5135-barriers-to-bioenergy-matrix by xiaoyounan

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									NNFCC
The Bioeconomy Consultants




             Report Title: NNFCC Barriers to Bioenergy Matrix
                                            Project Number: 12-022

                                                            April 2012
                                                    A report for DECC
                                                         URN: 12D/082

Author(s)
Fiona McDermott, NNFCC Consultant
Lucy Hopwood, NNFCC Head of Biomass and Biogas
Dr Geraint Evans, NNFCC Head of Biofuels and Bioenergy

Disclaimer




NNFCC
NNFCC
The Bioeconomy Consultants




              Report Title: NNFCC Barriers to Bioenergy Matrix
                                               Project Number: 12-022

                                                                   April 2012
                                                        A report for DECC
                                                              URN: 12D/082

Author(s)
Fiona McDermott, NNFCC Consultant
Lucy Hopwood, NNFCC Head of Biomass and Biogas
Dr Geraint Evans, NNFCC Head of Biofuels and Bioenergy

Disclaimer

While NNFCC considers that the information and opinions given in this work are
sound, all parties must rely on their own skill and judgement when making use of
it. NNFCC does not make any representation or warranty, expressed or implied,
as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this report
and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of such
information. NNFCC will not assume any liability to anyone for any loss or
damage arising out of the provision of this report.


NNFCC
NNFCC is a leading international consultancy with expertise on the conversion of
biomass to bioenergy, biofuels and bio-based products.
Introduction
NNFCC were asked to compile this matrix of barriers to deployment for
bioenergy in the UK by DECC.


The aim of this project was to collect existing information on the barriers that
bioenergy across electricity, heat and transport faces both in terms of
technology specific barriers and fuel barriers. The intention was not to replicate
existing work but to pull this together across all three sectors in a single location
and also try to identify mitigating actions that government, related bodies as
well as industry could be taking to help address these barriers.

This database is available from www.nnfcc.co.uk and www.decc.gov.uk.
Sector          Technology      Size   Fuel used        Barrier




Combined heat   All             All    all              Lack of district heat networks.
and power




Combined heat   Solid biomass   All    Woodchip/bioma Consumer unwillingness to sign heat
and power       combustion             ss pellets     offtake agreements.




Electricity     All             All    All              Cost and timing of grid connection -
                                                        and inflexible quotation request
                                                        process.
Electricity   Anaerobic   All   All (esp. wastes)   Cost of regulatory compliance is
              digestion                             prohibitive, especially when using
                                                    wastes. Waste definitions are often
                                                    confusing, with differing definitions
                                                    dependent on source and
                                                    destination of material.




Electricity   Anaerobic   All   Slurry/residues/wa Supermarkets are reticent to
              digestion         ste/crops          accept food grown on land where
                                                   digestate has been spread before.


Electricity   Anaerobic   All   Slurry/residues/wa Lack of skilled technicians/
              digestion         ste/crops          operatives - there is a need for
                                                   installers and maintenance
                                                   engineers plus skilled biologists to
                                                   maximise gas yields.

Electricity   Anaerobic   All   Slurry/residues/wa Waste carrier licences are required
              digestion         ste/crops          if importing third party waste or
                                                   residues.


Electricity   Anaerobic   All   Slurry/residues/wa Land suitable for disposal may be
              digestion         ste/crops          limited. Hence there could be a
                                                   lack of secure disposal route
                                                   for digestate.
Electricity   Anaerobic   All          Slurry/residues/wa AD Plants are unfamiliar to planners
              digestion                ste/crops          who are concerned by transport
                                                          issues and perceived problems with
                                                          odours and appearance.


Electricity   Anaerobic   All          Slurry/residues/wa Overall GHG emissions abatement
              digestion                ste/crops          can be reduced by emissions of
                                                          N2O, ammonia and methane from
                                                          digestate storage and spreading.


Electricity   Anaerobic   Small scale Slurry / residues   Lack of affordable technology
              digestion   (<100kWe)                       available to make this scale cost-
                                                          effective with current incentives
Electricity   EfW incineration All      Waste           Local opposition can make it
                                                        difficult for some EfW plant to get
                                                        planning permission and can often
                                                        cause signifcant delays for other
                                                        EfW projects.




Electricity   Gasification     Medium   Waste, virgin   Lack of experience in producing
                               >5MWe    biomass         sufficiently clean syngas for fuelling
                                                        engines and gas turbines (which
                                                        require an even cleaner syngas) -
                                                        there are very few projects in the
                                                        world where a gasifier fuels an
                                                        engine (see chart below); most fuel
                                                        a boiler.
Electricity   Gasification   Medium   Waste, virgin     There is a lack of experience in
                             >5MWe    biomass           operating gasifiers. Technology
                                                        requirements are: need a robust
                                                        feedstock handling system (just
                                                        needs recognising - it's eminently
                                                        "doable"); need more work on gas
                                                        cleaning, in particular, hot gas
                                                        cleaning.

Electricity   Gasification   All      MSW, virgin wood, Access to finance due to concerns
                                      waste wood,       about technology viabilitiy. In part
                                      other wastes.     due to lack of reference plants for
                                                        investors to base key decisions
                                                        upon.

Electricity   Gasification   All      MSW               Possibility that if R1 status is
                                                        misunderstood by LAs and other
                                                        stakeholders then MSW may be
                                                        diverted to EfW plant with R1 status,
                                                        rather than gasification.




Electricity   Gasification   All      MSW               The perceived technology risk acts
                                                        as a barrier to securing waste
                                                        feedstock contracts
Electricity   Pyrolysis oil   All         All               Lack of support for pyrolysis oil
              combustion                                    production on a separate to power
                                                            generation (or other use).




Electricity   Solid biomass   Medium (50- Local           Fuel supply chains are still immature
              combustion      300MWe)     woodfuel/energy and the distribution infrastructure
                                          crops           that is required for large-scale
                                                          operations is usually not available.




Electricity   Solid biomass   Medium (50- All               Lack of port infrastructure.
              combustion      300MWe)




Electricity   Solid biomass   All         All               Unreliable feedstock supply due to
              combustion                                    a lack of intermediaries that are
                                                            creditworthy and have a variety of
                                                            contracts that enable them to
                                                            mitigate climatic, price and other
                                                            risks.
Electricity        Solid biomass   Large     All    Poor alternative fuel delivery
                   combustion      (>300MWe)        infrastructure, e.g. rail networks.




Electricity/heat   Pyrolysis       All        All   Technology is still in its infancy and
                                                    not currently viable.



Electricity/heat   Pyrolysis oil   All        All   Technology not yet proven.
                   combustion
Electricity/transport Gasification   All         All          High costs, in particular for synthetic
                                                              fuels from solid waste biomass.
                                                              Even for electricity and heat,
                                                              bankability is difficult and getting
                                                              Engineering, Procurement and
                                                              Construction (EPC) wraps is very
                                                              challenging.




