Docstoc

15215891_macromolecule_lecture_notes

Document Sample
15215891_macromolecule_lecture_notes Powered By Docstoc
					Practicum Student Teaching                        Biology                                  Ms. Agnes Nogal


Macromolecules Lecture Notes to be done November 5th and 7th

Prezi: http://prezi.com/fovsyv79huy_/high-school-biology-4-macromolecules-of-life/

Tree of Life Image: Talk about how cells are present in all living things and cells themselves are made
out of parts we call macromolecules.

In maple syrup, the macromolecules present are called carbohydrates.

Zoom in to maple syrup drop for notes.

Notes:



Macromolecule: Carbohydrates

The main energy source for the human body.

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen bond together

Sucrose, the sugar of table sugar (and maple syrup!) is made of one glucose monomer and one fructose
monomer,

Single sugars are called monosaccharides

Disaccharide is [two][sugars].

Carbohydrates that contain only monosaccharides and disaccharides are called simple sugars.

When more are added to the chain, it is called a "polysaccharide" which means [many][sugars].

Zoom in to glucose molecule.

This is the most common carbohydrate.

Zoom in to fructose molecule.

Zoom out to tree.

The next example of a carbohydrate is within plant cells, such as within the tree rings.

Zoom into the tree rings.

Zoom into the image of a plant cell.

This is what a plant cell looks like, which you may have seen.

Zoom into cellulose image.
Practicum Student Teaching                          Biology                                   Ms. Agnes Nogal


Cellulose fibers are part of a plant cell. They can be broken down as you can see into individual cellulose
molecules.

Zoom into notes.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Carbohydrates

Cellulose is a linear molecule composed of 3,000 or more glucose molecules strung together, thus being
a polysaccharide.

Cellulose, which plant fiber, cannot be digested by human beings.

Cellulose passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed into the body - this is the fiber we
need to keep our intestines healthy.

Complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugar units bonded together.

Zoom out into the tree again.

Complex carbohydrates are also present in animals, in places such as the monkey’s brain.

Zoom into monkey brain.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Carbohydrates

Glycogen is the polysaccharide molecule that functions as the secondary long-term energy storage in
animal cells.

It is made by the liver and the muscles but it can be also made by glycogenesis within the brain and
stomach.

Zoom out into the tree again.

Zoom into the leaves.

Here we see another plant cell.

Zoom into the color cell diagram.

Specifically, in leaves and other plant cells, we find a particular kind of carbohydrate called starch. It is
the white parts of this diagram.

Zoom into the starch.

This is how starch cells look under a microscope.
Practicum Student Teaching                         Biology                                 Ms. Agnes Nogal


Zoom into starch molecules.

And if we look deeper, we see the starch structure.

Zoom into starch notes.

Notes:

This is starch, which is present in plant cells.

Starch is the principal polysaccharide used by plants to store glucose for later use as energy.

Zoom out into tree.

Check up time. I will post these questions on the overhead and call on students to answer.

[Formative Assessment]

Quick break time. Let’s see if you remember what you just saw, heard and hopefully wrote down.

Carbohydrates

1.       What elements are carbohydrates composed of?

2.       Name an important role of carbohydrates.

3.       What is the most common monosaccharide?

4.       Name two types of stored sugar and in what organisms they are stored in.

Students will have these questions to read off the overhead. I will let them think about the questions,
then ask for volunteers to answer. I will remind the students that if they do not remember the
answers, they should write down the answers.

Next macromolecule!

Now we will focus more on the animals present.

Zoom into the monkey’s throat area.

We also have red blood cells like the monkey does. What are these cells mostly made of?

Zoom into notes.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Protein

Inside every erythrocyte, or red blood cell, there are 280 million molecules of hemoglobin.
Practicum Student Teaching                            Biology                            Ms. Agnes Nogal


Each molecule is made of four separate globin strands, and each contains a flat disk, a "heme" carrying
iron.

Amino Acids make these globin strands.

Zoom into amino acids.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Proteins

Amino acids can link together in a linear fashion, and make various shapes, including folds.

Zoom into amino acid notes.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Proteins

Amino acids play central roles both as building block of proteins and intermediates in metabolism.

The 20 amino acids make up every protein life needs.

