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第四节 阅读理解专项训练 Exercise One In this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet. Text A People are moving to cities in droves. In 1950, two-thirds of the worlds' population lived in the countryside. New York was then the only settlement with more than 10 million people. Today there are 20 such megacities, and more are on the way. Most of these megacities are in developing countries that are struggling to cope with both the speed and the scale of human migration. Estimates of the future spread of urbanization are based on the observation that in Europe, and in North and South America, the urban share of the total population has stabilized at 75%--85%. If the rest of the world follows this path it is expected that in the next decade an extra 100 million people will join the cities of Africa, and 340 million the cities of Asia: the equivalent of a new Bangkok every two months. By 2030 nearly two-thirds of the world's population will be urban. In the long run, that is good news. If countries now industrialising follow the pattern of those that have already done so, their city-dwellers will be both more prosperous and healthier. Man is gregarious species, and the Words "urbane" and "civilised" both derive from the advantages of living in large settlements. History also shows, though, that the transition can be uncomfortable. The slums of Manchester were, in their time, just as awful as those of Nairobi today. But people moved there for exactly the same reason: however nasty conditions seemed, the opportunities of urban life outstripped those of the countryside. The question is how best to handle the change. If there is one thing that everybody agrees on, it is that urbanization is unstoppable. Migrants attempting to escape poverty, and refugees escaping conflict, are piling into cities in what the executive director of UN-HABITAT, Anna, Tibailjuka, describes as "premature urbanization." Dr Tibaijuka believes it might be possible to slow the pace of migration from the countryside with policies that enhance security and rural livelihoods. There is room for debate, though, over whether better rural development in any form can seriously slow the pace of urbanisation -- or even whether such a slowdown would be a good thing. Michael Mutter, an urban planning adviser at the British government's Department for International Development (DFID), says that the relevant indicators suggest that in many countries the effective "carrying capacity" of rural areas has been reached. As happened in Europe in the 18th century, population growth and technological improvements to agriculture are creating a surplus population. That surplus has to go somewhere to earn its living. Indeed, some people go so far so to argue that governments, international donors and aid agencies spend too much on rural development and neglect the cities. Most countries have a rural development policy, but only a few have urban ones. DFID, for example, spends only 5% of its budget directly on urban development. Moreover, these critics point out that, although rural areas often have worse sanitation, illiteracy and homelessness than cities, such figures are deceptive. Being illiterate, homeless or without access to a flush toilet are far more serious problems in a crowded city than in the countryside. Of the many lessons being learnt from past urban-development failures, one of the most important is that improvements must involve local people in a meaningful way. Even when it comes to the poorest slumdwellers, some governments and city authorities are realizing that people are their own greatest assets. Slumdwellers International is a collection of "grassroots" federations of people living in slums. Its idea is simple. Slum-dwellers in a particular place get together and form a federation to strengthen local savings and credit schemes, and to lobby for greater co- operation with the authorities. Such federations are having a big impact on slum-upgrading schemes around the world. By surveying local needs and acting as voices for slum-dwellers, these federations have been able to show the authorities that slum- dwellers are not simply a homogenous and anonymous mass of urban poor, but are real people in need of real services. They have also been able to apply pressure for improvements in security of tenure-- either through temporary guarantees of residency or, better still, formal ownership. Such secure tenure gives people an incentive to improve their dwellings and is thus the crucial first step to upgrading a slum into a suburb. Over the past six years, South Africa's government has been pursuing an active programme of housing improvement. The government quickly realized that, with the poor in the majority, providing social housing for all would be impossible. The minister for housing, Sakie Mthembi-Mahanyele, says the approach that has worked so far has been a combination of government, the private sector and the poor themselves. The poor, says Mrs Mthembi-Mahanyele, have responsibilities, and the government meets them halfway. Those with an income are expected to contribute some of it to the building of their houses. Those without are asked to contribute "sweat equity" by helping to build with their own hands. South Africa has also transferred ownership of more than 380,000 council houses, worth more than 28 billion rand ($2.7 billion) to private individuals. With these houses as collateral for loans, owners have already started to upgrade and improve their properties. There is still a long way to go. An estimated 2-3 million more houses are needed. She adds that the government is still wrestling with financial institutions to get a better deal for the poor. 1. The passage is mainly concerned with ______. A) the side effects of urbanization B) megacities in developing countries C) the causes behind immigration to cities D) ways to slow down the pace of immigration 2. It can be inferred from the passage that Nairobi is ______. A) a megacity with slums B) a palace of hunger and conflict C) an industrialized city D) a rural area with a surplus population 3. Anna Tibaijuka (para. 5) and Michael Mutter (para.7) seem to differ over ______. A) the benefits of urbanization B) the process of urbanization C) the causes of urbanization D) the cost of urbanization 4. According to the passage, some slumdwellers are not interested in improving their environments because they ______。 A) are unsure of their residency B) dislike urbanization C) are used to the president environment D) are homogeneous and anonymous Text B Few material things in life are more exciting than the right kind of hotel room. The kind with a large television and a well-stocked video collection; with a minibar laden with jelly beans and paprika- flavoured crisps; with a bathroom decked with fluffy white towels, robes and a collection of miniature bottles of shampoo; with a thick room-service menu offering all-night dining. The chance to stay in a nice hotel can be capable of convincing even the inconsolable that life is worth living. The best hotel rooms achieve their distinctive charm in part because they combine the advantages of a modern commercial environment, and all the newness and shininess we associate with them, with the advantages of home where we can wander around naked, pick our noses with impunity and feel private and unwatched. For a few nights, the place we call home resembles an idealised version of what our own homes might be like, if only we could afford to repair the cracks in the walls and change all the furniture. To stay in one of the Ian Shrager hotels -- St. Martins Lane or Sanderson in London, for example -- feels like stepping into a shiny and perfect magazine world. With their brisk efficiency and soothing colour schemes, these hotels allow us to think of life as something that might for ever be beautiful, calm and comprehensible. Good hotels are also a profound source of a feeling of love. How might a word generally used only in relation to what we get from a parent or a romantic companion be applied to something we might be offered by a hotel? Perhaps we could define love as a kind of attentiveness; a sensitivity by one person to another's existence. Advertisements for the Four Seasons hotel chain constantly emphasize the love that is showered on its guests; we see a maid hunting for just the right pillow, so that sleep of guests will be deep and soul- restoring--the kind of care we might last have experienced when we were ill as a child and pampered in bed by a devoted parent who brought toast soldiers and allowed us to watch television all day. Hotel rooms can be wonderful places in which to think. It is no coincidence that many of the 20th Century's greatest novels were written in hotel rooms. An unfamiliar setting offers an opportunity to escape our habits of mind: lying in bed, the room quiet except for the occasional swooshing of an elevator in the innards of the building, we can draw a lien under what preceded our arrival, and we can overfly great and ignored stretches of our experience. All that said, there can be nothing worse than finding that one is not happy in a beautiful hotel, I recall going to stay at the Old Cataract in Aswan, Egypt, with a girlfriend a few years ago. The setting was idyllic, and yet one day at lunch, we managed to have an argument (about nothing) in the hotel dining room, which spoilt the entire experience. We tell into a deep sulk and returned to our room. It had been cleaned in our absence. The bed had fresh linen. There were flowers on the chest of drawers and new towels in the bathroom. I tore one from the pile and went to sit on the veranda, closing the French windows violently. The trees were throwing a gentle shade, the crisscross patterns of the palms occasionally rearranging themselves in the afternoon breeze. But there was no pleasure in such beauty. It had become irrelevant that there were soft towels, flowers and attractive views. My mood refused to be lifted by any external prop; it even felt insulted by the perfection of the hotel. The misery of that afternoon was a reminder of the fickle nature of our spirits. When we encounter a picture of a beautiful hotel, and imagine that happiness must naturally accompany such magnificence, we should remember how quickly it can be made insignificant by one sulk. And yet, of course, that should never be enough to stop us checking in. 5. In a nice hotel one can enjoy which of the following advantages of home? A) A sense of ownership. B) Closeness to family members. C) Privacy. D) A sense of belonging. 