angus.rupert@us.army.mil
                            •	 Tim	Dabbs,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2828,	dabbst@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
                        Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
                        Mission Readiness across the Department of Defense (Tasks N.0613/N.0712)

                       Portable simulator shell in folded position (Left), simulator cockpit display (Right)

Two-Component, Touch Up Paint Dispenser
The USMC currently maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment that is monitored for corrosion
and	maintained	preventatively	to	minimize	impacts	to	mission	readiness,	safety,	and	lifecycle	

cost. These activities are coordinated through an active Corrosion Prevention and Control
(CPAC) Program. To date, execution of this program has resulted in improvement of the overall
condition of USMC gear. As part of the CPAC Program, the NDCEE conducted a demonstration
at the Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Albany of a Sherwin Williams technology called
TRU-MIX™ that offers potential quality improvements to touch up painting operations within
the USMC.
Technology Description
TRU-MIX is a paint dispenser system that allows the painter to mix exact ratio quantities of
paint required for touch up operations rather than opening a full kit, estimating mix ratio, and
disposing of unused paint. The system consists of a paint dispenser, paint agitator, and mixing
tubes. In addition to these components, the paint must be packaged in specially designed
    •	 Paint	Dispenser:	The	TRU-MIX	wall	mounted	paint	dispenser	uses	dual-component	
         cartridges with static mixer assembly, dispenses perfectly mixed material in less than
         30 seconds, significantly reduces paint waste, and also eliminates hand mixing of
    •	 Paint	Agitator:	The	TRU-MIX	Paint	Agitator	for	Dual	Barrel	Cartridges	is	an	air-powered	
         shaker specifically designed for the gentle agitation of paint cartridges of various
         sizes	and	mix	ratios	ranging	from	150	milliliters	(ml)	x	150	ml	to	750	ml	x	750	ml.	The	
         shaker comes with a shutoff valve assembly and requires about 4.3 cubic feet per
         minute (CFM) at 125 pounds per square inch (psi) for optimum operation. It can be
         bolted to a bench or mounted onto an optional pedestal stand. Additional features
         include operating pressure ranges from a minimum inlet pressure of 110 psi to a
         maximum pressure of 140 psi and vinyl coated aluminum cradle end plates that
         firmly hold the cartridge assembly in place. The agitator has a compact design             Focus Area
         measuring 8” wide x 10.5” deep x 14” high (45” high with pedestal). It is air power
         operated, reducing risk in explosive environments, and is portable when mounted in       Corrosion Prevention
         the pedestal and spare tire configuration.                                                   and Control

Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Mixes	and	dispenses	only	the	amount	of	
       paint needed
    •	 Ensures	correct	ratio	mixing	of	two-component	
    •	 Reduces	VOC	exposure	to	workers
    •	 Minimizes	pot	life	concerns

Technology Limitations
    •	 The	paint	must	be	packaged	in	specially	
       designed tubes.
    •	 Sherwin	Williams	is	the	only	current	supplier	of	
       chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) paint
       packaged in the dual-tube configuration.
    •	 Small	quantities	of	material	are	packaged	by	     Paint Dispensing Unit and Agitator
       hand, further increasing the material cost.

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Completed	the	demonstration,	in	accordance	with	the	government-approved	
                               demonstration	plan,	at	MCLB	Albany	in	the	touch-up	paint	application	area	in	July	

                               2011. The demonstration identified that the technology provided on-ratio material
                               mixture without adding to labor requirements. Additionally, the dispensing technology
                               allowed reduced quantity mixing based on volume of paint needed, rather than mixing
                               full quart quantities from gallon kits.
                            •	 Conducted	cost	analysis	of	demonstrated	equipment	and	materials	based	on	four	
                               production weeks at MCLB Albany

                        Economic Analysis
                        A cost analysis was conducted on the two-component paint dispenser and alternative
                        paint packaging that was demonstrated at the MCLB Albany. The data collected during the
                        demonstration indicated that the potential annual cost savings resulting from reduction
                        in disposal would be surpassed by material cost increases (resulting from special paint
                        packaging) after approximately six weeks of production. Therefore, this technology is not
                        recommended, as demonstrated, for all touch up operations at MCLB Albany. However, the
                        NDCEE team expects that if the use of the technology is focused on specific, low volume touch
                        up	operations,	a	cost	savings	may	be	realized.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        Although the demonstration occured at a USMC depot, these touch up painting operations
                        use similar products and processes as those used in corrosion repair facilities across the DoD.
                        Results are directly transferrable to any facility requiring small quantities of two-component
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Matthew	Koch,	USMC,	703-432-3471,	matthew.e.koch@usmc.mil	
                            •	 Kevin	Merichko,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2530,	merichko@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Engineering Support to USMC CPAC Program FY10-11 (Task N.0723)

Vehicle Blast Data Recorder (VBDR)
The NDCEE is working with the DoD, specifically TARDEC, to mitigate the impact of IEDs.
IEDs are one of the biggest threats against U.S. warfighters in the Middle East. About 70% of

in-theater injuries are caused by explosive events and firearms, mainly IEDs, with another 9%
caused by motor vehicle accidents.
Technology Description
The NDCEE has developed a proof-of-concept Vehicle Blast Data Recorder (VBDR) to gather
and	analyze	blast/crash	event	data.	Currently,	the	data	collected	from	IED	events	may,	but	
does not always include: crater measurements, post-event photos (scene and vehicle), event
summary reports, and event storyboards. The sporadically collected data are insufficient
to understand blast/crash events. The DoD requires improved data collection to upgrade/
design occupant protection systems and provide early notification of potential injuries to first
The proof-of-concept VBDR captures blast/crash data essential to warfighter safety and
mission readiness and may be installed in all U.S. military ground combat systems. More
specifically, the VBDR collects data from: 1) multiple accelerometers at different locations
outside of a vehicle to determine the force of the event at various vehicle locations, 2)
accelerometers and pressure sensors inside the vehicle to relate to occupant blast force
exposure, 3) GPS for vehicle location and engine speed at time of event, 4) internal and
external temperature and humidity sensors, and 5) other sensors to collect vehicle/platform-
specific required data.
The NDCEE designed, developed, and successfully tested the proof-of-concept VBDR during
an aggressive six-month schedule. The VBDR was tested to greater than 6,000 g-force, a
measure of acceleration, which is 20% higher than the TARDEC requirement.                                ESOHE
Technology Benefits and Advantages                                                                     Focus Area
    •	 Provides	data	not	previously	captured	during	blast/crash	events
    •	 Enables	better	and	more	applicable	blast	mitigation	technologies	to	be	designed	and	             Other Initiatives
    •	 Allows	for	better	vehicle	performance	testing	and	overall	blast	mitigation	design	
    •	 Provides	increased	preparedness	for	first	
    •	 Supports	readiness	and	warfighter	safety	and	the	
       ability to complete the mission

