In this section there are several reading passages followed by a
total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then
mark your answers on your answer sheet.
People are moving to cities in droves. In 1950, two-thirds of the
worlds' population lived in the countryside. New York was then the
only settlement with more than 10 million people. Today there are 20
such megacities, and more are on the way.
Most of these megacities are in developing countries that are
struggling to cope with both the speed and the scale of human
migration. Estimates of the future spread of urbanization are based
on the observation that in Europe, and in North and South America,
the urban share of the total population has stabilized at 75%--85%.
If the rest of the world follows this path it is expected that in the
next decade an extra 100 million people will join the cities of
Africa, and 340 million the cities of Asia: the equivalent of a new
Bangkok every two months. By 2030 nearly two-thirds of the world's
population will be urban.
In the long run, that is good news. If countries now
industrialising follow the pattern of those that have already done so,
their city-dwellers will be both more prosperous and healthier. Man
is gregarious species, and the Words "urbane" and "civilised" both
derive from the advantages of living in large settlements.
History also shows, though, that the transition can be
uncomfortable. The slums of Manchester were, in their time, just as
awful as those of Nairobi today. But people moved there for exactly
the same reason: however nasty conditions seemed, the opportunities
of urban life outstripped those of the countryside. The question is
how best to handle the change.
If there is one thing that everybody agrees on, it is that
urbanization is unstoppable. Migrants attempting to escape poverty,
and refugees escaping conflict, are piling into cities in what the
executive director of UN-HABITAT, Anna, Tibailjuka, describes as
Dr Tibaijuka believes it might be possible to slow the pace of
migration from the countryside with policies that enhance security
and rural livelihoods. There is room for debate, though, over whether
better rural development in any form can seriously slow the pace of
urbanisation -- or even whether such a slowdown would be a good thing.
Michael Mutter, an urban planning adviser at the British
government's Department for International Development (DFID), says
that the relevant indicators suggest that in many countries the
effective "carrying capacity" of rural areas has been reached. As
happened in Europe in the 18th century, population growth and
technological improvements to agriculture are creating a surplus
population. That surplus has to go somewhere to earn its living.
Indeed, some people go so far so to argue that governments,
international donors and aid agencies spend too much on rural
development and neglect the cities. Most countries have a rural
development policy, but only a few have urban ones. DFID, for example,
spends only 5% of its budget directly on urban development. Moreover,
these critics point out that, although rural areas often have worse
sanitation, illiteracy and homelessness than cities, such figures are
deceptive. Being illiterate, homeless or without access to a flush
toilet are far more serious problems in a crowded city than in the
Of the many lessons being learnt from past urban-development
failures, one of the most important is that improvements must involve
local people in a meaningful way. Even when it comes to the poorest
slumdwellers, some governments and city authorities are realizing
that people are their own greatest assets. Slumdwellers International
is a collection of "grassroots" federations of people living in slums.
Its idea is simple. Slum-dwellers in a particular place get together
and form a federation to strengthen local savings and credit schemes,
and to lobby for greater co- operation with the authorities. Such
federations are having a big impact on slum-upgrading schemes around
By surveying local needs and acting as voices for slum-dwellers,
these federations have been able to show the authorities that slum-
dwellers are not simply a homogenous and anonymous mass of urban poor,
but are real people in need of real services. They have also been
able to apply pressure for improvements in security of tenure--
either through temporary guarantees of residency or, better still,
formal ownership. Such secure tenure gives people an incentive to
improve their dwellings and is thus the crucial first step to
upgrading a slum into a suburb.
Over the past six years, South Africa's government has been
pursuing an active programme of housing improvement. The government
quickly realized that, with the poor in the majority, providing
social housing for all would be impossible. The minister for housing,
Sakie Mthembi-Mahanyele, says the approach that has worked so far has
been a combination of government, the private sector and the poor
themselves. The poor, says Mrs Mthembi-Mahanyele, have
responsibilities, and the government meets them halfway. Those with
an income are expected to contribute some of it to the building of
their houses. Those without are asked to contribute "sweat equity" by
helping to build with their own hands.
South Africa has also transferred ownership of more than 380,000
council houses, worth more than 28 billion rand ($2.7 billion) to
private individuals. With these houses as collateral for loans,
owners have already started to upgrade and improve their properties.
There is still a long way to go. An estimated 2-3 million more houses
are needed. She adds that the government is still wrestling with
financial institutions to get a better deal for the poor.
1. The passage is mainly concerned with ______.
A) the side effects of urbanization B) megacities in developing
C) the causes behind immigration to cities D) ways to slow down
the pace of immigration
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Nairobi is ______.
A) a megacity with slums B) a palace of hunger and conflict
C) an industrialized city D) a rural area with a surplus
3. Anna Tibaijuka (para. 5) and Michael Mutter (para.7) seem to
differ over ______.
A) the benefits of urbanization B) the process of urbanization
C) the causes of urbanization D) the cost of urbanization
4. According to the passage, some slumdwellers are not interested
in improving their environments because they ______。
A) are unsure of their residency B) dislike urbanization
C) are used to the president environment D) are homogeneous and
Few material things in life are more exciting than the right kind
of hotel room. The kind with a large television and a well-stocked
video collection; with a minibar laden with jelly beans and paprika-
flavoured crisps; with a bathroom decked with fluffy white towels,
robes and a collection of miniature bottles of shampoo; with a thick
room-service menu offering all-night dining. The chance to stay in a
nice hotel can be capable of convincing even the inconsolable that
life is worth living.
The best hotel rooms achieve their distinctive charm in part
because they combine the advantages of a modern commercial
environment, and all the newness and shininess we associate with them,
with the advantages of home where we can wander around naked, pick
our noses with impunity and feel private and unwatched. For a few
nights, the place we call home resembles an idealised version of what
our own homes might be like, if only we could afford to repair the
cracks in the walls and change all the furniture. To stay in one of
the Ian Shrager hotels -- St. Martins Lane or Sanderson in London,
for example -- feels like stepping into a shiny and perfect magazine
world. With their brisk efficiency and soothing colour schemes, these
hotels allow us to think of life as something that might for ever be
beautiful, calm and comprehensible.
Good hotels are also a profound source of a feeling of love. How
might a word generally used only in relation to what we get from a
parent or a romantic companion be applied to something we might be
offered by a hotel? Perhaps we could define love as a kind of
attentiveness; a sensitivity by one person to another's existence.
Advertisements for the Four Seasons hotel chain constantly emphasize
the love that is showered on its guests; we see a maid hunting for
just the right pillow, so that sleep of guests will be deep and soul-
restoring--the kind of care we might last have experienced when we
were ill as a child and pampered in bed by a devoted parent who
brought toast soldiers and allowed us to watch television all day.
Hotel rooms can be wonderful places in which to think. It is no
coincidence that many of the 20th Century's greatest novels were
written in hotel rooms. An unfamiliar setting offers an opportunity
to escape our habits of mind: lying in bed, the room quiet except for
the occasional swooshing of an elevator in the innards of the
building, we can draw a lien under what preceded our arrival, and we
can overfly great and ignored stretches of our experience.
All that said, there can be nothing worse than finding that one
is not happy in a beautiful hotel, I recall going to stay at the Old
Cataract in Aswan, Egypt, with a girlfriend a few years ago. The
setting was idyllic, and yet one day at lunch, we managed to have an
argument (about nothing) in the hotel dining room, which spoilt the
entire experience. We tell into a deep sulk and returned to our room.
It had been cleaned in our absence. The bed had fresh linen. There
were flowers on the chest of drawers and new towels in the bathroom.
I tore one from the pile and went to sit on the veranda, closing the
French windows violently.
The trees were throwing a gentle shade, the crisscross patterns
of the palms occasionally rearranging themselves in the afternoon
breeze. But there was no pleasure in such beauty. It had become
irrelevant that there were soft towels, flowers and attractive views.
My mood refused to be lifted by any external prop; it even felt
insulted by the perfection of the hotel.
The misery of that afternoon was a reminder of the fickle nature
of our spirits. When we encounter a picture of a beautiful hotel, and
imagine that happiness must naturally accompany such magnificence, we
should remember how quickly it can be made insignificant by one sulk.
And yet, of course, that should never be enough to stop us checking
5. In a nice hotel one can enjoy which of the following
advantages of home?
A) A sense of ownership. B) Closeness to family members.
C) Privacy. D) A sense of belonging.
6. Love in a nice hotel is closest to which of the following?
A) Brotherly love. B) Romantic love.
C) Sexual love. D) Parental love.
7. All of the following explains why one can think better in a
nice hotel EXCEPT ______.
A) one is little distracted by the environment
B) one is in an better mood
C) one need not be preoccupied with what happened before he
D) one is able to reflect on his entire life
8. The information contained in the last few paragraphs is most
valuable to someone who ______.