6. Love in a nice hotel is closest to which of the following? A) Brotherly love. B) Romantic love. C) Sexual love. D) Parental love. 7. All of the following explains why one can think better in a nice hotel EXCEPT ______. A) one is little distracted by the environment B) one is in an better mood C) one need not be preoccupied with what happened before he arrived D) one is able to reflect on his entire life 8. The information contained in the last few paragraphs is most valuable to someone who ______. A) believes that living in a nice hotel is always a happy experience B) often stays at hotels with idyllic settings C) wants to enjoy the modem commercial environment D) has often been disappointed by hotel life Text C Of all the dreary demystification of female experience advanced by feminists, surely one of the silliest is the claim that the heroines of girls' classics helped turn generations of admiring readers into milksops. Yet that is the thesis of Deborah O'Keefe's Good Girl Messages: How Young Women Were Misled by Their Favorite Books. A former professor of English at Vassar and Manhattanville, O'Keefe would persuade us that "many girls were damaged by characters, plots, and themes in the books they read and loved," because in these books "female virtue" is invariably bound up with "sit-still, look- good messages." Arguing from supposedly stereotypical literary scenes depictions of mothers making their daughters feel safe and loved, for example-- along with ominous anecdotes attempting to show how the women of her own generation are passive and pliant, O'Keefe insists that until about 1950, a vast literary conspiracy was trying to suck the brains and spirit out of little girls. What is impressive about this contention is the boldness of its inversion of reality. Indeed, O'Keefe does her readers a favor by sending us scurrying to our shelves to pore through half-forgotten, well-loved stories and confirm that, sure enough, the exact opposite is tree: The great girls' books of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (many of them further popularized in film, television, and stage versions) are filled with active, vibrant young women notable for their moral strength. These novels celebrate character in girls and women in a way that their contemporary counterparts, filled with characters brooding over nasty boys and weight problems, seldom do. To revisit the girls' classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, actually, is to enter a heroines' hall of fame. This doesn't stop O'Keefe from disparaging characters like "brave but passive" Sara Crewe. The central figure in A Little Princes (1950) by the English-born American writer Frances Hodgson Burnett, best, known for The Secret Garden (1911), Sara endures hardship, including her beloved father's death and her resulting poverty, in a way that ahs inspired girls for a century. "You have to bear things," Sara explains to a friend early in the story, when her father has left her at boarding school. "Think what soldiers bear! Papa is a soldier. If there was a war he would have to bear marching and thirstiness and, perhaps, deep wounds. And he would never say a word -- not one word." This kind of stoicism is bad, O'Keefe explains, because eleven- year-old Sara doesn't escape her awful situation on her own, but merely suffers until a heroic male, her father's old friend, rescues her. Besides, isn't there something sinister, O'Keefe insinuates, about this "father-worship" ? Yet it would be hard for parents to provide their daughters a better model of generosity and resourcefulness than Sara Crewe. With the help of a few friends and a vivid imagination, she creates an inner life as a "princess" that helps her endure the worst circumstances with dignity. In the books' most moving scene, Sara uses a coin she has found to buy six buns, then gives five of them to a beggar girl who is even hungrier than she is. Sara was talking to herself, though she was sick at heart. "If I'm a princess," she was saying, "If I'm a princess -- when they were poor and driven from their thrones -- they always shared -- with the populace -- if they met one poorer and hungrier than themselves." Sara's imaginary royalty gives definition to her private sense of who she is: one held to a very high standard. He notion about princesses (whether or not Burnett intended it) reflects the Biblical concept, second nature to nineteenth century readers, that the greatest of all is the person who serves others. It makes Sara so attractive that her story has never gone out of print. Deborah O'Keefe notwithstanding, young women should be encouraged to do what many of them already are doing: read the classic girls' stories and great novels. Their parents and teachers and all the other adults in their lives, meanwhile, should wake up to the vital importance of reinforcing the lessons in femininity and character that these old books are now almost alone in teaching. 9. We learn from the first paragraph that ______. A) feminists support the values of girls' classics B) feminists mystify the roles of girls' classics C) Deborah O'Keefe echoes the feminists' claim D) Deborah O'Keefe is a staunch feminist 10. According to the second paragraph, the author seems to imply that ______. A) O'Keefe believes strongly in traditional female virtue B) O'Keefe is not familiar with girls' books C) O'Keefe's book lacks a strong case for her argument D) O'Keefe's book lacks clear purpose 11. O'Keefe believes that Sara Crewe ______. A) is a victim of the male dominance B) lacks initiative C) hates royal figures D) is selfish 12. According to the author, Sara Crewe is ______. A) sexist B) fatalistic C) ambitious D) altruistic Text D In the wars over information technology in the university, I am a neutral. I am neither an enthusiast nor a critic but a realist. Realists have it hard: they don't have an easy rhetoric they can use, and they don't fit into the conventional "pro versus con" story frame within which these disputes are narrated. I know people in both camps, though I admit that I find the extremists in the enthusiasts' camp much more insufferable than the extremists in the critics' camp. In talking to both camps, I have noticed a pattern. Many people on both sides imagine themselves to be a small and embattled minority pushing up against the inertia of established institutions. The enthusiasts, many of them, are individual faculty and researchers who are depressed at the difficulty of persuading their institutions to support large-scale initiatives in this area, and at their colleagues who remain focused on their individual research topics and not on the urgent work of revolutionizing the institution to take advantage of the technology. The critics, many of them, are likewise individual faculty and researchers who see university administrations acting like corporations and entering into partnerships with corporations to create commercialized cyber universities with no regard for the faculty, or for what education really means. Although these views seem like opposites, they come remarkably close to both being right. I want to transcend what they have in common -- a sense of futility that derives from an inefficiency of imagination. Not everyone fits these two patterns, of course. Some universities do have technology enthusiasts who are running significant programs online, for example degree programs that have students in Singapore. And a remarkable number of critically minded people have had a hand in shaping either the technology or their own institutions' use of it. Andrew Feenberg of San Diego State is an example; he did some the first, if not the very first, experiments with online teaching almost twenty years ago. Mike Cole at UC San Diego has been running classes at multiple UC campuses over video links. There are others. These people are not anti- technology; that is not what "critical" means to them. Rather, they want to ensure that the technology is used in a way that fits with serious ideas about education, so that the technology itself does not drive educational theory or practice. Although I am friends with many people in this latter camp, my work does not fit into any camp. I do often use technology in interesting ways in my classes, but I am not trying to change the world by doing so. Instead, my work in this area is mainly analytical and normative. I want to sketch a structure of ideas from which we might work in reinventing the university in the wired world. I am not trying to shape technology in a direct way; rather, I want to shape imagination -- imagination not just about technology, but about the larger unit of analysis that includes both the technology itself and the institutions within which it is embedded. My work is also distinct from the valuable community that conducts research on organizational informatics -- the institutional dynamics, largely cognitive and political in nature, that affect how information technology gets used in particular organizational contexts. These people focus squarely on the political processes that shape information technology: office politics, for example, or the politics that are shaping the development of online publishing, as in Rob Kling's current work at Indiana. Such work is thoroughly needed, but it's not what I'm doing. I'm focused on prescription and imagination -- not "how is it done?" but "how should it be done?". We often think of imagination as an escape from reality, but that's not what I mean. I want to develop a realistic imagination, one that is informed by the real dynamics of institutions, by the real grindings of power politics. I want to intervene in these politics, providing the raw imaginative material that will be needed by anyone who is trying to set things straight. 13. What do those involved in the wars over information technology in the university have in common? A) They are unhappy with established institutions. B) They are detached for individual faculty and researchers. C) They are self-interested. D) They embrace the commercialization of the university. 14. The critics' camp is worried that ______. A) education may suffer in the wake of technology B) anti-technology sentiment is growing C) politics may shape technology D) education may not keep up with technology 15. The author is most interested in ______. A) mediating between the two camps B) using technology in an interesting way C) discarding technology in favor of individual scholarly work D) providing guidelines for the university to benefit from technology Text E Something has been happening to the concept of "fiction," both in critical discourse and elsewhere. For a long time, this concept operated under commonly understood restrictions. It was used to refer (1) to a certain genre of literature; (2) to a certain aspect of literature in general-- the element of plot, action, or fable, including such constituents as character, setting, scene, and so on; (3) to any narrative or story containing a large element of invention. But recently, the concept of "fiction" has undergone an expansion. Though still used to refer to the action or plot of literary works, it has come to be applied to something more: to the ideas, themes, and beliefs that are embodied in the action or plot. It is not only the events in literature that are regarded as fictive but the "message" or "world view" conveyed in the presentation of the events as well. And this is not the end of the matter. Going a step farther, critics now sometimes suggest, by kind of tautology, that literary meanings are fictions because all meanings are fictions, even those of nonliterary language, including the language of criticism. In these most extreme flights, this critical view asserts that "life" and "reality" are themselves fictions. 