Heat                 Anaerobic       >200kWth    All          Absence of RHI tariff.
                     digestion



Heat                 Bioliquid       Domestic    B30K/B50K    Uneconomic due to lack of RHI.
                     combustion      (<25kWth)



Heat                 Bioliquid       Domestic    B30K/B50K    Conversion of existing boilers proves
                     combustion      (<25kWth)                difficult.



Heat                 Bioliquid       Small (25kW- B30K/B50K   Uneconomic due to lack of RHI.
                     combustion      200kWth)



Heat                 Bioliquid       All         B30K/B50K    Lack of fuel supply chains.
                     combustion
Heat   Bioliquid       All    Biodiesel/UCO/py Uneconomic due to lack of RHI.
       combustion             rolysis oil



Heat   Biomethane      <1MW   All              Over regulation of biomethane
       injection                               requires unecessary processing at
                                               upgarding stage - not cost
                                               effective at smaller scale.



Heat   Biomethane      All    All              Cost of grid connection and lack of
       injection                               suitable injection points.



Heat   Biomethane      All    All              Lack of engagement by the gas
       injection                               network operators




Heat   Biomethane      All    All              Development and regulatory
       injection                               compliance costs are prohibitive;
                                               especially where waste feedstocks
                                               are used, then the biomethane
                                               becomes a waste and is more
                                               stringently regulated


Heat   Pyrolysis oil   All    All              Uneconomic due to lack of RHI.
       combustion
Heat   Solid biomass   Domestic    Wood pellets/logs Uneconomic due to lack of RHI.
       combustion      (<25kWth)



Heat   Solid biomass   Domestic    Wood pellets/logs Biomass and pellet boilers and room
       combustion      (<25kWth)                     heaters are unfamiliar to most of the
                                                     UK population.




Heat   Solid biomass   Domestic    Wood pellets      Limited choice of fuel suppliers and
       combustion      (<25kWth)                     unfamiliar fuel.




Heat   Solid biomass   Domestic    Wood pellets      Consumer unwilling to load fuel
       combustion      (<25kWth)                     manually.
Heat   Solid biomass   Domestic    Wood pellets   Poor fit to household usage pattern.
       combustion      (<25kWth)




Heat   Solid biomass   All         Woodchips /    Biomass boilers need space for fuel
       combustion                  pellets        storage. This is not always available
                                                  for retrofitted systems and designers
                                                  of new buildings often don’t allow
                                                  sufficient space.


Heat   Solid biomass   All         Woodchips /    Disruption to existing system and
       combustion                  pellets        potential incompatability with
                                                  certain building types (e.g. listed).
Heat   Solid biomass      Medium     Woodchip/bioma Air quality legislation prevents
       combustion         (200kW-    ss pellets     installation.
                          1MWth)




Heat   Solid biomass      Large      Woodchip/bioma Direct air heating not eligible for
       combustion         (>1MWth)   ss pellets     RHI.
Heat   Solid biomass      All        Woodchip/bioma The lack of trained and
       combustion                    ss pellets     appropriately accredited biomass
                                                    boiler installers restricting the
                                                    deployment of biomass heat.
                                                    Potential customers have only a
                                                    very small number of providers from
                                                    whom they can request services.




Heat   Biomass district   All        Woodchip/bioma Buying a metered supply of energy
       heating                       ss pellets     in the form of hot water is unfamiliar
                                                    to most of the UK population.
Heat   Biomass district   All   Woodchip/bioma High capital cost.
       heating                  ss pellets




Heat   Biomass district   All   Woodchip/bioma Consumers may resist the long term
       heating                  ss pellets     contracts necessary to finance DH
                                               infrastructure fearing price rises
                                               after a monopoly position is
                                               established.




Heat   Biomass district   All   Woodchip/bioma Urban networks will require
       heating                  ss pellets     substantial excavation and
                                               pipelaying works which will require
                                               denial of use of some facilities and
                                               traffic diversions.
Heat        Biomass district   All   Woodchip/bioma Lack of district heat networks.
            heating                  ss pellets




Transport   All                      All                Sustainability concerns which are
                                                        not part of the sustainability criteria.




Transport   All                All   Residues/crops/fo In current market conditions
                                     restry            biomass is preferentially directed
                                                       toward heating and power
                                                       generation.
Transport   Gasification/pyr All     All                Policy uncertainty around biofuels
            olysis                                      and the incentive structure.
Transport   All           All   MSW/other    The supply of waste biomass is
                                wastes       limited and the Waste Hierarchy
                                             drives biodegradable wastes to
                                             composting and AD. Deviation
                                             from this is uncommon and may
                                             make it difficult for advanced
                                             technologies to access waste.




Transport   BTL           All   All          BTL processes have high capital
                                             costs and are at present
                                             unattractive to investors




Transport   Introducing   All   Bioethanol   Forecourts not equipped to supply
            high blend                       high blends
            biofuels
Expected impact of barrier on          Possible mitigation measure
deployment                             Government (including devolved           Industry
                                       and regulatory bodies)

Expansion of district heating is       Utilise expertise within the CHPA and
required if we are to see the          from case studies such as
widespread take up of the most         Southampton, Aberdeen, and
cost effective and efficient form of   Sheffield etc. Spread best practise
biomass heat.                          guidance documents and use
                                       planning to encourage utilisation of
                                       district heating wherever possible.
                                       Financial support for establishment of
                                       district heat infrastructure, either
                                       through a specific RHI banding or
                                       capital grant programmes.



May prevent and/or delay               Encourage/support development of Educate potential customers and
deployment.                            best practise guidance and              use examples of working
                                       awareness raising; and support          agreements.
                                       activities of CHPA/Carbon Trust in this
                                       area.

Likely to delay or require plants to   DECC & Ofgem working with DNOs           DNOs working to develop more
be de-scaled to achieve desired        with regard to connection issues as      flexilble systems
capacity limits                        part of Energy Market Issues for
                                       Biomethane projects.
Likely to cause delays or prevent      Need to simplify the regulatory          Develop standard regulatory
development in some cases.             compliance proceedures, either for       compliance templates, such as
                                       frequency of reporting or testing, or    permit applications, etc.
                                       renewal fees. Also need to be
                                       clearer on definitions, to avoid over
                                       regulation of non-waste feedstock.




Minimal risk of impact on              WRAP developing guidance for             REA Biofertiliser Scheme and PAS110
deployment, more a confidence          producers and users of digestate.        should give confidence.
issue with regard to digestate use -   WRAP field trials on digestate use.
improving.
Limited availability of skilled        Defra AD Strategy Action, led by EU
installers will pose problems for      Skills and CIWM to develop training
suppliers.                             and CPD for suppliers, installers and
                                       operators.


The need of getting a licence might Clarity and consistency required on
put people off, or disuade them     waste definitions and EA
from using third party waste.       classification of waste.