Technology Limitations
    •	 The	proof-of-concept	VBDR	needs	to	be	further	
       developed for vehicle/platform-specific needs
       before field implementation.

                                                             The NDCEE developed testing equipment to test the proof-of-
                                                             concept VBDR and assure that it met TARDEC requirements.

                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Submitted	the	Final	VBDR	Technical	Report
                            •	 Developed	a	shock	isolation	system	that	protects	the	electrical	components	from	high	

                               shock loads

                        Economic Analysis
                        Although the VBDR is only a proof-of-concept prototype at this time, it has the potential to
                        reduce or prevent injuries from IEDs and may reduce damage to vehicles and equipment.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The VBDR could be installed on all ground vehicle systems.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Glenn	Williams,	AMCOM	LCMC	G4,	256-876-6127,	glenn.m.williams@conus.army.mil
                            •	 Gino	Spinos,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2894,	spinosg@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Mission Critical Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health Technology Transfer and Support
                        Program (Task N.0506)

Virtual Building Energy and Environment

The NDCEE is helping installations proactively implement measures to reduce energy
consumption. These efforts include identifying and evaluating new technologies to assist with
the design and construction of sustainable, energy-efficient buildings. To demonstrate and
evaluate new construction methods and system designs, the NDCEE is taking advantage of
virtual building energy and environment modeling to simulate and predict the effectiveness of
these energy-saving designs.
Technology Description
Virtual building energy and environment modeling is performed using a sophisticated software
program developed by Integrated Environmental Solutions (IES). The program, titled Virtual
Environment (VE), allows users to either draw or import a 3D model from Google SketchUp
or other 3D graphics programs. Once a model of the building/facility/space has been created,
users can employ the software to develop and run realistic simulations for HVAC, lighting
energy consumption, and indoor air and environment quality.
The program allows users to create highly detailed model characteristics by defining
construction materials, building location and orientation, HVAC and lighting system designs,
and building occupancy and usage. Architects, engineers, and other designers can then
modify	these	design	characteristics	to	optimize	the	building	for	energy	efficiency	and	occupant	
satisfaction. For example, natural ventilation and passive solar strategies can be modeled with
the software in an effort to reduce building energy requirements that could be offset by more
expensive renewable energy technologies.
Energy modeling can be used at design charrettes as a decision-making tool to evaluate                     ESOHE
options for design decisions early in the planning process of new buildings. The software
is particularly useful in predicting and comparing lifecycle cost savings of energy-saving               Focus Area
strategies and schemes during an integrated design process. This process allows architects,
engineers, building managers, and other stakeholders to participate in seeing how their                Alternative Power and
input into design decisions can affect overall energy performance of a building. Factors                  Energy Solutions
such as building shape and orientation, insulation types and thicknesses, the amount and
performance of windows, and the type and efficiency of
HVAC	systems	can	all	be	analyzed	and	compared	quickly	
for budget costs, energy savings, and economic payback
analysis for making confident design decisions.
The software can be used for more complex modeling
efforts such as computational fluid dynamic analysis to
visualize	air	flows,	temperature	gradients,	and	performance	
of non-typical system applications. In addition, use of
virtual building energy and environment modeling can also
be applied in the evaluation of a building’s carbon footprint,
applicable LEED compliance options, and the potential
impact of renewable technology systems such as solar
photovoltaic and wind.

                                                                 Users can model a building's energy requirements during the
                                                                 design phase.

                                                                                           Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	 Provides	a	better	estimate	of	the	energy	requirements	and	operational	costs	for	a	
                               prospective building than traditional design practices

                            •	 Allows	designers	to	demonstrate	new	energy-efficient	designs	virtually,	thereby	
                               reducing the costs and risks associated with construction alterations and system
                            •	 Allows	designers	to	optimize	building	and	systems	designs	to	provide	the	highest	level	
                               of energy efficiency and occupant satisfaction

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 Because	the	VE	is	significantly	more	powerful	than	traditional	computerized	load	
                               calculation software, it requires some training and experience to become proficient
                               with its operation.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Created	a	baseline	model	for	the	440,000	square	foot	building	at	the	USMC	
                               Maintenance Center Barstow and using this model, simulated the effects that
                               potential facility, equipment, and lighting upgrades would have on energy consumption
                               and indoor environment; results were used as a basis for recommended facility
                            •	 Modeled	a	net	zero	hybrid	energy	home	to	demonstrate/validate	the	principles	that	
                               allow the geo-solar design of the Enertia® Building Systems home design to provide
                               significant energy savings

                        Economic Analysis
                        Because	virtual	building	energy	and	environment	modeling	allows	designers	to	optimize	and	
                        validate energy efficient designs prior to construction, the costs associated with developing
                        the model are significantly less than the cost of constructing a demonstration building to
                        validate a new design.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        This technology can be used during the design of any new construction commercial, industrial,
                        and residential buildings for any installations. It can also be applied to any existing building
                        to	investigate	and	analyze	any	energy	improving	retrofits.	As	the	services	continue	to	place	
                        increased	emphasis	on	net-zero	energy,	virtual	building	energy	and	environment	modeling	
                        should play a significant role in achieving those goals.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Greg	Russell,	USMC	Logistics	Command,	229-639-8072,	
                            •	 Stephen	Rowley,	Fort	Drum,	315-772-5433,	stephen.rowley@us.army.mil
                            •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com
                            •	 Heather	Brent,	NDCEE/CTC,	412-992-5352,	brenth@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        FY08 Regional Sustainability Solutions – Main Crane Way Sustainability (Task N.0561-MC1)
                        FY08	Regional	Sustainability	Solutions	–	Net	Zero	Hybrid	Energy	Building	(Task	N.0561-A1)