16. When the author says that something has been happening to the concept of "fiction", he means that the concept of "fiction" ______. A) only operates under commonly understood restrictions B) has recently been expanded C) is applied to something different D) is undergoing a change only in critical discourse 17. That "life" and "reality" are themselves fictions ______. A) is what people generally believe today B) is considered true by all literary critics C) is only the opinion held by very few critics D) is not the end of the matter Text F Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way; If a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government a jealous surveillance over enact other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured whether they are actually on the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace. Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; while the magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbour, so that to the citizen the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own. If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of an enemy may occasionally profit by our liberality; trusting less in system and policy than to the native spirit of our citizens; while in education, where our rivals from their very, cradles by a painful discipline seek after manliness, here we live exactly as we please, and yet are just as ready to encounter every legitimate danger. So spoke Pericles to the Athenians many centuries before Christ. 18. According to this passage, what is the most important definition of democracy? A) The ancient Athenians' constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states. B) The ancient Athenians' administration" favours the many instead of the few. C) The ancient Athenians are examples to others rather than imitators ourselves. D) The ancient Athenians have all the features of A, B and C. 19. Class consideration is not allowed to interfere with citizens' ______. A) strong points and ability B) privacy C) demonstration D) speech 20. The magnitude of Athens draws the ______ into its harbor. A) the people of Asia B) animals of Europe C) fruits of Africa D) high-quality products of the world Exercise Two In this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet. Text A Story telling is an ancient and honored art. Story tellers entertained during the long dark hours before sleep arrived after the sun disappeared over the western horizon. But the story teller's job is more than just entertainment. Before the printed page appeared, story tellers provided cultural continuity, preserving the past to serve as guide through the future. Story tellers told tales of heroes to provide positive examples, the legends that held the tribe together and provided its identity, and the stories of foolish or evil beings to remind young and old the penalties for not living correctly. Even behavior too horrible to speak of directly, such as cannibalism, cowardice or death, could be examined through the mediation of a story. Even today, books, magazines, radio, television and movies still have not replaced the story teller. None of these permanent, reproducible media are able to deliver a personal, individualized message with the impact of a well told story. Whether the purpose of a story is to set a mood, to entertain, to teach a lesson, to amuse or to scare, nothing works like a good story, at the right moment. A story with an obvious message concerning the results of another persons' misbehavior can deliver a warning and deterrent that a direct confrontation can not produce and the story will do so without hurting egos. A positive relationship can be maintained and, sometimes, even strengthened while still delivering an unwelcome message. This is the power of the story teller. Not every story will fit every situation. The story teller needs to select a story which will meet the needs of the situation and then the story teller must tailor the story to fit the time available, the age of the audience, the location and the mood desired. A good story choice will capture the interest of the audience. Audience members will relate to a location, experience or emotion that they share in common with the story teller and will suspend disbelief long enough to be drawn into the story as it unfolds. Good stories build to a climax with a beginning, a middle and an end. The elements of the story revealed in each section will lead to the next. Predicaments and solutions will depend on the details of the story revealed in an earlier section. However, better stories may add a twist to make the ending unexpected and, therefore, more interesting. Scary stories should be matched to the age of the audience. A little feeling of fright as the story is told may be beneficial in learning how to deal with scary things, but the use of lingering fear that is carried away from the story is simply terrorizing a susceptible person and helps no one. It is the responsibility of the story teller to determine what is appropriate and not to abuse the audience's good faith. Stories can come from nearly anywhere. Folk tales, myths, legends, history (especially local history), Indian stories, adventure yarns and other story tellers are all sources of inspiration. A short listing of collected stories is appended along with several examples of good stories. However, the best sources of stories for good story tellers are their own experiences. When inspiration and opportunity unite, a story is ready to be born. No matter what the source, the best stories are those of which the story teller has some personal experience or knowledge. This can be combined with other sources and a little practice to produce the tale to be told. When personal experience is the base on which a story is built, the story will "ring true" to the audience and have a greater vitality. A dislike of insects crawling on your skin, an encounter with a wild animal or the memory of a weird noise experienced when you were home alone can each provide the experience or feeling that will form the basis of a story. The experience need only be a wee part of the story, but that can be enough. When you have chosen a source from a book or another story teller, learn the story thoroughly before giving it publicly. Do not memorize the story! Memorize the outline and flow of the story. Take special note of key points, events and names that the story hinges on. Also note where and how they fit in the narrative. If there are key phrases make sure you anchor them in your memory so they come out naturally where they should. Don't try to deliver a story verbatim; a story should be told in your own words. Make the story a part of you and then share that part with your audience. Live the story as you tell it. As you continue, you will find that telling a story is more than choosing the right words to say, and it also involves establishing your presence. When you are the story teller, you are in control. Walk confidently forward to your place, stand, pause, relax, gather your thoughts and become part of your story as you build anticipation, wait for quiet and attention, and then and only then, quietly start your story. Try not to explain what you are about to do, instead choose a first sentence that will capture the audience's interest. Speak slowly in your normal voice, establish a tempo and a mood appropriate to your story. Use gestures as needed, but avoid gestures that distract from the story. Use your words and their visual images to carry the audience along. Establish contact with your audience, and watch their body language and responses. Use these to guide and pace your delivery. Live the story as you tell it. 1. According to the passage, the purposes of story telling include all of the following EXCEPT ______. A) perpetuate culture B) provide role models C) discourage bad behaviors D) make horrible behaviors honorable 2. Compared with the media, which of the following is NOT true of story telling? A) More personal. B) More effective. C) Less blunt. D) Less time-consuming. 3. The best source of your story is ______. A) folk tales B) the media C) other story tellers D) your experiences 4. To deliver a story, you should do all of the following EXCEPT ______. A) capturing the audience's attention right at the beginning B) making as few gestures as possible C) appealing to the audience's sense of sight D) monitoring feedback from the audience Text B One of the first lessons that you learn if you want to be a painter is that it takes only a few basic colors to mix just about any conceivable color. And once that fundamental skill has been acquired, mixing colors, which is well nigh impossible for the uninitiated, becomes practically automatic, almost as easy as tiding a bike. As for what colors can do, singly or in combination, this only becomes more mysterious the longer an artist works. Much of the mystery is buried deep in the nitty-gritty of technique. The impact of color, the very nature of color, is experienced in relation to other colors and also in relation to a medium. A certain red pigment, for example, will make an utterly different impression if it is presented in a water-based or oil-based medium, in a scumbled or impastoed fashion, as a mark left by a stick of pastel, as ink printed from an etching plate or a woodblock. And all of this still leaves aside the emotional or poetic or psychological ramifications of colors -- the question of what this red or that blue suggests or does not suggest, and to whom, and under what conditions. Color, which most of us begin life by regarding as one of the verities, red-yellow-blue being as fundamental as the ABCs, can eventually seem to be an experience of the most radical subjectivity. Artists aim to give that coloristic subjectivity a power that is both immediate and enduring. A walk through New York's galleries will tell you that there are a vast number of ways in which color can be presented to the public. A look through the impressive literature on the development of color in art, which has been growing rapidly in the past decade, will tell you that history prepares us for this situation. Painters who want to pull emotional nuances out of subtly mixed colors will be said by some to be nostalgic for the tonal modulations of another age. Although we may be inclined to think of "modem" color as abstract color -- as color that is detached from representation -- it can be argued that abstract color is at least as old as naturalistic color, embracing both the heraldic imagery of the Middle Ages and the polychrome architecture of ancient times. Nowadays color, which reaches us in so many kinds of keyed-up, eye-popping technologically generated forms, can seem more a matter of "culture" than of "nature." The zingy, cheerfully artificial color that Jeremy Blake uses to considerable effect in the kinetic flood of images that fill his DVD projections is selfevidently computer-based. There are also many painters who, while working with brush and canvas, like to mirror the riot of contemporary color. Trevor Winkfield, who showed new paintings this winter, will strike some gallerygoers as an artist who never met a color he didn't like. 5. We learn in the first paragraph that ______. A) the few basic colors are more important than any mixed color B) mixing colors can be very difficult C) colors have very strong expressive powers D) a single color is more mysterious than colors in combination 6. We can infer from the passage that ______. A) red pigment is more responsive to technique than any other pigment B) the significance of colors can vary from person to person C) red is more suggestive than blue D) mixed colors are closer to reality than the few basic colors 7. Why does the author mention abstract color (para. 3)? A) To point out that abstract color is the most powerful color. B) To illustrate that color has long been presented in vast numbers of ways. C) To make the point that it is very difficult to tell modem color from abstract color. D) To stress the fact the abstract color has been a poor way of presenting color. 