IS Project Management
Purpose of project plan
• The purpose of a project plan is to maintain
control of a project.
• As a complicated process, a project always
threatens to exceed the limit of your control.
• Some people are better than others at
controlling complex problems, but all of us
reach our limits at some stage.
• To maintain control you need help in the form
of tools and your best tool is your plan.
Project plan controls the project by
• Breaking a complex process down into a number of
• Providing visibility for obscure or ambiguous tasks in
• Providing a single point of reference for everyone
• Enforcing scrutiny of the sequence and nature of
• Providing a baseline against which execution of the
project can be compared
• Anticipating likely events and providing pre-planned
means of avoiding them.
Project planning includes
• Estimating the attributes of the work products
• Determining the resources needed,
• Negotiating commitments,
• Producing a schedule,
• identifying and analysing project risks.
The project plan provides the basis for
performing and controlling the project’s project
activities that address the commitments with
the project’s customer
Project plan contents (1)
• Related projects/critical dependencies
Project plan contents (2)
• Schedule and milestones
• Budget/cost-benefit assessment
• Risk assessment
• Quality management approach
• Tools and techniques to be used
Project plan contents (3)
• Resource estimates
• Change and control procedures
• Work plan
• Team contact directory
• Approval sign-off form
• State the purpose of the Project Plan. Indicate in
a short statement that the Plan will provide a
definition of the project, including the business
goals and objectives
• Briefly describe the project history. Include
information such as previous initiatives, business
environment changes (may be related to
competition, regulation, resource availability),
and the impetus and rationale for the
project. Describe, in essence, how the project
Project planning: Overall approach
• The project plan should set out the overall approach
you will take to achieve the objectives you have set.
– Strategy and/or methodology How you will achieve the
– Issues to be addressed List any important issues
highlighted in the programme circular/ITT and say how
they will be addressed (e.g. interoperability, collaboration,
– Scope and boundaries Clearly indicate what will and will
not be covered
– Critical success factors List 3-4 factors which are
important for the project to be successful
Business Goals and Objectives
– A goal is an aspiration of the company that states
a direction in which the company will focus its
efforts in support of its mission.
– Objectives are short-term targets (typically 12-24
months or less) of defined, measurable
Projects goals and objectives
• State the goals and objectives expected to be achieved
as a result of implementing the project, and describe
how meeting them will support the corporate
objectives and goals.
• Set project objectives by establishing why the project
has been commissioned and what it is expected to
achieve for the enterprise. Identify the specific results
to be realized and the benefits to be achieved. Be
certain to establish the time frame in which the
objectives are expected to be met. Define a visible
method to monitor and measure progress in meeting
• A clear and concise definition of scope is key to the success
of any project.
• Scope should describe from a quantitative perspective
what is to be accomplished. Its purpose is to aid in
establishing realistic work plans, budgets, schedules, and
• Should identified work arise that falls outside the defined
scope, the Project Manager must either deem the work out
of scope and defer it, or expand the scope of the project to
include the work.
• The latter choice would result in formal changes to the
work plan, resource allocation, budget and/or schedule.
• Project Products may include formal deliverables
as well as informal concrete results.
• Include in this section a list of the deliverables
and their contents (if appropriate) to be
produced during the project.
• Detailed descriptions of each deliverable may be
contained within the Appendix.
• Including a detailed list of deliverables in the
Appendix provides a structured approach which
ensures that all persons involved in the project
understand what is expected.
For each deliverable
• Name and description
• Major task(s) producing/updating the
• Expected audience
• Sign-off participants
• Briefly describe any assumptions made about
the project related to resources, scope,
expectations, schedules, etc. Assumptions
should be specific and measurable.
Sample project assumptions
• Project staff resources will be available when and
as they are needed.
• Required hardware resources will be available
when and as they are needed.
• Equipment order lead times are known and can
be expected to be met.
• No outside consulting will be required or Outside
consulting will be limited to a specified number
of days at a specified rate per day.
• Describe the principal constraints and
limitations under which the project must be
conducted, concerning the project
environment or parameters (timeframes and
deadlines, funding, skill levels, resource
• List any other projects that are impacted by
the project described in the Plan. Managers
of related projects should be kept in the
communication loop on all matters related to
• It is essential that the dependencies between related
tasks and subtasks be understood to ensure that tasks
are sequenced correctly and that the critical path of a
project is recognized.