Warfighter Sleep Kit and Alertness Management
in Military Operations (AMMO) System

Sustained wakefulness within military combat operations has long been an issue directly
related to safety. Fatigue remains a formidable enemy, particularly in theater operations due to
its pervasive impact on “cognitive effectiveness” across the services, and ranks second as an
aeromedical causal factor. Like alcohol, the physiological effects of fatigue remain a formidable
enemy within every aspect of operations, regardless of rank. To promote sleep education in our
military service members, the Air National Guard (ANG) and the Naval Medical Research Center
(NMRC) are developing tools that will help the DoD and its services be more knowledgeable
in sleep practices. Through these efforts, the NDCEE worked with stakeholders to develop the
Warfighter Sleep Kit—a tool to help service members obtain better and more adequate sleep. In
addition, the NDCEE supported a companion effort with Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
(WRAIR) and the ANG to develop the Alertness Management in Military Operations (AMMO)
system,	with	tools	to	predict	effectiveness	and	build	flight	and	shift	work	schedules	to	minimize	
Technology Description
Warfighter Sleep Kit
The Warfighter Sleep Kit is intended to facilitate sound fatigue management practices. It
provides facts and information to educate service members on the impact of sleep on mission
effectiveness and tools and techniques to help individuals obtain adequate sleep. Tools included
in the kit provide a “Sleep Kit in a Box” usable without a formal medical background that
promotes individual empowerment, including hands-on intervention and sleep aids (i.e., earplugs
and sleep masks).
The kit contains the following items:                                                                   ESOHE
          A	pocket-sized	guide	containing	essential	facts	on	sleep
          A	form	fitting	sleep	mask	to	help	block	environmental	light
                                                                                                      Focus Area
    •	    Ear	plugs	to	help	block	ambient	noise                                                       Safety Initiatives/
    •	    A	digital	video	disc	(DVD)	that	includes:                                                         DSOC
         – Warrior Mind Training (WMT) videos that provide progressive relaxation and
              behavioral techniques to assist in falling asleep
         – Interactive Sleep Assessment, a sleep
              assessment program that helps identify common
              sleep issues, with tools that may help
         – AMMO Lite, a personal “sleep diary” that
              allows the user to estimate his/her operational
              readiness based on sleep schedule
         – Information on shift work, the physiology of
              sleep, and other sleep-related topics.

The two WMT videos include an introduction and a training
technique for the Warfighter Sleep Kit. The first video
provides a brief introduction to WMT and an overview and
description of sleep training techniques. This introduction
allows users to understand the purpose of the training before
beginning the technique itself. The training session focuses
on teaching the user the basics of mental focus in relation to The Warfighter Sleep Kit helps soldiers understand and
sleep and relaxation techniques. The technique is designed     manage fatigue.
to help users relax and fall asleep by using sounds/music
and images that are relaxing and do not stimulate a response. Both WMT videos are included

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        on the sleep kit DVD in .MP4 and .WMV formats to allow users access via an iPod or personal
                        computer. The videos are included on the DVD in a WMT folder as well as within the self
                        assessment as supporting documents.

                        The Interactive Sleep Assessment program contains a brief introduction on the necessity of
                        sleep followed by three core units titled Self Assessment, Performance Enhancement, and
                        Sleep Toolkit. The Self Assessment is in a question and answer format that makes the user
                        consider his or her average nightly sleep and sleep debt, sleep quality, daily energy, whether
                        or not the user has difficulties associated with racing thoughts and bothersome dreams, and
                        if the user does shift work. Based on the answers, the user is presented with information that
                        will help quantify the importance of sleep. The Performance Enhancement section provides the
                        user with information on the effects of sleep loss on mishaps and accidents, the dangers of
                        having a sleep deficit, and tools for fatigue modeling (AMMO Lite). The Sleep Toolkit provides
                        tools and resources, including white noise downloads; a Naval Safety Center briefing; Healthier
                        Sleep articles specific to caffeine, diet and exercise, and napping as it affects sleep and
                        fatigue; and information for supervisors focused on smart scheduling and sleep deprivation and
                        AMMO Lite is a personal, home-use “sleep diary.” The user inputs their sleep/wake schedule.
                        AMMO Lite then estimates cognitive effectiveness for the next 48 hours. The goal of AMMO
                        Lite is to empower individuals to understand how sleep loss directly affects their own
                        performance and operational readiness. The AMMO Lite effectiveness forecast algorithm is
                        based on the DoD-funded Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) model. This
                        model includes a “sleep reservoir”, and identifies optimal performance levels depending on
                        whether or not the reservoir is full or empty; during wakefulness, the reservoir depletes and
                        during sleep it replenishes.
                        AMMO System
                        AMMO is a suite of fatigue-management applications used to identify potential fatigue
                        situations and reduce the risk of fatigue-related mishaps. The AMMO application is a
                        Windows®-based software solution developed as a comprehensive military fatigue
                        management suite developed with support of DSOC. The tools include FlyAwake, WorkAwake,
                        Commander’s Portal, AMMO Mobile, AMMO Lite, and an interface to Patriot Excalibur.
                        AMMO focuses on eliminating mishaps among military units through awareness of how
                        fatigue impacts safety and the seriousness of the safety implications. Additionally, AMMO
                        incorporates actigraphic data so decision makers have better visibility on how effective or
                        fatigued an individual is, based on data uploaded from actigraphy devices.
                        Based upon the success of the initial fatigue mitigation scheduling system, FlyAwake, AMMO
                        applies the same proven research developed by WRAIR to a wider population of military
                        personnel. Originally designed to mitigate military pilot fatigue related accidents, the expanded
                        AMMO system now has the ability to assess and mitigate schedule driven fatigue in shift
                        work for ground personnel, air traffic controllers, Navy shipboard personnel, security forces,
                        maintenance personnel, and the medical community.
                        As a desktop tool, AMMO allows users to enter parameters of their own mission(s) and
                        schedule, and a mathematical model estimates cognitive effectiveness due to sleep loss and
                        circadian rhythm disruption over a selected period of time. The application draws heavily
                        on continuous feedback and input from flight surgeons, physiologists, researchers, pilots,
                        schedulers, and the end-users to create a user-friendly tool that can be seamlessly integrated
                        with existing DoD scheduling systems.