A) believes that living in a nice hotel is always a happy
B) often stays at hotels with idyllic settings
C) wants to enjoy the modem commercial environment
D) has often been disappointed by hotel life
Of all the dreary demystification of female experience advanced
by feminists, surely one of the silliest is the claim that the
heroines of girls' classics helped turn generations of admiring
readers into milksops. Yet that is the thesis of Deborah O'Keefe's
Good Girl Messages: How Young Women Were Misled by Their Favorite
A former professor of English at Vassar and Manhattanville,
O'Keefe would persuade us that "many girls were damaged by characters,
plots, and themes in the books they read and loved," because in these
books "female virtue" is invariably bound up with "sit-still, look-
good messages." Arguing from supposedly stereotypical literary scenes
depictions of mothers making their daughters feel safe and loved, for
example-- along with ominous anecdotes attempting to show how the
women of her own generation are passive and pliant, O'Keefe insists
that until about 1950, a vast literary conspiracy was trying to suck
the brains and spirit out of little girls.
What is impressive about this contention is the boldness of its
inversion of reality. Indeed, O'Keefe does her readers a favor by
sending us scurrying to our shelves to pore through half-forgotten,
well-loved stories and confirm that, sure enough, the exact opposite
is tree: The great girls' books of the nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries (many of them further popularized in film, television, and
stage versions) are filled with active, vibrant young women notable
for their moral strength. These novels celebrate character in girls
and women in a way that their contemporary counterparts, filled with
characters brooding over nasty boys and weight problems, seldom do.
To revisit the girls' classics of the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries, actually, is to enter a heroines' hall of fame. This
doesn't stop O'Keefe from disparaging characters like "brave but
passive" Sara Crewe. The central figure in A Little Princes (1950) by
the English-born American writer Frances Hodgson Burnett, best, known
for The Secret Garden (1911), Sara endures hardship, including her
beloved father's death and her resulting poverty, in a way that ahs
inspired girls for a century. "You have to bear things," Sara
explains to a friend early in the story, when her father has left her
at boarding school. "Think what soldiers bear! Papa is a soldier. If
there was a war he would have to bear marching and thirstiness and,
perhaps, deep wounds. And he would never say a word -- not one word."
This kind of stoicism is bad, O'Keefe explains, because eleven-
year-old Sara doesn't escape her awful situation on her own, but
merely suffers until a heroic male, her father's old friend, rescues
her. Besides, isn't there something sinister, O'Keefe insinuates,
about this "father-worship" ? Yet it would be hard for parents to
provide their daughters a better model of generosity and
resourcefulness than Sara Crewe. With the help of a few friends and a
vivid imagination, she creates an inner life as a "princess" that
helps her endure the worst circumstances with dignity. In the books'
most moving scene, Sara uses a coin she has found to buy six buns,
then gives five of them to a beggar girl who is even hungrier than
Sara was talking to herself, though she was sick at heart. "If
I'm a princess," she was saying, "If I'm a princess -- when they were
poor and driven from their thrones -- they always shared -- with the
populace -- if they met one poorer and hungrier than themselves."
Sara's imaginary royalty gives definition to her private sense of
who she is: one held to a very high standard. He notion about
princesses (whether or not Burnett intended it) reflects the Biblical
concept, second nature to nineteenth century readers, that the
greatest of all is the person who serves others. It makes Sara so
attractive that her story has never gone out of print.
Deborah O'Keefe notwithstanding, young women should be encouraged
to do what many of them already are doing: read the classic girls'
stories and great novels. Their parents and teachers and all the
other adults in their lives, meanwhile, should wake up to the vital
importance of reinforcing the lessons in femininity and character
that these old books are now almost alone in teaching.
9. We learn from the first paragraph that ______.
A) feminists support the values of girls' classics B) feminists
mystify the roles of girls' classics
C) Deborah O'Keefe echoes the feminists' claim D) Deborah O'Keefe
is a staunch feminist
10. According to the second paragraph, the author seems to imply
A) O'Keefe believes strongly in traditional female virtue
B) O'Keefe is not familiar with girls' books
C) O'Keefe's book lacks a strong case for her argument
D) O'Keefe's book lacks clear purpose
11. O'Keefe believes that Sara Crewe ______.
A) is a victim of the male dominance B) lacks initiative
C) hates royal figures D) is selfish
12. According to the author, Sara Crewe is ______.
A) sexist B) fatalistic C) ambitious D) altruistic
In the wars over information technology in the university, I am a
neutral. I am neither an enthusiast nor a critic but a realist.
Realists have it hard: they don't have an easy rhetoric they can use,
and they don't fit into the conventional "pro versus con" story frame
within which these disputes are narrated. I know people in both camps,
though I admit that I find the extremists in the enthusiasts' camp
much more insufferable than the extremists in the critics' camp.
In talking to both camps, I have noticed a pattern. Many people
on both sides imagine themselves to be a small and embattled minority
pushing up against the inertia of established institutions. The
enthusiasts, many of them, are individual faculty and researchers who
are depressed at the difficulty of persuading their institutions to
support large-scale initiatives in this area, and at their colleagues
who remain focused on their individual research topics and not on the
urgent work of revolutionizing the institution to take advantage of
the technology. The critics, many of them, are likewise individual
faculty and researchers who see university administrations acting
like corporations and entering into partnerships with corporations to
create commercialized cyber universities with no regard for the
faculty, or for what education really means. Although these views
seem like opposites, they come remarkably close to both being right.
I want to transcend what they have in common -- a sense of futility
that derives from an inefficiency of imagination.
Not everyone fits these two patterns, of course. Some
universities do have technology enthusiasts who are running
significant programs online, for example degree programs that have
students in Singapore. And a remarkable number of critically minded
people have had a hand in shaping either the technology or their own
institutions' use of it. Andrew Feenberg of San Diego State is an
example; he did some the first, if not the very first, experiments
with online teaching almost twenty years ago. Mike Cole at UC San
Diego has been running classes at multiple UC campuses over video
links. There are others. These people are not anti- technology; that
is not what "critical" means to them. Rather, they want to ensure
that the technology is used in a way that fits with serious ideas
about education, so that the technology itself does not drive
educational theory or practice.
Although I am friends with many people in this latter camp, my
work does not fit into any camp. I do often use technology in
interesting ways in my classes, but I am not trying to change the
world by doing so. Instead, my work in this area is mainly analytical
and normative. I want to sketch a structure of ideas from which we
might work in reinventing the university in the wired world. I am not
trying to shape technology in a direct way; rather, I want to shape
imagination -- imagination not just about technology, but about the
larger unit of analysis that includes both the technology itself and
the institutions within which it is embedded.
My work is also distinct from the valuable community that
conducts research on organizational informatics -- the institutional
dynamics, largely cognitive and political in nature, that affect how
information technology gets used in particular organizational
contexts. These people focus squarely on the political processes that
shape information technology: office politics, for example, or the
politics that are shaping the development of online publishing, as in
Rob Kling's current work at Indiana. Such work is thoroughly needed,
but it's not what I'm doing. I'm focused on prescription and
imagination -- not "how is it done?" but "how should it be done?". We
often think of imagination as an escape from reality, but that's not
what I mean. I want to develop a realistic imagination, one that is
informed by the real dynamics of institutions, by the real grindings
of power politics. I want to intervene in these politics, providing
the raw imaginative material that will be needed by anyone who is
trying to set things straight.
13. What do those involved in the wars over information
technology in the university have in common?
A) They are unhappy with established institutions.
B) They are detached for individual faculty and researchers.
C) They are self-interested.
D) They embrace the commercialization of the university.
14. The critics' camp is worried that ______.
A) education may suffer in the wake of technology
B) anti-technology sentiment is growing
C) politics may shape technology
D) education may not keep up with technology
15. The author is most interested in ______.
A) mediating between the two camps
B) using technology in an interesting way
C) discarding technology in favor of individual scholarly work
D) providing guidelines for the university to benefit from
Something has been happening to the concept of "fiction," both in
critical discourse and elsewhere. For a long time, this concept
operated under commonly understood restrictions. It was used to refer
(1) to a certain genre of literature; (2) to a certain aspect of
literature in general-- the element of plot, action, or fable,
including such constituents as character, setting, scene, and so on;
(3) to any narrative or story containing a large element of invention.
But recently, the concept of "fiction" has undergone an expansion.
Though still used to refer to the action or plot of literary works,
it has come to be applied to something more: to the ideas, themes,
and beliefs that are embodied in the action or plot. It is not only
the events in literature that are regarded as fictive but the
"message" or "world view" conveyed in the presentation of the events
as well. And this is not the end of the matter. Going a step farther,
critics now sometimes suggest, by kind of tautology, that literary
meanings are fictions because all meanings are fictions, even those
of nonliterary language, including the language of criticism. In
these most extreme flights, this critical view asserts that "life"
and "reality" are themselves fictions.
16. When the author says that something has been happening to the
concept of "fiction", he means that the concept of "fiction" ______.
