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Unit 10 English of News Reporting (I) I. Definition 1） News is any event, idea or opinion that is timely, that interests or affects a large number of people in a community and that is capable of being understood by them. 2）News is the reporting of anything timely which has importance,use,or interest to a considerable number of persons in a publication audience. 3） If a dog bites a man, it is not news; if a man bites a dog, it's （big） news. Here is a practical “formula” for “What can be news”: ordinary people + ordinary thing≠news ordinary people + unordinary thing = news unordinary people + ordinary thing = news unordinary people + unordinary thing = big (good) news II. News Value timeliness / freshness importance / consequence /impact, significance prominence nearness / proximity / locality unusualness / bizarreness / oddity / novelty interest III. Classification 1. Quality papers (heavy papers/ serious papers/ the heavies/ posh papers) e.g. The Times The Daily Telegraph The New York Times The Washington Post Popular papers (mass papers/ muck-raking papers/ tabloids / sport-and-scandal papers) e.g. The Daily Express / The Daily Mirror The Times is read by the people who run the country. The Guardian is read by the people who think they ought to run the country. The Daily Mail is read by the wives of the people who run the country. The Financial Times is read by the people who own the country. The Daily Express is read by the people who think the country ought to be run as it used to be run. 2. According to the nature of news hard news /spot news/straight news soft news 3. According to the contents of the coverage political news economic news technological news cultural news sports news violence and crime news disaster news weather news obituary entertainment Front Page International National Report Obituaries Editorials, Op-Ed and Letters The Metro Section Business Day Sports Monday The Arts IV. News Style News Features: less time-sensitive than news articles, and may describe people, places, or events of general interest to the public. Editorials: are written for newspaper publication and present the writer's opinion on an issue of current public interest V. Organization The first paragraph is called the LEAD The rest of the story is called the BODY, which generally backs up the LEAD. And, finally, as with any good story, there should be a pithy ENDING. Inverted Pyramid Format Lead More facts Background Quote Minor detail A Bomb Kills 8 Pakistanis, and It Is Seen as a Warning (Published: November 2, 2008) (1) ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Eight paramilitary soldiers were killed and five were wounded Sunday morning when a suicide bomber rammed an explosives- laden truck into a security checkpoint in the restive South Waziristan tribal region, officials said. (2) Also on Sunday, Gen. David H. Petraeus, the new chief of the Central Command, made his first visit to Pakistan for talks with top political and military leaders here. The relationship between Pakistan and the United States has worsened in recent weeks after a string of American strikes in Pakistan on militant hide-outs. (3) General Petraeus, credited with turning around the war in Iraq, was accompanied by Richard A. Boucher, the assistant secretary of state for South Asia. No details on their schedule were released. (4) The truck bombing took place around 9:30 a.m. Sunday at a post near Fort Zalai, a base for the paramilitary Frontier Corps about 12 miles from Wana, South Waziristan’s capital. (5) The attack, apparently retaliation for deadly missile strikes reported on Friday, may affect an agreement between militants and Pakistan’s government. (6 ) “The attack could be a warning call to Islamabad from Maulvi Nazir,” said Arif Rafiq, a political analyst, referring to a local militant. Mr. Nazir, the Taliban’s top commander in South Waziristan, was reportedly the target of a missile strike from a remotely piloted aircraft on Friday. (7)South Waziristan, on the Afghan border, is known as a stronghold for Taliban militants and sympathizers of Al Qaeda. (8)On Sunday, The News, one of Pakistan’s leading English-language newspapers, reported that militants in South Waziristan had threatened to scrap a peace accord with the government if the United States did not halt air attacks against militant leaders. (9)“Nazir feels vulnerable and wants to make clear to Islamabad that there will be deadly consequences from his side if the Pakistan military joins Washington in opposing him,” Mr. Rafiq