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VET in SA – issues, reforms, directions and developments Steven Hodge, Roger Harris, Danny Slater and Kerrie Mackey-Smith Centre for Research in Education Seminar 28 August 2009 Outline 1. VET in Australia Overview (Steven) 2. VET Research and Policy (Roger) 3. Reform and TAFE SA (Danny) 4. VET in Schools (Kerrie) VET in Australia Overview Steven Hodge Vocational Education: Definition Education: preparation for life Vocational education: preparation for economic life (Winch 2000) VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms 1970s: Kangan Reforms The main purpose of education is the betterment and development of individual people and their contribution to the good of the community. Technical and further education should be planned accordingly. (Kangan Report 1974, p. 21) VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms 1970s: Kangan Reforms emphasis on providing an educational service to people of all ages, regard for individual needs, technology in education, self paced adult learning, use of library resource centres, unrestricted access, recurrent vocationally oriented education, counselling and guidance services, social worker help, tutorial assistance (Kangan Report 1974, p. xxvi) VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms 1990s: National Training Reform Agenda The training reform agenda is a necessary part of national microeconomic reforms to make Australia more economically competitive. (Carmichael Report 1992, p. 19) VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms 1990s: National Training Reform Agenda Competency-Based Training system ◦ Influenced by behaviourism ◦ Emphasis on outcomes rather than inputs Industry-led system Competency Standards/Training Packages Mutual Recognition VET Market VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms 2000s: Bradley Review While the issues to be dealt with are complex, reform is vital if a fully effective tertiary system…is to be achieved. (Bradley Review 2008, p. 179) Bradley Review’s ‘Key characteristics of an effective tertiary education and training system’ • equal value given to both VET and higher education • recognition that institutions may have a primary mission in one sector, but should still be able to offer qualifications in the other sector • a shared and coordinated information base and approach to anticipating future labour market needs, industry needs, and demographic trends • a capacity for the whole system to provide integrated responses to workforce needs for industries and enterprises • an efficient regulatory and accountability framework • clearer and stronger pathways between the sectors in both directions VET: Reforms, Reforms, Reforms What is needed is not two sectors configured as at present, but a continuum of tertiary skills provision primarily funded by a single level of government and nationally regulated, which delivers skills development in ways that are efficient, fit for purpose and meet the needs of individuals and the economy. (Bradley Review 2008, p. 183) VET Research and Policy Roger Harris Structure: Beginnings of a national approach Relationship SA Training between and Skills VET policy Commission and research Impact of NCVER VET research Beginnings of a national approach No small change (UTS, 1993) R&D strategy for VET ANTARAC (ANTA Research Advisory Council) NREC / (now) NVETRE – National Competitive Grants scheme Key research centres Professional association (AVETRA): Australian VET Research Association Journal: International Journal of Training Research Relationships: policy and research Rarely a direct result Different cultures – barriers Rarely orderly or rational Only one of many influences Responsibility lies on both sides Rarely linked to only one study, but a body of research Takes time! Horses for courses: different audiences – different things Impact of VET research? ‘Impact’ – what evidence? ‘Soft’ and ‘hard’ indicators Types of research use: ◦ instrumental (direct) - changes in policy, practice and behaviour ◦ conceptual (indirect) - changes in level of knowledge, understanding and attitudes ◦ symbolic (indirect) - attempts to sway people in a persuasive way. Can lead to mobilisation of support for action, or inaction, and wider influence Models of impact of VET research Stanwick, Hargreaves & Dymock & Billett (2009) Beddie (2009) peer esteem Four domains: funding body satisfaction knowledge production policy alignment capacity building policy take-up informing policy practice alignment informing practice practice take-up by: outputs and outcomes social benefits economic benefits Coolbear, Weir & Sellers developmental benefits (2009) methodological integrity potential impact National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Began 1981 – in Adelaide Does research, manages research National statistics VOCED database Dissemination of research - publishes Consults nationally, and