The AMMO system is designed around the
SAFTE model owned by the DoD and originated
by WRAIR. The model was developed and

refined over the past twenty years and is based
on numerous laboratory studies assessing the
effects of sleep/wake schedules on cognitive
performance. It integrates quantitative information
    •	 Circadian	rhythms
    •	 Cognitive	performance	recovery	rates	
       associated with sleep, and cognitive
       performance decay rates associated with wakefulness
    •	 Cognitive	performance	effects	associated	with	sleep	inertia

By	extending	the	application	to	shift	worker	scheduling,	schedulers	are	able	to	optimize	
shifts by selecting appropriate resources for maximum average effectiveness. In addition to
the user and resource management capabilities, the tool has been enhanced by integrating
infrastructure for Common Access Card (CAC) authentication as well as other improvements
over the predecessor application.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •	 Creates	greater	awareness	of	the	Sleep	Kit	program	and	the	seriousness	of	the	safety	
       implications: cost in lives lost, cost in equipment lost, and potential operational issues
       related to sustained operations in the office, in the hangar, and on surveillance
    •	 Provides	tools	directly	into	the	hands	of	service	members	that	will	help	them	obtain	
       better and more adequate sleep
    •	 Proactively	assesses	flight	and	shift	work	schedules	to	optimize	performance	and	
       minimize	the	risks	associated	with	fatigue-related	accidents
    •	 Easily	integrated	with	scheduling	software	applications	currently	being	used	by	the	
    •	 Can	be	used	to	enhance	operational	performance	and	drive	sustainable	operations	
       with smart scheduling

Technology Limitations
    •	 Military	members	must	have	access	to	electronic	media	to	use	some	of	the	sleep	kit	
    •	 Algorithms	are	based	on	sleep	lab	averages,	not	designed	to	predict	effectiveness	for	
       specific people due to variations between individuals.

NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
    •	 Prepared	a	Final	Report	that	described	activities	in	support	of	technology	development	
       and distribution
    •	 Distributed	8,000	Warfighter	Sleep	Kits	throughout	the	DoD	as	part	of	fatigue	
       management efforts
    •	 AMMO	and	AMMO	Lite	applications	were	deployed	as	executable	installation	
       packages to registered, approved users
    •	 Software	was	distributed	through	the	Alertness	Management	web	site	along	with	
       download instructions (http://www.alertnessmanagement.org)
    •	 Personal	fatigue	functions	were	ported	to	Apple’s	mobile	iOS	as	the	miAwake	app,	
       providing a convenient tool for managing personal effectiveness

                                                                                        Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        Fatigue poses a serious threat to military personnel and equipment. The cost of fatigue-related

                        mishaps in aviation in FY07 reached an estimated $300 million; between FY00-FY08 USAF
                        and Naval aviation fatigue-related mishaps alone cost $1 billion. Extended periods of work
                        where cognitive effectiveness drops below critical thresholds threaten the health and safety
                        of all military personnel. The physiological effects of fatigue remain a formidable enemy within
                        every aspect of day-to-day operations regardless of rank. The manifestations of fatigue, such
                        as	channelization,	spatial	disorientation,	micro	sleep,	Crew	Resource	Management	(CRM)	
                        breakdown, and slower reaction times all contribute to the mishaps that plague every division
                        within the military today. The avoidance of one significant Class B aviation mishap will recoup
                        the entire cost of the program. A detailed cost-benefit analysis is anticipated to support a
                        formal acquisition milestone decision.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The	NDCEE	distributed	8,000	Warfighter	Sleep	Kits	to	DoD	organizations	as	part	of	DoD’s	
                        fatigue management efforts. Further, the AMMO Lite personal fatigue tool is being adapted
                        to common handheld devices. The Apple iPhone/iPod Touch/iPad’s iOS and the Android
                        operating	systems	are	being	adopted	by	DoD	organizations.	As	a	personal	tool,	the	software	
                        could	be	available	to	authorized	users	on	their	personal	devices.	This	extends	the	technology	
                        to a high-availability platform and encourages convenient personal use. The end result should
                        be enhanced safety with greater self-awareness of fatigue as a factor and quantitative
                        understanding among at-risk individuals.
                        The AMMO and AMMO Lite applications have been deployed as executable installation
                        packages to registered, approved users. The AMMO software is available on the Alertness
                        Management	web	site	along	with	installation	instructions.	To	access	the	site,	organizations/
                        individuals must request a login and password. Once access is gained, the AMMO application
                        can be downloaded. Access to the site and software is currently available to interested
                        individuals across all the services and government agencies.
                        The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command has begun planning to further evolve
                        the AMMO toolset to meet military operational medicine needs. Here, implementation of a web
                        accessible application and extension of actigraphy analysis capabilities are at the forefront of
                        transition. Continual development and expansion of the AMMO tool would improve and expand
                        the tool’s functionality, capability, and user-base.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Major	Lynn	Lee,	ANG,	lynn.lee@ang.af.mil
                            •	 Dr.	Nancy	Wesensten,	Walter	Reed	Army	Institute	of	Research,	301-319-9248,	nancy.
                            •	 Laura	Macaluso,	OSD,	Readiness,	703-614-4616,	Laura.Macaluso@osd.mil
                            •	 Karen	Nelson,	NDCEE/CTC,	703-310-5652,	nelsonk@ctc.com
                            •	 Greg	Jablunovsky,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-6497,	jablunog@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Development, Demonstration, Evaluation and Implementation of Defense Safety Oversight
                        Council Workplace Mishap Reduction Initiatives to Promote Sustainability and Enhance
                        Mission Readiness across the Department of Defense (Tasks N.0517/N.0568/N.0712)