said. The Chronological Account LEAD EVENTS IN SEQUENCE ADDITIONAL FACTS Lead-plus-equal-facts LEAD FACT 1 FACT 2 FACT 3 The Suspended-interest Story LEAD STORY DEVELOPED STORY NEARS CLIMAX THE STORY RELEASED VI. Headlines (I) Types of Headlines * Banner / streamer * One-column-one- line head * Two-column-two-line head Headlines Phrase e.g. Neet Generation Giving Credit Its Due Changing the Guard Incomplete Sentence e.g. Quality of Life a Priority for the Deathly Ill (= The Quality of Life Is a Priority for the Deathly Ill People) Whole-sentence headlines e.g. Don’t Play Games with People’s Pay When Will the Next Ice Age Begin? Mayday! Pilot Blacked Out! Drama In Real Life Stylistic Features of Headlines 1. Graphological features The keyline / the crossline Pluto loses planet statue The flush-left head OPEC ministers agree to drop price of oil The indented head / dropline head Centennial industries purchases 150 acres for Springdale plant Stylistic Features of Headlines The inverted pyramid form For Reagon Williamsburg was a political smash but an economic fizzle The pyramid form Maternity wardrobe for Working mums The centered form A better way of choosing a nation’s chief Stylistic Features of Headlines 2. Grammatical Features (1) Omission Omission of articles e.g. China Launches (a) Space Satellite (The) Army Secretary Defends His Sale of (the) Enron Stock Omission of verb be e.g. Cloning Technology (Is) Unlikely to Take Over the World Omission of auxiliary e.g. New policies (are) urged for aging population Stylistic Features of Headlines Omission of connectives e.g. US, Vietnam Resume Talks (= US and Vietnam Resume Talks) Omission of Personal Relative Pronouns e.g. Pakistan to open consulate in Shanghai ( = Pakistan will open its consulate in Shanghai) Warm-up Please identify the tense and voice of the following headlines Bush Seeks Tax Cuts He Had Scorned Thames Approaching Danger Level A Proposal to Reduce US Troops in Germany Russia’s Richest Man Interrogated Stylistic Features of Headlines (2) Tense and Voice The present tense is used instead of the present perfective and the past tense (Journalistic Present Tense) e.g. Circuit City Files for Bankruptcy China Eyes New Turf: South America Future happenings are often expressed with an infinitive e.g. Rain to Continue Through Tomorrow IMB to Get Payout from German Unit Stylistic Features of Headlines The present participle is used to express progressive present e.g. China Surpassing Japan In PCs, Internet Use Helping the homeless to Help Themselves The past participle without the auxiliary is used to refer to an action in passive voice e.g. Profound Effect on U.S. Economy Seen in War on Iraq Film Star Clint Eastwood Honored in Gala Tribute Active voice is more frequently used Stylistic Features of Headlines 3. Punctuation Comma is used instead of “and” e.g. Italy, France Top Winners at Cannes Dash is used to introduce the speaker e.g. Economy Grows Slowly As Unemployment, Inflation Rise — Economists Inverted comma is used instead of double quotation mark e.g. In Post-miracle Japan ‘New Religions’ Thrive Stylistic Features of Headlines Colon is used to further explain or replace “be” or “say” e.g. Smoking: Top Killer of women Semi-colon links two different meanings e.g. Haitian School Toll Hits 90; Owner Arrested Stylistic Features of Headlines (II) Lexical Features Heave use of short words e.g. Bourse Eyes Big Tieups (eyes= watches / observes) Oil Cartel Decides to Cut Output (cut= reduce) Israel Downs Civilian Plane From Lebanon (down= shot down) ace: an adept or expert aim:, object, design, target, purpose, intention axe : reduce back : support ban : prohibition, interdict, restraint, restriction bar : prohibit, exclude bid : appeal; offer; attempt; proposal; endeavor blast: explosion chief: overseer, supervisor; governor, manager, commander coup: change in government crash: collision, accident curb: restraint deal: agreement , bargain , negotiation, transaction echo: response, reflection, reverberation envoy: messenger, ambassador, representative, delegate fake: counterfeit flop: failure gap : discrepancy, difference glut: oversupply job: task, enterprise, undertaking, mission, business key : essential, vital link : connection meet: assembly, convention, conference, counci congress nab: capture oust : push out, replace pack : treaty; compact, contract, convention, agreement, alliance plea: appeal, application, request, entreaty poll: public opinion survey probe : investigate rap: criticize, blame quit : leave, resign row: conflict, dispute, discord, argument, quarrel, difference, snag: unexpected difficulty swap: exchange talks: discussions tie: diplomatic relations try: attempt, effort, endeavor, experiment wed: marry Stylistic Features of Headlines Heavy use of abbreviations * Abbreviations of organizations or bodies e.g. WTO Head To meet APEC Ministers (APEC= Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) Overseas Reporters For NPC & CPPCC Increase By 20% (NPC= National People’s Congress) (CPPCC= Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference) * Abbreviations of Technical Terms e.g. PDA Firm To Enter New Mart (PDA= personal digital assistant 个人数字助理) Stylistic Features of Headlines * Abbreviations of Countries, Occupations, Titles and Proper Names e.g. Thai P.M. Going On Trial Today (P.M. = Prime Minister) Can Obama Be the New FDR? (FDR =Franklin Delano Roosevelt ) Prez Obama to Work With Key Bush Holdovers FM= Foreign Minister MP= Member of Parliament * Heavy Use of Clipping Words e.g. Russian Nuclear Sub Accident Kills More Than 20 (sub= submarine) Dems Push Paulson to Fund Big 3 Automakers (Dems= Democrats) SKILLFUL HEADLINING 1. ALLUSION All Work, Low Pay Makes Nurses Go away In Taiwan, a Scandal a Day Keeps the Blues Away A Tale of Two Hearts Of Mice and Men and Genome Maps 2. PUN Bush Goes Green on His Break: Golf, Economy, Fund-raising Men Recommended More Clubs for Wives SKILLFUL HEADLINING 3. ALLITERATION Britons Rejoice at Birth of Royal Boy Form Follows Feeling at the Milan Furniture Fair The Poison of Professional Politics 4. RHYME No Funny, No Money From Zero to Hero No Gain without Real Pain Exercise eye / key / opt / loot / balks at / nod / snub / blasts / vow / ink / rocks / guts 1. Union refuses to accept court order ( ) 2. MP criticizes democrats strongly ( ) 3. Women’s groups watch court vote with interest ( ) 4. Year’s biggest fire destroys 178 homes ( ) 5. Thailand, Malaysia sign sea treaty ( ) 6. Gov’t wins very important vote ( ) eye / key / opt / loot / balks at / nod / snub / blasts / vow / ink / rocks / guts 7. Rioters take away stores goods unlawfully ( ) 8. Minister seeks approval for oil saving plan ( ) 9. Swiss choose to back tax for churches ( ) 10. Gov’t report shocks stock market ( ) 11. Protestants pay no attention to Ulster peace bid ( ) 12. Police chief promises to catch kidnappers ( ) Ex1: Match each of the following words from the headlines above with its meaning below chief, drama, reshuffle, gag, gems, swoop, poll, quit, seek, rig, haul (a) jewels (b) goods stolen in robbery or taken by police or customs (c) to falsify (d) director, high-ranking officer or official (e) raid, to raid (f) To look for, ask for, want (g) to silence, censor, censorship (h) exciting, dramatic event (i) election, voting, public opinion survey (j) to rearrange of senior jobs (k) to resign, leave ‘Polls Rigged’ Charges Two Sought After Break-out Drama Cabinet Reshuffle Urged Service Chiefs Gagged: Two Quit Gems Haul Seized in Swoop (a) Allegations have been made that election results were falsified (b) Police raided a house today and took possession of jewelry stolen in a recent robbery (c ) police are hunting two men who made a daring escape from prison by helicopter (d) Senior officers of the armed forces have been instructed not to talk to the media and, as a result, two of them have resigned (e) Strong appeals have been made to Prime Minister to make changes in his ministers English for News Reporting (II) Lead Lead refers to the first paragraph or first several paragraphs of the news report, consisting of the newest, most important, or the most attractive facts. 5 Ws Features: succinct, informative, intriguing Direct lead: reveals immediately what the story is about. Delayed lead / Feature lead: usually sets a scene or evokes a mood with an incident, anecdote or example. Lead Direct lead / Summary lead e.g. Police Detain Owner of Collapsed Haiti School PETIONVILLE, Haiti (CNN) -- Authorities have detained the owner of a Haitian school that collapsed, killing at least 84 students. Meanwhile, rescue workers continue to comb through the rubble in search of survivors. Lead e.g. China Move Spurs Equity, Commodity Gains LONDON (Reuters) - World stock and commodity markets surged on Monday in reaction to China's plan to spend nearly $600 billion on stimulating its economy as G20 finance ministers pledged to do what is needed to revive financial markets. Lead The main fact lead e.g. Island at risk from further tsunamis The Indonesian island of Sumatra remains at grave risk of large earthquakes and tsunamis, according to research indicating that