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					   21st Century College English



       Unit 6:
                   Text A
                   Shipwrecked in Antarctica




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Unit 6: Text A


  • Warm-up
  • Language Points
  • Exercises




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Warm-up
              Where is Antarctica?




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Warm-up

                  Antarctica is the coldest, highest, driest and windiest
                   of all continents, and is surrounded by one of the
                   world's largest and stormiest oceans, the Southern
                   Ocean.




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Warm-up



                  The ice sheet rises to over 4000 above the sea level.
                   Winter sea ice doubles the ice-covered size of
                   Antarctica.

                  The region comprises approximately one tenth of the
                   Earth's land surface and plays a significant role in the
                   climate of the Earth.

                  The continent is around 14 million of km2, of
                   which less than 2% is ice free.



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Unit 6: Text A


                   Text A:



                   Shipwrecked
                   in Antarctica



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Unit 6: Text A



                   Shipwrecked in Antarctica

        1 When Ernest Shackleton packed for his trip to Antarctica
        in July 1914, he seemed ready for anything. Among the items
        he and his crew stowed in his ship were cans of meat, a
        bicycle and soccer balls. Shackleton hoped to become the first
        person to travel across the frozen continent at the bottom of
        the world.



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Unit 6: Text A

   2 But nothing could have prepared Shackleton or his crew for
   what did happen. Instead of crossing Antarctica, they made
   history in one of the most incredible survival stories ever.

   Stuck in Miles of Ice

   3 Shackleton was already famous when he prepared for the
   1914 trip. In 1908 he had come within 100 miles of the South Pole
   but had turned back because of bad weather.




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    Unit 6: Text A


   4 By 1914, he was eager for another adventure. Nearly 5,000
   people volunteered to go with him. Shackleton chose a crew of
   26 sailors and scientists, plus a photographer, Frank Hurley. On
   the way to Antarctica, he picked up at least 69 sled dogs to pull
   the explorers on the long trek across land.

   5 Shackleton's last stop before heading for Antarctica was a
   whaling station on South Georgia Island. Norwegian whalers told
   the crew that it was "a bad year for ice."




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   Unit 6: Text A


   6 They were right. Upon entering the Weddell Sea, Shackleton
   was forced to zigzag through dangerous ice sheets, sometimes
   passing more than 400 icebergs a day! On January 18, 1915, the
   ice closed around the ship. It was stuck, as one sailor put it, "like
   an almond in the middle of a chocolate bar."

   7 Although he was less than 100 miles from Antarctica,
   Shackleton soon realized he could not possibly cross the
   continent that winter. The crew would just have to wait.




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    Unit 6: Text A


   Fighting Boredom and Cold

   8    As the ship slowly drifted with the ice, the sailors played
   cards, listened to records and held singing contests. "This was
   before TV," says Armstrong. "People were used to entertaining
   themselves." On the snow outside, the men built fancy
   "doghouses" with porches and domes. Some even slept with the
   dogs for warmth.




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Unit 6: Text A

   9 Meanwhile Frank Hurley kept busy taking photos. Often
   braving the cold while others stayed indoors, "he would do
   anything to get his shot," says Armstrong.

   10 The ship was locked in ice for 10 months. By October 1915,
   the ice was crushing its thick wooden walls. "It was a sickening
   sensation," Shackleton wrote in his diary. He ordered the crew to
   leave. They grabbed what they could, including 150 of Hurley's
   precious photos.




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Unit 6: Text A

   A Heroic Rescue

   11 The sailors struggled to reach land on three lifeboats they
   dragged across ice and rowed through frigid waters. They shivered
   in their thin coats, which often froze solid. At times they had to
   crawl through slush to avoid sinking. While killer whales swam
   around them, Shackleton and his men ate penguin and burned seal
   blubber for fuel. Sadly, when they ran out of food for the dogs, the
   crew had to shoot them.




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Unit 6: Text A

   12 Eventually, the crew landed on Elephant Island. But it was
   deserted. So Shackleton bravely set out again with five of his
   strongest men. They sailed and rowed 800 miles in a tiny boat,
   battling high waves, winds and severe thirst. Finally they landed
   at South Georgia Island, where they almost died climbing jagged
   peaks for three days before reaching the whaling station. "The
   thought of those fellows on Elephant Island kept us going," said
   Shackleton.




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Unit 6: Text A

   13 Four months after Shackleton sailed away, one of the men on
   Elephant Island spotted a ship offshore. When it came closer, the
   crew recognized Shackleton. They began to laugh and hug. They
   were rescued!

   14 To the world's amazement, all 28 members of the expedition
   arrived home safely. How? Armstrong and others say it is
   because Shackleton was a true hero. As the explorer said, "If
   you're a leader, you've got to keep going."