Minimal risk of impact on              The ability of the UK land bank to       Cost effective innovative digestate
deployment, more likely to cause a accept digestate as a soil                   processing technology required, to
delay or frustration later in project. conditioner and fertiliser needs to be   separate and make handling /
                                       fully understood. Opportunities and      spreading easier.
                                       restrictions need to be clearly
                                       communicated, before project gets
                                       too far in specifying feedstock or
                                       technology.
Minimal; transport is main issue but   Issue guidance to planners.              Communicate early with the local
only where third party waste is                                                 community and the planners.
being brought in. Impact is
lessening as industry grows.


Not likely to prevent development.     PAS110 is already encouraging best       Agronomists and agricultural
                                       practice in terms of storage and         advisers need to be made more
                                       spreading - no need for further policy   aware of the issues - to
                                       intervention.                            communicate to farmers. WRAP are
                                                                                producing guidance.

Severe - may significantly effect      Increased FiTs bands for small-scale     Reposes to Challenge Fund by small-
uptake.                                AD helped but still need to reduce       scale technology providers is
                                       technology cost; WRAP Challenge          necessary.
                                       Fund intended to help this.
Will restrict level of uptake due to    Difficulties with planning due to      Developers need to engage
limited site options and may push       public perception of EfW could be      effectively with local community to
developments towards larger more        addressed through a public             try and allay concerns.
centralised plant rather than small     awareness campaign. PPS 10 (waste)
locally-fed. However it will be up to   is being streamlined to make it easier
developers to achieve a balance         to get waste facilities through the
between these two options. Delays       planning system. Defra's Energy from
to the planning process will have       waste guide will look to improve the
cost implciations for the EfW project   quality of the debate around EfW by
which can result in increased costs     setting out the evidence base on key
to LAs via gate fees.                   issues of local concern such as
                                        health issues. CLGs have recently
                                        consulted on business rate retention
                                        for renewables which may also help
                                        EfW projects.




Need to deploy both steam cycle Recognise the importance of                   Investigate technology
and gas engine ACTs if the sector is "standard" gasification and support      developments and potential cost
going to fully contribute to RED     via the RO                               reductions.
targets.
If no support is given to simpler   Recognise the importance of           Investigate technology
gasification systems using boilers  "standard" gasification and support   developments and potential cost
and furnaces, then will not be able via the RO                            reductions.
to work up to the more advanced
configurations using engines.




This inability may prevent          Assist with project financing,        Seek alternative financing
commercialisation, plus delay or    potentially through the Green         mechanisms
prevent the deployment of ACTs.     Investment Bank. Finance
                                    demonstration activities (possibly
                                    through the EIBI Eranet plus).

Delay or prevent the deployment of Government to provide strategic          Provide data on process
ACTs                               guidance and support for ACTs.           efficiencies and environmental
                                   Defra's EfW guide will clarify R1 status benefits.
                                   and it's relevance to the wider EfW
                                   technologies. It will also clarify that
                                   R1 is not the only measure of
                                   environmentally sound management
                                   for waste.


Waste contracts are awarded to      Government to provide strategic       Explore alternative opportunities for
established technologies,           guidance and support for ACTs and     procuring feedstocks, including C&I
preventing development of ACTs      support via the RO to make            waste, working with existing waste
                                    economically viable.                  management companies
This is a key early years deployment RO needs to recognise that power
opportunity which if not supported production can be separate from
could impact long term               bio oil production site.
deployment.




Restrict or delay the deployment of Provide sufficient subsidy and long       Invest in development of local
biomass power plant; reduce the     term certainty to enable industry to      supply chains.
value brought to rural economies    invest in supply chains.
by instead using imported
feedstocks and associated supply
chains.


Unlikely to prevent deployment         Provide sufficient subsidy and long    Invest in port infrastructure as
unless end users/supply chain          term certainty to enable industry to   needed.
partners are unwilling to invest.      invest in port upgrading.



Unlikely to prevent deployment, is a                                          Establish supply contracts which are
commercial issue for developers to                                            acceptable to both parties
negotiate in partnership with                                                 (supplier/user).
suppliers.
More fuel delivered by road and      Evaluate needs of industry in           Consider joint investment in rail
higher GHG emissions, increased      strategic planning for rail             upgrading where appropriate e.g.
likelihood of planning refusal.      infrastructure etc. Consider using      establishing off-shoots from major
                                     planning to encourage siting of plant   rail lines.
                                     near to rail heads.

Prevent uptake of potentially high   Provide certain long term support to Invest in R&D.
efficiency, flexible technology.     enable and encourage industry
                                     investment. Support demo plant.


May either prevent deployment or     Invest in R&D. Support projects        Invest in R&D.
increase demand for other heat       looking at upgrading pyrolysis oil
technologies (inc fossil).           (e.g. carbon trust pyrolysis
                                     challenge). Support refineries if they
                                     want to import pyrolysis oil to
                                     upgrade it (i.e. the green fuel will
                                     end up across the range of refinery
                                     products which woud be difficult
                                     from a policy aspect). Gov should
                                     support use of pyrolysis oil in
                                     boilers/furnaces and not just in more
                                     advanced applications such as
                                     engines and gas turbines which will
                                     not happen if the boiler applications
                                     don't happen first.
Delay or prevent the deployment of Ensure that if expensive processes       Provide evidence on costs of
synthetic fuels from waste.        are selected as desirable by             biofuels in rigorous and open
                                   government that a support system is      manner. Seek opportunities to take
                                   designed with as much certainty as       advantage of existing assets and
                                   possible                                 synergistic development to reduce
                                                                            costs. Seek opportunities to reduce
                                                                            capital costs (e.g. process
                                                                            intensification) - they will do this
                                                                            naturally.



Will delay projects and/or prevent    Need to actively gather evidence      Need to provide evidence to
development at larger scale.          and consider the need for a biogas Government, to justify the need for
                                      combustion tariff for >200kWth in the a tariff at this scale
                                      RHI
Deployment levels likely to be very   Provide financial subsidy in RHI.     Investigate cost reduction
low and only in installations made                                          innovations.
for non-economic reasons.


May either prevent deployment or      Assist with technology development    Invest in R&D.
mean that users must install a new    and provide long term support for
dedicated bioliquids boiler.          generation.


Likely to severly affect deployment. Provide financial subsidy in RHI.      Investigate cost reduction
Will prevent most installations, if not                                     innovations.
all, from going ahead.


Likely to affect deployment due to    Assist in development of first supply  Invest in development of local
initial obstacle to industry          chains. Provide sufficient subsidy and supply chains.
establishment.                        long term certainty to enable
                                      industry to invest in expansion.
Likely to severly affect deployment. Provide financial subsidy in RHI.       Investigate cost reduction
Will prevent most installations, if not                                      innovations.
all, from going ahead.


Severe - likely to prevent            Review regulations to make them       Make available clean-up kit
development of biomethane to          more in line with other EU countries. appropriate for smaller scale, cost
grid <1MW                             DECC, Ofgem and Hse to take on        effectively.
                                      recommendations from Energy
                                      Market Issues for Biomethane Group.


