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SOME STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS OF FOUNDRY WASTES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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SOME STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS OF FOUNDRY WASTES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Powered By Docstoc
					INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING–
 International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976
                 RESEARCH AND 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME
 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) VolumeDEVELOPMENT (IJIERD)


ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online)
Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), pp. 51-57
                                                                          IJIERD
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 2.3810 (Calculated by GISI)              ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




          SOME STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS OF FOUNDRY
             WASTES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                              G.S.Patange1, M.P.Khond2, N.V.Chaudhari3
       1,3
           Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa – 388421, Gujarat, India
                                (gajananpatange.me@charusat.ac.in)
                    2
                      College of Engineering, Pune Maharashtra – 411005, India


ABSTRACT

        Ferrous foundries generate lots of amount of waste. India is the world’s second largest
producer of castings and also one of the top 10 in terms of average production per plant, but our
share of the global market is below 2 percent. It is estimated around 5000 Foundries are
operating all over India. Many Indian foundries have not implemented new environmental
conscious technology because they are not aware the source of wastes in their foundry and
intensity of wastes. The objective of this paper is to investigate foundry wastes for
implementation of cleaner production in foundry particularly for MSEs (Micro and Small
enterprise) to sustain the environment for Indian foundries.

Keyword: Ferrous foundries, cleaner production, MSEs

1. INTRODUCTION

        Basic foundry processes vary only slightly from one foundry to another. All foundry
operations Produce castings by pouring molten metal into molds, often consisting of molding
sand and core sand. Once the casting has hardened, it is separated from the molding and core
materials in the shakeout process. The castings are cleaned, inspected, and then shipped for
delivery Figure 1 is a schematic of a typical foundry process, showing both finished product and
the types of air emissions and wastes generated The processes involved for molding, melting,
and casting are accompanied by evolution of dust, gases, heat, and noise. For foundries, the focal
points are: air-emission, efficient use of raw materials & energy, waste reduction, in conjunction
with any recycling and reuse operation [1, 2].



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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME




                    Fig1. General Process Flow Chart of the foundry operation [2]


1.1 Materials inputs and potential pollutant outputs for foundry

1.1.1 Pattern Making
       In pattern making process, material inputs may be wood, plastic, metal, wax, polystyrene
and pollutants outputs given below.
Air Emissions:
VOC (volatile organic compound) from glues, epoxies, and paints.
Waste water: Little or no wastewater generated but there is no plan for water utilization.
Residual Wastes: Scrap pattern materials [3].

1.1.2 Mold and Core Preparation and Pouring
        In this process, materials inputs may be sand and chemical binders and pollutants outputs
given below.
Air Emissions:
Particulates, metal oxide fumes, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous
oxide. Also, Benzene, phenols, and other hazardous air pollutants
Wastewater:
Wastewater containing metals, elevated temperature, phenols and other organics from wet dust
collection systems and mold cooling water
 Residual Wastes:
Waste mold and core sand potentially containing metals and residual chemical binders [3].



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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME
1.1.3 Charging and Melting
       In charging and melting process, material inputs may be metal scrap, ingot and returned
castings and pollutant outputs given below.
Air Emissions:
Products of combustion, oil vapors, particulates, metallic oxide fumes
Wastewater:
Scrubber wastewater with high pH, slag cooling water with metals, and non- contact cooling
water
Residual Wastes:
Spent refractory material potentially containing metals and alloys [3].

1.1.4 Pouring
        In this process, material inputs ladles and refractory materials and pollutant outputs given
below.
Air Emissions:
Particulates, metallic oxide fumes
Wastewater:
Little or no wastewater generated
Residual Wastes:
Spent ladles and refractory materials potentially containing metals [3].

1.1.5 Shakeout, Cooling and Sand Handling
        In this process, material inputs may be water and caustic for wet scrubbers and pollutant
output given below.
Air Emissions:
Dust and metallic particulates; VOC and organic compounds from thermal sand treatment
systems.
Wastewater:
Wet scrubber wastewater with high or low pH or amines, permanent mold contact cooling water
with elevated temperature, metals and mold coating
Residual Wastes:
Waste foundry sand and dust from collection systems, metal [3].

1.1.6 Felting
        In this process, material inputs may be unfinished castings, water, steel shot, and
solvents. and pollutant outputs given below.
Air Emissions:
VOCs, dust and metallic particulates
Wastewater:
Waste cleaning and cooling water with elevated temperature, solvents, oil and grease, and
Suspended solids
Residual Wastes:
Spent solvents, steel shot, metallic particulates, cutting wheels, metallic filings, dust from
collection systems, and wastewater treatment sludge [3].




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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME
2. METHODOLOGY

        In India there are more than 5000 foundries in India (The institute of Indian
foundrymen2012) .There are many hubs of foundries like West Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andra Pradesh and Jharkhand. Ahmadabad, located in the state of
Gujarat, is an important foundry cluster in Western India. There are about 600 foundry units in
Gujarat. The cluster came-up mainly to cater to the casting requirements of the local diesel
engine industry. The geographical spread of the cluster includes vatva, vidyanagar, Rajkot,
Bhavanagar etc.To have true picture of these hubs, foundries from Ahmadabad were chosen for
study of investigation of wastes. Data is collected from 3 different foundries (foundry (f1),
foundry (f2), foundry (f3).These foundries produces castings by sand castings .All these
foundries are ferrous in nature .waste measurement is carried out with the help of XYZ enviro
care private. Ltd at Vatva. The purpose of taking help of XYZ enviro care private. Ltd Vatva is
to have an accurate and precise reading so that real interpretation can be made. Data is compared
with the standards of CPCB (Central pollution control board and MOEF (Ministry of
environment and forests).

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

       The following results were obtained from the three foundries. The readings are as below.