8. We can conclude from the last paragraph that ______. A) artists today use colors in greater variety and intensity B) artists today have abandoned traditional colors C) paintings today set out to explain cultural traditions D) computer-generated colors have met with strong resistance from the public Text C There are two ways in which we can think of literary translation: as reproduction, and as recreation. If we think of translation as reproduction, it is a safe and harmless enough business: the translator is a literature processor into which the text to be translated is inserted and out of which it ought to emerge identical, but in another language. But unfortunately the human mind is an imperfect machine, and the goal of precise interlinguistic message transference is never achieved: so the translator offers humble apologies for being capable of producing only a pale shadow of the original. Since all he is doing is copying another's meanings from one language to another, he removes himself from sight so that the writer's genius can shine as brightly as may be. To do this, he uses a neutral, conventionally literary language which ensures that the result will indeed be a pale shadow, in which it is impossible for anybody's genius to shine. Readers also regard the translator as a neutral meaning-conveyor, then attribute the mediocrity of the translation to the original author. Martin Amis, for example, declares that Don Quixote is unreadable. without stopping to think about the consequences of the fact that what he has read or not read is what a translator wrote, not what Cervantes wrote. If we regard literary translation like this, as message transference, we have to conclude that before very long it will be carried out perfectly well by computers. There are many pressures encouraging translators to accept this description of their work, apart from the fact that it is a scientific description and therefore must be right. Tradition is one such additional encouragement, because meaning-transference has been the dominant philosophy and manner of literar3 translation into English for at least three hundred years. The large publishing houses provide further encouragement, since they also expect the translator to be a literature-processor, who not only copies texts but simplifies them as well, eliminating troublesome complexities and manufacturing a readily consumable product for the marketplace. But there is another way in which we can think of literary translation. We can regard the translator not as a passive reproducer of meanings but as an active reader first, and then a creative rewriter of what he has read. This description has the advantages of being more interesting and of corresponding more closely to reality, because a pile of sheets of paper with little squiggly lines on them, glued together along one side. only becomes a work of literature when somebody reads it, and reading is not just a logical process but one involving the whole being: the feelings and the intuitions and the memory and the creative imagination and the whole life experience of the reader. Computers cannot read, they can only scan. And since the combination of all those human components is unique in each person, there are as many Don Quixotes as there are readers of Don Quixote, as Jorge Luis Borges once declared. Any translation of this novel is the translator's account of his reading of it, rather than some inevitably pale shadow of what Cervantes wrote. It will only be a pale shadow if the translator is a dull reader, perhaps as a result of accepting the preconditioning that goes with the role of literature-processor. You may object that what l am advocating is extreme chaotic subjectivism, leading to the conclusion that anything goes, in reading and therefore in translation; but it is not, because reading is guided by its own conventions, the interpersonal roles of the literary game that we internalise as we acquire literary experience. By reference to these, we can agree, by reasoned argument, that some readings are more appropriate than others, and therefore that some translations are better than others. 9. Which of the following is TRUE of translation as reproduction? A) The translator can precisely transfer meaning from one language to another. B) He tries not to have his presence felt. C) He can show the original writer at his or her best. D) The translator actively produces the writer's meanings. 10. The author uses all of the following expressions interchangeably EXCEPT ______. A) literature processor B) message transference C) meaning transference D) chaotic subjectivism 11. According to the author, the quality of translation depends on ______. A) degree of subjectivism B) the reading of the work to be translated C) rules of translation D) linguistic skills of the translator Text D Paper enables a certain kind of thinking. Picture, for instance, the top of your desk. Chances are that you have a keyboard and a computer screen off to one side, and a clear space roughly eighteen inches square in front of your chair. What covers the rest of the desktop is probably piles -- piles of papers, journals, magazines, binders, postcards, videotapes, and all the other artifacts of the knowledge economy. The piles look like a mess, but they aren't. When a group at Apple Computer studied piling behavior several years ago, they found that even the most disorderly piles usually make perfect sense to the piler, and that office workers could hold forth in great detail about the precise history and meaning of their piles. The pile closest to the cleared, eighteen-inch-square working area, for example, generally represents the most urgent business, and within that pile the most important document of all is likely to be at the top. Piles are living, breathing archives. Over time, they get broken down and resorted, sometimes chronologically and sometimes thematically and sometimes chronologically and thematically; clues about certain documents may be physically embedded in the file by, say, stacking a certain piece of paper at an angle or inserting dividers into the stack. But why do we pile documents instead of filing them? Because piles represent the process of active, ongoing thinking. The psychologist Alison Kid argues that "knowledge workers" use the physical space of the desktop to hold "ideas which they cannot yet categorize or even decide how they might use." The messy desk is not necessarily a sign of disorganization. It may be a sign of complexity: those who deal with many unresolved ideas simultaneously cannot sort and file the papers on their desks, because they haven't yet sorted and filed the ideas in theft head. Kidd writes that many of the people she talked to use the papers on their desks as contextual cues to "recover a complex set of threads without difficulty and delay" when they come in on a Monday morning, or after their work has been interrupted by a phone call. What we see when we look at the piles on our desks is, in a sense, the contents of our brains. Sellen and Harper, author of The Myth of the Paperless Office, arrived at similar findings when they did some consulting work with a chocolate manufacturer. The people in the firm they were most interested in were the buyers-the staff who handled the company's relationships with its venders, from cocoa and sugar manufacturers to advertisers. The buyers kept folders (containing contracts, correspondence, meeting notes, and so forth) on every supplier they had dealings with. The company wanted to move the in fort-nation in those documents online, to save space and money, and make it easier for everyone in the firm to have access to it. That sounds like an eminently rational thing to do. But when Sellen and Harper looked at the folders they discovered that they contained all kinds of idiosyncratic material-advertising paraphernalia, printouts of Emails, presentation notes, and letters-much of which had been annotated in the margins with thoughts and amendments and, they write, "perhaps most important, comments about problems and issues with a supplier's performance not intended for the supplier's eyes." The information in each folder was organized if it was organized at all according to the whims of the particular buyer. Whenever other people wanted to look at a document, they generally had to be walked through it by the buyer who "owned" it, because it simply wouldn't make sense otherwise. The much advertised advantage of digitizing documents that they could be made available to anyone, at any time was illusory: documents cannot speak for themselves. "All of this emphasized that most of what constituted a buyer's expertise resulted from involvement with the buyer's own suppliers through a long history of phone calls and meetings," Sellen and Harper write: The correspondence, notes, and other documents such discussions would produce formed a significant part of the documents buyers kept. These materials therefore supported rather than constituted the expertise of the buyers. In other words, the knowledge existed not so much in the documents as in the heads of the people who owned them -- in their memories of what the documents were, in their knowledge of the history of that supplier relationship, and in the recollections that were prompted whenever they went through the files. 12. The best title for the passage is ______. A) Sorting Office Documents B) Meaning in Chaos C) The Importance of Documents D) Desire for Disorder 13. Which of the following is true of piles of documents on an office desk? A) They are always either chronologically or thematically sorted. B) They represent ordered ideas in the brain. C) They can facilitate recovering ideas in the brain. D) They are signs of different personalities. 