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           shipwrecked v.
           — If people are shipwrecked, their ship is destroyed in an
             accident at sea but they survive and manage to reach land.
           Examples:
           • He was shipwrecked off a small Pacific island.
           • The story tells the adventures of a group of shipwrecked
             sailors living on a desert island.




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           crew n.
           — 1. a group of people working together
                   2. Crew is a collective noun and can be used with a
                      singular or plural verb.

           Examples:
           • Could the camera crew come to a meeting this afternoon?
           • The Captain ordered his crew to prepare for action.
           • Apart from the 10 officers, a crew of 90 looks after the 300
             passengers.



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           stow v.
           — pack or store away
           Examples:
           • There is a big cupboard under the stairs for stowing toys.
           • You can stow your bags away under the desk for the time
             being.
           • His baggage was safely stowed away in the plane.




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           across v.
           — move or travel to the other side of a road,a room, a river
             or an area of land
           Compare: cross and across
           Examples:
           • Look both ways before you cross the road.
           • across: from side to side of ; 横过,穿过(一般指从
                   平面表面穿过)
           • We crossed the stream on stepping stones.
           • cross: 越过,渡过(一般指从立体面内部穿过)
              I did this
           •Examples: just to prove that a woman could cross a desert.

            • To cross the desert, the sea, a river. etc.
            • Across the street, across the surface.etc.


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           at the bottom of
           — at the lowest part of

           Examples:

           • They started the expedition at the bottom of the hill.

           • If you cannot work it out in five minutes, you can look at the
             answer that is at the bottom of the page.




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           instead of
           — in place of

           Examples:
           • Instead of improving the traffic situation the new bypass
             has made matters worse.
           • Most of us would like to spend the day out in the sun
             instead of imprisoned in the office.




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           make history
           — do something important that will be recorded in history

            Examples:

            • Einstein made history with his Theory of Relativity.

            • Margaret Thatcher made history when she became the first
              British woman Prime Minister.




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           incredible adj.
           — unbelievable or very hard to believe

           Examples:

           • He gave us some wholly incredible excuse about having
             got lost on his way to work.

           • It's incredible to think that, just a few weeks ago, there was
             nothing here except mud.

           • What incredible nonsense – not a word of it is true!




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           survival n.

           — the art, state or fact of surviving

           Examples: 适者生存
           Translate:
           • If they have had the sense to dig themselves into the snow,
           Key:
             they will have increased their chances of survival.
           • survival the fittest
           • The doctor told me my grandmother had a 50/50 chance of
             survival.

           • In today‘s business world, survival of the fittest means
             survival of the fastest.


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           prepare…for
           — put someone into a suitable state for a purpose, event, or
             experience
           Examples:

           • Although the crisis seems to be over, we should prepare
             ourselves for a time of troubles.

           • You need to prepare yourself for a long wait.

           • Parents should prepare their children for adult life.




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           volunteer n.
           — someone who does work, especially socially useful work,
             for which they are not paid
           Examples:
           • The hospital is relying on volunteers to run the office and
             answer the telephones.
           • This is a volunteer army with no paid professionals.
           • The company needs volunteers for a special project.




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           plus prep.
           — 1. increased by ;   2. in addition to

           Examples:
           • There's the four of us, plus two children and a dog.
           • This work needs experience plus patience.
           • Three plus five is eight.
           • The cost is a pound plus 50 pence for postage.




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           pick up
           — come to have; gain, buy, learn, etc.
           Examples:
           • The party expects to pick up a lot more votes in this year's
             elections.
           • The nurse had picked up the information from a
             conversation she overheard.
           • We had picked up enough Russian to be able to read the
             instructions.




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           head v.
           — move or go toward

           Examples:

           • Once inside the shop the children headed straight for the
             computer games.

           • They saw the patrol boat turn and head towards them.

           • The firm was heading for disaster.




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           Upon entering the Weddell Sea, Shackleton was forced to …
           — As soon as Shackleton entered the Weddell Sea, he was f
             orced to …

           Upon:
           — as soon as; at the time of

           More example:
           • Upon seeing her mother coming, she cried with joy.




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           zigzag v.
           — move forward by going at an angle first to the right and
             then to the left

           Examples:

           • The path zigzagged through the forest.

           • He watched his daughter zigzag down the road as she was
             learning to ride her bike.




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           bar n.
           — long-shaped piece of hard, stiff material

           Examples:

           • Our job is to pack those chocolate bars.

           • She picked a metal bar and waved it threateningly.