A) only operates under commonly understood restrictions
B) has recently been expanded
C) is applied to something different
D) is undergoing a change only in critical discourse
17. That "life" and "reality" are themselves fictions ______.
A) is what people generally believe today B) is considered true
by all literary critics
C) is only the opinion held by very few critics D) is not the end
of the matter
Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we
are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its
administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is
called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice
to all in their private differences; if to social standing
advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class
considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again
does poverty bar the way; If a man is able to serve the state, he is
not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we
enjoy in our government a jealous surveillance over enact other, we
do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what
he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot
fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But
all this in our private relations does not make us lawless as
citizens. Against this is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey
the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the
protection of the injured whether they are actually on the protection
of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or
belong to that code which although unwritten, yet cannot be broken
without acknowledged disgrace.
Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh
itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year
round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily
source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; while the
magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbour,
so that to the citizen the fruits of other countries are as familiar
a luxury as those of his own.
If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our
antagonists. We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien
acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing,
although the eyes of an enemy may occasionally profit by our
liberality; trusting less in system and policy than to the native
spirit of our citizens; while in education, where our rivals from
their very, cradles by a painful discipline seek after manliness,
here we live exactly as we please, and yet are just as ready to
encounter every legitimate danger.
So spoke Pericles to the Athenians many centuries before Christ.
18. According to this passage, what is the most important
definition of democracy?
A) The ancient Athenians' constitution does not copy the laws of
B) The ancient Athenians' administration" favours the many
instead of the few.
C) The ancient Athenians are examples to others rather than
D) The ancient Athenians have all the features of A, B and C.
19. Class consideration is not allowed to interfere with
A) strong points and ability B) privacy
C) demonstration D) speech
20. The magnitude of Athens draws the ______ into its harbor.
A) the people of Asia B) animals of Europe
C) fruits of Africa D) high-quality products of the world
In this section there are several reading passages followed by a
total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then
mark your answers on your answer sheet.
Story telling is an ancient and honored art. Story tellers
entertained during the long dark hours before sleep arrived after the
sun disappeared over the western horizon. But the story teller's job
is more than just entertainment. Before the printed page appeared,
story tellers provided cultural continuity, preserving the past to
serve as guide through the future. Story tellers told tales of heroes
to provide positive examples, the legends that held the tribe
together and provided its identity, and the stories of foolish or
evil beings to remind young and old the penalties for not living
correctly. Even behavior too horrible to speak of directly, such as
cannibalism, cowardice or death, could be examined through the
mediation of a story.
Even today, books, magazines, radio, television and movies still
have not replaced the story teller. None of these permanent,
reproducible media are able to deliver a personal, individualized
message with the impact of a well told story. Whether the purpose of
a story is to set a mood, to entertain, to teach a lesson, to amuse
or to scare, nothing works like a good story, at the right moment. A
story with an obvious message concerning the results of another
persons' misbehavior can deliver a warning and deterrent that a
direct confrontation can not produce and the story will do so without
hurting egos. A positive relationship can be maintained and,
sometimes, even strengthened while still delivering an unwelcome
message. This is the power of the story teller.
Not every story will fit every situation. The story teller needs
to select a story which will meet the needs of the situation and then
the story teller must tailor the story to fit the time available, the
age of the audience, the location and the mood desired. A good story
choice will capture the interest of the audience. Audience members
will relate to a location, experience or emotion that they share in
common with the story teller and will suspend disbelief long enough
to be drawn into the story as it unfolds. Good stories build to a
climax with a beginning, a middle and an end. The elements of the
story revealed in each section will lead to the next. Predicaments
and solutions will depend on the details of the story revealed in an
earlier section. However, better stories may add a twist to make the
ending unexpected and, therefore, more interesting. Scary stories
should be matched to the age of the audience. A little feeling of
fright as the story is told may be beneficial in learning how to deal
with scary things, but the use of lingering fear that is carried away
from the story is simply terrorizing a susceptible person and helps
no one. It is the responsibility of the story teller to determine
what is appropriate and not to abuse the audience's good faith.
Stories can come from nearly anywhere. Folk tales, myths, legends,
history (especially local history), Indian stories, adventure yarns
and other story tellers are all sources of inspiration. A short
listing of collected stories is appended along with several examples
of good stories. However, the best sources of stories for good story
tellers are their own experiences. When inspiration and opportunity
unite, a story is ready to be born.
No matter what the source, the best stories are those of which
the story teller has some personal experience or knowledge. This can
be combined with other sources and a little practice to produce the
tale to be told. When personal experience is the base on which a
story is built, the story will "ring true" to the audience and have a
greater vitality. A dislike of insects crawling on your skin, an
encounter with a wild animal or the memory of a weird noise
experienced when you were home alone can each provide the experience
or feeling that will form the basis of a story. The experience need
only be a wee part of the story, but that can be enough.
When you have chosen a source from a book or another story teller,
learn the story thoroughly before giving it publicly. Do not memorize
the story! Memorize the outline and flow of the story. Take special
note of key points, events and names that the story hinges on. Also
note where and how they fit in the narrative. If there are key
phrases make sure you anchor them in your memory so they come out
naturally where they should. Don't try to deliver a story verbatim; a
story should be told in your own words. Make the story a part of you
and then share that part with your audience. Live the story as you
As you continue, you will find that telling a story is more than
choosing the right words to say, and it also involves establishing
your presence. When you are the story teller, you are in control.
Walk confidently forward to your place, stand, pause, relax, gather
your thoughts and become part of your story as you build anticipation,
wait for quiet and attention, and then and only then, quietly start
your story. Try not to explain what you are about to do, instead
choose a first sentence that will capture the audience's interest.
Speak slowly in your normal voice, establish a tempo and a mood
appropriate to your story. Use gestures as needed, but avoid gestures
that distract from the story. Use your words and their visual images
to carry the audience along. Establish contact with your audience,
and watch their body language and responses. Use these to guide and
pace your delivery. Live the story as you tell it.
1. According to the passage, the purposes of story telling
include all of the following EXCEPT ______.
A) perpetuate culture B) provide role models
C) discourage bad behaviors D) make horrible behaviors honorable
2. Compared with the media, which of the following is NOT true of
A) More personal. B) More effective.
C) Less blunt. D) Less time-consuming.
3. The best source of your story is ______.
A) folk tales B) the media C) other story tellers D) your
4. To deliver a story, you should do all of the following EXCEPT
A) capturing the audience's attention right at the beginning
B) making as few gestures as possible
C) appealing to the audience's sense of sight
D) monitoring feedback from the audience
One of the first lessons that you learn if you want to be a
painter is that it takes only a few basic colors to mix just about
any conceivable color. And once that fundamental skill has been
acquired, mixing colors, which is well nigh impossible for the
uninitiated, becomes practically automatic, almost as easy as tiding
a bike. As for what colors can do, singly or in combination, this
only becomes more mysterious the longer an artist works.
Much of the mystery is buried deep in the nitty-gritty of
technique. The impact of color, the very nature of color, is
experienced in relation to other colors and also in relation to a
medium. A certain red pigment, for example, will make an utterly
different impression if it is presented in a water-based or oil-based
medium, in a scumbled or impastoed fashion, as a mark left by a stick
of pastel, as ink printed from an etching plate or a woodblock. And
all of this still leaves aside the emotional or poetic or
psychological ramifications of colors -- the question of what this
red or that blue suggests or does not suggest, and to whom, and under
what conditions. Color, which most of us begin life by regarding as
one of the verities, red-yellow-blue being as fundamental as the ABCs,
can eventually seem to be an experience of the most radical
subjectivity. Artists aim to give that coloristic subjectivity a
power that is both immediate and enduring.
A walk through New York's galleries will tell you that there are
a vast number of ways in which color can be presented to the public.
A look through the impressive literature on the development of color
in art, which has been growing rapidly in the past decade, will tell
you that history prepares us for this situation. Painters who want to
pull emotional nuances out of subtly mixed colors will be said by
some to be nostalgic for the tonal modulations of another age.
Although we may be inclined to think of "modem" color as abstract
color -- as color that is detached from representation -- it can be
argued that abstract color is at least as old as naturalistic color,
embracing both the heraldic imagery of the Middle Ages and the
polychrome architecture of ancient times.
Nowadays color, which reaches us in so many kinds of keyed-up,
eye-popping technologically generated forms, can seem more a matter
of "culture" than of "nature." The zingy, cheerfully artificial color
that Jeremy Blake uses to considerable effect in the kinetic flood of
images that fill his DVD projections is selfevidently computer-based.
There are also many painters who, while working with brush and canvas,
like to mirror the riot of contemporary color. Trevor Winkfield, who
showed new paintings this winter, will strike some gallerygoers as an
artist who never met a color he didn't like.
5. We learn in the first paragraph that ______.
A) the few basic colors are more important than any mixed color
B) mixing colors can be very difficult
C) colors have very strong expressive powers
D) a single color is more mysterious than colors in combination
6. We can infer from the passage that ______.
A) red pigment is more responsive to technique than any other
B) the significance of colors can vary from person to person
C) red is more suggestive than blue
D) mixed colors are closer to reality than the few basic colors
7. Why does the author mention abstract color (para. 3)?
A) To point out that abstract color is the most powerful color.
B) To illustrate that color has long been presented in vast
numbers of ways.
C) To make the point that it is very difficult to tell modem
color from abstract color.