14. It is not a good idea to move the buyers' documents online because ______. A) the amounts of the documents are enormous B) moving documents online is a costly business C) the documents would seem meaningless D) the documents contain dishonest dealings 15. Which of the following would breathe life into the buyers' documents? A) The buyers' memories. B) The filing of the documents. C) The exposure of the documents to the public. D) The buyers' personalities. Text E There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of man's exploitation of nature than the destruction of the unfortunate great whales. The whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face total extermination. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility of the oceans; a pocket or two somewhere has always managed to escape. How ironic of biological extinction were to complete the job. The basic rule of extinction is very simple: it occurs when a species mortality is continually greater than its recruitment. There are though, some very special additional factors in the case of whales. Man does not actually have to kill the last whales of a species with his own hands, as it were, to cause its disappearance. Biological extinction will quickly follow the end of commercial whaling, should that end be due to a shortage of raw material, i. e. of whales. Whalers have long sought to defend their wretched trade by insisting that whales are automatically protected: as soon as they become rare, and therefore uneconomic to pursue, man will have no choice but to stop the bunting. That is a very nice theory, but it is the theory of an accountant and not of a biologist; only an accountant could apply commercial economics to complex biological systems. The reasons for its absurdity are many and varied. In the case of whaling it can be summed up in the following way. When the stock has been reduced below a critical level, a natural, possibly unstoppable downward spiral begins because of three main factors. First, the animals lucky enough to survive the slaughter will be too scattered to locate one another owing to the vastness of the oceans. Secondly, whales being sociable animals probably need the stimulus of sizeable gatherings to induce reproductive behaviour (which has social inferences as well as sexual). It is quite likely that two individuals meeting through chance will not be compatible. (They can hardly be expected to be aware of their own rarity or to realize any need for adjusting their natural inclinations.) This is especially so with polygamous species like the Sperm Whale. Thirdly, and perhaps most important in the long term, even allowing that the ~whales might still be able to band together in socially acceptable groups (thanks to their undeniably excellent communicative systems), there is a real danger, possibly even a probability, that the whales' gene pools would by then have sunk so low as to be biologically unviable. That is to say, the characteristics possessed by the original population would be whittled down to those characters possessed by only the few remaining individuals. The result of such a biological calamity is inbreeding, less ability to adapt to new conditions, and less individual variety. Three words can sum it up: protracted biological extinction. The future "hopes" of these animals are further discussed in the final chapter. 16. Whalers argue that whales will not become extinct ______. A) because they are not self-protected B) because they are not worth pursuing C) because the oceans are so vast D) because hunting will stop when whales become rare 17. Many species of whales will not breed unless ______. A) they are in the same group for a long term B) they are isolated from other species C) they are in the company of many other whales D) there are enough genes available Text F If you are interested in unusual exports, North Carolina will appeal to you. More than 200 people convicted in the state's courts are now incarcerated in Rhode Island or Oklahoma. The governor of North Carolina, James Hunt, has asked the legislature to authorize the housing of a total of 1,000 convicts in other states' prisons. A temporary measure, explain state officials, until the pressure on their own prisons eases. Yet the mind turns to 18th century Britain's shipping of convicts to Australia, and to James Oglethorpe's establishment of the colony's Georgia in part as a refuge for people released from debtors' prisons. Today's America is dotted with prisons recently built either as private profit-making companies or by governments as "economic- development enterprises". Since December, North Carolina has signed two contracts in Rhode Island, one for housing 75 convicts at the Adult Correctional Institution in Cranston, the other for 230 at the Detention Facility Corporation in Central Falls. It has another contract for 240 convicts with the town of Hinton, Oklahoma, and the Hinton Economic Development authority, and it is negotiating a deal with a private prison near Memphis, Tennessee. The exporting of prisoners, says Franklin Freeman, head of the state's Department of Correction, "is accomplishing our purpose that is, to get more space quickly." This dates back to an agreement the state made in 1988, to settle a federal court suit brought by inmates who complained that North Carolina's prisons were so crowded as to be unconstitutionally inhumane. The state which had been stacking prisoners into three-tier banks, agreed to provide dormitories with 50 square feet per inmate. But this meant keeping the prison population below a total of 21,400 by releasing on parole any number in excess of that. Over the past seven years the average time served by North Carolina's prisoners has dropped from 40% of the original sentences to 18.5%. Since June, 42 people on parole have been charged with murder. All this has led to the policy of exporting prisoners, as well as to a zealous attempt to reduce the amount of crime in the state. Governor Hunt has summoned the legislature into special session to consider his 36-point anti-crime plan, which ranges from more activity after school for adolescents, to stop them getting into trouble on the streets, to stiffer penalties for serious offenders. A new sentencing scheme is already designed, from next year, to provide longer sentences for major crimes. But this. of course, does not thin out the prison population. North Carolina expects to expand its prison capacity to 26,200 by 1996. Meanwhile Michael Easley, the attorney-general, has asked the federal courts to let him cut the prisoners' space ration to 35 square feet apiece, which would give room for an extra 4,000 inmates. The export policy is expensive, it costs North Carolina more to send convicts to other states than to house them in its own prisons. It pays just under $71 a prisoner a day for those at Central Falls in Rhode island, compared with $64 for its own medium-security inmates and $47 for its minimum-security ones. Only those two categories are transported, not the most hardened criminals. Even so, there are jitters in Rhode Island. Ten troublemakers have just been sent back from Central Falls. 18. All the following statements are true about North Carolina's exporting prisoners EXCEPT ______. A) It has signed four contracts for sending prisoners to other states B) It wants to find more space quickly for prisoners C) Many prisoners on parole have committed crimes again D) It is eager to reduce crimes in the state 19. Why did the people in North Carolina want to export prisoners to other states and reduce the prisoners in this state? A) Because they want to keep the prison population below a total number of 21,400. B) Because there are more people on parole charged with murder. C) Because they want to reduce the amount of crime in that state. D) All of the above. 20. The export policy in this passage means ______. A) to send prisoners to other counties B) to send prisoners to other countries C) to send prisoners to other islands D) to send prisoners to other states Exercise Three In this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet. Text A The problem with the nature-nurture debate is that this is an inadequate way of understanding human freedom. Like every other organism, humans are shaped by both nature and nurture. But unlike any other organism, we are also defined by our ability to transcend both, by our capacity to overcome the constraints imposed both by our genetic and our cultural heritage. It is not that human beings have floated free of the laws of causation. It is rather that humans are not simply the passive end result of a chain of causes, whether natural or environmental. We have developed the capacity to intervene actively in both nature and culture, to shape both to our will. To put this another way, humans, uniquely, are subjects as well as objects. We are biological beings, and under the purview of biological and physical laws. But we are also conscious beings with purpose and agency, traits the possession of which allow us to design ways of breaking the constraints of biological and physical laws. All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection, and by the environmental conditions in which they find themselves. No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily designed needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn't ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies south, it doesn't wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals. Our evolutionary heritage certainly shapes the way that humans approach the world. But it does not limit it. Similarly, our cultural heritage influences the ways in which we think about the world and the kinds of questions we ask of it, but it does not imprison them. If membership of a particular culture absolutely shaped our worldview, then historical change would never be possible: If the people of medieval Europe had been totally determined by the worldview sustained by medieval European culture, it would not have been possible for that society to have become anything different. It would not have been possible, for instance, to have developed new ideas about individualism and materialism, or to have created new totals of technology and new political institutions. Human beings are not automata who simply respond blindly to whatever culture in which they find themselves, any more than they are automata that blindly respond to their evolutionary heritage. There is a tension between the way a culture shapes individuals within its purview and the way that those individuals respond to that culture, just as there is a tension between the way natural selection shapes the way that humans think about the world and the way that humans respond to our natural heritage. This tension allows people to think critically and imaginatively, and to look beyond a particular culture's horizons. In the six million years since the human and chimpanzee lines first diverged on either side of Africa's Great Rift Valley, the behaviour and lifestyles of chimpanzees have barely changed. Human behaviour and lifestyles clearly have. Humans have learned to learn from previous generations, to improve upon their work, and to establish a momentum to human life and culture that has taken us from cave art to quantum physics and to the unraveling of the genome. It is this capacity for constant innovation that distinguishes humans from all other animals. All animals have an evolutionary past. Only humans make history. The historical, transformative quality of being human is why the so- called nature-nurture debate, while creating considerable friction, has thrown little light on what it means to be human. To understand human freedom we need to understand not so much whether we are creatures of nature or nurture, but how, despite being shaped by' both nature and nurture, we are also able to transcend both. 1. Which of the following best expresses the theme of the passage? A) Human beings are cultural animals rather than natural animals. B) Human beings are neither natural nor cultural animals. C) Human beings are less susceptible to natural laws than non- human animals. D) Human beings are not bound by natural and cultural heritages. 