recent disasters in the region have made further devastating seismic activity more likely. (The Times) Delayed / Feature lead Quotation lead Descriptive lead Contrast lead Suspense lead Direct address lead Delayed / Feature lead Quotation Lead e.g. 75 Years Later, a Nation Hopes for Another F.D.R. “We are facing the greatest economic challenge of our lifetime, and we’re going to have to act swiftly to resolve it.” So said Barack Obama on Friday in his first postelection news conference, a pretty good sign that the president-elect had been brushing up on his presidential history. Seventy-five years ago, the last time the country was this close to economic abyss, Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered his famous inaugural, the one where he uttered those immortal words, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” --- (New York Times) Delayed / Feature lead •Descriptive Lead e.g. A few hundred fans are standing and shouting at a blur of heavily padded young men in helmets and shorts. Their sneakers squeal on the cracked concrete floor as a ball is flung with rocketlike force between long sticks topped with tiny nets. Bodies slam into the boards, bare knees grind into the ground. Contrast Lead e.g. For millions of fans, he will always be Superman. But to countless others, he will be regarded forever as a real-life hero, battling for medical advancements in treating spinal cord injuries with the hope of enabling himself and others to walk again. Suspense Lead e.g. After lunch, the students just couldn’t wait for Harry Porter and his close friends to show up at Hogwatts, the most famous school in the world. But don’t get too excited, it was just another version of the popular book, directed and performed by the students themselves. Direct Address Lead e.g. You may eat the “unnatural thing” every day but you are unaware of it. Read the label on foodstuff after March 20 and you will know it: This food contains genetically modified (GM) organisms. Stylistic Features of News Reporting (I) Lexical Features 1. Preference for journalistic words and set expressions e.g. It is dramatically (melodramatically, sensationally) announced… e.g. Democratic leaders in the House and the Senate struck a harsh tone against the administration after giving Mr. Bush strong support in his antiterrorism effort since Sept. 11. e.g. … according to official sources, speaking to the Associated Press on condition of anonymity. Stylistic Features of News Reporting 2. Verbalization of noun access / advantage / author / bus / chair / craft / dialogue / fault / gift / headquarter / jet / liaison parent / network accessorize / finalize / institutionalize / utilize 3. Wide use of neologisms (1) Words with extended meaning e.g. Khomeini’s curious blend of mysticism and activism still made him slightly suspect in the eyes of the Islamic Establishment --- as a holy man who tried to run around with the Mob, one might say --- but his following was growing steadily. Stylistic Features of News Reporting (2) New words e.g. bed-in / camp-in / dial-in / lock-in / sign-in/ teach-in / wed-in / work-in Leaders of demonstrators accused the government of trying to hinder the teach-in by hastily organizing pop concerts. e.g. infotainment e.g. irritainment: Entertainment and media spectacles that are annoying, but you find yourself unable to stop watching them. e.g. Professional wresting. Stylistic Features of News Reporting Glocolization: globalization + localization Taikonaut: an astronaut from People’s Republic of China Starter Marriage: A short-lived first marriage that ends in divorce with no kids, no property and no regrets. (3) Vogue words (buzzword): e.g. Obamabot : A person who supports Obama and is willing to vote for him but doesn't know a thing about him. Stylistic Features of News Reporting (4) New prefixes or suffixes e.g. Anti-corruption and keeping a clean government remain a major task in the coming years, the Premier stressed. e.g. In other words, asked the questioner, Yamani was saying “that if we had such an overall settlement, we would be much better off oilwise?” e.g. cybercommunity cyberspeak webcasting webzine netfile Stylistic Features of News Reporting (5) Nonce words and coinages A “nonce-word” is one that is constructed to serve a need of the moment e.g. She can be Miss Something-or-other. (nominal group) e.g. It was a do-anything-to-keep-your-life situation. (verbal group) e.g. the up-to-the-minute report (prepositional group) e.g. She gives me an I-know-it-all look.
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