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THE EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE ON THE ON THE ACCADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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THE EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE ON THE ON THE ACCADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Powered By Docstoc
					  THE EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED
   SCIENCE ON THE ON THE ACCADEMIC
  PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL
               STUDENTS
              DEDICATION


This project is dedicated to Almighty God.




                       ii
ABSTRACT



        This work is to investigate the effects of using instructional materials in the teaching

of integrated science on the academic performance of secondary school students and

to find out whether the teachers’ competency and qualification affects the effective use to the

instructional materials. Questionnaires were used as research instrument and percentage

method would then be used to analyze the data. Recommendation would be based on the

result of the data collected.




                                                iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………                       i
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………….……                     ii
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………..                      iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………………                       iv
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………….                        v
TABLE OF CONTENT ……………………………………………………………..                    vi
CHAPTER ONE
    Introduction
    Background of the Study ……………………………………………………              1
      Purpose of the Study ………….…………………………………………….            1
      Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………          1
      Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………….           2
      Hypothesis …………………………………………………………………..                  2
      Limitation of the Study ……………………………………………………..          2
CHAPTER TWO
    Review of Related Literature
    Types of learning …………………………………………………………..                3
    Causes of Learning Disabilities ………….……………………………..        4
    Characteristics of Learning Disabilities ……………………………………   4
    Effects of Learning Disabilities ……………………………………………..      5
CHAPTER THREE
    Research Methodology
    Research Design …... ……………………………………………………..               6
    Sample and Sampling Technique …………………….…………….…….          6
    Research Instrument ………………………………………………………..               6
    Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………..                  6
CHAPTER FOUR
    Result and Discussion
      Data Analysis ……………………………………………………..…..…..              7
      Analysis of the Table ………………………………………………………             7
CHAPTER FIVE
    Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
    Summary …………………………………………………………………….                       9
    Conclusion …………………………………………………………………..                    9
    Recommendation …………………………………………………………...                  9
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………                        10

                                iv
                                       CHAPTER ONE
                                           Introduction
Background to the Study
      According to the Nigeria National policy of education (1981, revised), one of the
main national objectives of education in Nigeria is “the building of a strong and self reliance
nation”
          One of the ways of achieving these objectives is to train individuals mind to
understand the world around him.
          Since integrated science is the fundamental of all the science courses and the core of
technology. Hence for a nation to be technically strong and independent, integrated science as
a subject must be given priority in schools. To achieve these aims, instructional materials
must be used.
          The term instructional material refers to materials resources that can be effectively
used for communication and which may be used in the form of media.
          Media may be projected or non projected, hardware and software, printed hardware
are non-consumable substances, which include equipment like video tape recorder, radio set,
television set, film projector, over head projector and so on, while software are the
consumables which includes material film-trip, slides, transparency cassettes, video program
etc.
          However, in this research work, an attempt would be made to highlight certain steps
to be taken by the integrated science teacher in making necessary professional decisions in
selecting and utilizing different kinds of educational media so that their students can achieve
maximum learning.


Purpose of the study
          The purpose of the study is to work into the possible effects using instructional
materials for the teaching of integrated science on the academic performance of the students
in some selected secondary schools in Ilesa – East Local Government of Osun State.
          The purpose of this study is also to buttress the fact that for any learning to permanent
and transferable, the appropriate educational media must be used . also to eliminate the
erroneous thought of people that brilliant teachers do not need to use educational media.




                                                  1
Statement of the problem
          It has been observed that teachers know the importance of educational media in
effective teaching and learning, yet some are still incompetence in using educational media.
Therefore, this study is to determine the teacher competency in the selection and utilization of
educational media in the teaching of integrated science.
          It tends to find out the relationship between the practicing integrated science teacher
and educational attainment, years of teaching, experience and the teachers’ professional
training on the effective of utilization of education media integrated science.


Research Question
Based on the statement of the problems, the following research questions would be raised and
attempts would be made to seek answers to the following research questions in the study.
   (i)       Is there any difference in the competency of male and female integrated science
             teacher in utilization of education media in teaching?
   (ii)      Are there any differences in the teaching competency of professional integrated
             science teachers in the teaching of integrated science?


Research hypothesis
          The following hypotheses were formulated to guide this work. Male and female
integrated teachers are not significantly different in the teaching competency and utilization
of educational media
          The professionally qualified integrated science teachers are not significantly different
in the teaching competency and utilization of educational media.


Significant of the study
          As a result of the education of the instrumentational technology which placed great
emphasis on the utilization of media as a means of instruction thus overcoming the limitation
of the chalk and talk method characteristics of the traditional classroom teaching.


          It is therefore a pertinent that the importance to the chalk and talk method
characteristics of the traditional classroom be over emphasized in achieving the best out of
the student and replacing passive situation of the students in the classroom to interact
between the teacher and the learner during the teaching process .