Wastewater Microfiltration for RDX
Energetic materials are manufactured and loaded into munitions at army ammunition plants.
These processes, as well as the maintenance of the buildings and equipment, generate a large

amount of wastewater, which contains energetic materials. This wastewater must be treated
in an industrial treatment plant prior to discharge, which increases treatment and compliance
costs and destroys large quantities of potentially recyclable energetic materials.
To help Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP) with its treatment of energetic materials,
the	NDCEE	demonstrated	a	method	to	potentially	minimize	RDX	from	the	wastewater	stream.	
Several alternative dewatering filter designs in HSAAP’s production facility were evaluated
for	dewatering	RDX	in-process	product	solids	and	minimizing	their	losses	to	the	wastewater	
HSAAP has been working to lower the concentrations of the high explosive nitramines RDX
and cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) from the industrial wastewater that is treated
on site and discharged into the Holston River. To lower its overall costs, HSAAP has pollution
prevention plans for capital improvements upstream of the industrial wastewater treatment
The	HSAAP	Integrated	Process	Team	(IPT),	which	is	comprised	of	several	organizations	
working in coordination to address the problem of RDX in the Holston River, conducted
preliminary work leading up to this demonstration. The IPT consists of personnel from: HSAAP,
BAE Systems, ERDC-CERL, Picatinny Arsenal/PEO AMMO, Science Applications International
Corporation (SAIC), CCR Environmental, Inc., and the NDCEE.
Technology Description
To prevent lost solids, HSAAP and BAE Systems developed several alternative batch                                            ESOHE
dewatering filter (“nutsche”) designs, which collect RDX solids so that they do not fall on
the production floor. Three proposed alternative filtration technologies were developed for
                                                                                                                           Focus Area
evaluation against the current filtration system. These designs are compatible with the
                                                                                                                        Water Management,
current operating system and do not require any structural modifications to the process
flow. The NDCEE assessed these technologies for safe source reduction of RDX from waste
                                                                                                                          Treatment, and
streams and evaluated for economic benefits in a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis.
The	current	batch	dewatering	filter	(nutsche)	utilizes	a	flat	bottom	design	with	vertical	
walls. The nutsches are filled with slurry water and
are dewatered with a series of eight probes covered
                                                                   Sock Filter
with sock filters. The probes are suspended from an                Assembly
overhead assembly, which contains piping to a vacuum
pump. The pump’s suction removes the liquid from
the nutsches, using the sock filters to retain the re-                                      Air/water

crystallized	RDX	in	the	nutsche	and	on	the	outside	of	the	        Nutsche
                                                                  (typically 6 in parallel)
socks.                                                                                                      Vacuum pump
                                                                                                                                 Settling Tank

                                                                                                            pulling water from

The problems noted with this design include:                                Floor drain
                                                                            system where
    •		 A	layer	approximately	½-inch	deep	of	free	                          RDX solids from
        liquid remains in the bottom of the nutsches                        floor are washed

        after dewatering, because the sock filters do
        not reach to the bottom.
                                                                                Flow of Filtered Water
                                                                                                                Catchment Basin

                                                                    This schematic drawing of the explosives filtration process shows a
                                                                    nutsche in the upper left.

                                                                                                         Transitioning Technology Solutions
                               •		 Solids	attached	to	the	sock	filters	fall	onto	the	floor	after	the	nutsches	have	been	
                                   removed.	If	these	solids	dry,	they	are	a	potential	explosion	hazard	so	water	is	used	
                                   to flush them into the floor drains, which increases the concentration of RDX in the

                                   catchment basin.
                               •		 Operator	diligence	is	required	to	minimize	RDX	losses	when	cleaning	out	nutsches	
                                   thoroughly to transfer the RDX solids for product formation.

                           To prevent lost solids, HSAAP and BAE Systems developed several alternative batch
                           dewatering filter (“nutsche”) designs, which allow for the collection of RDX solids with a
                           reduced risk of solids falling on the production floor. Of those designs, HSAAP selected four
                           different nutsches in this demonstration/validation project, with IPT concurrence:
                                •	 Two	that	have	already	been	used	in	HSAAP’s	manufacturing	process:
                                     –	 Design	#1:	Status	Quo	(Probe	Sock	Nutsche),	used	in	production
                                     –	 Design	#4:	Grid	Bottom	with	Gooseneck	Nutsche	,	used	in	agile	manufacturing
                                •	 Two	prototypes	that	were	designed	by	BAE	Systems	OSI:
                                     –	 Design	#2:	False	Bottom	Nutsche	
                                     –	 Design	#3:	Grid	Bottom	Nutsche
                           These designs are all compatible with the current operating system and do not require any
                           structural modifications to the process flow.
                                                         The first objective of this demonstration/validation was to
                                                         determine which alternative nutsche design provides the
                                                         quickest, most effective means to remove RDX solids from the
                                                         water at this step in the manufacturing process. Effectiveness
                                                         was measured by determining moisture content and RDX
                                                         concentration in the effluent water stream, and processing time
                                                         was used to evaluate which method is quickest.
                                                         Other factors were measured as well, including the RDX
                                                         concentration reduction in water, amount of RDX solids
                                                         falling onto the floor between batch processing cycle, and
                                                         the quantification of any additional dewatering caused during
                                                         transport in the designs with a bottom drain.
                                                         During the demonstration the grid bottom nutsches encountered
                                                         initial filter sealing troubles. The seal of the filter cloth to the grid
                                                         bottom nutsche wall was not adequate because of gaps in its
                                                         corners; slurry that would bypass the filter media leaked from
                                                         the nutsche. The team determined that the o-ring seal stretched
                                                         around the corners, becoming thinner and unable to create a
                                                         seal. The team developed an additional way to seal the gap.
                                                         Based on the results of the demonstration/validation, the team
                                                         concluded that the status quo (probe sock) design provided
                                                         a more efficient dewatering of more challenging Class I RDX
                                                         recycle slurries that are dewatered in production building H-7,
                                                         but the probe sock design continues to present environmental
                                                         and safety concerns. NDCEE recommends modifying the
 The NDCEE worked with Holston Army Ammunition Plant,    gooseneck nutsche designs and retesting for the following
 TN, to reduce RDX in facility wastewater and decrease   reasons:
 operating costs by improving filtration technologies.