            More to know:
            The Bar: the profession of barrister.律师




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           less than
           — fewer than
           Examples:

           • I couldn't buy anything because I had less than 50 pence in
             my purse.

           • We had walked less than three kilometers when Robert said
             he wanted to rest.




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           drift vi.
           — be carried along or driven by wind, waves or currents

           Examples:

           • She watched the balloons as they drifted up into the sky.

           • After the meeting, people drifted away in twos and threes.

           • The conversation drifted from one subject to another.




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           be used to
           — 习惯于(过去做,现在仍然做)

           Examples:

           • I am used to drinking tea rather than coffee after dinner.

           • The noise once was very annoying, but now I'm used to it.

           More to know:

           used to do: 常常做(某事),(过去做而现在不做了)

           •       She used to go swimming in winter.


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           meanwhile adv.
           — in the intervening period of time; at the same time

           Examples:

           • Workers are told not to expect pay increases; meanwhile,
             managers continue to award themselves huge bonuses

           • She was cutting the grass, and meanwhile her husband
             was planting flowers.




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           indoors adv.
           — inside a building

           Examples:

           • The concert is held indoors when it rains.

           • I prefer to stay indoors in a cloudy day.




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           crush v.
           — press so as to break or destroy

            Examples:

            • The package had been badly crushed in the post.

            • Tragedy struck when several people were crushed to death
              in the crowd.




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           sickening adj.
           — very unpleasant, disgusting

           Examples:

           • The slaves were treated with sickening cruelty.

           • The camp filled with dead and dying people was a
             sickening sight.




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           sensation n.
           — a general feeling caused by a particular experience

           Examples:

           • Traveling upside down was a most peculiar sensation to
             astronauts.

           • I had the odd sensation that someone was following me.




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           grab v.

           — take or pick up suddenly and roughly

           Examples:
           More to know:
           • He grabbed his
           • chop and changechild's arm to stop her from running into
             the road.
             keep changing one’s plans, opinions.
           • She grabbed at the balloon, but couldn't stop it blowing
             away.

           • Why didn't you grab the chance to go to New York?



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           heroic adj.

           — brave and courageous

           Examples:

           • He was famous for his heroic deeds during the war.

           • In the end, father's heroic attempts to keep the business
             going came to nothing.




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           rescue n.
           — a successful attempt to save someone or something from a
             difficult or dangerous situation

           Examples:

           • The rescue of all 208 passengers from the burning ship
             seemed like a miracle.

           • She didn't know what she was going to do, until Thomson's
             company came to the rescue by offering her a job.




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           rescue v.
           — save; set free

            Examples:

            • We were rescued from the sinking ship by a passing fishing
              boat.

            • Larry seems to expect his parents to rescue him from all
              his difficulties.




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           frigid adj.
           — very cold, icy

           Examples:

           • She managed to successfully grow plants that were not
             supposed to be possible in the frigid winter.

           • In the desert, the days are as hot as hell, but the nights are
             frigid.




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           crawl v.
           — move slowly on hands and knees

           Examples:

           • There was a beetle crawling up his leg.

           • Alexander is walking, but his little sister is still crawling.

           • We sat in the car with the radio on, crawling along behind a
             long line of other cars.




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           avoid v.
           — keep away or to prevent from happening

           Examples:

           • You really should avoid him – he'll only try to borrow
             money from you.

           • The plane narrowly avoided disaster when one of the
             engines cut out on take-off.

           • Since the scare about mad cow disease, I've avoided eating
             beef.


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           run out of
           — use up a supply of

           Examples:

           • We knew we might run out of money before the end of the
             holiday.

           • I've run out of milk. Can you buy some for me when you go
             shopping?




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           eventually adv.
           — in the end; at last, finally
           Note:
           eventually sometimes modifies the whole sentence.
           Examples:
           • Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a
             shock when she eventually died.
           • We waited for over two hours before eventually realizing he
             wasn't coming.
           • Eventually she decided she didn't want the job at all.

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           severe adj.
           — serious; extreme

           Examples:

           • He's suffering from a severe leg injury.

           • He said that the pain was becoming increasingly severe.

           • Competition for places at the school is very severe.




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           jagged adj.
           — having a rough and sharp edge

           Examples:

           • All that was left of the window was a piece of jagged glass.

           • The rocks on that part of the coast are jagged and irregular,
             presenting a major hazard to shipping.




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           spot v.
           — catch sight of; recognize; discover

           Examples:

           • The police spotted him driving a stolen car.

           • A group of sharks were spotted off the coast earlier this
             month.

           • If you spot any mistake in the article just mark them with a
             pencil.



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           hug v.
           — hold (someone) tightly in the arms

           Examples:

           • They hugged each other when they met at the station.