D) To stress the fact the abstract color has been a poor way of
8. We can conclude from the last paragraph that ______.
A) artists today use colors in greater variety and intensity
B) artists today have abandoned traditional colors
C) paintings today set out to explain cultural traditions
D) computer-generated colors have met with strong resistance from
There are two ways in which we can think of literary translation:
as reproduction, and as recreation. If we think of translation as
reproduction, it is a safe and harmless enough business: the
translator is a literature processor into which the text to be
translated is inserted and out of which it ought to emerge identical,
but in another language.
But unfortunately the human mind is an imperfect machine, and the
goal of precise interlinguistic message transference is never
achieved: so the translator offers humble apologies for being capable
of producing only a pale shadow of the original. Since all he is
doing is copying another's meanings from one language to another, he
removes himself from sight so that the writer's genius can shine as
brightly as may be. To do this, he uses a neutral, conventionally
literary language which ensures that the result will indeed be a pale
shadow, in which it is impossible for anybody's genius to shine.
Readers also regard the translator as a neutral meaning-conveyor,
then attribute the mediocrity of the translation to the original
author. Martin Amis, for example, declares that Don Quixote is
unreadable. without stopping to think about the consequences of the
fact that what he has read or not read is what a translator wrote,
not what Cervantes wrote. If we regard literary translation like this,
as message transference, we have to conclude that before very long it
will be carried out perfectly well by computers.
There are many pressures encouraging translators to accept this
description of their work, apart from the fact that it is a
scientific description and therefore must be right. Tradition is one
such additional encouragement, because meaning-transference has been
the dominant philosophy and manner of literar3 translation into
English for at least three hundred years. The large publishing houses
provide further encouragement, since they also expect the translator
to be a literature-processor, who not only copies texts but
simplifies them as well, eliminating troublesome complexities and
manufacturing a readily consumable product for the marketplace.
But there is another way in which we can think of literary
translation. We can regard the translator not as a passive reproducer
of meanings but as an active reader first, and then a creative
rewriter of what he has read. This description has the advantages of
being more interesting and of corresponding more closely to reality,
because a pile of sheets of paper with little squiggly lines on them,
glued together along one side. only becomes a work of literature when
somebody reads it, and reading is not just a logical process but one
involving the whole being: the feelings and the intuitions and the
memory and the creative imagination and the whole life experience of
Computers cannot read, they can only scan. And since the
combination of all those human components is unique in each person,
there are as many Don Quixotes as there are readers of Don Quixote,
as Jorge Luis Borges once declared.
Any translation of this novel is the translator's account of his
reading of it, rather than some inevitably pale shadow of what
Cervantes wrote. It will only be a pale shadow if the translator is a
dull reader, perhaps as a result of accepting the preconditioning
that goes with the role of literature-processor.
You may object that what l am advocating is extreme chaotic
subjectivism, leading to the conclusion that anything goes, in
reading and therefore in translation; but it is not, because reading
is guided by its own conventions, the interpersonal roles of the
literary game that we internalise as we acquire literary experience.
By reference to these, we can agree, by reasoned argument, that some
readings are more appropriate than others, and therefore that some
translations are better than others.
9. Which of the following is TRUE of translation as reproduction?
A) The translator can precisely transfer meaning from one
language to another.
B) He tries not to have his presence felt.
C) He can show the original writer at his or her best.
D) The translator actively produces the writer's meanings.
10. The author uses all of the following expressions
interchangeably EXCEPT ______.
A) literature processor B) message transference
C) meaning transference D) chaotic subjectivism
11. According to the author, the quality of translation depends
A) degree of subjectivism B) the reading of the work to be
C) rules of translation D) linguistic skills of the translator
Paper enables a certain kind of thinking. Picture, for instance,
the top of your desk. Chances are that you have a keyboard and a
computer screen off to one side, and a clear space roughly eighteen
inches square in front of your chair. What covers the rest of the
desktop is probably piles -- piles of papers, journals, magazines,
binders, postcards, videotapes, and all the other artifacts of the
knowledge economy. The piles look like a mess, but they aren't. When
a group at Apple Computer studied piling behavior several years ago,
they found that even the most disorderly piles usually make perfect
sense to the piler, and that office workers could hold forth in great
detail about the precise history and meaning of their piles. The pile
closest to the cleared, eighteen-inch-square working area, for
example, generally represents the most urgent business, and within
that pile the most important document of all is likely to be at the
top. Piles are living, breathing archives. Over time, they get broken
down and resorted, sometimes chronologically and sometimes
thematically and sometimes chronologically and thematically; clues
about certain documents may be physically embedded in the file by,
say, stacking a certain piece of paper at an angle or inserting
dividers into the stack.
But why do we pile documents instead of filing them? Because
piles represent the process of active, ongoing thinking. The
psychologist Alison Kid argues that "knowledge workers" use the
physical space of the desktop to hold "ideas which they cannot yet
categorize or even decide how they might use." The messy desk is not
necessarily a sign of disorganization. It may be a sign of complexity:
those who deal with many unresolved ideas simultaneously cannot sort
and file the papers on their desks, because they haven't yet sorted
and filed the ideas in theft head. Kidd writes that many of the
people she talked to use the papers on their desks as contextual cues
to "recover a complex set of threads without difficulty and delay"
when they come in on a Monday morning, or after their work has been
interrupted by a phone call. What we see when we look at the piles on
our desks is, in a sense, the contents of our brains.
Sellen and Harper, author of The Myth of the Paperless Office,
arrived at similar findings when they did some consulting work with a
chocolate manufacturer. The people in the firm they were most
interested in were the buyers-the staff who handled the company's
relationships with its venders, from cocoa and sugar manufacturers to
advertisers. The buyers kept folders (containing contracts,
correspondence, meeting notes, and so forth) on every supplier they
had dealings with. The company wanted to move the in fort-nation in
those documents online, to save space and money, and make it easier
for everyone in the firm to have access to it. That sounds like an
eminently rational thing to do. But when Sellen and Harper looked at
the folders they discovered that they contained all kinds of
idiosyncratic material-advertising paraphernalia, printouts of Emails,
presentation notes, and letters-much of which had been annotated in
the margins with thoughts and amendments and, they write, "perhaps
most important, comments about problems and issues with a supplier's
performance not intended for the supplier's eyes." The information in
each folder was organized if it was organized at all according to the
whims of the particular buyer. Whenever other people wanted to look
at a document, they generally had to be walked through it by the
buyer who "owned" it, because it simply wouldn't make sense otherwise.
The much advertised advantage of digitizing documents that they could
be made available to anyone, at any time was illusory: documents
cannot speak for themselves. "All of this emphasized that most of
what constituted a buyer's expertise resulted from involvement with
the buyer's own suppliers through a long history of phone calls and
meetings," Sellen and Harper write:
The correspondence, notes, and other documents such discussions
would produce formed a significant part of the documents buyers kept.
These materials therefore supported rather than constituted the
expertise of the buyers. In other words, the knowledge existed not so
much in the documents as in the heads of the people who owned them --
in their memories of what the documents were, in their knowledge of
the history of that supplier relationship, and in the recollections
that were prompted whenever they went through the files.
12. The best title for the passage is ______.
A) Sorting Office Documents B) Meaning in Chaos
C) The Importance of Documents D) Desire for Disorder
13. Which of the following is true of piles of documents on an
A) They are always either chronologically or thematically sorted.
B) They represent ordered ideas in the brain.
C) They can facilitate recovering ideas in the brain.
D) They are signs of different personalities.
14. It is not a good idea to move the buyers' documents online
A) the amounts of the documents are enormous B) moving documents
online is a costly business
C) the documents would seem meaningless D) the documents contain
15. Which of the following would breathe life into the buyers'
A) The buyers' memories. B) The filing of the documents.
C) The exposure of the documents to the public. D) The buyers'
There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of
man's exploitation of nature than the destruction of the unfortunate
great whales. The whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but
now face total extermination. Already entire populations have been
wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished
off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans; a
pocket or two somewhere has always managed to escape. How ironic of
biological extinction were to complete the job.
The basic rule of extinction is very simple: it occurs when a
species mortality is continually greater than its recruitment. There
are though, some very special additional factors in the case of
Man does not actually have to kill the last whales of a species
with his own hands, as it were, to cause its disappearance.
Biological extinction will quickly follow the end of commercial
whaling, should that end be due to a shortage of raw material, i. e.
of whales. Whalers have long sought to defend their wretched trade by
insisting that whales are automatically protected: as soon as they
become rare, and therefore uneconomic to pursue, man will have no
choice but to stop the bunting. That is a very nice theory, but it is
the theory of an accountant and not of a biologist; only an
accountant could apply commercial economics to complex biological
systems. The reasons for its absurdity are many and varied. In the
case of whaling it can be summed up in the following way. When the
stock has been reduced below a critical level, a natural, possibly
unstoppable downward spiral begins because of three main factors.
First, the animals lucky enough to survive the slaughter will be too
scattered to locate one another owing to the vastness of the oceans.
