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The father of CANDU -



Dr. Jeremy Whitlock
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.
Canadian Nuclear Society

CNS Seminar on
Canada’s Nuclear Technology
UOIT, Oshawa, October 15th, 2009
                       C A N D U
                       The Canadian Reactor
                            that Could
                           and still Can

              “One of Canada’s top ten engineering
                achievements of the past century”
                                                              Canadian engineering centennial, 1987
(Other nine: CPR railway, St. Lawrence seaway, Polymer Corp. synthetic rubber, oil sands development, Hydro Quebec
HV transmission system, Beaver aircraft, Alouette satellite, Bombardier snowmobile, trans-Canada telephone network)
In the beginning …
1898-1907 …
   McGill University
   Describes radioactivity, half-life
   Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1908

1910 …
   Nuclear structure of atoms

1919 …
   First artificial transmutation:
                14N + 4He      17O + p

                                             Ernest Rutherford
                                                                                   (1871 - 1937)

                         Otto Hahn, 26 yrs. old (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1944)

                         Ernest Rutherford

                         McGill University, 1905
“If it were ever possible to control at will the
rate of disintegration of the radio-elements,
  an enormous amount of energy could be
  obtained from a small amount of matter”
                                   Ernest Rutherford, 1904
1930 …
           Gilbert Labine
                          (1890 - 1977)

Discovery of uranium at
    Great Bear Lake

                                      Port Hope refinery, 1933
1932 …

            John Cockroft
                                    (1897 - 1967)

             Ernest Walton
                                    (1903 - 1995)

                                                     Cockroft and Walton’s 1932 accelerator

                                                    First to “split the atom”:
                                                               7Li + p      4He + 4He

                                                    Nobel Prize in Physics: 1951

  John Cockroft, Ernest Rutherford, Ernest Walton
1932 …
   James Chadwick
                            (1891 - 1974)

                Discovers the neutron, 1932
                Nobel Prize in Physics, 1935

                Start of the Neutron
                 Transmutation Bandwagon
   # protons

               # neutrons
 “The energy produced by the breaking
down of the atom is a very poor kind of
thing. Anyone who expects a source of
power from the transformation of these
      atoms is talking moonshine”
                          Sir Ernest Rutherford, 1933
                                           (1871 - 1937)
1939 …
January: FISSION!
 (Hahn, Strassmann, Meitner, Frisch)

September: WAR!
 (Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo)
1940 …
   Have heavy water, will travel
         Lew Kowarski
                        Hans von Halban
    1941-42 …
         George Laurence
                                    (1905 - 1987)
World’s first large-scale fission
experiments in graphite
(National Research Council)

                                                    100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa
Aug. 17, 1942 …

    “Okay, let’s go!”
                         C.D. Howe
                         Cdn. Wartime Minister of Munitions & Supply

                               G.C. Laurence, C.D. Howe,
         C.D. Howe                           C.J. Mackenzie, J.D. Cockroft
         (1886 – 1960)                                              Aug., 1945
Dec. 2, 1942 …
                            Enrico Fermi
                                 (1901 - 1954)
First self-sustaining
nuclear fission chain reaction

                                             Nobel Prize in Physics: 1938

Chicago: December 2, 1942
1943 …
    “Montreal Group”   (NRC, at U. of Montreal)

                                    John Cockroft

                                    George Laurence
1944 …
         Chalk River Laboratories
1945 …           ZEEP: first reactor to reach
                 criticality outside the U.S.A.

                                     Lew Kowarski

 Chalk River: September 5, 1945
             Canada in 1945:

 • Second largest nuclear infrastructure on the planet
 • Atomic bomb knowledge
 • World experts on heavy-water reactor
 • Uranium supplies
 • World’s most powerful research reactor (NRX)
   under construction

           Canada’s Choice:
Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy

 NRX (1947)        NRU (1957)

                  A Mecca for nuclear research
1951 …
                                         COBALT CANCER THERAPY

“The Atom Bomb That Saves Lives”
                                             Maclean’s Magazine, 1952

  University of Western Ontario   University of Saskatchewan

  FIRST PATIENT: 27 Oct, 1951      FIRST PATIENT: 8 Nov, 1951
1952 …

 Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.
1950’s …                                                     Triple Axis Spectrometer, 1958

Bertram Brockhouse
  Nobel Prize in
   Physics, 1994

                                                  Tandem Accelerator, 1959

      Ted Litherland, Allan Bromley, Harry Gove
Dec. 12, 1952 …   NRX Accident
                  Partial meltdown of core

                  Demonstrated that a major reactor
                  accident need not be a disaster

                  Taught many lessons about reactor
                  safety, and made Canada world leader
                  in this area

                  George Laurence:
                  1956: Chair of Reactor
                  Safety Advisory Committee

                  1961-1970: 2nd President of
                  Atomic Energy Control Board
1957 …   International Atomic
         Energy Agency (IAEA)

                                          Canada instrumental
                                          in establishing IAEA

          Follows Eisenhower’s
          1953 “Atoms for Peace” speech
1959 …
     McMaster Nuclear Reactor
1962 …
   Nuclear Power Demonstration
                                         Rolphton, Ontario: June 4, 1962

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.

    Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission

    Canadian General Electric
       Wilfrid Bennett (W.B.) Lewis
                                      (1908 - 1987)
• The driving force behind the
  application of nuclear science to
  electricity production.
• Canada decides to build its
  program on its attained
  expertise: natural-uranium fuel
  and heavy-water moderator.           W.B. Lewis:
                                      “The father of
     AECL and Power Plant Design

• 1958: AECL creates Nuclear Power Plant Division
  in Toronto
• Later renamed Power Projects, then Engineering
  Company, then AECL CANDU, then AECL Sheridan
• 1966: First plant project of
  Power Division starts up
  (“first critical”): Douglas Point
  (40 years ago this year)
         Pickering, Ontario
         (1971-73, 1983-86)           Darlington, Ontario (1990-93)

                                                     Nuclear Power Demonstration
                                                         (NPD), Ontario (1962)
  Bruce, Ontario
(1977-79, 1985-87)

                                                       Douglas Point,
                                      Canada           Ontario (1966)

           Gentilly 1 and 2, Quebec
                  (1971, 1983)             Pt. Lepreau, New Brunswick
         Wolsong, South Korea
            (1982, 1997-99)

                                      Embalse, Argentina (1984)
Qinshan, China
   (2002-03)                                    Cernavoda, Romania
                                CANDU             (1996, 2007, …?)

                                the world

            Kanupp, Pakistan (1972)

                                            Rajasthan, India
                                              (1973, 1982)
    A Canadian Gift to the World:
Cancer Therapy and Nuclear Medicine
               Chalk River Laboratories
NRU Research Reactor
   (AECL Chalk River)
     Advanced CANDU Reactor

•   Optimizes the CANDU product
•   More efficient and cost-effective
•   Light water coolant, heavy-water moderator
•   Maintains all advantages of heavy-water reactor
•   Competes against advanced fossil and reactor designs
    Refurbishment, new-build

    Refurbishment, new-build



Perceptions are changing?
 It’s still about good people

NPD design team (CAPD), Peterborough, 1955

                                     doing good work
                        Thank you

   Canadian Nuclear Society:
“Canadian Nuclear FAQ”:

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