           • Emily hugged her teddy bear tightly to her chest.

           • She sat hugging the parcel all the way home on the train.




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           amazement v.
           — great surprise, astonishment

           Examples:

           • I found to my amazement that it was already midnight. I
             thought it was evening.

           • To their amazement, Dave left his well-paid job to travel
             around the world.




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           leader n.
           — a person who guides or directs a group, team, organization,
             etc.

           Examples:
           • She hopes to become leader of a political party.
           • The Russian leader wants to introduce further changes.
           • Who will take over the leadership now that he has retired?
           • She shows leadership qualities in the election campaign.
           • The leadership of the expedition were very experienced.


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           leader n.
           — a person who guides or directs a group, team, organization,
             etc.

           Compare: leader and leadership

           Leadership is the position of leader or the ability to lead others.
           The leadership of a group is the person or people who are in
           charge of it.




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Unit 6: Text A: Exercises


      •        Exercise
                   • Vocabulary




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Unit 6: Text A: Vocabulary




                   《读写基础教程》: Ex. IV, p.102




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Unit 6: Text A: Vocabulary
 IV.      Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form
          where necessary.
          drift      entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag       recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush      incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item        adventure   get used to


    1. I usually buy Christmas gifts in this department store because
                                    items
       it has a wide selection of _________ for sale.


    2. Three young men went boating, but two hours later their
       friends were surprised to find there was only an empty boat
          drifting
       __________ on the lake.

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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to

                         severe
   3. The storm was so _________ that it even blew down a big tree.


   4. We had been thinking of having a party in the park, but
      were forced to stay indoors because of bad weather.
      __________




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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to

                                           shivered
   5. He was very nervous and his hands _________ when he signed
      the document that would decide his fate.


               recognize
   6. “I can’t __________ the face in this photograph,” said the man
      who was asked by the police to point out the suspect.



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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to

                                   heroic
   7. The doctors are fighting a _________ battle against the disease
      by experimenting on themselves.

                                                     less than
   8. Since it was an easy job, John finished it in __________ two
      hours.



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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to


   9. When he saw that no one would help the old lady, he
       volunteered
      ___________ to drive her home.


                             incredible
   10. The boy runs at a(n) __________ speed, even faster than many
       adults.



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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to


   11. Unlike other children he would sit reading for hours until his
                 dragged
       parents _________ him away from the books.


   12. When he was crossing the road he dropped the toy he had
                                               crushed
       bought for his son; it was immediately __________ by a
       passing car.

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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to


   13. They have been trapped in the cave for four days without food;
                                     survival
       no one knows their chances of _________.


   14. It was just an ordinary pen in others’ eyes, but it was
         precious
       __________ to Tom since it had been given to him as a present
       by a teacher.

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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to


   15. The old explorer loved to tell the children the great
        adventures
       ____________ he had once had in Africa when he was young.


   16. John’s new book is not particularly well-written, but with so
                                            entertaining
       many interesting stories it’s quite ____________.



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          drift    entertain    volunteer      survival   severe
          drag     recognize    be forced to   shiver     heroic
          crush    incredible   less than      crawl      precious
          Item      adventure   get used to

                                                        crawl
   17. Mary’s daughter cannot walk yet. She can only __________ on
       her hands and knees.

                                                      got used to
   18. George missed his parents less and less as he ____________
       living alone on campus.



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                   《读写基础教程》: Ex. V, p.102




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Unit 6: Text A: Vocabulary
 V.       Replace the underlined parts in the following sentences with
          words or expressions from the text that best keep the original
          meaning.

  1. The explorer was an expert at staying alive even in very difficult
     situations.
          survival


  2. These firefighters bravely saved people from the burning
     buildings.
          rescued
    3. Instead of going to the beach, we went in the direction of the
       mountains.
        headed for
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   4. The girl kept away from dark streets at night because she had
      heard about robberies happening in this area.

           avoided

   5. The news of her son’s death was such a hard blow to her that
      she never recovered from it.

           severe

    6. It’s no use refusing to talk; sooner or later you will have to face
       the facts.

           eventually

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   7. I saw an old friend in the crowd and waved to her.

          spotted

    8. Though she has a strong desire for knowledge, she does not
       know where to look for it.

          thirst

    9. He was seriously injured in the accident and the doctor said
       that one of his bones was broken to pieces.

           crushed

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    10. With no one to help me, I had to pull the heavy sofa across
        room myself.

           drag

   11. He had attempted to travel over the Atlantic Ocean alone in a
       hot-air balloon several times, but failed time and again.

          cross

   12. The job of a kindergarten teacher requires patience and also an
       interest in children.

                  plus

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