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STUDENT BACKGROUND AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOCIAL STUDIES

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STUDENT BACKGROUND AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOCIAL STUDIES Powered By Docstoc
					STUDENT BACKGROUND AND ITS EFFECTS ON
SOCIAL STUDIES A CASE STUDY OF ILESA EAST
 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OSUN STATE
                                DEDICATION


      This project is dedicated to Almighty God for sparing my life through out my
course.




                                        ii
                                  ABSTRACT


      The purpose of this study is to look at the student background and its effect
on the study of Social Studies in Ilesa East Local Government Area of Osun State.
      Researcher made test would be used in the study. Four Secondary Schools
in Ilesa East Local Government Area would be selected and one hundred and twenty
students would be randomly chosen as the subject for the purpose of the study.
      The analysis of the data collected would show whether there are significance
effects on student’s background in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in
Junior Secondary Schools.
      These would be comprehensively dealt with in chapter three of the project.




                                        iii
                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………               i
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………….……             ii
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………..              iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………………               iv
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………….                v
TABLE OF CONTENT ……………………………………………………………..            vi
CHAPTER ONE
    Introduction
    Background to the Study ……………………………………………………      1
    Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………….     1
    Purpose of the Study ……………………………………………………….       2
    Significant of the Study …………………………………………………….    2
    Limitation to the Study ………………………………………………………     3
CHAPTER TWO
    Review of Related Literature………………………………………………    4
CHAPTER THREE
    Research Methodology
    Research Design ……………………………………………………………           6
    Research Instrument ……………………………………………………….        6
    Sample and Sampling Technique …………………………………….….   6
    Population to the Study ………………………………..………….……….   6
    Research Hypothesis ……………………………………………………….        7
CHAPTER FOUR
    Result and Discussion
    Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………..          8
CHAPTER FIVE
    Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
    Summary …………………………………………………………………….               9
    Conclusion …………………………………………………………………..            9
    Recommendation …………………………………………………………...          9
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………                11




                                 iv
                                   CHAPTER ONE
                                      Introduction
Background to the Study
         Nowadays, it is noteworthy that students of Secondary Schools are becoming
more and more deteriorating in their academic performance with only few of high
performance especially in Social Studies.
         Thy psychologists and educators are continuously emphasizing that there are
clear evidence that the students achievement in school in Social Studies on
foundation of their experience at home. We can at this point say that home plays
major roles in the life of the students.
         Socio-economic conditions of parents may favour or discourage the academic
performance of students in Social Studies. If the economic situation is favourable
and attitudinal climate is at least partially favourable, children are likely to perform
better in Social Studies.
         In the light of the above, “Home has a very important role to play in
individual’s education. (Taiwo 1977).
         Members of lower class parents have less formal education and training than
those of the middle class and upper class. They (lower class) have unskilled and
semi-skilled jobs. The reason is that many lower class parents or members live in
abject poverty or near poverty. They are more concerned with immediate needs
than with long-range goals.
         Therefore, we can deduce from above that student background has effects on
Social Studies using Ilesa East Local Government Area of Osun state as a case of
study.
Statement of the Study
         The student background and its effects on Social Studies are more complex
nowadays, this motivate the researcher t carry out study into the influence of some
schools using students of some selected Junior Secondary Schools in Ilesa East
Local Government Area of Osun State as a case of study, many students who come
from low educational or total illiterate families do not perform well in the study of
Social Studies.




                                            1
       The researcher suspects that there might be a relationship between students’
performance in the study of Social Studies and the educational background of their
parents.
Purpose of the Study
       The purpose of this study is to find out the student background and its effect
on Social Studies in Ilesa East Local Government Area of Osun State as a case of
study, poor performance in the study of Social Studies has caused a lot of concerned
to both parents and educationalist in Nigeria, therefore this research would find out
reasons why some students performance in study of Social Studies as a subject is
low which some is high and as well as the extent less privilege students in our
schools.
       This research would also find out whether the audio-visual materials available
on Social Studies could improve the performance of the learners, and to give useful
recommendations to the appropriate quarters.
       Advanced technology and economic development have been emphasized in
Nigeria, but these cannot be achieved when most of our student’s family background
in English is poor and this has negative effects on the teaching and learning of Social
Studies in our Secondary School.
       Therefore, this study would try to find out the major sociological factors, such
as family educational level, inadequate personnel, inadequate materials etc.
responsible for poor achievement in Social Studies.
Significance of the Study
       This study is important in various ways to the following people this study
would enable parents and educationalist to be aware of the problem attached to the
study of Social Studies. When parents and educationalist have realized the issues
at state, they would then endeavour to improve the over all home, environment and
other factors so that the investment and efforts that we put into education would not
be in vain.
       School authorities, government and curriculum developers would also benefit
from the findings of this study, it will give them good background on the effect of
family background on students’ performance in the study of Social Studies. They
can then improve the situations by providing stimulating environments in schools,
which would make up for the students from the educational family set up.

