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					Social Studies 7-Canada: Origins,
Histories and Movement of Peoples.
Chapter 1: Meet Three of Canada’s
First Nations

 values and ideas shared by people with a
 common language, culture and history.

Active Citizenship:
    Active citizenship means many things. It
    means learning about what’s going on in
    your community, your country and in the
    world. It means working together with
    other people for a common goal. It
    means, stepping up to support your
Introduction: The First Peoples
 • There are no written records to tell us
   about the early societies of the First
   Peoples. Yet we know a great deal about
   these ancient cultures. Artifacts (an object
   made by human activity) left behind from
   earlier times tell us many things. We know
   about the housing in which people lived,
   the clothes they wore, and the tools they
   used. But there is much more to the past
   than material things. To learn about the
   culture and values of the First Peoples, we
   must listen to the stories told by the Elders.
   These stories have been passed down from
   generation to generation.
1. What are the different theories about when and
how the First Peoples came to live in North
 There are different theories about when and how
 the First Peoples came to live in North America.
 They include:
 A) Most historians believe they crossed over from
 Asia on an ancient land bridge that existed during
 the ice age.
 B) Other historians think the First Peoples arrived
 here by boat across the Pacific Ocean.
 C) Still other historians think that some of the
 First Peoples crossed the Atlantic Ocean to get
 D) Aboriginal peoples have another point of view.
 They believe they have been here since time
A culturally Diverse Land
 • The First Peoples created many distinct
   societies. Each culture was unique with its
   own values and traditions. Long before
   Europeans knew it existed, North America
   was one of the most culturally diverse lands
   the world had ever known.

The Mi’kmaq (background)
 The Mi’kmaq lived and continue to live in
 what is now eastern Canada. The Mi’kmaq
 lived in the woodlands and along the
 seacoasts. They lived in small villages of
 extended families called clans. The clan
 system helped the people cooperate. It also
 allowed them to live together in harmony and
 organize the sharing of resources.
The Mi’kmaq
2. How many districts were included in the
   Mi’kmaq government?
3. What were the district leaders called and
   how were they chosen?
4.(a) How often did the Grand Council meet?
  (b) What did the Grand Council do?
5. Why did the Mi’kmaq live close to the coast
   in summer and away from the coast, in the
   forest, in winter?
2. The Mi’kmaq government was organized
   around seven districts.
3. The local leaders were called Sagamaws and
   were chosen by a council of elders.
4.(a) The seven districts of the Grand Council
   usually met once a year. (see diagram)
(b) The Grand Council advised Mi’kmaq
   communities where they could hunt, fish,
   and set up camps. It also managed relations
   with other First Nations.
5. This seasonal movement allowed them to
   make the best use of the resources of their
   land. In summer they fished and hunted sea
   mammals such as whales. In winter they
   hunted animals of the forest such as moose.
Making Decisions (Mi’kmaq)
 Mi’kmaq leaders did not tell people what to
 do. In Mi’kmaq society, leaders were chosen
 for their ability to reach agreement among
 people. The councils would listen to all the
 men and women who wanted to express an
 opinion on an issue. Then everyone discussed
 the issue until all members of the council
 agreed on what to do. This is called decision
 making by consensus.
The Anishinabe (background) and
World View
 The Anishinabe lived in the wooded of
 northern and central Ontario and in southern
 Manitoba. The Europeans called them
 “Ojibway” or “Saulteaux”, but the people
 called themselves Anishinabe, meaning “the
 In order to understand the Anishinabe
 culture, it is important to understand that
 they try to live their lives according to seven
 main values: wisdom, love, respect, bravery,
 honesty, humility, and truth.
Making Decisions (Anishinabe)
 Each of the clans had a leader, who was
 chosen because he displayed courage, good
 character, or skill in hunting. The leaders of
 the Crane and Loon clans were responsible
 for making decisions that affected all the
 people of the community. They worked
 together to create a balanced government. In
 times of conflict between the Cranes and the
 Loons it was the role of the Fish clan to settle
6. What was the purpose of the Anishinabe
   Dodems (clans)?
7. How was it decided which clan a person
   belonged to?
8. List and give the duties of each of the
   Anishinabe clans.
9.(a) What was Midewin Society?
  (b) How were people chosen to enter
   Midewin Society?
  (c) What did the Midewin do?
6. The clans worked together to provide
   balance and order in society.
7. A person became a member of his or her
   father’s clan.
8. The clans and their duties were:
   Crane/Loon – leadership
   Fish – Teaching/settled disputes
   Bear – policing
   Hoof – Community needs
   Marten – Defense
   Bird – Spiritual needs
9.(a) The Midewin were men and women who
   had special gifts as spiritual leaders and
(b) The Midewin chose their members very
   carefully, and once chose, a person entered
   into eight levels of secret training.
(c) The Midewin taught their society the
   importance of living a good life. They used
   medicines to heal sick people, interpret
   dreams and visions, and passed on sacred
   teachings and songs.
The Haudenosaunee: Background
   The Haudenosaunee are a group that
   includes six different first nations: Mohawk,
   Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and
   Tuscarora. At different periods in their
   history they lived either to the north or
   south of the St. Lawrence River. While these
   six nations shared a similar language they
   each had a distinct culture. The
   Haudenosaunee hunted and fished and
   gathered nuts, roots , and berries. The soil
   was fertile and the climate mild where they
   lived. This allowed them to become one of
   Canada’s first Farming peoples.
* The Haudenosaunee was a matrilineal
   society. This means that the head of each
   longhouse was a woman. She was known as
   the Clan Mother.
Making Decisions (Haudenosaunee)
  Haudenosaunee women played an
  important role in government. Although the
  leaders were usually men, the Clan Mothers
  chose them. Women could veto any law the
  men passed. They could remove the men
  from leadership and replace them.
  Each of the six nations sent leaders to take
  part in a central council. The council
  consisted of 50 leaders chosen by the Clan
  Mothers. The council met at least once a
  year and issues were decided by consensus.