2. A beaver builds a dam because ______. A) it imitates human behavior B) it tries to find a better way of living C) dam-building is relevant to its evolved needs and goals D) a dam helps a beaver to go beyond its evolutionarily determined circumstances 3. We can infer that those who participate in the nature-nurture debate most probably ______. A) ask questions that are unanswerable by either natural or cultural laws B) refuse to admit that humans are bound by natural or cultural laws C) are very skeptical about human cultural heritage D) subscribe to either biological or cultural determinism Text B I am standing under Hammersmith Bridge looking at something I have known all my life as a Londoner but am beginning to realise that I don't have a clue about. The River Thames has been here a lot longer than the city itself, but it has been keeping its secrets well hidden beneath those familiar muddy tones of green and brown. On a grey afternoon such as this one, the surface of the river is particularly unforgiving, and a tentative dip soon brings me close to fast-running water. This is the sort of stuff that carries people away to a watery doom and I don't want any part of that. But I'm here with an open mind at this family beach party in Hammersmith, part of a series of events in South East Marine Week. It is not a beach party in the traditional sense, needless to say, more an opportunity to get a little gentle education. I had been vaguely aware, over the past few years, that the river was getting cleaner all the time. Its very appearance, it appears, is deceptive, because its colour is a result of the natural silts which are constantly disturbed from the bottom. From being a river that supported no fish at all, it can now boast more than 100 different types. I was aware that the Thames occasionally played host to a well-publicised dolphin or seal, but this diversity was news to me. It is all the result, I was informed, of the fact that the North Sea pours up the river twice a day, bringing with it all the teeming life of those salty depths. I took a deep breath and went for a light dredge with a net. The results didn't look like much at all, but when carefully sifted my sample was teeming with tiny shrimps, which are the basic foodstuff of the river, the tiny little fellows holding the key to the food chain, There were, thankfully, better fishermen here than me, and there was great excitement when someone captured a flounder. Granted, it was about an inch long, but the flounder was otherwise perfect in every detail. Further excitement was to follow, with the capture of the shell of a crab, but that did not last long. The shell belonged to a Chinese Mitten Crab-so-called because it appears to have mittens on its claws. Rachel Hill from the Environment Agency explained to me that it ate everything in its path, suffered no effective predators, and caused havoc by its habit of burrowing into the river banks, which are consequently being eroded. Furthermore, the fact that it was only a shell meant that somewhere not too far away the former occupant was going about its business only this time it would be bigger. This unwanted visitor, a delicacy in the restaurants of Chinatown, is here to stay. Further up the beach, enthusiastic volunteers were coping with another menace, this one of human making. The amount of rubbish on this relatively small stretch of the river was astonishing and depressing. There were the expected plastic bottles and hamburger cartons, tossed away carelessly by idiots. To my surprise, there was also the wheel from a car, complete with tyro. The most sinister items were also among the smallest: slim white sticks which looked as if they might have come from a child's lollipop but are, in fact, cotton buds. The thought occurred that thousands of Londoners must come to the banks of the Thames each morning to clean out their ears. By the end of the afternoon, all this rubbish had been cleared away in a quite astonishing number of black bags, but it would have been better had it not been there in the first place. There was, however, great cause for optimism in the behaviour of the kids who were present. They huddled excitedly round microscopes to look at tiny shrimps and gobies transformed into fearsome-looking creatures. They listened intently as it was explained to them how important it was to keep the river clean. Even the very smallest who were painting their fishy face masks might have gone away with the idea that fish are a good thing and worth looking after. It occurred to me that if the grown-ups persist in behaving like human Chinese Mitten Crabs, then it will be down to the coming generations to ensure that the good work which has already been done on this great river is not to be wasted. 4. The author wanted to find out ______. A) what causes the muddy surface of the River Thames B) what children can learn about the history of the River Thames C) the diversity offish in the River Thames D) what was there under the River Thames 5. Which of the following poses a threat to the River Thames? A) Fish that come from the North Sea. B) Tiny shrimps. C) Flounders. D) Chinese Mitten Crabs. 6. Which of the following is NOT true of the river Thames? A) It is not safe to swim in it. B) It looks dirtier than it really is. C) It is not clean enough to support a large variety offish. D) It is used by some people as a kind of dumping ground. 7. How does the author feel about the condition of the River Thames? A) Worried but hopeful. B) Pessimistic. C) Uncaring and indifferent. D) Extremely satisfied. Text C Lately, everybody from industrial designers to city planners claims to be looking after our aesthetic interests, and there is ample anecdotal evidence that, on the margin, people do put a higher premium on the look and feel of things than they once did. That is to be expected as society grows richer. But aesthetics is not the only value -- trade-offs must be made -- and aesthetic value is hard to measure. What is "it," after all? Aesthetics doesn't come in neat units like microprocessor speed, calories, or tons of steel. Style is qualitative. The value of qualitative improvements poses tricky problems for economists. It is a major challenge to tease out how much consumers value each individual attribute that comes bundled in a given good or service. If you pay $2.99 for a toothbrush, how much of that is for the cleaning ability? How much for the feel of the handle? How much for the durability? How much for the packaging? How much for the convenient distribution to your comer drugstore? How much for the color? Economists use statistical techniques called "hedonic pricing" to try to separate the implicit prices of various characteristics. Essentially, they look at how prices go up or down as features are added or subtracted and try to figure out how consumers value the individual features. How much will consumers pay for an extra megahertz of computing speed, for instance? Not every characteristic is as easily measured as megahertz. The trickier the measurement, the more difficult the problem. For aesthetics, economists generally don't even try. It's just too hard. How do you account for the restaurant d écor or subtle enhancements in the taste of the food? How do you measure the increased value of a typeset resume, memo or client newsletter -- the result of ubiquitous word processors -- over an old-fashioned typed document? That sort of detail is simply lost in crude economic statistics. Many product characteristics -- from convenience to snob appeal to aesthetics -- are hard to quantify and so tend to be undercounted. The result is that the standard of living can change for the better without much notice. That is especially likely if products improve without becoming more expensive. Consumers are happier, but if they aren't spending more money, no revenue increase shows up in the productivity statistics. This isn't unusual in competitive markets. Shopping malls redecorate, and newspapers adopt color printing just to keep up with the competition. They aren't able to charge more. They are just able to stay in business. When thinking about new products, producers face two challenges. First, they need to offer something whose value to the consumer is greater than its cost to produce and distribute. Increasing the surplus of value minus cost is where both higher living standards and higher profits come from. It is the measure of real economic improvement. The second challenge is, of course, to price the offering to maximize profit. As a general matter, aesthetics sells. But "as a general matter" obscures all the specifics that make or break a product: What exact design will you use? How will you manufacture it? What will you charge? And, given those decisions, how will customers respond? The answers can't be found through a blackboard exercise. Price theory is a useful tool, but we can't know in advance how much people will value the characteristics of a product they haven't yet seen or compared with real alternatives. Even market research, while helpful, cannot duplicate real-life choices. Although we all have fun predicting and second-guessing business ideas, the only way to find out is through trial and error. Market competition is a discovery process that subjects business hypotheses to unsentimental testing. Some managers are better than others at identifying promising new sources of value, and some companies are better than others at operations and pricing -- the skills that determine whether a product that consumers do value will in fact be profitable. Market competition tests these theories and skills. And, like all competitions, this