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					Energy Efficient Cities
   Energy Efficient Buildings
• Building Efficiency is an Important
  Solution to Energy Problem
• Cost Effective when Done Properly
• Requires Integrated Approach
• Important MIT Contributions
  – New Technology
  – New Assessment Tools: Virtual Building
  – MIT Campus Lab and Demonstrations
US Energy
    New Building Construction in
      Developing Countries
China
• ~ 10 M new residence units/year!
• Commercial building rate ~ ∑ All Western
                               countries
          U.S. Buildings
•40 % of total energy ( in UK 50 % )
•67 % of electricity
•90% of time spent indoors
•Major health problems: indoor climate
U.S. Electricity Production Energy Sources 2003




                                   Petroleum Subtotal

                                  Natural Gas

                                  Steam Coal

                                  Nuclear Power

                                  Renewable Energy/Other
                                 15/
                                  Electricity Imports




  US DOE EIA
2004 Residential End Uses
2004 Commercial Buildings End Use
United States Commercial Buildings
Average Age of US Cars and Trucks




US Dept of Transportation
Portugal Energy Consumption by Sector
Consumption by fuel in residential/
      commercial sector
Cost of Energy Efficiency
A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction
P. Enkvist, T.Nauclér, and J. Rosander The McKinsey Quarterly June 2007
                     Evidence from Certified Projects
                         Cost / Performance - It Depends
               450



               400



               350



               300
                          Certified         Silver     Gold   Platinum
Cost $/sq ft




               250



               200



               150



               100



                50



                 0
 Promoting Sustainable
      Buildings
•Sustainable buildings pay for
      themselves
•Progress in new and upgraded
buildings lags
•New approaches and
partnerships are needed
             Roadblocks
• Annual energy costs ~ 1/10 rent or
  mortgage costs
• Annual energy costs ~ 1/100 salary of
  office occupants
• Positive impact on productivity??
                   Barriers
•   Conservative Industry
•   Fragmented Field
•   Lowest First Cost
•   Lack of Incentives
•   Poor Education
•   Lack of information
    – Performance Projections
    – Results from New Buildings
• Linear Designs
The Need for an Integrated
        Solution
Near Term Economic
Measures for Buildings

With Integrated Design and Use of
     Appropriate Technology

 Save ~ 1/3 of Energy Compared
        to Conventional
            State-of-the-Art



                       Building    Control
Customer   Architect
                       Engineer   Engineer
                   Integrated Design
                                Building
                               component
                                database

       Equipment
        database                Architect                  Utility
                                                           Service
                   Building                                            Equip.
                   Engineer                                            Service



                                 Shared                     Shared
  Control                                                  Operation        HVAC
             Control             Design
 product                                                   Database        Operator
            Engineer            Database
 database




                    Health                                             Facility
                   Scientist                                           Manager

    Assessment &                Customer                    Owner
       medical
      database
                                            Owner & user
                                              database


Integrated design and operation of building and its systems
  Integrated design at the building
               level
• Reduce demand by increased energy
  efficiency
• Zero energy technically possible but not
  cost effective
                                       Retrofit of Office Buildings in
                                       Norway – Post 1997 Lisa Engblom
Annual Energy Consumption [kWh/m2]




                                                                                    Reference Case
                                                          Add One                   Moderate Controls, Fan,
                                     300       HVAC &
                                               Controls
                                                          Facade                    Heat Exchange
                                                          Element
                                                                       Add Other
                                     250                               Facade       Moderate Controls, Heat
                                                                       Elements     Pump, Fan, Heat
                                     200                                            Exchanger