    •		 Water	savings	was	realized	by	eliminating	the	hydraulic	lifts	for	the	sock	probes	
        (estimated at 6,000 gallons per day per building) and also in housekeeping operations
        to clean up RDX from the floor

    •		 Lower	wastewater	volume,	which	should	have	an	additional	cost	savings	to	HSAAP.
    •		 Lower	concentration	of	RDX	in	wastewater	stream	
    •		 Eliminate	the	probe	sock	mechanism,	which	poses	pinch	point	safety	hazards

With modification, the alternative gooseneck nutsche design may cost-effectively replace
the probe socks in production building H-7. The alternative gooseneck nutsche design would
incorporate the following design features:
    •		 Sidewall	grids	for	dewatering	fines
    •		 Screen	grating	over	filter	cloth	for	shoveling
    •		 Hold-downs	for	nutsche	dumping

Dewatering technologies, besides nutsches, should be considered to reduce environmental
and safety concerns and to possibly improve production. However, this change will be very
expensive, because HSAAP infrastructure revolves around the nutsche technology for transfer
of product within production buildings and between them. Improved automation such as
nutsche filling (to prevent inadvertent overfilling) would be another means to reduce RDX
Testing the gooseneck nutsche with sidewall grids is recommended.
Technology Benefits and Advantages
    •		 By	minimizing	wasted	solids	which	fall	to	the	floor	under	the	current	operating	
        process, the new technology may reduce the quantity of RDX and HMX that enter the
        wastewater stream and thereby may lower the dissolved RDX and HMX loading on
        the HSAAP industrial wastewater treatment plant.
    •		 The	alternative	nutsche	designs	should	require	less	water	for	clean-up	operations	and	
        reduce the volume of water sent to the wastewater treatment facility.
    •		 The	particle	filtration	technologies	investigated	may	dewater	RDX	and	HMX	in-process	
        product solids more efficiently so production time may decrease and allow the plant to
        increase output thus increasing productivity.

Technology Limitations
    •		 One	of	the	major	flaws	of	the	current	design	is	the	loss	of	RDX	solids,	which	fall	from	
        the sock filters onto the floor, once the nutsches have been removed. These solids are
        flushed into the floor drains of the building, then into the catchment basin, and on to
        the wastewater treatment plant.
    •		 A	problem	identified	in	the	current	design	is	that	a	“heel”	of	water	remains	in	the	
        bottom of the nutsche after filtering, increasing the moisture content of the RDX solids
        in the bottom of the nutsche.
    •		 Cleaning	is	accomplished	by	filling	the	nutsche	with	hot	water	(90°F)	and	letting	the	
        RDX dissolve into the solution. This solution is dumped into the waste stream that
        eventually ends up in wastewater treatment. Thus, frequency of filter cleaning has a
        direct impact on the amount of RDX ending up in the wastewater stream.

                                                                                       Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •		 Participated	in	IPT	meetings	to	define	HSAAP	needs	and	options	in	lowering	the	
                                concentration of RDX in wastewater

                            •		 Completed	instrumentation	upgrades	at	HSAAP	
                            •		 Reviewed	data	from	demonstration	in	June	and	July	2010	and	prepared	final	project	

                        Economic Analysis
                        The gooseneck modified with sidewall drain grids has the highest net present value (NPV). In
                        support of selecting this option, the modified gooseneck has the lowest payback.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        This technology is specific to RDX manufacture and could be implemented at facilities that
                        manufacture energetics for the DoD.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 Donald	Yee,	FDAR-MEE-E,	973-724-6286,	donald.w.yee@us.army.mil
                            •		 Greg	O’Connor,	SFAE-AMO-JS,	973-724-5008,	gregory.j.oconnor@us.army.mil
                            •		 Paul	Brezovec,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2844,	Brezovec@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Environmental Technology Integrated Process Team (ETIPT) (Task N.0473-A1)

Water Conservation System
Fort Hood has established a comprehensive water conservation program. Water at Fort
Hood has not historically been a major concern; the installation has access through the local

water district to water sufficient to meet current and future needs. However, recent Army
guidance mandating a 2% year reduction in potable water use (EO 13423) along with Army
and installation sustainability initiatives combined with a general water conservation ethic
has prompted the installation to examine options to more efficiently use its available water.
The NDCEE assisted Fort Hood with identifying and testing opportunities for using nonpotable
water for irrigation to replace potable water.
Technology Description
Like most places, Fort Hood has traditionally used potable water to irrigate its golf course. By
definition, potable water is treated water. To replace the potable water, a pumping station was
installed at the Landfill Lake and integrated with the base-wide water supply delivery system.
The pumping station is powered by a biodiesel generator to reduce the installation’s reliance on
fossil fuel.
This	innovative	pump	station	contains	the	following	components:	1)	an	adequately	sized	water	
pump; 2) a generator to provide a steady supply of sufficient electricity in the remote location
to	power	the	motor;	3)	a	properly	sized	fuel	storage	tank	for	the	generator;	and,	4)	a	concrete	
pad for the pump and generator and a containment system for the fuel tank.
The pumping station at Landfill Lake would require a generator to power the motor to drive the
water pump. The decision to use a biofuel is multi-faceted and the biofuel of choice would be
biodiesel. Biodiesel supplied to the generator would be made from the combination of organic
oils such as soybean, canola oil, or other waste vegetable oils with other products to create
and alternative fuel similar to petroleum-based diesel fuel; hence the use of the term, ‘green
fuel’.                                                                                                    ESOHE
Technology Benefits                                                                                     Focus Area
    •		 Using	reclaimed	water	instead	of	potable	water	helps	Fort	Hood	meet	the	mandated	
                                                                                                       Water Management,
        potable water reduction requirements in EO 13423 and reduces installation utility
                                                                                                         Treatment, and
    •	 The	reclaimed	water	system	supports	the	installation	and	regional	drought	
        contingency plan requirements.