                                           2
Limitation of the Study
       As a result of inadequate money at researcher disposal, this research would
be limited to four secondary schools randomly selected.           Thirty students were
selected from each school for the purpose of this study. Students aged 14 – 16
years who are JSS two and three are used for the study inadequate materials related
to the study is one of the problem faced by the researcher.
       The time at researcher’s disposal is not enough because a project of this nature
requires plenty of time to enable him have an indepth touch on the research literature.
       The information collected from the schools covered would serve as necessary
data about the whole schools in Ilesa East Local Government Area of Osun State.




                                            3
                                 CHAPTER TWO
                           Review of Related Literature

      Mcclelland et al 1953 stated that early in the child’s life he begins to learn
about his environment through his five senses vision, hearing, touch, taste and
smell. Research have shown that the type of training which a child receives and the
nature of reward bestowed upon him for his achievement at an early stage are
related to the presence of achievement motives later. Winter button 1959 stressed
that good home teachers stimulate their children, offer them challenges and at the
same time it encourage them to explore their environment. They show approval of
their child’s efforts, interacts with him, and provide him feedback. If a child has had
inadequate mental stimulation during the years before school, the work of the school
would be more difficult. The family has a duty to develop the potential of the child as
much has possible.
      The school on its parts should make efforts to get parents acquainted with the
importance of early learning in the child’s subsequent education and their role in
facilitating the learning. The mass media and parent teacher association can be a
means of discussions of issues of interests in parents’ role in children’s education.
Mother’s club and associations are also useful.
      Fraser 1968 stated that there has been considerable awareness of the vital
importance of the child early years in his cognitive development and the fact that the
home is the first teacher considerable interest has been shown by psychologists and
sociologies in the extent to which children’s home background influence their school
achievement.
      Dastor and Emoron 1972 said one of the most controversial issues in home
achievement study, which we would like to note here is that of relationship between
family socio-economic status and academic achievement. There is strong support
for a position that socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with measures
of academic achievement.
      Ogunlade (1973) and Coleman et all (1966) summarizing the results of their
study concluded thus “Taking all of the results together one implication stands above
all that schools bring little influence to bear on child’s achievement that is
independent of his background and general social context and that this very lack of


                                          4
an independent effect means that the inequalities imposed on children by their
home, neighborhood and peer environment are carried along to become the
inequalities with which they confront adult life at the end of school” (P.325)
         Economy of the country is another problem facing illiterate homes. Children
have little or no contact with books, periodical journals, magazines, charts,
newspapers etc. children from poor homes have no access to radio or television.
Each home supposes to have mini-library in which children have to study their
books.     The library assists in giving information and knowledge, the library also
motivate and enable students to achieve superior academic gains but this is lack in
mast schools and homes




                                            5
                                CHAPTER THREE

                               Research Methodology
Research Design
       This study aims at finding out the effects of students’ background in the study
of Social Studies as a second language in the Junior Secondary Schools.
Research Instrument
       The first instrument is questionnaire, which was design to get information
about the student’s home background.
       The second instrument is short passage design to test students’ ability in
reading of Social Studies.     The researcher gave the students short question to
answer which can test their aptitude skills.
       At this stage the students were made to engage in oral questions in order to
get at the project topic assigned to them.
Sample and Sampling Technique
       The research was conducted in four secondary schools in Ilesa East Local
Government. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the schools.
The researcher studied the parental background and performances of thirty students
from each of the schools in the study of Social Studies.
       The following secondary schools were selected:
1.     Ijesa Muslim Grammar School.
2.     The Apostolic Junior School (I) Ilesa
3.     Babalola Memorial Girls Junior School, Ilesa
4.     Biladu Grammar School, Ilesa.
5.     Ilase Community High School.
       The curriculum contents of these selected schools are the same.            The
teachers in all school sampled were professionally trained and the learning
conditions were uniform and conducive for learning.
Population of the Study
       One hundred and twenty students from JSS two and three were chosen as
respondents. The respondents have been exposed to study of Social Studies for
three years in Junior Secondary Schools; hence they are familiar with Social Studies.