                                     150                                            Extreme Controls, Hot
                                                                                    Water, HP, Fan, HX
                                     100                                            Extreme Controls, Hot
                                      50                   Diminishing returns      Water, HP, Fan, HX,
                                                                                    Lights, Office Equipment
                                       0
                                           0       50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400   Extreme Controls, Hot
                                                           Cost [$ / m2]            Water, HP, Fan, HX,
                                                                                    Lights, Office
                                                                                    Equipment, Windows
  Integrated design at the building
               level
• Reduce demand by increased energy
  efficiency
• Zero energy technically possible but not
  cost effective
• Meet reduced demand by use of supply
  that has reduced CO2 emissions
• Need proper capacity match between
  supply and demand
   Possible supply options at the
           building level
• Thermal
  – passive Solar
  – Active solar
  – Geothermal
  – Ground source heat pump
  – Bio fuels
• Electric
  – Solar PV
  – Wind
  – Micro co-generation
 Electric
Generator
 Electric
Generator




 Electric
Generator
          Cogeneration
Heat to building or to absorption chiller




                                             Electric
                                            Generator
       Single Building



       Electricity



Heat




          Generator
Community wide system




        Heat


                            Electricity



                Generator
                   Electric Power Costs
            Technology                          Cents/kWe-hr
              Nuclear                               4-7
         Gas/Combined Cycle                         4-6
               Coal                                   4
  Renewable
                Wind                                  3-8
          Biomass (25MW)                              4-9
             Small Hydro                             5-10
        Solar Thermal Electric                       12-18
               Solar PV                              30-80
  Efficiency of Consumption
         Advanced Buildings                            0-6
Sources: Deutch and Moniz, MIT study 2003; Langcake, Renewable Energy
World, 2003; Kats, California study, 2003
Integrated design at the urban level
• Energy efficiency for buildings
• Supply options for urban zone
• Transportation energy use
Example study of built environment
  of a large urban organization
• Possible large scale tradeoffs and optimization
  – cost effective energy efficiency and supply side
    options
  – Set in the context of a diverse and growing urban
    setting
  – Include urban planning issues such as transportation
• Development of appropriate metrics by building
  type
• Establish guidelines for large urban complexes
Longer Term Economic
Measures for Buildings
  With Integrated Design and
  Development of Advanced
          Technology

Save ~ 2/3 of Energy Compared
       to Conventional
    Explore technology options
For example:
• Integrated design to best use an array of advanced
  designs and technologies
• Natural ventilation to minimize or eliminate air-
  conditioning needs
• Use of daylighting to supplement artificial lighting
• Automated control to sense occupancy and
  environmental conditions as well as anticipate future
  loads
• Low-energy cooling options for high-end computers
• Various renewable energy sources
• Advanced co-generation systems on and off campus.
      Enhancing daylight deeper in rooms
• Anidolics (based on non-imaging
  optics: research made at LESO-
  PB/EPFL)
   – Photos show 2 identical rooms at the
     same time, one equipped with an
     anidolic system, the other without
     Natural Ventilation for
     Commercial Buildings


• Reduce Energy Consumption
• Improve Indoor Air Quality
• Improve Productivity
 Natural Ventilated: Luton, England
MIT- Cambridge University Research
Monitoring two similar buildings


                 Office building in Sunbury, UK
                 Sealed Windows




                 Office building in Luton, UK
                 Natural Ventilation
Monitoring two similar buildings


                 Office building in Sunbury, UK
                 Sealed Windows
                 Uses 2X Electricity




                 Office building in Luton, UK
                 Natural Ventilation
             Assessment Tool
         for Natural Ventilation :

Example: Buoyancy ventilation (Air flow pattern
 comparison)


                                 North



          Heat source




          Heat source         Heat source




                              Heat source
Natural Ventilation Tool:
       CoolVent
    Possible workshop issues
• Building Energy demand in Portugal
  – Future growth
  – Patterns of use
• Commercial vs. residential
    Possible workshop issues
• Demand choices for efficiency
  – New construction
  – Retrofit
• Supply Options in Portugal
    Possible workshop issues
• Develop scenarios
  – Community level
  – Development or neighborhood
  – Individual building
• Key issues for each scenario
    Possible workshop issues
• Develop preliminary concept design

				
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posted:1/4/2013
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