Zoom into more protein notes.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Proteins

Proteins are comprised of amino acids.

They are present in and vital to every living cell.

Proteins hold together, protect, and provide structure to the body of a multi-celled organism.

Enzymes are proteins.

Each type of protein has its own unique structure and function.

Zoom back out into tree. [Formative assessment]

Let’s go back and see what you remember about proteins!

Proteins

1.       What elements are proteins composed of?

2.     We did not go into detail about this, but using what you know about science and your own
body, what do you think is one important biological function of proteins? Why do you think so?
Practicum Student Teaching                        Biology                                   Ms. Agnes Nogal


3.       How many different amino acids are there?

Students will have these questions to read off the overhead. I will let them think about the questions,
then ask for volunteers to answer. I will remind the students that if they do not remember the
answers, they should write down the answers.

Neeeext macromolecule!

Let’s take a look at the lizard now.

Zoom into the lizard.

This is what an animal cell looks like. The next macromolecule is a big part of the membrane covering
the cell.

Zoom into membrane.

The pink balls with legs are lipids. Lipids, as you can see form the majority of the cell membrane. Lipids
also form what we call “fats” in our food.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Lipids

This cell membrane is constructed largely of lipids (fats) arranged in a bi-layer, or 2 layers ("bi" means
two).

Each lipid in the membrane of the cell (and other membranes) has a head and two tails each. The heads
are attracted to water, while the tails cluster away from water.

Zoom to molecule.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Lipids

Here are the atoms of a single lipid. How many tails do you see?

(Technically this is a "phospholipid", because it has a phosphate in the middle. Can you find it? (Look for
a P (phosphate) surrounded by 4 Os (oxygen).)

Zoom back out into tree.

[Formative Assessment]

Halt! Review time!

Lipids
Practicum Student Teaching                         Biology                                  Ms. Agnes Nogal


1.       Which part of the lipid is attracted to water and which clusters away from water?

2.       Knowing one function of lipids, do you think eating a completely non-fat diet is a good idea?

3.       What are the components of the lipids? Think back to the diagram of the molecule.

Students will have these questions to read off the overhead. I will let them think about the questions,
then ask for volunteers to answer. I will remind the students that if they do not remember the
answers, they should write down the answers.

We’re almost done! Final macromolecule.

Let’s take a look at the parrot and its cells.

Zoom into a parrot.

Parrot cells look like other animal cells. This time, we’re going to look inside the nucleus in the center.

Zoom into nucleus.

The genetic material is packed into the nucleus as strands of chromatin, like at the bottom of this
picture. If you continue to unwind the chromatin and unpack it, it will show the DNA shape. You’ve
probably seen DNA in the double helix form like at the top of this picture. The chromatin in the figure is
300 nm, while the DNA itself is 2 nm, so you can just imagine how much DNA can fit in the strand of
chromatin.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids

Chromatin fiber is organized into large loops anchored to specific proteins. In these loops DNA compacts
to about 10,000-times its length.

Zoom into DNA helix.

Here you can see one piece of the DNA double helix and how it is also composed of smaller pieces.
These are our next macromolecule.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids

Here you can see the repeating units, or monomers, that make up the two strands of DNA.

Zoom into individual nucleic acids.

Notes:

Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
Practicum Student Teaching                         Biology                                  Ms. Agnes Nogal


There are four monomers in DNA called nucleotides (also known as nucleic acids).

The names of these nucleotides are Adenine(A),Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and Guanine G).

Each nucleotide in turn is made of three simple "building blocks" - Phosphoric acid and sugar that are
the same in all four nucleotides; and so-called "base" that, similar to the side chains in amino acids, is
unique for each of the four.

Zoom back out into the tree.

[Formative Assessment]

One more time, let’s see what you remember.

Nucleic Acids

1.      What are the four nucleotides that make up DNA?

2.      Where is chromatin found?

3.      What did I mean when I said genetic material?

4.      Why do you think nucleic acids are important?

That concludes our class today. You have this question to answer for tomorrow’s class. I want you to
give me a well developed response that shows me you really thought about it.

“Some people say life is fundamentally all structured the same, while others say there is great diversity
even in very small molecules. What do you think and why?”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:1/5/2013
language:English
pages:7