                          Table1. Experimental results of Solid waste



                                             Concentration in mg/kg

Sr.
        Waste             Cu                  Zn                  Pb                  Ni
No.

                   F1     F2     F3    F1     F2     F3    F1     F2     F3     F1    F2     F3

         Sand
 1                 220   190    182    79     71     67    172    180   158    125    130   118
        waste
 2       Dust      166   143    151    169   138    149    263    255   248    206    199   224
         Slag
 3                 520   482    543    306   297    319     49    52     57    484    490   503
        waste
        Waste
 4      From       141   130    150    340   312    302     30    26     23    239    227   244
        Ladle
        MOEF
       Standard          300                 1000                 100                 50




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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME


                              Table2. Experimental results of Air emission

Sr.            Source                                  Pollutant in µg/m3
No.                                          PM                  NO2                         SO2
                                F1           F2     F3    F1     F2    F3             F1     F2         F3
  1            Furnace         3155         1977   3529 NA NA 173                     171    161        262
              operation
  2         Preparation of     3404         2134   4919        184    167     156     266    290        689
              cores and
               moulds
  3            Casting         1853         1667   2577        NA     NA      142     145    179        207
  4         Shakeout and       4376         3147   5381        NA     NA      181     200    153        189
             reclamation

               MOEF                         3000                       150                   150
              standard

                              Table3. Experimental results of Wastewater

Sr.             Source                                     Pollution in mg/l
No.
                                       pH                BOD                  COD            Suspended
                                                                                               Solids
                                F1     F2     F3   F1     F2     F3      F1     F2    F3    F1 F2 F3
  1         Cooling baths      9.3    NA NA        240    NA NA         715     NA NA       16    NA NA


                MOEF                  6-8.5               30                   250                100
               Standard

                             Table4. Experimental results of Noise Pollution

      Sr.                            Source                                   Pollution (dB(A))
      No.
                                                                       F1            F2             F3
      1                        Scrap handle                            78            57             61
      2                      Furnace Operation                         82            53             48
      3                          Shakeout                              86            48             52
      4                         Compressor                            90.3           80            73.3
      5                          Knockout                              92            76             68
      6                         Crane heads                            77            59            61.5
                              CPCB Standard                                          75
NA-Not applicable.

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME
4. CONCLUSION

From above table following conclusion can be made
1. The foundries generate lot of Solid waste like sand waste, dust, and slag waste, waste from
ladle which is harmful for human health. There is no arrangement for beneficial reuse, disposal,
treatment and handling.
2. Regading air emission, Small and medium size foundries from Ahmadabad hub are emitting
pollutants from different department namely Furnace operation, Preparation of cores and moulds,
Casting, Shakeout and reclamation. There are drastic deviations in all department compare to
MOEF Standard. There is low air emission where induction furnace is installed but they are not
running with highest efficiency. Cupola is the predominant melting furnace used by nearly 90%
of the foundry units. Most of the cupolas are of conventional type. A local cupola design, called
'Rajkot cupola', is quite popular in the cluster.
3. Regarding wastewater, there are drastic deviations in all parameter compare to MOEF
standard. There is no arrangement for reuse of waste water.
4. Regarding noise pollution, there are drastic deviations in all department parameter compare to
CPCB standard.
   There is a tremendous scope for these foundries to use the high quality raw material for
reduce the solid waste and also use the various devices like Filters, Cyclones, Mechanical
Collectors, Scrubbers to enhance the awareness in relation with cleaner production idea. There is
a lack of economical information for many recent techniques. There is need of awareness with
this regard towards moving for sustainable development.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

        The authors’ wishes to thank research paper review committee, department of mechanical
engineering. Principal and dean faculty of technology and engineering, Charotar University of
science and technology, Changa for their suggestions, encouragement and support in undertaking
the present work. Special thanks to the management and ABC private limited company for their
moral support and continuous encouragement. Also we extend our thanks to XYZ enviro care
private. Ltd Vatva and Dr.U.D.Patel for giving us readings as per our requirements at cheaper
rate

REFERENCE

[1]     D.P.Mukherjee, Barriers towards cleaner production for optimizing energy use and
pollution control for foundry sector in Howrah, Clean Techn Environ Policy, 13, 2011, 111–123.

[2]     Report on Strategies and Mechanisms for Promoting Cleaner Production Investments in
Developing Countries, UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), 2000.
Http://www.uneptie.org

[3]    Report on Cleaner Production Ideas for the Foundry Industry, Center for Environmental
Training and International Consulting Austria, 2004.

[4]    The gazette of India, part II,-section 3 – sub section, NEW DELHI MARCH 31, 2012.

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –
6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME
[5]     Reference document on “Best available techniques in the smitheries and foundry
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[6]    Jochen Petersen, Mary Stewart & Jim G. Petrie, Management of Ferro- alloy wastes,
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[7]   E.M.Emmima, Ľ.Mihok, A.Pribulová, control of environment and risk in integrated
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[8]    S.Fore,C.T.Mbohwa, Cleaner production for environmental conscious manufacturing in
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[9]     Seema Unnikrishnan, D.S.Hegde, Environmental training and cleaner production in
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[10] Borut Kosec ,Sandra Senčič ,Mirko Soković ,Blaž Karpe, Foundry Waste Management,
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[11] Victoria PETROESC, Roland Iosif MORARU, industrial pollution and control measures
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[12] R.Krishnaraj, Dr.M.Sakthivel, Dr.S.R.Devadasan, K. Kanthavel, E.Balaji, J.Arulmani, A
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& Engineering Research,2(7)2011.

[13]   The institute of Indian foundry men ( www.indianfoundry.org.) accesed on December11,
2012

[14] The United Nations Protection Agency (EPA) (http://www.epa.gov) accesed on
December11, 2012




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