one has its failures, some of them beautiful. Not every attempt at improvement works out. Sometimes value does not exceed cost. Sometimes it does, but managers fall in love with their product, price it too high and drive away potential customers. Sometimes the coolest of the cool just can't survive the heat. With 20/20 hindsight, it is easy to see that the pricey Cube was doomed. But nobody knew that a year ago. 8. The passage is mainly concerned with ______. A) adding aesthetics to products B) increasing surplus of value minus cost C) quantifying product characteristics D) putting business ideas to market testing 9. According to the passage, the standard of living improves when ______. A) products are more aesthetically appealing B) each product characteristic is quantifiable C) there is a surplus of value minus cost D) producers do not charge aesthetic enhancements 10. Which of the following is most probably true of Apple's Cube? A) Customers didn't like the look and feel of it. B) There was no surplus of value minus cost. C) It did not reflect real-life choices. D) It contradicted price theory. Text D David Landes, author of The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor, credits the world's economic and social progress over the last thousand years to "Western civilization and its dissemination." The reason, he believes, is that Europeans invented systematic economic development. Landes adds that three unique aspects of European culture were crucial ingredients in Europe's economic growth. First, science developed as an autonomous method of intellectual inquiry that successfully disengaged itself from the social constraints of organized religion and from the political constraints of centralized authority. Though Europe lacked a political center, its scholars benefited from the use of a single vehicle of communication: Latin. This common tongue facilitated an adversarial discourse in which new ideas about the physical world could be tested, demonstrated, and then accepted across the continent and eventually across the world. Second, Landes espouses a generalized form of Max Weber's thesis that the values of work, initiative, and investment made the difference for Europe. Despite his emphasis on science, Landes does not stress the notion of rationality as such. In his view, "what counts is work, thrift, honesty, patience, [and] tenacity." The only route to economic success for individuals or states is working hard, spending less than you earn, and investing the rest in productive capacity. This is his fundamental explanation of the problem posed by his book's subtitle: "Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor." For historical reasons -- an emphasis on private property, an experience of political pluralism, a temperate climate, an urban style -- Europeans have, on balance, followed those practices and therefore have prospered. Third, and perhaps most important, Europeans were learners. They "learned rather greedily," as Joel Mokyr put it in a review of Landes's book. Even if Europeans possessed indigenous technologies that gave them an advantage (spectacles, for example), as Landes believes they did, their most vital asset was the ability to assimilate knowledge from around the world and put it to use -- as in borrowing the concept of zero and rediscovering Aristotle's Logic from the Arabs and taking paper and gunpowder from the Chinese via the Muslim world. Landes argues that a systematic resistance to learning from other cultures had become the greatest handicap of the Chinese by the eighteenth century and remains the greatest handicap of Arab countries today. Although his analysis of European expansion is almost nonexistent, Landes does not argue that Europeans were beneficent bearers of civilization to a benighted world. Rather, he relies on his own commonsense law: "When one group is strong enough to push another around and stands to gain by it, it will do so." In contrast to the new school of world historians, Landes believes that specific cultural values enabled technological advances that in turn made some Europeans strong enough to dominate people in other parts of the world. Europeans therefore proceeded to do so with great viciousness and cruelty. By focusing on their victimization in this process, Landes holds, some postcolonial states have wasted energy that could have been put into productive work and investment. If one could sum up Landes's advice to these states in one sentence, it might be "Stop whining and get to work." This is particularly important, indeed hopeful, advice, he would argue, because success is not permanent. Advantages are not fixed, gains from trade are unequal, and different societies react differently to market signals. Therefore, not only is there hope for undeveloped countries, but developed countries have little cause to be complacent, because the current situation "will press hard" on them. The thrust of studies like Landes's is to identify those distinctive features of European civilization that lie behind Europe's rise to power and the creation of modernity more generally. Other historians have placed a greater emphasis on such features as liberty, individualism, and Christianity. In a review essay, the art historian Craig Clunas listed some of the less well known linkages that have been proposed between Western culture and modernity, including the propensities to think quantitatively, enjoy pornography. and consume sugar. All such proposals assume the fundamental aptness of the question: What elements of European civilization led to European success? It is a short leap from this assumption to outright triumphalism. The paradigmatic book of this school is, of course, The End of History and the Last Man. in which Francis Fukuyama argues that after the collapse of Nazism in the twentieth century, the only remaining model for human organization in the industrial and communications ages is a combination of market economics and limited, pluralist, democratic government. 11. According to Landes, the main reason that some countries are so poor is that ______. A) they lack work ethic B) they are scientifically backward C) they lack rationality D) they are victimized by colonists 12. Lands believes that ______. A) Europeans set out to bring civilization to an unfortunate world B) the Europeans dominated other countries simply because they were strong C) the desire of Europeans to colonize other countries stemmed from specific cultural values D) the colonized countries themselves were to blame for being victimized by Europeans 13. The cultural elements identified by Landes ______ those identified by other historians. A) subsume B) contradict C) glorify D) complicate 14. "This school" (para. 5) refers to people who ______. A) believe in the absolute superiority of Western culture B) hold drastically different views from Landes C) are very cautious in linking Western culture and modernity D) follow in the footsteps of Nazism and communism 15. In discussing Landes' work, the author's tone is ______. A) matter-of-fact B) skeptical C) reproachful D) enthusiastic Text E India is being invaded by Kentucky Fried Chicken. That, at least, was the charge made last week by a nationalist group, which sought to shut down the fast-food chain's first outlet in India on the ground that American "junk food" is beneath local health standards. But the cry of fowl play was nothing next to the outrage that many Indians felt when they learned that another US multinational, W. R. Grace & Co., had allegedly patented and claimed rights to their revered neem tree. Known in Sanskrit as Sarva Rogo Nivarini, or "curer of all ailments," the so-called miracle tree has served for millennia as a kind of comer drugstore to rural Indians. The neem's leaves and bark are used to heal ailments from acne to infections to diabetes; its seeds can become pesticides. Its twigs even make a good rustic toothbrush. As the news spread, dozens of groups held seminars and meetings to vent their anger against W. R. Grace, the Florida-based chemicals conglomerate. "Patenting neem is like patenting cow dung!" thundered one Indian parliamentarian, George Fernades, the source of much of the agitation was Jeremy Rifkin, a vocal US opponent of genetic engineering, and Vandana Shiva, director of India's Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resources. In Washington, they and others submitted a petition to the US Patent and Trademark Office with some 100, 000 signatures asking that Grace's patent be overturned. Rifkin asserted that the company's hijacking of the neem tree's chemical properties "is the first case of genetic c01onialism." It's no fun being a multinational corporation in India these days. After four years of rapid-fire market openings, the nation is undergoing a convulsive backlash against foreigners. Not coincidentally, this is happening just as India is reaching record levels of foreign investment -- $2 billion already this year, double the amount in 1994. Led by the Bharatiya Janata Party and other nationalist groups, enemies of Prime Minister R V. Narasimha Rao's reformist administration are rallying around a classic Indian political banner: xenophobia. Last month a new nationalist government in the industrial state of Maharashtra reneged on a contracted signed more than three years ago with Enron Corp. to build a major power plant near Bombay. Other protests have struck Indian operations of McDonald's and Pizza Hut. Many foreign companies insist the world's largest democracy still has too much potential to pass up: Ford Motor Co., for example, last week announced an $800 million plan to build cars in Nashik. But with national elections just seven months away, things are likely to get much worse before they improve. 16. Which of the following is the most important factor that makes Indians opposed to the patenting of the neem tree? A) Nationalism. B) Awareness of environmental protection. C) Fear of the neem tree. D) Hatred of foreigners. 