establishes national research priorities Recommended in Bradley Review to assume a larger role! National VET Research Priorities For 2007 – 2010: From No small change – 1993: Growing the labour supply Economic benefits of VET Assumptions underlying Motivating individuals to participate in VET CBE&T, and ways of implementing CBT Sustaining a skills base Nature of workplace learning, through apprenticeships and and the place of language, traineeships literacy and mathematics in Enhancing the productive workplace reform and training capacity of enterprises Management in TAFE systems Enabling VET providers to Community perceptions of compete effectively VET, and how these are (new set being established this formed half-year) Approaches to the dissemination and use of research in VET SA Training and Skills Commission Training and Skills Development Act 2008 New Commission from September 2008 Provides strategic advice to the Minister Works closely with stakeholders – govt., industry (ISBs) and community Developed a May 2009 Plan: Skills for jobs: priorities for developing SA’s workforce Working towards a more detailed Plan for November 2009 (to feed into Govt. budget discussions) Critical goals and key policy issues 3 critical goals: 6 key policy issues: 1. Raising the skill levels of 1. A demand driven South Australians system 2. Increasing the number 2. A tertiary system of South Australians 3. Pathways with post-school 4. Skills for the ‘new economy’ qualifications 5. Use of skills and 3. Increasing employment workforce participation development 6. A quality system Reform and TAFE SA Danny Slater VET in Schools Kerrie Mackey-Smith VET in Schools (Currently) Vocational Education and Training The Recognition of VET Policy allows three options for recognising vocational education and training (VET) outcomes towards the SACE: • Embedded VET — units of competency delivered within Board-accredited subjects, in particular, Work Studies and Vocational Studies (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) VET in Schools • Stand-alone VET — units of competency delivered without reference to Board accredited subjects, and recognised as SACE units (50 hour equivalents) • SSABSA–VET subjects — units of competency in an industry-specified SACE subject. (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) VET in Schools SACE PATTERN STUDENT: _____________________________________ DATE: ___________ VET in Schools In 2008, 46% of students who completed the SACE included VET in their studies. Of the 12 237 South Australian students who completed the SACE in 2008, about 900 would not have done so without stand-alone VET. The SSABSA–VET suite of subjects included sixteen specific industry areas and allowed students to gain recognition for completion of relevant units of competency and for work experience within that industry. (SACE Board as accessed 27/8/09) New SACE requirements (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) VET in Schools Proposed Certificate III VET study at Stage 2 to qualify for 60 credits No longer ‘academic’ integration with VET as embedded in the Workplace Practices courses that hold an assessment component that recognises competency. The current Vocational Studies curriculum allows 40 – 15% to be held as competent (students currently attain 100% of that component) . Assessment A - E grades in every subject Performance standards make clear what students need to achieve for particular grade in each subject Students need to achieve A, B or C grade in all compulsory subjects (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) Features of the SACE A-E grades in every subject 30 per cent of all Stage 2 (Year 12) subjects marked by someone outside the school Double-checking of marks in all Stage 2 subjects (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) University entrance Students wishing to apply for university entry from 2012 must: Complete the SACE Complete 80 Stage 2 credits including at least three 20 credit Stage 2 subjects approved by universities Complete prerequisite requirements for some courses (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) VET in Schools At Stage 2 in SA (not including NT figures) 193 schools offered English 181 schools offered Maths 208 schools offered VET ------------------------------------------------- 2,176 students completed English Studies 6,736 students completed English Comm 2,672 students completed a Work/ Vocational Studies subject (not including stand alone VET 5,629) (SACE Board website accessed 27/8/09) VET in Schools Dilemmas Cert III capabilities for Stage 2 increases rigour, however, increases streaming ‘in effect’ from year 9 It appears VET is increasingly delineated from ‘integration’ or valuing of VET within Academic or Traditional Curriculum Simplifies outcomes for a complex student cohort and socially ‘logicises’ student’s future choices.
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