Secondly, whales being sociable animals probably need the stimulus of
sizeable gatherings to induce reproductive behaviour (which has
social inferences as well as sexual). It is quite likely that two
individuals meeting through chance will not be compatible. (They can
hardly be expected to be aware of their own rarity or to realize any
need for adjusting their natural inclinations.)
This is especially so with polygamous species like the Sperm
Whale. Thirdly, and perhaps most important in the long term, even
allowing that the ~whales might still be able to band together in
socially acceptable groups (thanks to their undeniably excellent
communicative systems), there is a real danger, possibly even a
probability, that the whales' gene pools would by then have sunk so
low as to be biologically unviable. That is to say, the
characteristics possessed by the original population would be
whittled down to those characters possessed by only the few remaining
individuals. The result of such a biological calamity is inbreeding,
less ability to adapt to new conditions, and less individual variety.
Three words can sum it up: protracted biological extinction. The
future "hopes" of these animals are further discussed in the final
16. Whalers argue that whales will not become extinct ______.
A) because they are not self-protected
B) because they are not worth pursuing
C) because the oceans are so vast
D) because hunting will stop when whales become rare
17. Many species of whales will not breed unless ______.
A) they are in the same group for a long term B) they are
isolated from other species
C) they are in the company of many other whales D) there are
enough genes available
If you are interested in unusual exports, North Carolina will
appeal to you. More than 200 people convicted in the state's courts
are now incarcerated in Rhode Island or Oklahoma. The governor of
North Carolina, James Hunt, has asked the legislature to authorize
the housing of a total of 1,000 convicts in other states' prisons. A
temporary measure, explain state officials, until the pressure on
their own prisons eases. Yet the mind turns to 18th century Britain's
shipping of convicts to Australia, and to James Oglethorpe's
establishment of the colony's Georgia in part as a refuge for people
released from debtors' prisons.
Today's America is dotted with prisons recently built either as
private profit-making companies or by governments as "economic-
development enterprises". Since December, North Carolina has signed
two contracts in Rhode Island, one for housing 75 convicts at the
Adult Correctional Institution in Cranston, the other for 230 at the
Detention Facility Corporation in Central Falls. It has another
contract for 240 convicts with the town of Hinton, Oklahoma, and the
Hinton Economic Development authority, and it is negotiating a deal
with a private prison near Memphis, Tennessee.
The exporting of prisoners, says Franklin Freeman, head of the
state's Department of Correction, "is accomplishing our purpose that
is, to get more space quickly." This dates back to an agreement the
state made in 1988, to settle a federal court suit brought by inmates
who complained that North Carolina's prisons were so crowded as to be
unconstitutionally inhumane. The state which had been stacking
prisoners into three-tier banks, agreed to provide dormitories with
50 square feet per inmate.
But this meant keeping the prison population below a total of
21,400 by releasing on parole any number in excess of that. Over the
past seven years the average time served by North Carolina's
prisoners has dropped from 40% of the original sentences to 18.5%.
Since June, 42 people on parole have been charged with murder. All
this has led to the policy of exporting prisoners, as well as to a
zealous attempt to reduce the amount of crime in the state.
Governor Hunt has summoned the legislature into special session
to consider his 36-point anti-crime plan, which ranges from more
activity after school for adolescents, to stop them getting into
trouble on the streets, to stiffer penalties for serious offenders. A
new sentencing scheme is already designed, from next year, to provide
longer sentences for major crimes. But this. of course, does not thin
out the prison population. North Carolina expects to expand its
prison capacity to 26,200 by 1996. Meanwhile Michael Easley, the
attorney-general, has asked the federal courts to let him cut the
prisoners' space ration to 35 square feet apiece, which would give
room for an extra 4,000 inmates.
The export policy is expensive, it costs North Carolina more to
send convicts to other states than to house them in its own prisons.
It pays just under $71 a prisoner a day for those at Central Falls in
Rhode island, compared with $64 for its own medium-security inmates
and $47 for its minimum-security ones. Only those two categories are
transported, not the most hardened criminals. Even so, there are
jitters in Rhode Island. Ten troublemakers have just been sent back
from Central Falls.
18. All the following statements are true about North Carolina's
exporting prisoners EXCEPT ______.
A) It has signed four contracts for sending prisoners to other
B) It wants to find more space quickly for prisoners
C) Many prisoners on parole have committed crimes again
D) It is eager to reduce crimes in the state
19. Why did the people in North Carolina want to export prisoners
to other states and reduce the prisoners in this state?
A) Because they want to keep the prison population below a total
number of 21,400.
B) Because there are more people on parole charged with murder.
C) Because they want to reduce the amount of crime in that state.
D) All of the above.
20. The export policy in this passage means ______.
A) to send prisoners to other counties B) to send prisoners to
C) to send prisoners to other islands D) to send prisoners to
In this section there are several reading passages followed by a
total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then
mark your answers on your answer sheet.
The problem with the nature-nurture debate is that this is an
inadequate way of understanding human freedom. Like every other
organism, humans are shaped by both nature and nurture. But unlike
any other organism, we are also defined by our ability to transcend
both, by our capacity to overcome the constraints imposed both by our
genetic and our cultural heritage.
It is not that human beings have floated free of the laws of
causation. It is rather that humans are not simply the passive end
result of a chain of causes, whether natural or environmental. We
have developed the capacity to intervene actively in both nature and
culture, to shape both to our will.
To put this another way, humans, uniquely, are subjects as well
as objects. We are biological beings, and under the purview of
biological and physical laws. But we are also conscious beings with
purpose and agency, traits the possession of which allow us to design
ways of breaking the constraints of biological and physical laws.
All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature
has bequeathed them through natural selection, and by the
environmental conditions in which they find themselves. No animal is
capable of asking questions or generating problems that are
irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily
When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn't ask itself why it does so,
or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies
south, it doesn't wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would
happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these
and many other kinds of questions questions that have no relevance,
indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals.
What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally
defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to
establish human-created goals. Our evolutionary heritage certainly
shapes the way that humans approach the world. But it does not limit
Similarly, our cultural heritage influences the ways in which we
think about the world and the kinds of questions we ask of it, but it
does not imprison them. If membership of a particular culture
absolutely shaped our worldview, then historical change would never
If the people of medieval Europe had been totally determined by
the worldview sustained by medieval European culture, it would not
have been possible for that society to have become anything different.
It would not have been possible, for instance, to have developed new
ideas about individualism and materialism, or to have created new
totals of technology and new political institutions.
Human beings are not automata who simply respond blindly to
whatever culture in which they find themselves, any more than they
are automata that blindly respond to their evolutionary heritage.
There is a tension between the way a culture shapes individuals
within its purview and the way that those individuals respond to that
culture, just as there is a tension between the way natural selection
shapes the way that humans think about the world and the way that
humans respond to our natural heritage. This tension allows people to
think critically and imaginatively, and to look beyond a particular
In the six million years since the human and chimpanzee lines
first diverged on either side of Africa's Great Rift Valley, the
behaviour and lifestyles of chimpanzees have barely changed. Human
behaviour and lifestyles clearly have. Humans have learned to learn
from previous generations, to improve upon their work, and to
establish a momentum to human life and culture that has taken us from
cave art to quantum physics and to the unraveling of the genome. It
is this capacity for constant innovation that distinguishes humans
from all other animals.
All animals have an evolutionary past. Only humans make history.
The historical, transformative quality of being human is why the so-
called nature-nurture debate, while creating considerable friction,
has thrown little light on what it means to be human. To understand
human freedom we need to understand not so much whether we are
creatures of nature or nurture, but how, despite being shaped by'
both nature and nurture, we are also able to transcend both.
1. Which of the following best expresses the theme of the passage?
A) Human beings are cultural animals rather than natural animals.
B) Human beings are neither natural nor cultural animals.
C) Human beings are less susceptible to natural laws than non-
D) Human beings are not bound by natural and cultural heritages.
2. A beaver builds a dam because ______.
A) it imitates human behavior
B) it tries to find a better way of living
C) dam-building is relevant to its evolved needs and goals
D) a dam helps a beaver to go beyond its evolutionarily
3. We can infer that those who participate in the nature-nurture
debate most probably ______.
A) ask questions that are unanswerable by either natural or
B) refuse to admit that humans are bound by natural or cultural
C) are very skeptical about human cultural heritage
D) subscribe to either biological or cultural determinism
I am standing under Hammersmith Bridge looking at something I
have known all my life as a Londoner but am beginning to realise that
I don't have a clue about. The River Thames has been here a lot
longer than the city itself, but it has been keeping its secrets well
hidden beneath those familiar muddy tones of green and brown. On a
grey afternoon such as this one, the surface of the river is
particularly unforgiving, and a tentative dip soon brings me close to
fast-running water. This is the sort of stuff that carries people
away to a watery doom and I don't want any part of that.