Severe - likely to restrict           RHI - should help cover cost. German Consider centralised injection
development.                          grid company pays for conenction, points, accepting biomethane from
                                      generator pays for biogas            numerous sites.
                                      upgrading.
Likely to delay development.          Ofgem to provide guidance for
                                      developers on process to follow for
                                      connecting to grid and to
                                      encourage network operators to
                                      more actively engage at planning
                                      stages of a project.

Will severely restrict deployment     EA-led working group are working to    Reducing development costs and
levels.                               address this issue; must be resolved   permitting costs by developing
                                      before widespread deployment of        templates for standard applications
                                      biomethane is seen.                    (e.g. ADBA).




Deployment levels likely to be very   Provide financial subsidy in RHI.      Investigate cost reduction
low and only in installations made                                           innovations.
for non-economic reasons.
Deployment levels likely to be very   Provide financial subsidy in RHI.     Investigate cost reduction
low and only in installations made                                          innovations.
for non-economic reasons.


May prevent some installations but    Information and awareness raising.     Conduct marketing and promotion
situation likely to change as         Experience from Ireland suggests       to raise awarenss.
awareness of technology improves      there is relatively little consumer
over time.                            resistance to change in off grid areas
                                      where pellets are available and
                                      supported by fuel suppliers.


May prevent some installations but    Facilitate the building of supply      Develop strong customer
situation likely to change as         infrastructure. Customer support at    relationships and conduct
deployment increases over time.       all stages is absolutely critical to a marketing to raise awareness.
                                      successful uptake. Customers need a
                                      relationship that is stronger and more
                                      responsive than their current oil
                                      supplier.


May prevent some installations but    Encourage hybrid systems with solar Investigate technology/feedstock
not widespread.                       or ASHP to reduce load and effort in supply developments which could
                                      shoulder seasons and summer. There assist in this.
                                      is little other mitigation for this barrier
                                      other an the selection of a more
                                      expensive solution with bulk storage.
Unlikely to prevent deployment.      Encourage steps which can be
                                     taken balance heat load e.g. which
                                     retain and conserve heat.
                                     Disseminate information on best
                                     practise system design, including
                                     incorporation of heat storage
                                     (accumulator vessels).




Inefficient systems requiring        Support education programmes for     Ensure that biomass suppliers are
numerous fuel deliveries may be      designers/engineers to encourage     engaged with the system design
installed. Uptake may be reduced     best practise.                       process from the outset. Make
where insufficient space means                                            adequate provision of fuel storage.
unable to install.


May prevent some installations but   Consider review of listed building   Investigate technology/engineering
not widespread. Very little can be   requirements to enable retrofit of   developments to reduce disruption.
done to mitigate this.               biomass boilers where appropriate.
May reduce uptake in urban areas         Better information on sensitive areas. Continue research into particulate
or restrict to larger scale systems in   Clarity in regulation of appliance     and NOx reductions.
which it is economically viable to       and installation. The clean air act
install emissions abatement kit.         needs updating to recognise
                                         characteristics of biomass.


Prevent deployment in industrial         Consider inclusion in phase two of
heat sectors.                            RHI.
Delay deployment or mean cause           Provide funding to enable boiler          Boiler suppliers must back up their
poorly designed systems to be            installers/maintainers to gain            contracts with maintenance
installed.                               subsidised training and                   support in line with other industries.
                                         accreditation. Speed up the
                                         HETAS/MCS accreditation process so
                                         that it is more in line with the needs of
                                         the industry and ensure that MCS is
                                         accountable (need to prevent poor
                                         installers from being allowed to
                                         remain MCS accredited).




Unlikely to prevent deployment but Information and awareness raising.        Information and awareness raising.
will need awareness raising.       Stress similarity to gas and electricity.
Severely affect deployment of            Infrastructure that has a very long      Investigate cost reduction
district heating and prevent use of      lifetime could be funded on a            innovations.
cost effective, low emision, efficient   different basis to alternatives with a
large scale boilers.                     shorter lifetime.




May put off some users but very          A substantial advantage to the
little way to mititgate.                 consumer through a lower price,
                                         would need to be demonstrated
                                         along with other guarantees (such as
                                         linking prices to gas or oil prices).
                                         Public sector can show leadership by
                                         underpinning the base heat load,
                                         particularly with large year round
                                         loads.




Unlikely to prevent deployment but Co-ordinate with other activities to
may cause difficulties during      minimise the impact.
infrastructure establishment.
Expansion of district heating is         Utilise expertise within the CHPA and
required if we are to see the            from case studies such as
widespread take up of the most           Southampton, Aberdeen, and
cost effective and efficient form of     Sheffield etc. Spread best practise
biomass heat. This will require major    guidance documents and use
investment in district heat mains.       planning to encourage utilisation of
                                         district heating wherever possible.
                                         Financial support for establishment of
                                         district heat infrastructure, either
                                         through a specific RHI banding or
                                         capital grant programmes.



Reduced support for biofuels in the      Focus UK support on biofuels with low Continue to increase supply of
UK. Possibly changes to                  sustainbility risks such as 2G.       more sustainable biofuels.
sustainability criteria resulting from   Contribute to the evidence base for
iLUC work stream of 2014 biofuels        the EU and internationally such as
policy review.                           GBEP/ IEA task 39. Maintain
                                         consistent messages between
                                         biofuels and biodiversity/
                                         international forestry, etc.


Advanced biofuels plants unable to DfT and DECC jointly develop a      Advanced biofuel developers
secure financing, preventing or    coordinated and consistent strategy could exploit low-value waste
delaying advanced biofuels plants. for incentives across the bioenergy feedstocks (see below).
                                   sector
High capital 2G projects remain          Clear indication form government
high risk and are not financed.          that biofuels are supported, and long
                                         term guarantee on biofuel incentives
Biofuel plants have difficulty        The Waste Framework Directive             Provide evidence on the
accessing LA waste contracts and      makes provision for deviation form        environmental benefits of waste to
have to import feedstock.             the waste hierarchy where it can          biofuels in order to apply for
                                      have demonstrable environmental           deviation to the waste hierarchy.
                                      benefits, but the impact of this is yet
                                      to be seen. Both Defra and the EA
                                      have guidance on the
                                      implementation of the hierarchy.


