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TRANSCENDENTALISM AND UTOPIAN SOCIETIES IN AMERICAN CULTURE FROM 1815- 1848 Rachel Bryan and Kate Barnes http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_pNnotkTkc_w/Sm37rUSMo- I/AAAAAAAAAI8/wKeX7aAbuok/s400/ColeHomeInTheWoods.jpg What was transcendentalism? TRANSCENDENTALISM TRANSCENDENTALISM WAS… A literary and philosophical movement Its main ideas and associated with 19th concerns (individualism, century writers and a self-improvement, small but active circle spiritualism, and moral of New England protest) are still part of educators, religious U.S. cultural practices leaders, and social and political attitudes. reformers during the time. Began as a discussion club, but grew to affect the beliefs of later U.S writers and Americans in THOREAU HIS WORK One of the loudest Thoreau preached religious Transcendental voices tolerance, moral soundness, Secluded himself in a cabin love of nature, and the right above Walden pond where he wrote his most famous work, to disobey unjust authority. Walden. His most famous writings Although not seen as an were Walden and Resistance exemplary figure of to Civil Government. Transcendentalist views during his time, Thoreau is now Three thousand copies of considered the philosophical Walden were printed, but model of a Transcendentalist in fewer than three hundred the mid 19th century. copies were sold. Walden is now regarded as one of the IN LITERATURE most monumental pieces of Who took part in the movement? literature. Walden Pond http://writeideasmarketing.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/walden-pond.jpg PRINCIPLES OF TRANSCENDENTALISM What were the main ideas of transcendentalism? Idealism The loud Transcendental figures such as Whitman and Emerson had religions, but did celebrate physical relationships. “Yet each of these figures shared a fundamental belief in a higher reality of ideas--in a metaphysical realm of spirit that is screened, and yet symbolically revealed, by the material world.” Pantheism Also known as “Natural Supernaturalism,” and considered by some as an American natural religion. Similar to the Deist of the 18th century, the universe and Enlightenment theories were extremely influential. Optimism Transcendentalist were overall optimists in that they knew the hardships of the human experience, but were convinced of the essential goodness and purposefulness of life. TRANSCENDENTALISTS AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD What did non transcendentalists think of the radicals? By many, transcendentalist figures were seen as questionable and “conspirators.” However, most people looked at transcendentalists as doing something worth doing, but it just wasn’t for them, much like we look at the hippies from the 1960s. Edgar Allan Poe severely criticized the movement, calling its members “frogpondians” and discredited their writings as “mysticism for mysticism’s sake.” He wrote a short story attacking the movement, referring to it as a disease. One of Nathanial Hawthorne’s more popular novels, The Blithedale Romance, criticizes his short encounter with Brook Farm, a failed Utopian Society. UTOPIAN SOCIETIES Brook Farm, New Harmony, Oneida, Shakers, and Mormons What were the experimental societies developed by transcendentalists actually like? Image: Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeroes WHAT WERE UTOPIAN SOCIETIES? The western idea of Deism, the second Great utopian societies Awakening, and originated from ancient Enlightenment times– such as in the philosophies prepared the Garden of Eden and the western world for Golden Age of Greek Transcendentalist thought. mythology. The word “Utopia” originated from a 16th century writer who introduced the word as a fictional paradisal island in the Atlantic ocean. BROOK FARM What happened to the original experiment? West Roxbury, Massachusetts Organized by George Ripley Many famous names held shares in Brook Farm; e.g. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Margaret Fuller. The community provided all necessities and education for its members. A fire that burned down a brand new building, financial trouble, and a suit by Nathanial Hawthorne to regain his investment in the site led to its end in 1847. Fueled Hawthorne’s novel The Blithedale Romance. http://www.toptenz.