But I'm here with an open mind at this family beach party in
Hammersmith, part of a series of events in South East Marine Week. It
is not a beach party in the traditional sense, needless to say, more
an opportunity to get a little gentle education. I had been vaguely
aware, over the past few years, that the river was getting cleaner
all the time. Its very appearance, it appears, is deceptive, because
its colour is a result of the natural silts which are constantly
disturbed from the bottom. From being a river that supported no fish
at all, it can now boast more than 100 different types. I was aware
that the Thames occasionally played host to a well-publicised dolphin
or seal, but this diversity was news to me. It is all the result, I
was informed, of the fact that the North Sea pours up the river twice
a day, bringing with it all the teeming life of those salty depths.
I took a deep breath and went for a light dredge with a net. The
results didn't look like much at all, but when carefully sifted my
sample was teeming with tiny shrimps, which are the basic foodstuff
of the river, the tiny little fellows holding the key to the food
chain, There were, thankfully, better fishermen here than me, and
there was great excitement when someone captured a flounder. Granted,
it was about an inch long, but the flounder was otherwise perfect in
every detail. Further excitement was to follow, with the capture of
the shell of a crab, but that did not last long. The shell belonged
to a Chinese Mitten Crab-so-called because it appears to have mittens
on its claws. Rachel Hill from the Environment Agency explained to me
that it ate everything in its path, suffered no effective predators,
and caused havoc by its habit of burrowing into the river banks,
which are consequently being eroded. Furthermore, the fact that it
was only a shell meant that somewhere not too far away the former
occupant was going about its business only this time it would be
bigger. This unwanted visitor, a delicacy in the restaurants of
Chinatown, is here to stay.
Further up the beach, enthusiastic volunteers were coping with
another menace, this one of human making. The amount of rubbish on
this relatively small stretch of the river was astonishing and
depressing. There were the expected plastic bottles and hamburger
cartons, tossed away carelessly by idiots. To my surprise, there was
also the wheel from a car, complete with tyro. The most sinister
items were also among the smallest: slim white sticks which looked as
if they might have come from a child's lollipop but are, in fact,
cotton buds. The thought occurred that thousands of Londoners must
come to the banks of the Thames each morning to clean out their ears.
By the end of the afternoon, all this rubbish had been cleared away
in a quite astonishing number of black bags, but it would have been
better had it not been there in the first place.
There was, however, great cause for optimism in the behaviour of
the kids who were present. They huddled excitedly round microscopes
to look at tiny shrimps and gobies transformed into fearsome-looking
creatures. They listened intently as it was explained to them how
important it was to keep the river clean. Even the very smallest who
were painting their fishy face masks might have gone away with the
idea that fish are a good thing and worth looking after. It occurred
to me that if the grown-ups persist in behaving like human Chinese
Mitten Crabs, then it will be down to the coming generations to
ensure that the good work which has already been done on this great
river is not to be wasted.
4. The author wanted to find out ______.
A) what causes the muddy surface of the River Thames
B) what children can learn about the history of the River Thames
C) the diversity offish in the River Thames
D) what was there under the River Thames
5. Which of the following poses a threat to the River Thames?
A) Fish that come from the North Sea. B) Tiny shrimps.
C) Flounders. D) Chinese Mitten Crabs.
6. Which of the following is NOT true of the river Thames?
A) It is not safe to swim in it.
B) It looks dirtier than it really is.
C) It is not clean enough to support a large variety offish.
D) It is used by some people as a kind of dumping ground.
7. How does the author feel about the condition of the River
A) Worried but hopeful. B) Pessimistic.
C) Uncaring and indifferent. D) Extremely satisfied.
Lately, everybody from industrial designers to city planners
claims to be looking after our aesthetic interests, and there is
ample anecdotal evidence that, on the margin, people do put a higher
premium on the look and feel of things than they once did. That is to
be expected as society grows richer. But aesthetics is not the only
value -- trade-offs must be made -- and aesthetic value is hard to
measure. What is "it," after all? Aesthetics doesn't come in neat
units like microprocessor speed, calories, or tons of steel. Style is
The value of qualitative improvements poses tricky problems for
economists. It is a major challenge to tease out how much consumers
value each individual attribute that comes bundled in a given good or
service. If you pay $2.99 for a toothbrush, how much of that is for
the cleaning ability? How much for the feel of the handle? How much
for the durability? How much for the packaging? How much for the
convenient distribution to your comer drugstore? How much for the
Economists use statistical techniques called "hedonic pricing" to
try to separate the implicit prices of various characteristics.
Essentially, they look at how prices go up or down as features are
added or subtracted and try to figure out how consumers value the
individual features. How much will consumers pay for an extra
megahertz of computing speed, for instance?
Not every characteristic is as easily measured as megahertz. The
trickier the measurement, the more difficult the problem. For
aesthetics, economists generally don't even try. It's just too hard.
How do you account for the restaurant d écor or subtle enhancements
in the taste of the food? How do you measure the increased value of a
typeset resume, memo or client newsletter -- the result of ubiquitous
word processors -- over an old-fashioned typed document?
That sort of detail is simply lost in crude economic statistics.
Many product characteristics -- from convenience to snob appeal to
aesthetics -- are hard to quantify and so tend to be undercounted.
The result is that the standard of living can change for the better
without much notice.
That is especially likely if products improve without becoming
more expensive. Consumers are happier, but if they aren't spending
more money, no revenue increase shows up in the productivity
statistics. This isn't unusual in competitive markets. Shopping malls
redecorate, and newspapers adopt color printing just to keep up with
the competition. They aren't able to charge more. They are just able
to stay in business.
When thinking about new products, producers face two challenges.
First, they need to offer something whose value to the consumer is
greater than its cost to produce and distribute. Increasing the
surplus of value minus cost is where both higher living standards and
higher profits come from. It is the measure of real economic
improvement. The second challenge is, of course, to price the
offering to maximize profit.
As a general matter, aesthetics sells. But "as a general matter"
obscures all the specifics that make or break a product: What exact
design will you use? How will you manufacture it? What will you
charge? And, given those decisions, how will customers respond?
The answers can't be found through a blackboard exercise. Price
theory is a useful tool, but we can't know in advance how much people
will value the characteristics of a product they haven't yet seen or
compared with real alternatives. Even market research, while helpful,
cannot duplicate real-life choices. Although we all have fun
predicting and second-guessing business ideas, the only way to find
out is through trial and error. Market competition is a discovery
process that subjects business hypotheses to unsentimental testing.
Some managers are better than others at identifying promising new
sources of value, and some companies are better than others at
operations and pricing -- the skills that determine whether a product
that consumers do value will in fact be profitable. Market
competition tests these theories and skills. And, like all
competitions, this one has its failures, some of them beautiful.
Not every attempt at improvement works out. Sometimes value does
not exceed cost. Sometimes it does, but managers fall in love with
their product, price it too high and drive away potential customers.
Sometimes the coolest of the cool just can't survive the heat. With
20/20 hindsight, it is easy to see that the pricey Cube was doomed.
But nobody knew that a year ago.
8. The passage is mainly concerned with ______.
A) adding aesthetics to products B) increasing surplus of value
C) quantifying product characteristics D) putting business ideas
to market testing
9. According to the passage, the standard of living improves when
A) products are more aesthetically appealing B) each product
characteristic is quantifiable
C) there is a surplus of value minus cost D) producers do not
charge aesthetic enhancements
10. Which of the following is most probably true of Apple's Cube?
A) Customers didn't like the look and feel of it. B) There was no
surplus of value minus cost.
C) It did not reflect real-life choices. D) It contradicted price
David Landes, author of The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why
Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor, credits the world's economic and
social progress over the last thousand years to "Western civilization
and its dissemination." The reason, he believes, is that Europeans
invented systematic economic development. Landes adds that three
unique aspects of European culture were crucial ingredients in
Europe's economic growth.
First, science developed as an autonomous method of intellectual
inquiry that successfully disengaged itself from the social
constraints of organized religion and from the political constraints
of centralized authority. Though Europe lacked a political center,
its scholars benefited from the use of a single vehicle of
communication: Latin. This common tongue facilitated an adversarial
discourse in which new ideas about the physical world could be tested,
demonstrated, and then accepted across the continent and eventually
across the world.
Second, Landes espouses a generalized form of Max Weber's thesis
that the values of work, initiative, and investment made the
difference for Europe. Despite his emphasis on science, Landes does
not stress the notion of rationality as such. In his view, "what
counts is work, thrift, honesty, patience, [and] tenacity." The only
route to economic success for individuals or states is working hard,
spending less than you earn, and investing the rest in productive
capacity. This is his fundamental explanation of the problem posed by
his book's subtitle: "Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor." For
historical reasons -- an emphasis on private property, an experience
of political pluralism, a temperate climate, an urban style --
Europeans have, on balance, followed those practices and therefore
Third, and perhaps most important, Europeans were learners. They
"learned rather greedily," as Joel Mokyr put it in a review of
Landes's book. Even if Europeans possessed indigenous technologies
that gave them an advantage (spectacles, for example), as Landes
believes they did, their most vital asset was the ability to
assimilate knowledge from around the world and put it to use -- as in
borrowing the concept of zero and rediscovering Aristotle's Logic
from the Arabs and taking paper and gunpowder from the Chinese via
the Muslim world. Landes argues that a systematic resistance to
learning from other cultures had become the greatest handicap of the
Chinese by the eighteenth century and remains the greatest handicap
of Arab countries today.