• Determine the relationship between work performed
in a given task or subtask with the work performed in
other tasks or subtasks. Identify the predecessor and
• Identify any tasks within a related project on which this
project is dependent and describe the relationship.
Schedule and milestones
• We plan major project milestones, the special
and most important points of our project time
line. In project implementation phase, the
project milestone plan will enable us to
control the progress on the highest level of
• Schedule is further refined using network
diagrams and project management software
• Provide a detailed breakdown of the necessary
resource budgets for each of the major work activities
in the WBS.
• Specify the estimated cost for activity personnel, and
include as appropriate, the costs for the following
– computing resources,
– software tools,
– special testing and simulation facilities, and
– administrative support.
• Risk description
• Date identified
• Project phase
• Functional assignment
• Risk trigger
• Probability of occurrence (percent)
• Impact ($ or days)
• Response actions
• Responsibility (task manager)
• First developed by the US Defense Department in the
second half of the 1950s and by NASA in the early 1960s, a
Work Breakdown Structure is a document used by project
managers to define the scope of a project.
• It describes the end goal, not the means of reaching that
• or example, if the project is to build a house, the WBS
defines all the aspects of the finished house, in increasing
levels of detail.
• It does not specify how the elements of the house are to be
constructed, except where the method of construction is an
important part of the finished house.
WBS shows you
• What the various elements of the project are
• How the necessary work is distributed
between the elements of the project
• How the cost or budget is distributed between
the elements of the project
• How the larger elements of the project are
subdivided into smaller ones
Creating a WBS (1)
• Define the project’s end product. This is
usually no more than a title: “House at
Avenue Drive” for example. It forms the root
of the Work Breakdown Structure document.
Creating a WBS (2)
• Define the main deliverables.
• These are the main components of the
project’s end product, for example, for a
house, External construction, Internal
construction, and so on.
• These become sections or ‘main branches’
under the root, defined in the previous step.
Creating a WBS (3)
• Break down the main deliverables into their sub-
components using as many sub-branches as needed
until you have manageable ‘units of work’ which do
not need to be subdivided further.
• These units of work should be of a size that the project
manager can easily handle.
• For example, something that a worker or a team of
workers can accomplish in a week might represent a
unit of work.
• Too much subdivision is counter productive as the
project manager will then have to get too involved in
the project details.
100 % rule PMI definition
• The 100% Rule...states that the WBS includes 100% of the work
defined by the project scope and captures ALL deliverables –
internal, external, interim – in terms of the work to be completed,
including project management. The 100% rule is one of the most
important principles guiding the development, decomposition and
evaluation of the WBS. The rule applies at all levels within the
hierarchy: the sum of the work at the “child” level must equal 100%
of the work represented by the “parent” and the WBS should not
include any work that falls outside the actual scope of the project,
that is, it cannot include more than 100% of the work… It is
important to remember that the 100% rule also applies to the
activity level. The work represented by the activities in each work
package must add up to 100% of the work necessary to complete
the work package.
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a
fundamental project management technique for
defining and organizing the total scope of a
project, using a hierarchical tree structure.
• The first two levels of the WBS (the root node
and Level 2) define a set of planned outcomes
that collectively and exclusively represent 100%
of the project scope.
• At each subsequent level, the children of a parent
node collectively and exclusively represent 100%
of the scope of their parent node.
WBS outcomes instead of actions
• Outcomes are the desired ends of the project,
such as a product, result, or service, and can
be predicted accurately.
• Actions, on the other hand, may be difficult to
predict accurately. A well-designed WBS
makes it easy to assign any project activity to
one and only one terminal element of the
WBS 100% rule
• Once the basic layout of the Work Breakdown
Structure is complete, we add numbers to indicate the
percentage of the total work that the various elements
of the project represent.
• These percentage numbers are ideally added to the
branches that are lowest in the hierarchy (furthest
from the root), but if that proves too detailed they can
be entered on intermediate branches.