Technology Limitations
    •		 Solar	and	wind	technologies	may	be	
        necessary to augment the biofueled generator
        because of its remote location.
    •	 Drought	may	affect	the	amount	of	storm	water	
        that collects in Landfill Lake and is available for

FY11 NDCEE Accomplishments
The NDCEE team has completed design and installation
of the water pumping station at Landfill Lake at Fort
Hood to support its water conservation initiatives.

                                                              The pumping station at Landfill Lake will allow Fort Hood to use
                                                              nonpotable water for irrigation.

                                                                                          Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Economic Analysis
                        The primary purpose of this technology investigation was compliance with Army potable water

                        reduction goals. An economic analysis was not conducted, although potential costs were
                        taken into consideration as part of the technology selection.
                        Implementation Opportunities
                        Once successful, the water conservation technology demonstrated at Fort Hood’s golf course
                        could be deployed at other military-managed golf courses to achieve water conservation goals
                        and to work toward achieving the goals established in EO 13423.
                        Points of Contact
                            •		 Randy	Doyle,	Fort	Hood	DPW,	254-287-1099,	randy.a.doyle.civ@mail.mil
                            •		 Cristina	Tomlinson,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2863,	tomlinc@ctc.com

                        Applicable NDCEE Task
                        Water Conservation & Alternative Water Supply for Fort Hood Golf Course
                        (Task N.0605)

Wind Analytics Tool
As part of the Army’s efforts to build cost-effective, energy-efficient buildings, the NDCEE
assisted Fort Hood in investigating renewable energy on a building scale. To determine

the economic feasibility of a wind turbine, the team used the Wind Analytic Tool to predict
potential wind energy production.
Technology Description
Evaluating available wind energy at a site is complex because wind energy is significantly
affected by local cover and terrain. Wind flow is altered by trees, structures, and topographical
features;	for	instance,	complex	terrain	is	characterized	by	high	“roughness”	and	consequently	
has lower available wind energy. Site-specific wind characteristics must be understood to
predict potential wind energy production so that the technical and economic feasibility of a
wind turbine project can be assessed.

Wind maps provide a fair estimation of wind characteristics on a high level, but are not as
useful	in	characterizing	wind	behavior	at	a	specific	site.	Site	assessments	using	wind	speed	
measurement equipment are available, but assessments are often quite time consuming and
costly and limited, and seasonal sampling events can affect the quality of the data.

The Wind Analytic Tool uses long-term air field data and mathematical algorithms to predict
wind characteristics at a particular site enabling a more accurate assessment of long-term
                                 Regional Wind Analysis
turbine power production. It uses a patent-pending methodology for estimating wind turbine
performance that
                                    Terrain Effects                        Local Land Cover/Terrain Effects
     •	 Leverages	a	customized	global	database	of	more	than	28,000	meteorological	
         stations to identify local long-term wind speed and direction
                                    Wind Roses                                                                                                                                                  Focus Area
     •	 Classifies	land	cover	up	to	2	miles	around	the	location	in	eight	directions	and	two	
                                      The wind energy roses are graphs
                                      that show how much wind energy
         distances for a total of 16 comes from each direction. inputs
                                       Height                                                                                                                                                   Alternative Power

                                                     Regional Wind Analysis
                                  Regional Wind Analysis
     •	 Uses	three-dimensional	vegetation,	topographical,	and	structural	wake	modeling	for	
                                      The area wind rose is based directly
                                      on data from your local
                                      meteorological stations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and Energy
         all	relevant	obstructions	up	to	½	mile	around	a	proposed	turbine
                                      The property wind rose is a profile

                                             Terrain Effects on the Effects
                                             of the available wind on your
                                             property calculated based
                                                                                                        Local Land Cover/Terrain Effects
                                                                                          Local Land Cover/Terrain Effects
Data from local meteorological stations all theused in
                                    impact of land cover and terrain
                                    Wind Rosessite.Wind Roses

                                            developThe graphs
conjunction with property analysis to wind energy rosesa wind energy roses are graphs
                                      The                      are
                                      that a profile show how much wind
property wind rose; this rose providesshow how muchthatoffrom each direction.energy
                                      comes from each direction.
                                                              wind energy
                                   Local Land Cover Noise
                                      The area data is area wind
the available wind on the property. This wind rose isTheused rose is basedChanges from regional to property wind rose
                                                              based directly           directly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Map key
                                    Winddata from your local data from your local
to conduct a site-specific wind turbine performance stations. Regional
                                      on energy is significantly affected
                                    by variances in local land cover and
                                      meteorological stations.
                                    Connection point                                                                    N                                              N
                                    terrain. The more built up the                                             150              NNE                              200           NNE
analysis.	Economic	factors	are	analyzed	including	 wind rose isyourwind
                                    Foundation               The a profile
                                      The property wind rose isproperty
                                    terrain, the higher the “roughness.”
                                      of the available wind of the available wind on
                                                             on your
                                                                                     a profile
                                                                                                        NW     100                    NE                  NW     150
                                                                                                                                                                                     NE       wind
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Water              Forest

                                                                                                 WNW                                       ENE       WNW                                  ENE                Barren           Suburban
                                    High power prices,
installed cost based on local pricing, Analyticsland cover and terrain cover and terrain
                                          roughness means propertythe
                                                             loweron calculated based on the
                                      property calculated based     energy.
                                      impact of all reviewsimpact of all land
                                                              16 areas,                             W
                                                                                                                   0                       E          W
                                                                                                                                                                   0                      E                 Grassland         Dense Sub.