Although his analysis of European expansion is almost nonexistent,
Landes does not argue that Europeans were beneficent bearers of
civilization to a benighted world. Rather, he relies on his own
commonsense law: "When one group is strong enough to push another
around and stands to gain by it, it will do so." In contrast to the
new school of world historians, Landes believes that specific
cultural values enabled technological advances that in turn made some
Europeans strong enough to dominate people in other parts of the
world. Europeans therefore proceeded to do so with great viciousness
and cruelty. By focusing on their victimization in this process,
Landes holds, some postcolonial states have wasted energy that could
have been put into productive work and investment. If one could sum
up Landes's advice to these states in one sentence, it might be "Stop
whining and get to work." This is particularly important, indeed
hopeful, advice, he would argue, because success is not permanent.
Advantages are not fixed, gains from trade are unequal, and different
societies react differently to market signals. Therefore, not only is
there hope for undeveloped countries, but developed countries have
little cause to be complacent, because the current situation "will
press hard" on them.
The thrust of studies like Landes's is to identify those
distinctive features of European civilization that lie behind
Europe's rise to power and the creation of modernity more generally.
Other historians have placed a greater emphasis on such features as
liberty, individualism, and Christianity. In a review essay, the art
historian Craig Clunas listed some of the less well known linkages
that have been proposed between Western culture and modernity,
including the propensities to think quantitatively, enjoy pornography.
and consume sugar. All such proposals assume the fundamental aptness
of the question: What elements of European civilization led to
European success? It is a short leap from this assumption to outright
triumphalism. The paradigmatic book of this school is, of course, The
End of History and the Last Man. in which Francis Fukuyama argues
that after the collapse of Nazism in the twentieth century, the only
remaining model for human organization in the industrial and
communications ages is a combination of market economics and limited,
pluralist, democratic government.
11. According to Landes, the main reason that some countries are
so poor is that ______.
A) they lack work ethic B) they are scientifically backward
C) they lack rationality D) they are victimized by colonists
12. Lands believes that ______.
A) Europeans set out to bring civilization to an unfortunate
B) the Europeans dominated other countries simply because they
C) the desire of Europeans to colonize other countries stemmed
from specific cultural values
D) the colonized countries themselves were to blame for being
victimized by Europeans
13. The cultural elements identified by Landes ______ those
identified by other historians.
A) subsume B) contradict C) glorify D) complicate
14. "This school" (para. 5) refers to people who ______.
A) believe in the absolute superiority of Western culture
B) hold drastically different views from Landes
C) are very cautious in linking Western culture and modernity
D) follow in the footsteps of Nazism and communism
15. In discussing Landes' work, the author's tone is ______.
A) matter-of-fact B) skeptical C) reproachful D) enthusiastic
India is being invaded by Kentucky Fried Chicken. That, at least,
was the charge made last week by a nationalist group, which sought to
shut down the fast-food chain's first outlet in India on the ground
that American "junk food" is beneath local health standards. But the
cry of fowl play was nothing next to the outrage that many Indians
felt when they learned that another US multinational, W. R. Grace &
Co., had allegedly patented and claimed rights to their revered neem
tree. Known in Sanskrit as Sarva Rogo Nivarini, or "curer of all
ailments," the so-called miracle tree has served for millennia as a
kind of comer drugstore to rural Indians. The neem's leaves and bark
are used to heal ailments from acne to infections to diabetes; its
seeds can become pesticides. Its twigs even make a good rustic
As the news spread, dozens of groups held seminars and meetings
to vent their anger against W. R. Grace, the Florida-based chemicals
conglomerate. "Patenting neem is like patenting cow dung!" thundered
one Indian parliamentarian, George Fernades, the source of much of
the agitation was Jeremy Rifkin, a vocal US opponent of genetic
engineering, and Vandana Shiva, director of India's Research
Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resources. In
Washington, they and others submitted a petition to the US Patent and
Trademark Office with some 100, 000 signatures asking that Grace's
patent be overturned. Rifkin asserted that the company's hijacking of
the neem tree's chemical properties "is the first case of genetic
It's no fun being a multinational corporation in India these days.
After four years of rapid-fire market openings, the nation is
undergoing a convulsive backlash against foreigners. Not
coincidentally, this is happening just as India is reaching record
levels of foreign investment -- $2 billion already this year, double
the amount in 1994. Led by the Bharatiya Janata Party and other
nationalist groups, enemies of Prime Minister R V. Narasimha Rao's
reformist administration are rallying around a classic Indian
political banner: xenophobia. Last month a new nationalist government
in the industrial state of Maharashtra reneged on a contracted signed
more than three years ago with Enron Corp. to build a major power
plant near Bombay. Other protests have struck Indian operations of
McDonald's and Pizza Hut.
Many foreign companies insist the world's largest democracy still
has too much potential to pass up: Ford Motor Co., for example, last
week announced an $800 million plan to build cars in Nashik. But with
national elections just seven months away, things are likely to get
much worse before they improve.
16. Which of the following is the most important factor that
makes Indians opposed to the patenting of the neem tree?
A) Nationalism. B) Awareness of environmental protection.
C) Fear of the neem tree. D) Hatred of foreigners.
17. We may understand from the end of the passage that many
foreign companies insist that ______.
A) India should not give up opportunities to develop itself
B) India has a great deal of potential to develop its economy
C) there is still a lot of potential for foreign investment to
D) India as the world's largest democracy should have the
responsibility to absorb foreign investment
18. By the statement that "the nation is undergoing a convulsive
backlash against foreigners", the author wants to convey ______.
A) the Indians have a mixed feeling about foreigners
B) the Indians begin to dislike foreigners
C) the Indians open their arms to welcome foreigners
D) the Indians shut their doors to foreigners
A widely heralded but still experimental cancer-fighting compound
may be used someday to prevent two other major killers of Americans:
heart disease and stroke. That was the implication of a remarkable
report published last week in the journal Circulation by a team of
researchers from Dr. Judah Folkman's laboratory at the Children's
Hospital in Boston.
The versatile compound is endostatin, a human protein that
inhibits angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels in the body.
In tests reported in 1997 by Folkman, a prominent cancer researcher
who pioneered the study of angiogenesis, the drug had reduced and
even eradicated tumors in laboratory mice. How? By stunting the
growth of capillaries necessary for nourishing the burgeoning mouse
When news of Folkman's achievement became widely known last year,
it led to wildly exaggerated predictions of imminent cancer cures.
When other scientists were initially unable to duplicate those
results, question arose about the validity of folkman's research.
Then in February scientists at the National Cancer Institute, with
guidance from Folkman, finally matched his results, reassured, the
N.C.I. gave the go-ahead for clinical trials of endostation later
this year on patients with advanced tumors.
How can a drug that is apparently effective against tumors also
reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke? The answer lies in the
composition of plaque, the fatty deposit that builds up in arteries
and can eventually clog them. Plaque consists of a mix of cholesterol,
white blood cells and smooth muscle cells, and as it accumulates, a
network of capillaries sprouts from the artery walls to nourish the
cell. Could endostatin halt the growth of capillaries and starve the
A Folkman lab team led by Dr. Karen Moulton decided to find out.
The scientists put baby lab mice on a 16-week "western diet" that was
high in fat and cholesterol, then measured the plaque buildup on the
walls of each aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the
heart to the rest of the body. Meanwhile, they inject one group of
mice with endostatin, another with a different blood-vessel inhibitor
call TNP-470and a control group with an inert saline solution. Twenty
weeks later the researchers again measured plague in the mouse aortas.
The results were startling: the endostatin group averaged 85% less
plaque buildup and the TNP-470 group 70% less than those in the
All too aware of the premature hopes raised last year after
Folkman's tumor report, the researchers have been careful not to
oversell the new results. "If this finding is supported in future
studies," says Moulton, "(it could open the way for) treatments that
could delay the progression of heart disease and possible reduce the
incidence of heart attacks and strokes." But any such treatments, she
stresses, are probably five to ten years away.
19. Why are the researchers so careful about assessing the
results of the new experiment?
A) Because they have no idea what the new medicine can do.
B) Because they only want to use the new medicine for cancer
C) Because they are not quite sure about the efficacy of the new
medicine for heart disease.
D) Because they do not want to sell too much of the new medicine.
20. What does the word "capillaries" in paragraph 2 mean?
A) One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles.
B) One of the main blood vessels that connect venules.
C) One of the main blood vessels that connect arterioles.
