Concerto and Sonata
The Classical Sonata
Instrumental work for one or two
instruments following the 2-,3-, or 4-
movement sonata cycle plan outlined
Important genre for amateur musicians
in the home as well as for composers
performing in concert.
Most prominent are solo piano sonatas
for violin or cello and piano
Early on the piano played dominant
role in duo sonatas, with the string
instrument acting as accompaniment.
With Mozart and Beethoven, the
piano and the string instrument
became equal partners in the
Mozart’s duo sonatas are mostly for
violin and piano, since these were the
two instruments played.
Most important contribution to the
genre is the piano sonatas of
Beethoven, which span his career and
Beethoven, Piano Sonata in c –
sharp minor, Op. 27, No.2
(Moonlight) I and II
Written in 1801.
Title given by the poet, Ludwig Rellstab,
who likened the work to the moonlight
scenery along Lake Lucerne in Switzerland.
Dedicated to Countess Guicciardi; a last-
First movement: Adagio Sostenuto
Uses modified song form in c-sharp minor.
Introduction: four arpeggiated chords.
Strophe 1 then Middle section in G sharp
followed by Strophe 2 in c-sharp minor
ending with a coda and resolution on the
See Listening Guide 23, pp. 212-213,(CD
2/40-43), for theme and analysis.
Second movement: Allegretto;
scherzo and trio form
Short, repeated sections.
Scherzo/Trio/Scherzo; overall A-B-
A structure; p. 213,(CD 2/44-48),
for theme and analysis.
Third movement: Presto agitato:
sonata allegro form, in c- sharp
This last mvt. is reserved for his most
dramatic writing as he sets it to full-
blown sonata form.
Work has become one of his most beloved
works although he felt he had written
“better things!” ( not found Listening CD’s)