Delay or prevent the deployment of Provide demonstration support to             Seek alternative financing
BTL processes.                     reduce the project risk (possibly            mechanisms. Seek opportunities to
                                   through the EIBI Eranet plus). Assist        reduce capital costs, including
                                   with project financing, potentially          process intensification and
                                   through the Green Investment Bank.           developing syngas conversion
                                   Provide additional incentives to 2G          technologies with a greater
                                   biofuels with high GHG emissions             tolerance to syngas contaminants.
                                   savings and sustainability
                                   performance



The RED targets may be missed as      DfT clarify support for bioethanol and Investments in blending ethanol
the amount of bioethanol is limited   present actions to bring E85 and B30 and supply to forecourts needed.
to 5% and biodiesel 7%.               into forecourts.
Severity ranking 5=severely restrict   Other comments
1=unlikely to restrict


5




3




2
4




2




3




2   Not really a major barrier, can't relax
    regulations but need clearer
    communication and guidance.


2   Land bank has already been
    mapped, ALOWANCE project;
2   Not Govt responsibility to engage
    with communities.




1




5   Need to reduce technology cost by
    up to 40% to make this scale
    attractive.
2   Although most developers recognise
    the need to engage with local
    community, the very sensitive nature
    of this topic means that local
    opposition often cannot be
    avoided,




4
3




5




3




3
3   The separation of oil production and
    power production could have
    numerous opportunities (e.g. one
    pyrolysis oil plant producing oil to
    serve say 10 remote pyrolysis oil
    fuelled chp engines.) This would
    allow compact bioCHP in locations
    where heat can be used and allows
    a high degree of turn down and
    allows peak power to be generated.




2   This causes problems because in
    areas of low population density (i.e.
    remote but often with good grid
    connections), haulage costs are a
    significant factor in the economic
    viability of large plant.


3   Deemed to be more significant
    barrier in power sector due to large
    volumes required and assumption of
    reliance on imports.


2
2




3




2   Need to find ways to economically
    upgrade the oil so that it can be
    used effectively and reliably in
    boilers, engines, gas turbines, marine
    transport, heating systems. This
    could be via chemical upgrading
    either in a separate process or
    somehow in a refinery. However, in
    a refinery, a source of hydrogen will
    be needed (should that be green).
3




5




3




2




4




2
4




5




4




3




4




3
5




2




2




2   Many smaller boilers and room
    heaters involve the handling of 15kg
    sacks or baskets of logs.
1   Biomass boilers work best when
    operating at high and constant
    load. This means that they have a
    lower output and operate for longer
    periods than an equivalent oil or gas
    unit. This may not suit modern
    lifestyles where the property is not
    occupied through the day but
    needs to warm quickly in the
    evening.



3




2   Many biomass systems require non
    standard controls, large
    accumulators and larger installation
    space than the equivalent standard
    oil or gas boiler. This often
    necessitates relocation of several
    components of the existing system
    and results in additional cost and
    disruption.
2   Many dense urban areas exceed
    threshold values for particulate and
    nitrogen oxides emissions. All new
    sources receive increased scrutiny
    and may not be approved.


4

4   As demand for the technology
    increases, this will become an even
    bigger constraint as most installers
    are already at or exceeding their
    capacity. There are also few training
    centres where installers can gain the
    necessary skills, and obtaining
    HETAS/MCS accreditation is costly,
    meaning that even companies who
    would like to improve their skills in this
    area struggle to do so in practice.




2
3   The cost of connection and the
    pipework infrastructure is very high
    when compared to individual
    solutions, while the load factor in the
    UK is low compared to other
    countries where DH is
    commonplace.

3




2
5




3




3




2
2   There is an annual review of the
    Evidence Paper supporting the
    hierarchy, so if market development
    suggests that the hierarchy is not
    working as planned then revisions
    may be made.




2   Incentives must have long term
    guarantees




3   Dependent on key decisions on
    direction of biofuel policy.
Fuel         Sector that could be impacted   Barrier


All wastes   All                             Definitions of biomass waste can vary
                                             between government departements
                                             and between subsidy regimes (e.g.
                                             RHI/RTFO/RO). This can prevent
                                             technologies from accessing this
                                             resource.

All wastes   All                             The supply of waste biomass is limited
                                             and the Waste Hierarchy drives
                                             biodegradable wastes to composting
                                             and AD. Deviation from this is
                                             uncommon and may make it difficult for
                                             other bioenergy technologies to access
                                             waste.


Biodiesel    Transport                       Blending wall 7%




Biodiesel    Transport                       Reduced availability of biodiesel in 2017,
                                             when GHG criteria increase to 50%.


Biodiesel    Transport                       Potential changes increase GHG criteria
                                             earlier stemming from Expected
                                             Commission iLUC proposals.
Bioethanol   Transport   Blending wall is 5%.




Bioethanol   Transport   UK investment stalled because cheap
                         imported tariffs.




Bioethanol   Transport   UK fuel taxation is based on fuel volume,
                         and therefore fuels with low energy
                         densities, such as bioethanol pay higher
                         tax on an energy basis than
                         conventional fuels.


Biomethane   Transport   Lack of refueling infrastructure for
                         biomethane in the UK.



Biomethane   Transport   Lack of refueling infrastructure for
                         biomethane in the UK.
Biomethane          Transport          Cost of compressed and liquified
                                       biomethane refueling stations.




Biomethane          Transport          Capital and maintenance costs for gas
                                       vehicles are greater than conventional
                                       diesel vehicles.



Biomethane          Transport          The availability of warantees for vehicles
                                       convered to run on biomethane.



Biomethane          Transport          Lack of understanding on the potential
                                       for biomethane as a vehicle fuel and
                                       the benefits.


Used coooking oil   Electricity/heat   The 'end of waste' requirements to get
                                       upgraded/cleaned UCO deemed a
                                       fuel, not a waste, are unclear.


Used coooking oil   Electricity/heat   Lack of collection infrastructure.
Industrial wood pellet    Electricity/heat   Lack of suitable pellet standards.




Industrial wood pellet    Heat               Uneconomic due to low RHI tariff
                                             >1MWth.
Clean waste wood          Electricity/heat   Inability to access feedstock due to lack
                                             of collection/sorting/processing
                                             infrastructure.




Contaminated waste wood   Electricity/heat   Inability to access feedstock due to lack
                                             of infrastructure and sorting facilities.



Waste wood                Electricity/heat   Restricted access to feedstock due to
                                             lack of incentive to segregate wastes.




Imported feedstocks       Electricity        Lack of port infrastructure
Imported feedstocks             Electricity        It can be difficult to get firm
                                                   commitments from international players
                                                   (including shipping companies) to
                                                   supply into the UK due to perceived
                                                   policy risk.


Short rotation forestry         Electricity/heat   Uneconomic due to lack of FC grant
                                                   under English Woodland Grant Scheme.


Short rotation forestry         Electricity/heat   Lack of understanding of correct
                                                   establishment/ management practises.


Short rotation forestry         Electricity/heat   Lack of processing equipment.




Syndiesel (from gasification)   Transport          Lack of industry confidence in
                                                   government commitment prevents
                                                   investment and reduces industry
                                                   interest.


Syndiesel (from gasification)   Transport          Difficulty accessing finance during pre-
                                                   commercial stage.



Syndiesel (from gasification)   Transport          Technical challenges may prevent
                                                   commercial deployment.
Syndiesel (from gasification)         Transport          Uneconomic compared to other
                                                         technologies.



Synthetic aviation fuel (from         Transport          Have not reached commercial stage.
gasification)


Bio hydrogen                          Transport          Have not reached commercial stage.




Bio methanol                          Transport          Have not reached commercial stage.




Biogasoline produced from biomethanol Transport          Have not reached commercial stage.