                                    from your accurately
tax incentives, and available rebates toa propertysite.surrounding the site.
                                    covering three-quarter mile radius
                                      surrounding the
                                                          when calculating
                                                                                                  WSW                                      ESE       WSW                                  ESE               L. Country          Urban
                                                                                                        SW                            SE                  SW                         SE
determine the cost of energy production, project
                                    local terrain effects on your wind.
                                                                                                                                SSE                            SSW
                                                                                                                                                                                                           H. Country         Skyscraper

                                    Local metrics.
payback, and other important financialLand Cover Land CoverLocal
                                                            Wind energy is significantly affected
                                                                                                                  Changes from wind rose
                                                                                                        from Changes to property regional to property wind rose
                                                                                                             regional from regional to property wind rose                                                                  Map key              Map key
Fort Hood selected three potential 4siting areas variances more built upcover Regional
                                        Wind energy is significantly affected
                                  Page by variances in local land cover and local land
                                                              by            in                 and
                                                               Wind Analytics | 20 Jay St. Suite 936 Brooklyn, NY 11201 | Toll free: (855)-808-WIND (9463) | support@windanalytics.com N
                                        Connection point Connection point
                                                              terrain. The                 the         Regional       N                   150
                                                                                                                                         Property  Property
                                                                                                                                                                    N               200                   NNE
                                        terrain. The more built up the                                            150                                          200
                                        terrain, turbine
across the installation with 40 potentialthe higher the “roughness.” the “roughness.”
                                                             Foundation                                                      NNE                                        NNE                                                                 Water         Forest
                                        Foundation            terrain, the higher              wind    wind                       NW 100    wind      wind
                                                                                                                                                        NE                  NW 150                              NEWater            Forest
                                                                                                           NW 100                 NE                    NW 150              NE
                                                                                               rose    rose                                  rose      rose                         100
                                                                                                                            WNW ENE 50                     ENE100       WNW ENE                                   ENE                   Barren          Suburban

locations. Installation factors (e.g., maximum High roughnessreviewslower energy.
                                                                                                      WNW          50                              WNW                                                           Barren          Suburban
                                        High roughness means lower energy.means                                                                                 50                   50
                                                              Wind areas,
                                                                     Analytics          16 areas,       W                       W      E     0               E            W           0                              E                  Grassland       Dense Sub.
                                        Wind Analytics reviews 16                                                   0                                 W          0               E                              Grassland        Dense Sub.

                                                                electrical calculating
requirements), cost factors (e.g., proximity tocovering radius whenmile radius
                                        covering a three-quarter mile a three-quarter
                                                              from your property
                                        from your property when calculating
                                                                                                    WSW                           WSW ESE
                                                                                                                                                             ESE                 WSW ESE
                                                                                                                                                                                     SW                         SE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                L. Country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       L. Country

                                                              local terrain effects on your wind.
                                          effects were used
connection points), and obstructionlocal terrain effects on your wind.
                                                                                                         SW                           SE                  SW                         SE                                                H. Country       Skyscraper
                                                                                                                                         SSW          SSE                               SSW               SSE H. Country         Skyscraper
                                                                                                              SSW                 SSE                        SSW                 SSE
                                                                                                                                                 S                                                    S
                                                                                                                            S                                              S

to narrow the possible sites to 20 points. The study
outcome was an optimal siting rating guide for each   Page 4
                                                                                         Wind energy is significantly affected by variances in local land
                                                                                        Wind Analytics | 20 Jay St. Suite 936 Brooklyn, NY 11201 | Toll free: (855)-808-WIND (9463) | support@windanalytics.com
                                   Page 4
of these sites. Raw energy production at the optimal
                                                                 Wind Analytics | 20 Jay St. Suite 936 Brooklyn, NY 11201 | Toll free: (855)-808-WIND (9463) | support@windanalytics.com
                                                                                         cover and terrain; built up terrain results in high “roughness” and
site was 887 kWh/m2/yr at a 24 meter height with an consequently lower energy. Data from local meteorological stations
anticipated energy production of 88,000 kWh/yr for a                                     was used in conjunction with a property analysis to develop a
50 kW turbine.                                                                           property wind rose; this rose provides a profile of the available wind
                                                                                     on the property.

                                                                                                                                                               Transitioning Technology Solutions
                        Technology Benefits and Advantages
                            •	 Provides	accurate,	site-specific	data	to	assess	potential	wind	turbine	performance
                            •	 Allows	small	scale	siting	of	single	wind	turbines	on	a	building	level	scale

                        Technology Limitations
                            •	 Changing	parameters	can	affect	results,	especially	economic	results,	since	local	
                               incentives are taken into account.

                        NDCEE FY11 Accomplishments
                            •	 Conducted	a	demonstration	of	the	Wind	Analytics	Tool	at	three	potential	turbine	
                               locations at Fort Hood
                            •	 Evaluated	the	data	provided	by	the	tool
                            •	 Based	on	the	data,	provided	a	minimum	required	utility	rate	that	would	ensure	that	
                               wind power would be cost effective at Fort Hood for renewable energy projects

                        Economic Analysis
                        Using this wind study data, several third-party validated turbines were evaluated for cost
                        effectiveness. Because Fort Hood is not eligible at this time for any financial incentives,
                        coupled with a low cost of energy, the return on investment across the board was determined
                        to be very poor. The electricity breakeven cost for an economically justifiable project was
                        calculated at $0.17/kWh. Under third-party financing where tax incentives and depreciation
                        could be taken advantage of, such as a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), the breakeven
                        electricity cost is $0.06/kWh with a 22-year payback.
                        Suggested Implementation Applications
                        The Wind Analytics Tool is applicable at locations where smaller wind turbines may be
                        sited,	as	opposed	to	full	scale	wind	farms.	DoD	installations	that	are	analyzing	building	or	
                        neighborhood level wind technologies may find the tool useful for determining if wind energy is
                        technically and economically feasible.
                        Points of Contact
                            •	 Jennifer	Rawlings,	US	Army	Garrison	–	Fort	Hood,	254-287-9734,	
                            •	 Heidi	Anne	Kaltenhauser,	NDCEE/CTC,	814-269-2706,	kaltenha@ctc.com	

                        Applicable NDCEE Tasks
                        Sustainable	Facilities	and	Infrastructure;	Waste	Management,	Minimization,	Treatment,	and	
                        Disposal (Task N.0465)


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