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Brook-Farm-engraving.jpg ONEIDA COMMUNITY What was life like in the Oneida Community? John Humphrey Noyes Born in Brattleboro, Vermont in 1811 Joined Andover Theological Seminary in November of 1831 Became involved in the nascent abolitionist movement Founded the New Haven Anti- Slavery society and New Onedia Community Mansion House, Madison County, New Haven free church where he Yorkhttp://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/amana/buildings/Oneida.jpg preached his radical beliefs. Great emphasis on perfection being attainable in this life. ONEIDA MEMBERS FALL His followers; In 1847 a meeting of ministers was Became known as Perfectionists. held in Syracuse where the Practiced “complex marriage” and community was condemned. considered themselves married to the group, not one partner. Mede members uneasy, and Noyes Practiced “bible communism” fled to Canada on June 29, 1879 Members were not accepted by The community was officially ended i the community of Putney, New January 1881 when reconstructed as York, so the group moved to a Joint Stock Company. Madison in 1847 Whole community lived together in one house in the 1850s Ate communal meals, worked together to raise and educate children, and collaborated to achieve manufacturing success. At it’s height 270 members lived together in the house. SHAKERS What was life like for the Shakers? formally known as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Coming Beliefs; Communal Living Productive labor Celibacy Abstaining from marriage and sexual relationships for religious reasons. Pacifism The belief that violence, including war, is unjustifiable under any circumstances, and that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means. Equality of sexes MEMBERS 6000 members before the civil war Had two main communities Successful in making items Began in 1780s, but for the outside commercial world peaked from 1830-1860 Moved focus from Lived in same sex housing agriculture to handicrafts Worked in it’s garden-seed e.g Furniture industry Became known as “Shaker Style” THE SHAKER COMMUNITY The inside makeup of a Utopian Society Community had 15 Shaker Village Hancock buildings: Sabbathday Lake Shaker The Great Stone Dwelling Village The Stone Mille Building Last remaining community The West Meadow Barn Laundry and Dairy The East Brethren’s Shop Mary Keane Chapel Ministry House West Brethren’s House http://www.shakermuseum.org/shakervillage.htm “Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealed his secret unto Held the common Christian his servants the ideas until the early 1800s, prophets.” Amos 3:7, when they believed Joseph Book of Mormon Smith was a prophet. Joseph Smith was considered a prophet similar to Moses or Abraham. God had always sent messengers to tech His plan. The Mormons believed God gave Joseph Smith permission to baptize and teach others the steps they needed to take in order to return to live with God. How did the modern-day religion begin? MORMONS http://www.mormonchurch.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/bookofmormon.jpg BOOK OF MORMON What does the Mormon text say about them? Considered a continuation The book of Mormon answers of the Bible ‘questions of the soul’ 1. “Is there really a God?” The book of Mormon 2. “Did I exist before I was contains the history and born?” God’s word between 3. “What happens after I die?” 600BC and 400 AD. 4. “Does my life have a Compiled by a man purpose?” named Mormon onto Divided into books like the golden plates. bible “'Mormonism' has made me all I am; and the grace, the power, and the wisdom of God will make me all that BRIGHAM YOUNG I ever will be, either in time or in Who were the major players? eternity.” Second President of the Mormon church Born June 1st 1801 Died August 29th 1877 Years as President 1847- 1877 Brigham Young University MultipleUniversities founded and directed by the church http://www.wpclipart.com/religion_mythology/Brigham_Young.png LATTER DAY SAINTS Where is it now? A branch of Mormon faith Belief statement “We are all spiritual children of a loving Heavenly Father who sent us to this earth to learn and grow in a mortal state. As Mormons, we are followers of Jesus Christ. We live our lives to serve Him and teach of His eternal plan for each of us.” FIN WORKS CITED http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/amana/utopia.htm 11-10-10 New Oxford American Dictionary http://www.shakermuseum.org/history.htm 11-10-10 http://www.mormon.org/faith?gclid=CKrw_ujNmaUCFYdc2goddgoZG w 11-10-10 http://lds.org/churchhistory/presidents/controllers/potcController.js p?leader=2&topic=facts 11-10-10 http://www.byu.edu/webapp/home/index.jsp 11-10-10 What Hath God Wrought http://condor.depaul.edu/~dsimpson/awtech/amertran.html 11-10- 10 http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/poebio.html 11-10-10 Norton Anthology of American Literature Vol. 2 http://www.toptenz.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Brook-Farm- engraving.jpg http://www.ushistory.org/us/26b.asp 11-8-10 http://liberalarts.iupui.edu/maxkade/newharmony/home. html 11-8-10 http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/de finitionbickman.html 11-8-10 http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/philterm.htm 11-8-10 Brands Textbook
"Transcendentalism and Utopian Societies in "