Pyrolysis oil derived diesel fuel     Transport          Fuels from pyrolysis not yet
                                                         demonstrated. UOP have a pilot plant
                                                         in hawaii but so far this is far from
                                                         commercial.



UK energy crops - miscanthus          Electricity/heat   Lack of specialist planting/harvesting
                                                         equipment.
UK energy crops - miscanthus   Electricity/heat   Poor understanding of correct
                                                  establishment and management
                                                  practises.




UK energy crops - SRC Willow   Electricity/heat   Lack of planting/harvesting equipment.




UK energy crops - SRC Willow   Electricity/heat   Poor understanding of correct
                                                  establishment and management
                                                  practises.




UK energy crops                Electricity/heat   Not economically viable for farmers.




UK energy crops                Electricity/heat   High up front establishment costs.
UK energy crops   Electricity/heat   Lack of promotion of the Energy Crops
                                     Scheme to potential growers, agents,
                                     consultants or advisors.




Energy crops      Heat               'Standard' biomass boilers are not
                                     compatible with energy crops
                                     (miscanthus specifically).




UK energy crops   Heat               Lack of specialist local supply
                                     infrastructure.



Straw             Electricity/heat   Lack of specialist local
                                     collection/processing/supply
                                     infrastructure.
UK privately owned woodland   Electricity/heat   Access to feedstocks from the UK’s
                                                 forestry and woodland resources is
                                                 severely restricted due to the following
                                                 barriers: lack of woodland
                                                 management, attitudes of woodland
                                                 owners, complicated land ownership,
                                                 competition for wood resource, lack of
                                                 forest infrastructure etc.


UK forestry wood              Electricity/heat   Access to the UK forest biomass
                                                 resource is hampered by lack of forest
                                                 tracks/roads/hard standing.




UK woodchip                   Electricity/heat   Getting a supply of good quality fuel
                                                 can be a challenge. High moisture
                                                 content, irregular sizing and
                                                 occasionally the presence of
                                                 contaminants are common problems.
UK woodchip/pellet                    Electricity/heat   Lack of suitable fuel processing
                                                         equipment. To increase the output of
                                                         good quality solid biomass fuels,
                                                         improved production infrastructure and
                                                         increased capacity will be needed
                                                         including: drying facilities, screens,
                                                         storage, pellet mills etc.




UK woodchip/pellet                    Electricity/heat   Fuel supply chains remain immature and
                                                         the local distribution infrastructure that is
                                                         required for large-scale uptake is not
                                                         available.




Renewable heating oil blend (B30/B50K) Heat              Lack of supply chain for these fuels.




Purpose grown crops                   AD                 Government reluctance to support
                                                         purpose grown crops for AD; perceived
                                                         conflict with food & feed production.
Organic waste              AD                           Lack of appropriate collection
                                                        infrastructure for domestic, commercial
                                                        and industrial food waste. To achieve
                                                        PAS110 must be source-separated, but
                                                        few LAs doing this.


Organic waste              AD                           Inability to co-digest sewage sludge
                                                        with food waste at existing water
                                                        treatment facilities.




Pyrolysis oil production   Electricity/heat/transport   Pyrolysis oil production is not proven in
                                                        UK situation or with UK wastes in
                                                        particular. Need to prove pyrolysis with
                                                        UK feedstocks and also need to
                                                        demonstrate feedstock flexibility and
                                                        hence ability to produce consistent oil
                                                        product in UK context.
Expected impact of barrier on              Possible mitigation measure(s)
deployment                                 Government (including devolved and          Industry
                                           regulatory bodies)
More reliance on imports and virgin        Improve cross departmental consensus
feedstocks, reduced overall GHG            on this issue and endeavour to agree
savings achieved. Opportunities to use     single definitions for waste/residue/by-
bioenergy as a waste mitigation            product etc for the purposes of both
strategy are missed.                       regulation and subsidy.


Bioenergy plants have difficulty           The Waste Framework Directive makes         Provide evidence on the environmental
accessing LA waste contracts and have      provision for deviation form the waste      benefits of waste to biofuels in order to
to use either virgin or imported           hierarchy where it can have                 apply for deviation to the waste
feedstock. Missed opportunity to use       demonstrable environmental benefits,        hierarchy.
low GHG, low costs feedstocks.             but the impact of this is yet to be seen.
                                           Both Defra and the EA have guidance
                                           on the implementation of the hierarchy.


FAME biodiesel cannot exceed 7% of         Encourage other diesel substitutes such Introduce high blends in closed fleets
road transport fuel (due to tolerance of   as syndiesel and potentially HVO        such as HGVs.
older UK vehicles), meaning that the       (Hydrogenated vegetable oil) which are
RES/ carbon budget targets may be          not subject to the blending limits.
missed.

RES transport target/ carbon budgets       Increase policy support for fuels with      Source biofuel with a higher GHG
may be missed.                             higher GHG saving potential.                performance.


RES transport target/ carbon budgets       Increase policy support for fuels with      Source biofuel with a higher GHG
may be missed.                             higher GHG saving potential.                performance.
Bioethanol cannot exceed 5% of road         Introducing high blend biofuels such as   Commit to develop and invest in the
transport fuel due to tolerances of older   E85 (see technology tab). Incentives/     infrastructure associated with higher
vehicles, meaning that the RES target       enabling policies for other petrol        blends.
may be missed.                              substitutes such as biobutanol and
                                            methanol which can exceed 5%.


1bn litres less of bioethanol that could    UK to consider changes to Tariff codes. Act to block cheap US subsidised fuel.
contribute towards the target. More         EU decisions on Tariffs in favour of UK
reliance on imports, and a lower overall    bioethanol producers (but possibly
availability of sustainable bioethanol.     could be seen as pro-trade barriers). BIS
                                            advising industry on bringing a
                                            competition case against US.


Higher pump prices would disincentivise Consider using taxation as a lever to
consumers to use higher ethanol blends. achieve lower pump price for biofuels.




Missed opportunity to contribute to the     Government to provide strategic           Investigate cost reduction innovations.
2020 renewable energy in transport          direction on biomethane in transport.
target under the RED.


Missed opportunity to contribute to the     Government could consider developing
2020 renewable energy in transport          a green gas certification scheme for
target under the RED.                       biomethane injected into the grid.
Limited uptake of biomethane in            Financial support to enable investment     Investigate cost reduction innovations.
transport, the cost differential between   in refuelling stations, could be in the
biomethane and diesel does not             form of capital support or through fuel
achieve a sufficiently attractive          incentives.
payback.

Limited uptake of biomethane in            Financial support to enable investment     Investigate cost reduction innovations.
transport, the cost differential between   in gas fuelled vehicles, could be in the
biomethane and diesel does not             form of capital support or through fuel
achieve a sufficiently attractive          incentives.
payback.

Limited uptake of biomethane in            Establish fuel standards for biomethane
transport due to unacceptable risks for    in transport.
fleet owners.