17. We may understand from the end of the passage that many foreign companies insist that ______. A) India should not give up opportunities to develop itself B) India has a great deal of potential to develop its economy C) there is still a lot of potential for foreign investment to enter India D) India as the world's largest democracy should have the responsibility to absorb foreign investment 18. By the statement that "the nation is undergoing a convulsive backlash against foreigners", the author wants to convey ______. A) the Indians have a mixed feeling about foreigners B) the Indians begin to dislike foreigners C) the Indians open their arms to welcome foreigners D) the Indians shut their doors to foreigners Text F A widely heralded but still experimental cancer-fighting compound may be used someday to prevent two other major killers of Americans: heart disease and stroke. That was the implication of a remarkable report published last week in the journal Circulation by a team of researchers from Dr. Judah Folkman's laboratory at the Children's Hospital in Boston. The versatile compound is endostatin, a human protein that inhibits angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels in the body. In tests reported in 1997 by Folkman, a prominent cancer researcher who pioneered the study of angiogenesis, the drug had reduced and even eradicated tumors in laboratory mice. How? By stunting the growth of capillaries necessary for nourishing the burgeoning mouse tumors. When news of Folkman's achievement became widely known last year, it led to wildly exaggerated predictions of imminent cancer cures. When other scientists were initially unable to duplicate those results, question arose about the validity of folkman's research. Then in February scientists at the National Cancer Institute, with guidance from Folkman, finally matched his results, reassured, the N.C.I. gave the go-ahead for clinical trials of endostation later this year on patients with advanced tumors. How can a drug that is apparently effective against tumors also reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke? The answer lies in the composition of plaque, the fatty deposit that builds up in arteries and can eventually clog them. Plaque consists of a mix of cholesterol, white blood cells and smooth muscle cells, and as it accumulates, a network of capillaries sprouts from the artery walls to nourish the cell. Could endostatin halt the growth of capillaries and starve the plaque? A Folkman lab team led by Dr. Karen Moulton decided to find out. The scientists put baby lab mice on a 16-week "western diet" that was high in fat and cholesterol, then measured the plaque buildup on the walls of each aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Meanwhile, they inject one group of mice with endostatin, another with a different blood-vessel inhibitor call TNP-470and a control group with an inert saline solution. Twenty weeks later the researchers again measured plague in the mouse aortas. The results were startling: the endostatin group averaged 85% less plaque buildup and the TNP-470 group 70% less than those in the control group. All too aware of the premature hopes raised last year after Folkman's tumor report, the researchers have been careful not to oversell the new results. "If this finding is supported in future studies," says Moulton, "(it could open the way for) treatments that could delay the progression of heart disease and possible reduce the incidence of heart attacks and strokes." But any such treatments, she stresses, are probably five to ten years away. 19. Why are the researchers so careful about assessing the results of the new experiment? A) Because they have no idea what the new medicine can do. B) Because they only want to use the new medicine for cancer treatment. C) Because they are not quite sure about the efficacy of the new medicine for heart disease. D) Because they do not want to sell too much of the new medicine. 20. What does the word "capillaries" in paragraph 2 mean? A) One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles. B) One of the main blood vessels that connect venules. C) One of the main blood vessels that connect arterioles. D) One of the minute blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules. 答案及解析 Exercise One Text A 1．[答案] B。主旨题。本文主要讨论了发展中国家大城市中的一些问题。 都市化是一种趋势，人们因此而从中受益。但是在这过程中会有一些问题。如 发展中国家大城市所面临的移民问题以及对城市发展重视不够等问题。文章还 讨论了一些大城市发展过程中的经验教训，并用南非的例子来说明政府怎样来 改善大城市居民的生活。 2．[答案] A。推理题。根据文章第 4 段，历史上的曼彻斯特和今天的内罗 毕一样，都存在着贫民窟，但人们以同样的理由进入曼彻斯特，因为城市的机 会要大于农村。因此我们可以推断，内罗毕是一个条件并不完善的大城市，选 项 A 正确答案。 3．[答案] C。推理题。Anna Tibaijuka 认为，人们涌入城市是为了逃避 饥饿和动荡，因此这样的都市化是不成熟的；Michael Mutter 则认为，人们涌 入城市是因为农村的承受能力已经饱和，剩余人口要另谋生路。因此选 C 为正 确答案。 4．[答案] A。细节题。根据第 10 段，一些贫民窟居民联盟通过施加压力 来争取贫民窟居民的永久居住权和所有权，这样人们才有积极性来改变自己的 居住环境。因此选项 A 正确答案。 Text B 5．[答案] C。根据第 2 段第 1 句，人们在客房里可以像在家里一样不受到 外界的注目。选项 C 为正确答案。 6．[答案] D。根据第 3 段。酒店里的爱是一种关照，使人们感受到小时候 大人的关爱。选项 D 为正确答案。 7．[答案] B。根据第 4 段第 2 句，在客房里，除了电梯的声音一切都是安 静的：人们可以不去思考进驻酒店以前所发生的事情；人们可以重新审视一生 中辉煌和被忽略的经历。文章没有提到人们的心情。所以选项 B 为正确答案。 8．[答案] A。在文章最后几段，作者以亲身经历说明再好的旅馆也有不愉 快的时候，因此选项 A 为正确答案。 Text C 9．[答案] C。根据第 1 段，女权主义者认为，少女文学读物中的主人公使 其读者成为懦弱的人，而这一观点是 Deborah O'Keefe 著作中的主题。因此选 项 C 为正确答案。 10．[答案] C。根据第 2 段第 2 句，Deborah O'Keffe 的观点是建立在文 学作品中一些刻板的描述和一些试图说明她那一代妇女软弱的不幸事件。因 此，作者很有可能认为，Deborah O'Keefe 的观点的论据是不充分的。选项 C 为正确答案。 11．[答案] B。根据第 5 段第 1 句，Deborah O'Keefe 认为，Sara Crewe 不是主动摆脱困境，而是一味地忍受，直到有勇敢的男人来拯救自己。选项 B 为正确答案。 12．[答案] D。根据第 8 段，Sara Crewe 把自己当作公主，这反映了 19 世纪读者广泛接受的观点，即助人为乐。因此，选 D 为正确答案。 Text D 13．[答案] A。该题要求理解第 1、2 段中的内容。卷入有关信息技术纷争 的两派人有一个共同的特点，即都把自己看作是一个和现行机构进行抗争的弱 小集团。选项 A 为正确答案。 14．[答案] A。根据第 2 段倒数第 3 句，对大学信息技术持批评意见和一 方看到学校的管理部门就像企业一样——学校变成商业化的赛百大学，不重视 教员，也不重视教育的目的和作用。 15．[答案] D。根据第 4 段第 2、3 句，作者的工作是进行分析和建立规 范；是建立一种能够在信息世界重新改造大学的思想体系；在第 5 段第 52 句， 作者再次提到，他所关心的是建立规范。 Text E 16．[答案] B。作者在文章的前半部分论述了”虚构”作品的概念。作者 指出，”虚构”作品的概念虽然仍然主要指文学作品中的故事情节，但这一概 念在最近一段时间已经逐步扩大到了这些故事情节背后所体现的思想、主题、 信仰等内容。本题属于主旨理解题。因此，选项 B 为正确答案。 17．[答案] C。该题属于推论题。在文章的后半段，作者介绍了某些评论 家的比较极端的观点：”生活”与”现实”本身就是虚构的。作者用了”最极 端的说法”(the most extreme flights)来特别强调某些人的”曲高和寡”。 选项 C 应为正确答案。 Text F 18．[答案] D。该题属于主旨题。在文章的第一部分，作者明确表明了其 心目中民主的含义，既不模仿他人的法律，也不模仿他人的行为，而是为他人 做出表率，而且更为重要的是要为大多数人谋利益。这几方面都是民主的内容 范围。都是不可缺少的组成部分。选项 D 应为正确答案。 19．[答案] A。该题要求读者明白文章的中心含义。只要公民有突出的才 能与爱心为国服务，其贫寒的出身与背景并不应妨碍他为国家贡献自己的才 华。选项 A 应为正确答案。 20．[答案] D。该题属于推导题。作者充分展示了古代希腊人的优秀品 质，他们热情好客，他们思想开放。正是这些优点吸引了世界各地的客商，各 地的优质产品。选项 D 应为正确答案。 Exercise Two Text A 1．[答案] D。在第 1 段中，作者讨论了讲故事的作用。选项 A 表述了 story tellers provided cultural continuity, preserving the past to serve as guide through the future 这一部分；选项 B 表述了 Story tellers told tales of heroes to provide positive examples 这一部分；选项 D 表 述了 the stories of foolish or evil beings o remind young and old the penalties for not living correctly 这一部分；在该段最后一句，作者的意 思是说，一些忌讳的话题是可以通过讲故事而间接地来进行谈论。所以选项 D 不是讲故事的作用，为正确答案。 2．[答案] D。该题要求理解第 2 段中的内容。这一段说的是媒体和讲故事 之间的差异。选项 A 不是答案：见第 2 句；选项 B 不是答案；根据第 3 句，没 有什么能像讲故事那样适时地起到各种作用；选项 C 不是答案：根据最后两 句，通过讲故事来发出警告或提出意见会不伤对方的面子；选项 D 是答案：文 章没有说讲故事更节省时间。所以选项 D 为正确答案。 3．[答案] D。细节题。答案可在第 5 段中找到："No matter what the source, the best stories are those of which the story teller has some personal experience Or knowledge." 4．[答案] B。该题要求理解最后一段中的内容，选项 A 不是答案：见第 4 句；选项 B 是答案：根据第 6 句，在必要时使用手势，但不要影响故事的内 容；选项 C 不是答案：根据第 7 句，要用视觉形象语言来吸引听众；选项 D 不 是答案：见第 8 句。所以选项 B 是正确答案。 Text B 5．[答案] C。根据第 1 段，虽然调色这件事本身并不难，但要取得何种效 果却是很深奥的。也就是说，颜色具有表现力。选项 C 为正确答案。 6．[答案] B。根据第 2 段，一定的工艺会使颜色产生不同的效果，但颜色 的效果还和情感、想象、心理等因素有关，虽然人们都知道颜色是一种实体， 但最终它似乎是一种主观的感受。因此我们可以推断，颜色的意义因人而异。 选项 B 为正确答案。 7．[答案] B。根据第 3 段，将颜色展现在公众面前的方式是多种多样的， 这并不是什么新鲜事。现代的所谓抽象颜色和自然颜色一样久远，被用在中世 纪的文章图案和古代的多色建筑中。因此作者提到颜色是为了说明颜色的多种 展示方式是过去就有的一种情况。选项 B 为正确答案。 8．[答案] A。根据最后一段，Jeremy Blake 用计算机生成的颜色取得特 殊的效果；Trevor Winkfield 则使用了各种各样的颜色，选项 A 为正确答案。 Text C 9．[答案] B。本题用排除法解题。选项 A 不是答案，见第 2 段第 1 句；选 项 B 是答案，根据第 2 段第 2 句，由于翻译者的工作是把意思从一种语言转换 成另一种语言，这样就可以充分展示原作者的创造能力；选项 C 不是答案，根 据第 2 段最后一句，由于翻译者为了不在翻译作品中留下主观的烙印，他使用 了不带个人色彩的文学语言，其结果是原作者的创造能力没有表现出来；选项 D 不是答案，从第 5 段第 21 句可以看出，翻译不是被动地对意思进行复制。选 项 B 为正确答案。 10．[答案] D。在文章的前半部分，作者主要讨论了翻译如何是被当作一 种简单的复制，选项 A、B、C 是被用来表达同一观点。因此选项 D 为正确答 案。 11．[答案] B。该题要求理解文章后半部分的内容。在这一部分，作者主 要说明了翻译者对文章的解读决定了翻译的质量。选项 B 为正确答案。 Text D 12．[答案] B。本文主要说的是，一些看似杂乱的文件和材料在其主人的 眼里具有重要的意义。选项 B 为正确答案。 13．[答案] C。根据第 2 段倒数第 2 句，桌面上的文件可以帮助人们恢复 思路，选项 C 为正确答案。 14．[答案] C。第 3 段主要讨论了将采购员的文件放到网络上供人查询所 存在的问题。采购员的文件反映了各采购员的个人习惯：人们要看懂采购员的 文件，必须要有采购员在旁边做出说明；文件本身不能说明什么问题。选项 C 为正确答案。 15．[答案] A。根据最后一段，采购员的文件并不构成采购员的知识和专 长。采购员的知识和专长存在于文件的回忆之中。因此，采购员对文件的回忆 才使文件具有意义。选项 A 为正确答案。 Text E 16．[答案] D。作者在文章的第三段介绍了 Whalers 的观点：鲸鱼是根据 其数量多寡自然得到发展或减少的，即数量多，人们自然就会去捕捉，数量减 少濒临灭绝状况时，人们就会自然停止对其的捕捉。(Whalers have long sought to defend their wretched trade by insisting that whales are automatically protected: as soon as they become rare, and therefore uneconomic to pursue, man will have no choice but to stop the hunting. )本题属于主旨理解题。因此，选项 D 为正确答案。 17．[答案] C。该题属于推论题。在文章的后半段，作者介绍了鲸鱼所面 临的日益减少的困境：除非鲸鱼能够生活在群体之中，对于喜欢群体生活的鲸 鱼来说这当然是比较理想的，但事实上这种情况却可能越来越少，因为它们很 难与其他鲸鱼群谋面，因为数量在急剧减少，因此其繁衍的机会就不可避免地 越来越少。因此选项 c 应为正确答案。 Text F 18．[答案] A。从文中第二段可知，北卡罗来纳为将囚犯遣送到其他州而 签了三份合约，另有一份合约仍在商议当中。选项 A 应为正确答案。 19．[答案] D。该题属于推导题。要求读者明白文章第四段的中心含义。 人们为什么要减少在北卡罗来纳的服刑人员，原因比较复杂，肯定不是单一 的。问题 A、B、C 各列举了一种，这几种原因在文章中都有体现。因此选择 D 应为正确答案。 20．[答案] D。该题属于主旨题。作者在此处讲到了州长召集特别立法会 议，在该会议上他提出了一项特别计划。计划主要内容包括为青年人安排更多 的娱乐活动，采取更加严厉的惩罚措施，防止青年人在大街上犯罪等等。所有 这些的目的就是为了减少在该州的犯罪率，把在监狱的服刑人员减少到一定的 范围内。因此选项 D 应为正确答案。 Exercise Three Text A 1．[答案] D。该文的主题通过主题句(thesis sentence)来表达(分别出现 在第 1 段第 3 句和最后一段最后一句)。因此，选项 D 为正确答案。 2．[答案] C。根据第 4、5 段，其他动物受到自然选择所带来的工具和环 境的束缚；没有动物能够超脱周围的环境和进化所决定的需求来做一些不相干 的事情，如探索问题等。例如河狸在筑坝时，它没有问自己为什么要这样做以 及是否有更好的方法。因此，选项 C 为正确答案。 3．[答案] D。根据最后一段，有关先天还是后天的争论主要是关于人类是 由先天决定的还是由后天决定的，因此争论的双方要么赞同生理(先天)决定开 始，要么赞同文化(后天)决定一切。因此选项 D 为正确答案。 Text B 4．[答案] D。在第 1 段第 2 句，作者说泰晤士河下总是藏着什么秘密，而 且文章主要是关于从河底打捞上来的东西和它们的意义。选项 D 为正确答案。 5．[答案] D。根据第 3 段后半部分，Chinese Mitten Crab 在河岸掘洞， 使河岸松动。因此选项 D 为正确答案。 6．[答案] C。选项 A 不是答案：根据第 1 段最后两句，泰晤士河水流湍 急，在这儿游泳有溺水身亡的危险；选项 B 不是答案：根据第 2 段第 4 句，河 水看上去浑浊是因为河底淤泥泛上河面的结果；选项 C 是答案；根据第 2 段最 后几句，泰晤士河内现在有 100 多种鱼类；选项 D 不是答案；根据第 4 段，从 河底打捞上来的是人们扔进河里的垃圾。因此，该题答案应选 C。 7．[答案] A。根据最后一段，作者感到还有希望，因为孩子们对保护鱼类 感兴趣；如果成年人不停止他们的破坏行为，保护泰晤士河的任务将落在未来 几代人的身上。可见作者对未来还是抱有希望。选项 A 为正确答案。 Text C 8．[答案] C。本文主要讨论了如何对产品的抽象属性进行价格定位这一问 题。例如，产品的一些属性，如方便性、高档产品的吸引力、美观等，是无法 量化的；另外，产品价格的定位光靠价格理论是不行的，还要通过市场竞争来 进行捡验。凶此选项 C 为正确答案。 9．[答案] D。该题要求理解第 6、7 段中的内容。产品的许多属性由于无 法量化而被忽略，这会提高生活水平，特别是当产品质量提高而价格保持不变 的时候。选项 D 为正确答案。 10．[答案] C。在这篇文章中，作者主要讨论了产品的价格定位问题。在 文章的后半部分，作者说明了产品的价格要通过市场竞争来检验。根据最后一 段，当产品的价值超越成本时，经理们将产品定位过高，从而吓跑消费者，苹 果公司 Cube 一款电脑十分昂贵，从而注定是失败的。选项 C 说明了问题的根 源，为正确答案。 Text D 11．[答案] A。根据第 3 段，Landes 认为，欧洲之所以与众不同，主要是 因为勤劳。个人或国家要在经济上取得成就，必须辛勤劳动、勤俭节约和投资 再生产，作者认为这些品质从根本上解释 Landes 著作的副标题所提出的问题。 work ethic 意为”劳动观”。因此选项 A 为正确答案。 12．[答案] B。该题要求理解第 4 段前半部分的内容，在解释欧洲殖民问 题时，Landes 依靠的是常识，即弱肉强食。在欧洲科技上的进步使它们得以征 服世界上其他地方的人民。因此选项 B 为正确答案。 13．[答案] A。根据第 5 段，Landes 等学者的研究目标是要确定欧洲文明 中的哪些普遍性因素使欧洲得以强大和现代化，而其他学者所列举的是一些更 具体的因素。因此选项 A 为正确答案。 14．[答案] A。该题要求理解最后一段的内容。其他历史学家也试图解释 西方文化和现代文化之间的关系，但他们的观点有一个前提，即欧洲的成就是 欧洲的文明带来的。这表明了他们的一种优越感。例如 Francis Fukuyama 认 为，在纳粹主义消亡之后，工业和信息时代人类组织模式将是西方的市场经济 和有限的、多元的和民主政府的组合，因此选项 A 为正确答案。 15．[答案] A。在讨论 Landes 的著作时，作者没有夹带自己的观点，而是 用 Landes argues, Landes believes, Landes holds 等客观引述的结构。选项 A 为正确答案。 Text E 16．[答案] A。作者在文章中介绍了印度人强烈的民族主义意识，他们对 外围公司把其神树 neem tree 注册成自己的专利感到非常气愤，正如 Rifkin 所 说：外国公司把其神树注册成他们的专利，就是抢劫其神树，这是一种赤裸裸 的殖民主义掠夺行为。由此可以看出，选项 A 为正确答案。 17．[答案] C。该题属于推论题。在文章的最后一段，作者写道，许多外 国公司依然认为印度这个大国对它们有很大的投资潜力，它们可以在该国赚更 多的钱。利益的丰厚回报会让国外大公司不断进来找寻商机的。这是本段的中 心内容。因此选项 C 为正确答案。当然，在离大选还有七个月的时间里，投资 该国也不是没有风险，因为投资人对哪党哪派上台心中未有把握，对新政府的 对外政策是否有变化也是心中无数，这也是外国公司所考虑的问题之一。尽管 如此，投资人还是时刻觊觎有利商机的。 18．[答案] B。该题属于主旨题。在整篇文章中，作者都很明确地阐述了 印度国人对外国公司的复杂心理，他们已经觉醒，他们大多数人对外国肆意掠 夺其国有资产表示了不满。这是民族意识的觉醒，这是人们从盲目崇拜外国到 合乎情理的欣赏，从盲目崇拜外国到有分寸地反对所必须经历的一个过程。外 国公司把印度国宝注册为自己的专利，必然引起印度国人的反对，由此激起人 们对外国人的普遍反感，也是可以理解的。据此分析，选项 B 应为正确答案。 Text F 19．[答案] C。该题属于推导题。作者在文章谈到新药对肿瘤和中风的功 效，但对治疗心脏病却尚不能十分肯定。据此推论，选项 C 应为正确答案。 20．[答案] D。该题属于主旨理解题。作者在文章中使用了一些与心脏、 血管等有关的专业词语，该处就是其中一个。By stunting the growth of capillaries necessary for nourishing the burgeoning mouse tumors. 作 者在该段讲到研究人员通过在试验的 mouse(鼠)身上注射一种药物，通过抑制 血管扩张，把为鼠提供营养的血管抑制住，肿瘤就会得以延缓或停止生长。此 处的 capillaries 就是人们平常所说自的 minute blood vessels。因此选项 D 应为正确答案。
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