Transformation of Participation in Cultural Activities

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					Transformation of Participation in
       Cultural Activities
            Chapter 2
 Culture and the Individual: Symbiosis

• People and cultural
  communities mutually
  contribute to the
  development of the other
                 Scientific Inquiry
• Methodologies

  – Early cross-cultural studies compared other cultures with
    Western cultures and using Western techniques and

  – These studies of intelligence and based on the writings
    of Piaget assumed that intelligence and competence
    could best be observed by providing people with novel
    situations and measuring their ability to solve problems.

  – Correlations were actually found between demonstrated
    competence and Western schooling
     • Can we infer that Western schooling makes you more
   Data Collection thru the Technique of Syllogism

• Schooling challenges people to accept a premise
  as truth and base conclusions on the stated facts.

• In other cultures, truth and fact can only be based
  on witnessed accounts. To employ hypothetical
  reasoning is illogical and consequently a violation
  of the very thing being measured.

  – Could that very reasoning be implicit in certain
    components of American culture and youth education?

  – Is there a relation between this reasoning and the
    challenge that many students employ when they inquire
    as to the relevance of their learning?
 Researchers Questioning Assumptions

• Traditional thinking about individuals and
  culture relate to the assumption that
  conclusions are general and all inclusive
  of the participants

• Contemporary thinking reflects a view that
  individual and group distinctions can be
  found within cultural expressions
  – Nestling effect
           Margaret Mead
• Mead’s pioneering work through direct
  observations of people within cultural
  context offers great insight towards human
  development within culture

• Progression of Cultures
             Lev Vygotsky
• Socio cultural perspective which purports
  that human development (i.e., intellectual)
  is a function of the experiences and
  exchanges which are, in part, derived from
  one’s respective cultural interactions
 Whitings Psychocultural Model
• Focus on the relations between the development
  of individuals and features of their immediate
  environments, social partners, and institutional
  and cultural systems and values
  – Development is a function of a chain of events which
    start with environmental factors, historical events, and
    social adaptation

• Scholars should unpackage the variables they
  employ to investigate human development
Erie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model

• Development is a function of numerous
  systemic models which collectively
  contribute to explain one’s environmental

  – Microsystem
  – Mesosystem
  – Ecosystem
  – Macrosystem
  – Chronosystem
        Further Conceptualization
• Development is a function sociocultural
  exchanges (most all theorists allude to this)

• Can we infer that misdevelopment is, in part, a
  function of the deprivations of our social
  – Parent/child interactions
     • Child rearing practices
     • Communication
  – Environmental safety and exploration
  – Family and Peer interactions
     • Perhaps our sociocultural experiences must provide us with
       certain experiences which promote the development of certain
       skills that enable us to be contributing members to society

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