• The important thing is that they should add up to
100% at the root, which represents the work for the
The Four Elements in Each WBS
1. The scope of work, including any
2. The beginning and end dates for the scope of
3. The budget for the scope of work.
4. The name of the person responsible for the
scope of work.
• It is important that there is no overlap in
scope definition between two elements of a
• This ambiguity could result in duplicated work
or miscommunications about responsibility
and authority. Likewise, such overlap is likely
to cause confusion regarding project cost
Quality management approach
• Activity Reviews/Walk-throughs
• Tools and Techniques
• Test Approach
• Performance/Quality Standards
• Quality Management Roles
• Identify the types of project reviews and walk-
throughs that will be conducted. Include
items such as test plans and test scripts to be
reviewed. Indicate when reviews should occur
in relation to other tasks.
Tools and Techniques
• List and briefly describe the tools and
techniques that will be used on the project to
ensure quality. Tools may include specific
software packages for project scheduling,
• Briefly describe the approach that will be used
to test the project results prior to putting
them into production. All products developed
as a result of the project should be tested.
• Identify any performance or quality standards
which must be met upon approval of the final
results of the project. This may include
acceptance criteria for the final work product.
Quality Management Roles
• Define the specific quality management roles
and their accompanying responsibilities that
individuals will be assigned to ensure quality
on the project.
Tools and techniques to be used
• Project management tools
• Development environment
• Test tools
• Software engineering tools
Change and control procedures
• Change Control Process must recognise the
reality that some change will be essential but
too much change can cause project failure.
Before the project starts the change control
procedure must be designed. An important
element of this is deciding who will be
authorised to spend the sponsor's money on
changes during the project.
Change Control Process
Change Control Rejected changes
are returned to
Problem report or
Business Decision Initiator and saved for
( internal or customer)
for Feasibility review
change Change Implementation
Detailed Implementation plan
Master Document Product
control or service
Update documentation Update product or service
A change control system should include all
• Procedures to handle changes that may be approved
without prior review
• Procedures for automatic approval of defined
categories of change
• Paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels
necessary for authorising changes
• A description of the powers and responsibilities of
the change control board
Change control and Configuration
• Needed to keep project in control
• Key responsibility of project manager
• Requires documentation and management of
• Requires systematic approach to changing the
• Resource estimation is a structured prediction
of the cost and other resources required to
execute a task.
• One of the primary functions of the process is
to establish a control basis.
• Therefore the more accurate the estimation,
the more reliable the control system becomes.
• Work plan is a document that states what activities,
jobs and tasks should be done to achieve identified
goals and objectives with reference to available funds,
human resources, and time.
• Work plan is similar to implementation plan and it
often becomes a part of project plan.
• A work plan for project allows performing project
tasks and jobs by following schedules and timelines
identified in project plan.
• Work plan is a detailed description of how employees
should do tasks and jobs .
• Identify standards agreed to by the Project Team that
govern the way in which the project will be
conducted. Such standards include status reporting, staff
meetings, product review acceptance criteria, and
• Describe which standards, if any, already exist within the
enterprise and are appropriate for reuse on the project.
• Such reusable standards typically include project model
management, technology, documentation management
and training techniques, naming conventions, quality
assurance, and testing and validation. These may be
standards that are recognized and embraced by the
industry as a whole, or those that are unique to the
• Describe the roles and responsibilities of each Team Member along
with the communication plan to ensure that Team Members
understand what is expected of them. Describe the mechanism for
communicating responsibilities across the Project Team and within
the organization at large (to the extent that it is required).
• Develop a specific strategy that promotes communication among
Team Members if the Project Team is geographically dispersed,
including how each Team Member will report progress specific to
each assigned task.
• Identify how progress on the project will be determined and how it
will be communicated to those involved in or impacted by the
project. Identify how often status reports will be distributed and to
whom. Determine how often progress meetings will be held and
who is expected to attend.
• Define the roles filled by project team
members and the responsibility of each role.
Project Team Contact Directory
• This is a list of all Team Members and other
individuals involved in or impacted by the
• The list should include their names, physical
locations, phone numbers, alternative contact
numbers, User-IDs, Mail Stops, home addresses,
titles, and any other pertinent information that
will enable better communication between the
Approval sign-off form
• Sign-off must be obtained each time the
Project Plan is revised.