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Regional study on Education Quality_ “Raising Student Learning in

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Regional study on Education Quality_ “Raising Student Learning in Powered By Docstoc
					The Promise of Early Childhood
Development in Latin America
and the Caribbean


  Emiliana Vegas and Lucrecia Santibañez

               With contributions from:
            Bénédicte Leroy de la Brière,
                Alejandro Caballero,
             Julien Alexis Hautier, and
               Domenec Ruiz Devesa
  Contents
1. Why invest in early childhood development?
2. Status of early childhood development (ECD)
   in Latin America and the Caribbean
3. What interventions affect ECD (and how)?
4. ECD policies and programs in Latin America
5. Concluding remarks
1. Why invest in early childhood
development?
 There is consistent evidence of the effects
  that early childhood development
  interventions have on future life outcomes:
     Education
     Labor insertion and wages
     Health, fertility
     Probability of engaging in ilegal activities

 The impact of these interventions is greater
  in the most vulnerable populations
   Especially relevant for Latin America
   Factors that affect ECD and
   Lifetime Outcomes

    Context             Early
 Economic growth
     Poverty          Childhood
    Inequality       Development            Lifetime Outcomes
     Diversity                                    Education
                                                    Health
                                                   Fertility
                    Cognitive development          Income
                                              Dangerous Behavior
                       Socioemotional
ECD Policies            development
     Health
    Nutrition
   Education
                       Physical health
Poverty reduction       and growth
ECD interventions have high returns

              8



              6
    Return                     Pre -school Programs
     per $
   invested                                     School
              4
                                                             Opportunity cost of funds



              2
                                                        Job Training

                  Pre -
                  school        School        Post -school

                  0        6      Age    18


                                                   Source: Carneiro and Heckman (2003)
2. ECD Status in Latin America
 Child poverty rates are high, and
  poverty affects ECD
 There are great differences in
  access to ECD services by socio-
  economic status
 ECD investment is relatively low
  and varies greatly across countries
   Poverty rates in LAC are higher
   among children than in the general
   population
              Venezuela
                Uruguay
                    Peru
               Paraguay
                 Panama
              Nicaragua
                 Mexico
               Honduras
              Guatemala
             El Salvador                                                                   Children (ages 0-6)
                Ecuador                                                                    years
             Dominican…                                                                    Whole Population
              Costa Rica
               Colombia
                   Chile
                  Brazil
                 Bolivia
               Argentina
                       0%         10%        20%        30%           40%      50%   60%
                                                Percentage Living in Poverty

Note: Poverty is defined as living with less than two dollars a day
Source: World Bank estimates using household survey data
At 6 years of age, children have
significant cognitive differences

                      110   Ecuador
                                                                    richest 25%
                      100
  median TVIP score




                      90

                      80

                      70                                            poorest 25%

                      60

                      50
                            36   42   48      54        60     66        72
                                      Age (in months)

                                           Source: Adapted from Paxson and Schady (2007)
Early childhood education - 1:5
income quintile ratio of children
aged 5-6 attending preschool


 1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
 0
      Salvador




                                                        Bolivia
                                                 Peru




                                                                                                                                                         Ecuador
                                                                                                            Chile
                                                                             Panama
                          Nicaragua




                                                                                                                                                                              Mexico
                                                                                      Argentina




                                                                                                                                                                   Colombia
                                                                                                                                 Venezuela
                                                                                                                    Costa Rica




                                                                                                                                             Dominican
                 Brasil




                                                                                                  Uruguay
                                                                  Honduras
                                      Paraguay




                                                                                                                                              Republic
         El




 Source: World Bank estimates using household survey data.
        Health insurance–1:5 income quintile
        ratio of children under age 6 with
        coverage


1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
                                                      Uruguay
                     Bolivia




                                                                Argentina
                                          Nicaragua
                               Salvador
          Paraguay




                                                                                                               Peru
                                                                                                       Chile
                                                                            Panama




                                                                                               Costa
                                                                                     Ecuador



                                                                                               Rica
                                  El




       Source: World Bank estimates using household survey data.
OECD countries invest up to 1.8%
of GDP in ECD
  %
      2.0                                                   Child-care                 Pre-primary
      1.8
      1.6
      1.4
      1.2
      1.0
      0.8
      0.6
      0.4
      0.2
      0.0
                      Denmark




                                                                     Mexico




                                                                                                            Greece
            Iceland




                                                                                                                                               Japan
                                Finland



                                                   France




                                                                              U.S.