                                             6
Research Hypothesis
      There is significance relationship between parents’ level of education and
their children performance in Social Studies.
      There is significant relationship between parents’ occupational background
and their children performance in the study of Social Studies.
      There is no significant relationship between teachers’ level of Education and
students performance in the study of English Language.




                                          7
                                CHAPTER FOUR
                              Result and Discussion

Data Analysis
      The major interest of this study was to investigate the relationship between
parental background and student’s performances in the study of Social Studies as a
subject. Another area of interest was to find out whether there is any significant
relationship between the performance in Social Studies of students whose parents
belong to highly educated class and those whose parents were of poor educational
background.
      The finding of this research shows that most of the student from highly
educated parents scored high grades in a writing test given to them.
      In other words, the relative comfort and motivation from their parents have
helped them considerably in theory aspect in Social Studies.
      The result had also indicated that some students from poor family and poorly
educated family, but the parents’ level of education do not allow them to do so. It is
therefore shown that all children are endowed with ability to be brilliant and perform
well academically, but the parents’ level of education influences their brilliancy or
property.




                                          8
                                    CHAPTER FIVE
                  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary
      This research has helped discovered that the parents level of education has
greater effects either positive or negative on the students’ performance in English
Studies. Therefore parents as the first teacher of the children have many roles to
play on the children’s education. Parents need to encourage independent study
habits in their children. Parents should help to enhance student performance by
providing stimulating environment for them at home and the needed textbook at
school.
Conclusion
      The poor performance of students in Social Studies is a function of such
negative attitudes such as parent’s attitude towards the subject. Parental level of
education and general aversion that the Social Studies is not difficult to learn and
this made it poorly handled by the parents at home.
      Appropriate and adequate motivation and inspiration from parents and
teachers would encourage students’ interest improve their performances.
      Improvement in the use of educational infrastructure such as well equipped
geographical laboratory, well stocked library with series of interested storybooks,
document records, and magazines would enhance students’ performance in the
study of Social Studies as a subject in air our secondary schools.
Recommendation
      Teacher’s teaching methods have effects on the study of Social Studies.
Teachers should make use of good teaching method, which would help the students
to understand the lesson better.
      Teachers should focus on the improvement of studying ability by organizing
debates and quiz competitions for their students in Social Studies.
      Teachers should stop teaching in abstract, they should make use of relevant
teaching aids so s to help the students from parents with low educational
background. When teachers teach in abstract and do not make use of relevant
teaching aids this causes negative effect on the study of Social Studies.
      Therefore, only well trained, competent and able body Social Studies should
be employed into our schools to handle Social Studies and the idea of using C.R.S

                                          9
or Yoruba teacher to teach Socials Studies in our Secondary Schools should be
discouraged and not be practice again so that the purpose of studying which could
be personal, educational or cultural be attained.
       The students on their own part, and since this project centered on them
should try as much as possible to listen very well to their teachers and make sure
that they carry out their assignment at the appropriate time.
       The students should make sure that they attend Social Studies classes
regularly and listen to their teacher explanations and try to imitate their teachers.
       The students should make sure that they attend Social Studies classes
regularly and listen to their teachers discussions and try to imitate their teachers,
they should try to make proper use of teaching aids that may be available either in
their homes or at their schools.
       The should try to make good use of their leisure time by engaging themselves
with private discussion on issues of history and not depend on the little the teachers
can do for them at school but try to do more private practice.
       The government also has greater roles to play in the live of our students. The
government should see that the set out objectives of the national policy on education
are achieved.
       Government should try to equalize home condition by the bridging the gap
between the highest paid and lowest paid pubic workers, that is, there should be
national re-distribution of income so that majority of the parents would be able to
provide needed educational materials to aid their children’s learning.
       Government should improve the teachers’ condition of service and pay their
salary regularly.




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                              REFERENCES


1.   Akinkugbe O. O. (1994):    Nigeria and Education: The challenges ahead
     spectrum Books Limited; Ibadan, Lagos, Owerri, Kaduna
2.   Dressel P. L. (1976):   A handbook of Academic Education:   Jossy-bass
     publishers, San Evan Cisco, Washington London.
3.   MCCLELLAND ET AL (1953): Home and Education
4.   WINTER BUTTON (1959): Foundations of Sociology
5.   FRASER (1968): Foundations of Sociology




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Description: The purpose of this study is to look at the student background and its effect on the study of Social Studies Researcher made test would be used in the study. Four Secondary Schools in Ilesa East Local Government Area would be selected and one hundred and twenty students would be randomly chosen as the subject for the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data collected would show whether there are significance effects on student’s background in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools. These would be comprehensively dealt with in chapter three of the project.