                                                  2
        Most importantly, the study has a lot of implication for curriculum designers and the
examining board such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National
Examination (NECO).
        Moreover, the study is also important to the ministry of education and state schools by
furnishing them with relevant information which would guide for making plans and policies
dealing with the improvement of teaching of integrated science in Osun state.


Scope of the study
To reduce the risk of travelling, the researcher has randomly selected five secondary schools
in Ilesa East Local Government of Osun State. The study touches the area of teachers’
competency and utilization of educational media in teaching integrated science in the selected
secondary schools in Osun State. The study is restricted to integrated science teachers in the
selected schools.


Limitation of the study
Few secondary schools were selected due to the geographical location spread or accessibility,
general inadequate of integrated science materials and financial constrain.


Definition of terms
The following term and variables which have been adopted for this study are defined below.
   i    Media: The media is a plural of medium. Meaning all forms and channels used in
        transmitting information.
   ii   Educational Media:      This is a form of teaching resources.
   iii teachers competency: This is the ability, understanding skills and behavior of the
        teacher that facilitates intellectual, social, emotional and physical growth in children
        on the use of educational media.
   iv professional integrated science teachers:       A person who is specially trained towards
        imparting knowledge and skills in integrated science.
   v    Non-professional integrated science teachers:     These are untrained teachers who
        never attended college of education or offered educational courses in addition to his
        or her degree course.




                                                3
                                          CHAPTER TWO
                                     Review of Related Literature
This chapter discusses some of the views and findings of other researchers about teachers’
competency and utilization of educational media in teaching of integrated science in
secondary schools.
       Educationalists have been so much concerned on how students can have maximum
benefits from the teacher’s lesson. This has led most researchers to define educational media
as anything that would aid learning taught. In that wise, educational carrier designed specially
to fulfill the objectives in the teaching and learning situations.


Concept of educational technology and teachers’ education
Educational technology is new in the realm of education in Nigeria in particular and in the
world in general. This is the reason why it is variously referred to by education as
“educational media”, education communication, instructional technology, instructional
library and media technology which are of high frequency (Akinpelu 1999).
Ingles (1998), says that the concept educational technology is concern with the overall
methodology and set of techniques employed in the application of instructional principles. It
could be viewed as an integrated and systematic method of planning, designing ,
implementing and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific
objectives, research information of human learning employing all the learning theories and
the process of communication.
Balogun (1982), simply put educational technology as a process consisting of the educational
media like chalkboard, projected media, radio, and television as well as the method for
organizing and effectively utilizing these media in the classroom.
Asenugal (1981), Agun and Imogie (1988) have shown a detail analysis of the factor
associated with the teacher of integrated science. Among the factors considered to be pre-
requisites are
       (i)       Appropiate selection of media
       (ii)      Mastering of subject matter
       (iii)     Availabilty of educational media
       (iv)      Understanding of the pupils needs
       (v)       Jola satisfaction
       (vi)      Curricula restructuring.

                                                  4
Abimbade (1977), described educational media as a broad range of resources which can be
used to facilitate effective learning and effective communication in the teaching / learning
process.
The kind of material that are necessary for bringing out effective teaching and learning are
therefore referred to as instructional material, Examples are printed media books, journals,
newspaper, magazines, posters, handout, programme text.
Non-printed media could be projected media films, overhead projector etc. and non projected
media are chart, flannel, board, model, puppets and the electronic media are; audio tapes ,
radio, calculator, television, computers, video tapes and cinema films.
Mile (1985) , and Abimbade (1977) seems to agree that selection of media should be based
on pupils need, above all, appropriateness of the educational media both in content and
logical orderliness is an important aspect of variable that are of paramount importance to the
effective learning of integrated science.




                                               5
                                    CHAPTER THREE
                                   Research Methodology
This chapter describes the procedure taken for the study of teachers’ competency and
utilization of educational media in teaching of integrated science in some selected secondary
schools in Ilesa East Local Government Area of Osun State.
Research design
This study adopts the survey of approach. Its tends to gather data on teachers competency and
utilization of education media in the teaching of integrated science in some selected
secondary school in Ilesa East Local Government of Osun State.
Population of the study
The target population comprises of all integrated science teachers and the students in the local
government.
Sample and sampling technique
The sample for the study comprises of fifteen integrated science teachers. One hundred
integrated science students were those research and students in junior secondary schools.
One to three (JSS 1 - 3).
Research instrument
The research instrument that would be used for the process at data collection is questionnaire.
The information required are:
       (i)     Teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession.
       (ii)    The supply of educational media to the schools
       (iii)   Teachers’ competency on the use of educational media
       (iv)    Attitude of school authority to integrated science
       (v)     Students’ attitude towards integrated science.
Validity of the instrument
The questionnaires were drawn after critical examination of the teachers’ competency and
utilization of educational media in the teaching of integrated science. The instrument used as
been drawn in accordance with the research questions and hypotheses raised in chapter one.
Data collection
The school sampled was visited to seek the permission of the concerned head of department
and school head prior to the period of administration of questionnaire. The research
personally administered the questionnaire to the teachers and students.