Missed opportunity to contribute to the    Government to provide strategic            Industry bodies to promote pilots and
2020 renewable energy in transport         direction on biomethane in transport.      case studies.
target under the RED


Discourage investment in                   Clarify requirements for end of waste
collection/processing infrastructure.      and streamline process that needs to be
                                           followed.


Could prevent use of this resource and Provide clear policy support for this fuel     Invest in collection equipment, vehicles,
push demand towards virgin feedstocks to encourage investors in collection            processing etc.
and imports.                           infrastructure. Develop behaviour
                                       change programmes to encourage
                                       collection rather than waste of this fuel.
Unlikley to prevent deployment, but may
cause inconsistencies in pellet trades
and prevent a liquid market from
forming.
Lack of deployment, inability to meet      Revise large scale biomass tariff in RHI.
carbon targets.
Will increase demand for other wastes or   Support supply chain infrastructure     Invest in collection equipment, vehicles,
virgin feedstocks. Missed opportunity to   through Bioenergy Infrastructure        sorting etc.
utilise UK waste stream and reduce         Scheme type support or GIB. Restriction
landfill etc.                              on landfilling of wood waste might
                                           liberate small quantities of clean wood
                                           waste

Will increase demand for other wastes or Support supply chain infrastructure           Invest in collection equipment, vehicles,
virgin feedstocks. Missed opportunity to through BEIS-type support or GIB.             sorting etc.
utilise UK waste stream and reduce
landfill etc.
Inability to access UK feedstock, more     Landfill ban for wood.                      Invest in collection equipment, vehicles,
reliance on imports/virgin biomass,                                                    sorting etc.
higher feedstock costs, potentially
continued use of landfill for wood.


As the market for biomass feedstocks       Re-introduction of the BEIS or other
expands, the need for port facilities,     financial support mechanisms would
covered wood storage and transport         help.
infrastructure will increasingly become
an issue.
Inability to access imported feedstocks
could severely constrain potential
deployment.




May prevent uptake and hence reduce Provide support for R&D in this area.
availability of this as a UK feedstock.


May prevent uptake and hence reduce Provide support for R&D in this area.
availability of this as a UK feedstock.


May delay uptake or prevent the most Provide support for supply chain             Invest in equipment and infrastructure.
efficient prcoessing mechanisms from    infrastructure.
being used i.e. sub-optimal GHG savings
would be achieved.


Missed opportunity to introduce high      Financial support for demonstration,    Investigate cost reduction innovations.
spec drop in fuel which are ideal for     R&D, long-term subsidy etc..
road and aviation. Missed benefits to
other sectors from the bioeconomy.


Missed opportunity to deliver very high   Money for demonstration projects and    Investigate cost reduction innovations.
GHG savings, low sustainability and       help with financing (such as through
utilise ‘unwanted’ feedstocks such as     green investment bank).
waste.
Could be key contributor to 2050          Support for technology developments     Investigate cost reduction innovations.
targets.                                  such as clean up on syngas from mixed
                                          waste streams.
Could be key contributor to 2050               Renewable financial incentives allow (at Investigate cost reduction innovations.
targets.                                       least) a level playing field against
                                               commercial technologies. Contribution
                                               to SET plan.
Missed opportunity to contribute to the        Incentivise the use of RED compliant      Investigate cost reduction innovations.
2020 renewable energy in transport             biofuels in aviation by including them in
target under the RED                           the RTFO
Missed opportunity to roll out fuel cell       Support hydrogen infrastructure                 Build on existing demonstration
vehicles fuelled with biofuel and              demonstraiton and development.                  opportunity (M4 corridor) and foreign
contribute to the 2020 renewable               Contribution to SET plan. Money for             demonstrations. Investigate cost
energy target. Missed opportunity to           demonstration projects / help with              reduction innovations.
deliver zero emission biofuel (at tailpipe).   project financing.


Missed opportunity to deliver very high        Money for demonstration projects / help Investigate cost reduction innovations.
GHG savings, low sustainability and            with project financing.
utilise ‘unwanted’ feedstocks such as
waste.
Missed opportunity to deliver very high        Money for demonstration projects / help investigate potential for production.
GHG savings, low sustainability and            with project financing.
utilise ‘unwanted’ feedstocks such as
waste.
Missed opportunity to deliver high GHG         Provide support to projects to develop          Investigate potential for production -
savings, low sustainability impact and         novel and low cost ways to upgrade              identify synergies in oil refining sector.
utilised 'unwanted' feedstocks such as         pyrolysis oils to fuels. The technology is
waste via existing refining capacity.          still in the low "TRL's" so some of this work
                                               will be academic.


Severe - will restrict ability to increase     Long term support is required to        Invest in development of specialist
planting or harvesting rate.                   encourage machinery suppliers to invest equipment, when long term support is
                                               in specialist equipment development.    guaranteed.
Will hamper confidence and delay             Update best practice guidance for              Establish trials to consider alternative
uptake, but not severe.                      planting and establishment; previous           planting and management techniques;
                                             version is dated. Support trial work on        Masstock Energy SMART Farms are a
                                             planting and management techniques,            start.
                                             i.e. precision planting.


Severe - will restrict ability to increase   Long term support is required to        Invest in development of specialist
planting or harvesting rate.                 encourage machinery suppliers to invest equipment, when long term support is
                                             in specialist equipment development.    guaranteed.


Will hamper confidence and delay             Update best practice guidance for              Establish trials to consider alternative
uptake, but not severe.                      planting and establishment; previous           planting and management techniques;
                                             version is dated. Support trial work on        Masstock Energy SMART Farms are a
                                             planting and management techniques,            start.
                                             i.e. precision planting and direct drilling.



Reduced feedstock availability. Missed Energy Crops Scheme currently supports Investigate cost reduction innovations.
opportunity for UK agriculture.        Miscanthus and SRC; list of energy crops
                                       in RO Consultation is somewhat longer.
                                       Need long term guaranteed support, to
                                       encourage uptake.


Reduced feedstock availability. Missed Energy Crops Scheme supports 50% of                  Investigate cost reduction innovations
opportunity for UK agriculture.        planting an destablishment costs, not                and new crops (i.e. energy grasses)
                                       guaranteed post-2013. Consider
                                       restructuring scheme to cover issue of
                                       no income for first 2 - 3 years post-
                                       planting.
Severe - likely to be very little or no    Natural England administer the scheme       Need to establish a fixed programme of
production of these fuels.                 but do not promote it, nor does any         meetings and activities, promoted
                                           other authority. Promotional activity is    through farming organisations such as
                                           required to generate interest and           NFU, CLA.
                                           encourage applications. Promotion
                                           should be carried out by an
                                           organisation with technical knowledge
                                           and a strong interest, such as NNFCC.


If no compatible systems are installed     Develop educational programme               Continue to develop and promote fuel-
then there will be more demand for         about compatibility of fuels and boilers.   flexible boilers. State ash melting
other woody feedstocks, and energy         Communicate good matches through            temperature compatility in boiler specs.
crops may be diverted to lower value       BEC/NNFCC/CT/EST etc.                       Conduct more trials on non-woody fuels.
use for power generation.                                                              Promote the energy crop boiler guide
                                                                                       established by NNFCC.