                                                                                     U.K.

                                                                                            Italy

                                                                                                    Spain




                                                                                                                                                       Korea
                                                                                                                     Australia

                                                                                                                                 New Zeleand
                                                            Norway
                                          Sweden




                                                                                             Source: Adapted from Bennett 2007
ECD investment in Latin America
does not exceed 0.6% of GNP
  Guyana
   Mexico
Barbados
    Costa
      Chile
   St Kitts
Paraguay
  Jamaica
 Grenada
Argentina
      Peru
 Salvador
    Bolivia
 Guatemal
 Colombia
  Antigua
    Belize
  St Lucia
Nicaragua

              0   0.1    0.2      0.3       0.4      0.5      0.6      0.7       0.8       0.9   1

                        Public current expenditure on preprimary education as a % of GNP



       Source: UNESCO Global Monitoring Report 2007
 3. What interventions affect ECD
 (and how)?

Healthcare and hygiene
                               Child                 Education
Maternal/prenatal health
                                                   Preschool (3-5)
  Water and sanitation        Prenatal               Care (0-3)
 Healthcare prevention
                                0-2
     Mental Health
                                3-4
                                5-6

                           Mother(prenatal)       Poverty reduction
                                                    Income transfers
       Nutrition                              Maternity/paternity permission
 Food and supplements      Mother/Father/      Female Labor participation
                             Caregiver             Home infrastructure
Impact of ECD interventions
  Interventions with nutritional components have
   positive effects on:
    growth and physical well-being, reflected on weight,
     height, and overall health
    cognitive development
  CCTs have impacts on cognitive have impacts on:
    healthcare prevention and control
    cognitive and socioemotional development
  Preschool attendance has positive effects on:
    cognitive and socioemotional development
    the probability of continuing in school
4. ECD policies and programs
in Latin America
 There are many programs of varying
  scale
   We selected large-scale programs, or
    smaller scale programs, most of which have
    been rigorously evaluated
   We analized design and implementation
    characteristics
 Three countries in the region have
  national ECD policies: Chile, Colombia
  and Jamaica
Eleven programs were
reviewed
       Country                       Program(s)
Chile            Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI)
                 Fundación Educacional para el Desarrollo Integral del
                 Menor (INTEGRA)
                 Conozca a su Hijo (CASH)
Colombia         Hogares Comunitarios
                 Familias en Acción
Honduras         Atención Integral a la Niñez Comunitaria (AIN-C)
                 Proyecto Nutrición y Protección Social
                 Madres Guías
México           Oportunidades
                 Educación Inicial no Escolarizada
Perú             Proyecto de Atención Integral a Niños y Niñas
                 Menores de Seis Años de la Sierra Rural (PAIN)
Policy implications
 National policies help scale up investments in
  ECD programs
    Multisectoral and inter-institutional coordination
 Core “building blocks” for a national ECD policy
  include:
    Defining an institutional anchor and achieving
     intersectoral coordination
    Ensuring adequate funding
    Defining core priorities, including target populations
    Building on evidence of what works from rigorous
     evaluations
    Ensuring coherence with related policies
 5. Concluding Remarks
 ECD has important consequences for individuals
  and society
    Substantial evidence from developed and developing
     countries
 In Latin America and the Caribbean, it is
  especially important to invest in ECD:
    To reduce initial disadvantages
    To maximize all children´s potential
 Financial, coordination and cultural challenges
  remain for expanding coverage of ECD programs
 More rigorous evaluations, especially on cost-
  effectiveness of alternative policies, are needed

				
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posted:1/5/2013
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