                                               6
Data Analysis
After the collection of the questionnaire, the answer given were collected and tabulated in
relation to the hypothesis. Simple percentage statistics were used in analyzing the respondent
personal data and the information.




                                              7
                                        CHAPTER FOUR
                           The result and tabulation of the data collected
   (i)        Teachers qualification
   (ii)       Teachers teaching experience
   (iii)      The availability and frequency of utilization media in the teaching of integrated
              science.
   (iv)       Operation media


Table 1
           Qualification                  No of Teachers                 Percentage (%)
   B.sc(Edu), B.ed, M.ed                         06                            30
              N.C.E                              08                            40
               B.SC                                                            20
                                                 04
            HND/OND                              02                            10
              Total                              20                           100


From table 1 above, qualified teachers are those with teaching qualification in science.
The table shown that 70% of the total numbers of selected teachers are qualified teachers and
a total of 30% are without teaching qualification




                                                 8
                                  CHAPTER FIVE
                       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Summary
The research study reveals that modern educational media for effective teaching of integrated
science are in short supply in Osun state. Teachers make use of little available educational
media and where media are not available, very few teachers improvised.
The research shown from the table that most of the qualified teachers are N.C.E graduates.
Furthermore, from the information collected from the selected integrated science teachers in
the selected schools on the kind of teaching method used in their classes, most of them
complained of large number of students under their control and the non-available of many
educational media in the school which forced them into using lecture method to teach.
Only 32% of the selected integrated science teachers indicated the idea of improvising the
availability of media while 26% of the teachers consider pupils level before selecting the
educational media.
The result from the data analyzed shows that most of the schools have either the hardware of
the software, and once any of the needed appropriate is absent, their utilization cannot be
efficient.
Conclusion
This study has shown that the educational media are inadequate in all the selected secondary
schools in the state. In addition, not all integrated science teachers have the idea of
improvisation to supplement the unavailable materials and that teachers only make use of few
materials available.
There must be regular supervision and assessment of teachers input by well trained and
knowledgeable supervisors’ preferably educational technologist.
Curriculum for integrated science should be innovative in content and methodology as to
meet the curriculum changes in education.
Also a number of integrated science teachers are not qualified and the qualified ones are
mostly NCE and degrees graduates. But their number is too small to cope with the large
number of the student in the government secondary schools. The performance of ministry of
education in the management of adequate equipment and material provision to be used for
effective teaching in various schools in the state is very poor and below expectation.
However, from the finding of the research work, it is believed that the result would be useful
to the educational planners and educational policy makers in Osun State.

                                               9
Recommendation
The Osun state government should ensure proper training of integrated science teachers in the
effective utilization of educational media.
The state government should take some measure in training competent and efficient teachers.
The professional organization like STAN should organize workshop from time to time so as
to focus teachers attention on the;
       (i)     Use of educational media
       (ii)    Basic skills involved in the operation of educational media
       (iii)   Modern equipment and materials that the provision of modern equipment and
               materials in the schools is lacked in some secondary schools.
In order to facilitate quick distribution of equipment and material to different schools, the
state government should create media resources centre as part of the local ministry of
education in each of the thirty (30) local government head quarters and Ilesa East local
government of in Osun state with qualified educational technology to man them.
To maintain and to promote the effectiveness of practicing integrated science teacher in
effective utilization of educational media after obtaining their certificate




                                                10
                                  REFERENCES
Abimbade A (1990). System approach to training/learning process in contemporary issues in

Nigerian educations. Y-Books Ltd, Pages 86-96.



Abimbade (1997), Educational media, principle and practice of technology, Ibadan.



Aguishibo B.C (1998), laboratory and resource utilization funding and management.

Integrated science teachers African Journals of Education, Vol. 1 No 29-36.



Daramola B.O (2009), causes of poor Academic performance of secondary school student in

Physics,(a case study of selected schools in Oriade – Local Government area of Osun State).

Unpublished (B.ED) project university of Ibadan.




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Description: This work is to investigate the effects of using instructional materials in the teaching of integrated science on the academic performance of secondary school students and to find out whether the teachers’ competency and qualification affects the effective use to the instructional materials. Questionnaires were used as research instrument and percentage method would then be used to analyze the data. Recommendation would be based on the result of the data collected.