D) One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles and
2．[答案] A。推理题。根据文章第 4 段，历史上的曼彻斯特和今天的内罗
项 A 正确答案。
3．[答案] C。推理题。Anna Tibaijuka 认为，人们涌入城市是为了逃避
饥饿和动荡，因此这样的都市化是不成熟的；Michael Mutter 则认为，人们涌
入城市是因为农村的承受能力已经饱和，剩余人口要另谋生路。因此选 C 为正
4．[答案] A。细节题。根据第 10 段，一些贫民窟居民联盟通过施加压力
居住环境。因此选项 A 正确答案。
5．[答案] C。根据第 2 段第 1 句，人们在客房里可以像在家里一样不受到
外界的注目。选项 C 为正确答案。
6．[答案] D。根据第 3 段。酒店里的爱是一种关照，使人们感受到小时候
大人的关爱。选项 D 为正确答案。
7．[答案] B。根据第 4 段第 2 句，在客房里，除了电梯的声音一切都是安
中辉煌和被忽略的经历。文章没有提到人们的心情。所以选项 B 为正确答案。
快的时候，因此选项 A 为正确答案。
9．[答案] C。根据第 1 段，女权主义者认为，少女文学读物中的主人公使
其读者成为懦弱的人，而这一观点是 Deborah O'Keefe 著作中的主题。因此选
项 C 为正确答案。
10．[答案] C。根据第 2 段第 2 句，Deborah O'Keffe 的观点是建立在文
此，作者很有可能认为，Deborah O'Keefe 的观点的论据是不充分的。选项 C
11．[答案] B。根据第 5 段第 1 句，Deborah O'Keefe 认为，Sara Crewe
12．[答案] D。根据第 8 段，Sara Crewe 把自己当作公主，这反映了 19
世纪读者广泛接受的观点，即助人为乐。因此，选 D 为正确答案。
13．[答案] A。该题要求理解第 1、2 段中的内容。卷入有关信息技术纷争
小集团。选项 A 为正确答案。
14．[答案] A。根据第 2 段倒数第 3 句，对大学信息技术持批评意见和一
15．[答案] D。根据第 4 段第 2、3 句，作者的工作是进行分析和建立规
范；是建立一种能够在信息世界重新改造大学的思想体系；在第 5 段第 52 句，
信仰等内容。本题属于主旨理解题。因此，选项 B 为正确答案。
端的说法”(the most extreme flights)来特别强调某些人的”曲高和寡”。
选项 C 应为正确答案。
范围。都是不可缺少的组成部分。选项 D 应为正确答案。
华。选项 A 应为正确答案。
地的优质产品。选项 D 应为正确答案。
1．[答案] D。在第 1 段中，作者讨论了讲故事的作用。选项 A 表述了
story tellers provided cultural continuity, preserving the past to
serve as guide through the future 这一部分；选项 B 表述了 Story tellers
told tales of heroes to provide positive examples 这一部分；选项 D 表
述了 the stories of foolish or evil beings o remind young and old the
penalties for not living correctly 这一部分；在该段最后一句，作者的意
2．[答案] D。该题要求理解第 2 段中的内容。这一段说的是媒体和讲故事
之间的差异。选项 A 不是答案：见第 2 句；选项 B 不是答案；根据第 3 句，没
有什么能像讲故事那样适时地起到各种作用；选项 C 不是答案：根据最后两
句，通过讲故事来发出警告或提出意见会不伤对方的面子；选项 D 是答案：文
章没有说讲故事更节省时间。所以选项 D 为正确答案。
3．[答案] D。细节题。答案可在第 5 段中找到："No matter what the
source, the best stories are those of which the story teller has some
personal experience Or knowledge."
4．[答案] B。该题要求理解最后一段中的内容，选项 A 不是答案：见第 4
句；选项 B 是答案：根据第 6 句，在必要时使用手势，但不要影响故事的内
容；选项 C 不是答案：根据第 7 句，要用视觉形象语言来吸引听众；选项 D 不
是答案：见第 8 句。所以选项 B 是正确答案。
5．[答案] C。根据第 1 段，虽然调色这件事本身并不难，但要取得何种效
果却是很深奥的。也就是说，颜色具有表现力。选项 C 为正确答案。
6．[答案] B。根据第 2 段，一定的工艺会使颜色产生不同的效果，但颜色
选项 B 为正确答案。
7．[答案] B。根据第 3 段，将颜色展现在公众面前的方式是多种多样的，
展示方式是过去就有的一种情况。选项 B 为正确答案。
8．[答案] A。根据最后一段，Jeremy Blake 用计算机生成的颜色取得特
殊的效果；Trevor Winkfield 则使用了各种各样的颜色，选项 A 为正确答案。
9．[答案] B。本题用排除法解题。选项 A 不是答案，见第 2 段第 1 句；选
项 B 是答案，根据第 2 段第 2 句，由于翻译者的工作是把意思从一种语言转换
成另一种语言，这样就可以充分展示原作者的创造能力；选项 C 不是答案，根
据第 2 段最后一句，由于翻译者为了不在翻译作品中留下主观的烙印，他使用
D 不是答案，从第 5 段第 21 句可以看出，翻译不是被动地对意思进行复制。选
项 B 为正确答案。
种简单的复制，选项 A、B、C 是被用来表达同一观点。因此选项 D 为正确答
要说明了翻译者对文章的解读决定了翻译的质量。选项 B 为正确答案。
眼里具有重要的意义。选项 B 为正确答案。
13．[答案] C。根据第 2 段倒数第 2 句，桌面上的文件可以帮助人们恢复
思路，选项 C 为正确答案。
14．[答案] C。第 3 段主要讨论了将采购员的文件放到网络上供人查询所
才使文件具有意义。选项 A 为正确答案。
16．[答案] D。作者在文章的第三段介绍了 Whalers 的观点：鲸鱼是根据
少濒临灭绝状况时，人们就会自然停止对其的捕捉。(Whalers have long
sought to defend their wretched trade by insisting that whales are
automatically protected: as soon as they become rare, and therefore
uneconomic to pursue, man will have no choice but to stop the
hunting. )本题属于主旨理解题。因此，选项 D 为正确答案。
越来越少。因此选项 c 应为正确答案。
签了三份合约，另有一份合约仍在商议当中。选项 A 应为正确答案。
的。问题 A、B、C 各列举了一种，这几种原因在文章中都有体现。因此选择 D
范围内。因此选项 D 应为正确答案。
1．[答案] D。该文的主题通过主题句(thesis sentence)来表达(分别出现
在第 1 段第 3 句和最后一段最后一句)。因此，选项 D 为正确答案。
2．[答案] C。根据第 4、5 段，其他动物受到自然选择所带来的工具和环
及是否有更好的方法。因此，选项 C 为正确答案。
始，要么赞同文化(后天)决定一切。因此选项 D 为正确答案。
4．[答案] D。在第 1 段第 2 句，作者说泰晤士河下总是藏着什么秘密，而
且文章主要是关于从河底打捞上来的东西和它们的意义。选项 D 为正确答案。
5．[答案] D。根据第 3 段后半部分，Chinese Mitten Crab 在河岸掘洞，
使河岸松动。因此选项 D 为正确答案。
6．[答案] C。选项 A 不是答案：根据第 1 段最后两句，泰晤士河水流湍
急，在这儿游泳有溺水身亡的危险；选项 B 不是答案：根据第 2 段第 4 句，河
水看上去浑浊是因为河底淤泥泛上河面的结果；选项 C 是答案；根据第 2 段最
后几句，泰晤士河内现在有 100 多种鱼类；选项 D 不是答案；根据第 4 段，从
几代人的身上。可见作者对未来还是抱有希望。选项 A 为正确答案。
进行捡验。凶此选项 C 为正确答案。
9．[答案] D。该题要求理解第 6、7 段中的内容。产品的许多属性由于无
的时候。选项 D 为正确答案。
果公司 Cube 一款电脑十分昂贵，从而注定是失败的。选项 C 说明了问题的根
11．[答案] A。根据第 3 段，Landes 认为，欧洲之所以与众不同，主要是
再生产，作者认为这些品质从根本上解释 Landes 著作的副标题所提出的问题。
work ethic 意为”劳动观”。因此选项 A 为正确答案。
12．[答案] B。该题要求理解第 4 段前半部分的内容，在解释欧洲殖民问
服世界上其他地方的人民。因此选项 B 为正确答案。
13．[答案] A。根据第 5 段，Landes 等学者的研究目标是要确定欧洲文明
具体的因素。因此选项 A 为正确答案。
欧洲的文明带来的。这表明了他们的一种优越感。例如 Francis Fukuyama 认
和有限的、多元的和民主政府的组合，因此选项 A 为正确答案。
15．[答案] A。在讨论 Landes 的著作时，作者没有夹带自己的观点，而是
用 Landes argues, Landes believes, Landes holds 等客观引述的结构。选项
外围公司把其神树 neem tree 注册成自己的专利感到非常气愤，正如 Rifkin 所
的殖民主义掠夺行为。由此可以看出，选项 A 为正确答案。
心内容。因此选项 C 为正确答案。当然，在离大选还有七个月的时间里，投资
们对外国人的普遍反感，也是可以理解的。据此分析，选项 B 应为正确答案。
效，但对治疗心脏病却尚不能十分肯定。据此推论，选项 C 应为正确答案。
血管等有关的专业词语，该处就是其中一个。By stunting the growth of
capillaries necessary for nourishing the burgeoning mouse tumors. 作
处的 capillaries 就是人们平常所说自的 minute blood vessels。因此选项 D