Imperfect supply mechanisms may be         Provide support for supply chain            Invest in equipment and infrastructure.
used (e.g. tractor and trailer) and this   infrastructure.
may restrict number of installations.


May delay uptake or prevent the most Provide support for supply chain                  Invest in equipment and infrastructure.
efficient haulage mechanisms from       infrastructure.
being used i.e. sub-optimal GHG savings
would be achieved.
Inability to access UK feedstock, more     Provide support for supply chain
reliance and competition for               infrastructure. Enable FC to implement
imports/waste biomass, higher              identify actions in Woodfuel
feedstock costs.                           Implementation Plan and Woodfuel
                                           Strategy.




Inability to access UK feedstock, more     Ensure support mechanisms are in place
reliance and competition for               to support establishment of woodland
imports/waste biomass, higher              infrastructure. FC's Woodfuel WIG is
feedstock costs.                           assisting with this but is subject to time
                                           and budget constraints.


Supply of low/unsuitable quality fuel to a Support distribution of best practise        Increased adherence to fuel standards
boiler can lead it to corrode,             guidance through FC/CT/BEC etc.              would help with this issues, but for
breakdown or get damaged. This in turn                                                  customers to have confidence in fuel
leads to a perception that biomass                                                      quality (and sustainability credentials)
boilers are unreliable and could affect                                                 then a reliable quality assurance system
levels of uptake.                                                                       for fuel suppliers is required.
Difficulty for users in accessing good   Provide financial support for supply      Equipment being used should be
quality fuel may delay or prevent        chain infrastructure. Enable FC to        checked as part of a fuel quality
uptake.                                  implement identify actions in Woodfuel    assurance scheme. Information should
                                         Implementation Plan and Woodfuel          be made available, e.g. leaflets, online
                                         Strategy.                                 supplier databases, of suitable types of
                                                                                   equipment to produce good quality
                                                                                   wood fuel.




Likely to delay and/or prevent uptake in An effective RHI should give potential     Invest in infrastructure where
some areas.                              suppliers the confidence to invest in      economically viable to do so.
                                         more specialist fuel distribution
                                         infrastructure including properly
                                         designed wood pellet tankers, scissor lift
                                         trailers, hook bin trailers and hook bins
                                         etc. Re-introduction of the BEIS or other
                                         financial support mechanisms would
                                         also help.



Prevent uptake of the technology.        Provide financial subsidy for the         Invest in necessary equipment and
                                         technology, which will enable industry to infrastructure.
                                         invest in necessary infratsructure.


Delay or may prevent development,        AD Strategy & Action Plan addressing      Contributing evidence to Government
hampering investor confidence.           this issue, stakeholder workshop held     and supporting decision making through
                                         and working group due to be launched      active engagement in the Defra
                                         shortly                                   working group
Delay or may prevent development.        Need support or incentive offered to       Establish separate collections where
                                         LA's to collect food waste; need for       viable to do so.
                                         clear guidance on preference of co-
                                         mingled vs source separated food
                                         waste;


Would be quick win for increasing AD     OfT study provided evidence in support     Water industry has an interest in taking
activity, capacity already established   of this being possible; clear regulatory   food waste, but unable to do so. Some
but regulation prevents it being used.   guidance and Government support            are establishing new digestion capacity
                                         required.                                  on site specifically for food-waste, as
                                                                                    other infrastructure already exists.


Without proof of being able to operate Support UK reference project.
in UK context, UK projects will be unable
to be funded.
    Severity ranking 5=severely restrict   Other comments
            1=unlikely to restrict

3                                          This may not always be possible,
                                           especially with relation to policy
                                           instruments which are already in effect
                                           and not due for revision.



4




5




2



3
2




1   Actions to increase the protection of UK
    industry may not be desirable in the
    context of the WTO negotiations to
    lower tariffs on agricultural products.




2




4   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates
3   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates
2   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates


1   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates


3   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates
2   Biomethane in transport can also
    improve local air quality by reducing
    tailpipe emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and
    particulates
2




2   The removal of the Bioenergy
    Infrastructure Scheme (BEIS) has
    hampered private sector plans to invest
    in this infrastructure.
2




5

2




2




2




2
1   The frequent delays in bringing forward
    a robust regulatory framework for
    biomass in the UK has made many
    international suppliers and shippers
    sceptical about the market.


2



3



1




3




5




4
3




3   Additional barriers as for syndiesel



2




2




2




3




4
3




4




3




3




3
5




3




2   As above, this barrier has been
    exacerbated through removal of the
    BEIS.


2
4




3   As demand for feedstock increases it will
    be necessary to turn to smaller, more
    isolated, wood lots for material where
    this problem is further exacerbated.



2   There is still a lack of understanding by
    many stakeholders (users and
    producers) as per the importance of fuel
    quality.
3   There is currently a lack of advice and
    information available to fuel producers
    on the equipment available which is
    suitable for producing good quality
    fuels, for example graded wood chip. In
    addition there is, in some cases, poor
    understanding of the correct
    maintenance of machinery (e.g.
    chippers) to ensure that the fuel
    produced is of consistent quality.



2   The cost of supply infrastructure is high
    and this combined with the relatively
    small number of biomass boilers installed
    currently means that the cost to supply
    each installation is relatively high. This
    barrier has been exacerbated through
    removal of the BEIS.




4




3
3




3




4
Author/Source        Title
Enviros              BARRIERS TO RENEWABLE HEAT PART 1: SUPPLY SIDE
Enviros              BARRIERS TO RENEWABLE HEAT PART 1: SUPPLY SIDE
LCAworks             The availability of sustainable biomass for use in UK power generation
NERA/AEA             The UK Supply Curve for Renewable Heat
NNFCC                Advanced Biofuels - The Potential for a UK Industry
NNFCC                Barriers to deployment: biomass heat
NNFCC                Barriers to deployment: biomass power
NNFCC                Barriers to deployment: anerobic digestion
NNFCC                Confidential communications with industry
NNFCC                Domestic energy crops potential and constraints review
Defra                Personal communications with NNFCC
DfT                  Personal communications with NNFCC
Biomass Energy CentrePersonal communications with NNFCC
Date
2008
2008
2011
2009
2011
2010
2010
2010
2011
2012
2012
2012
2012
Link
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/cons_res/rescon_support/rescon_support.aspx
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/cons_res/rescon_support/rescon_support.aspx
http://www.lcaworks.com/Low%20Carbon%20Bioelectricity%20in%20the%20UK.pdf
http://www.nera.com/extImage/PUB_Renewable_Heat_July2009.pdf
http://www.nnfcc.co.uk/tools/advanced-biofuels-the-potential-for-a-uk-industry-nnfcc-11-011
N/A
N/A
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TBC
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con_support.aspx
con_support.aspx

								
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