10. Describe the Great Law of Peace.
11. What did the Grand Council do?
12. Who were the Hoyaneh and how were they
13. Describe the role of the Clan Mothers.
10. Dekanawidah – the Peacemaker – brought
   the Great Law of Peace to the
   Haudenosaunee. The Great Law of Peace
   created a confederacy of first five and
   eventually six nations. The Great Law of
   Peace set down rules of government, in
   which each member nation of the
   confederacy had equal voice and status.
11. Decisions of the confederacy were made by
   a council of fifty chiefs.
12. The Hoyaneh were the chiefs of the grand
   council. They were chosen by the clan
13. The clan mothers were powerful people.
   They chose the Hoyaneh. If a Hoyaneh failed
   to perform his official duties in accordance
   with the Great Law of Peace, the clan
   mothers could replace them.
                 Social 7 Chapter 1 – Review

  - Citizenship, what does active citizenship mean?
  - Where did the first Nations People come from?
  - Be able to explain some cultural differences between the first
    nations groups we studied.

  The Mi’kmaq
    - # of districts
    - Saqamaws – leaders
    - Grand Council - What did they do? When did they meet?
    - Seasonal movement…..Why?
    - How did they make decisions? (remember consensus)
    - Where did they live?
    - How did they use the land?
    - Roles of men and women.
    - Be sure to review your list of facts from the beginning of the

The Anishinabe
  - Where did they live?
  - 7 main values
  - Clans (dodems) – how many? Purpose, names and roles
  - Which clan did a person belong to?
  - Ogimauh – leader
  - How did they make decisions?
  - Midewin society – who were they? What did they do? How were
     they chosen?
  - How did they use the land?
  - Roles of men and women.
  - Review list of facts.
The Haudenosaunee
  - How many first nations made up this confederacy?
  - Hoyaneh – leaders
  - Grand Council – 50 chiefs
  - Agricultural (the three sisters?)
  - This society was Matrilineal.
  - Clan mothers had lots of power. Why?
  - How did they make decisions?
  - Where did they live?
  - The Great Law of Peace

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