Ancient Rome

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					Ancient Rome
• The Latins, an Indo-
  European-speaking Italic
  people from central
  Europe, crossed the Alps
  about 1500 B.C. and
  invaded Italy.
• Attracted by the warm
  climate and fertile land, the
  Latins conquered the
  native peoples and settled
  in central Italy.
   •On the seven hills overlooking the Tiber River,
   they founded the city of Rome.
             Romulus and Remus
•   About a year before the twins were born
    their great-uncle had seized power from
    their grandfather.
•   When the new king learned of the twins'
    birth, he ordered them thrown into the
    Tiber River, fearing that they would grow
    up to threaten his rule.
•   A shepherd discovered the twins, he
    took them home and raised them as his
    own sons.
•   When Romulus and Remus grew up,
    they took revenge on their great-uncle
    and restored their grandfather to his

    •Then, on the seven hills overlooking the Tiber River, the
    two young men founded the city of Rome.
                  the Aeneid
• Years later, when Romans encountered the older,
  more sophisticated cultures of the eastern
  Mediterranean, the story of Romulus and Remus
  seemed pale when compared to the heroic Greek
  tales of the Trojan War.
• So the Roman poet Virgil created a new legend.
• Tells the story of valiant Trojan hero Aeneas .
• He founded the colony of Rome
• His descendants, Romulus and Remus,later took
               The Aeneid 2
• The story of Romulus and
  Remus said that strength,
  justice, and the favor of the
  gods were the best
  protection against danger
  and greed.
• The Aeneid linked Rome to
  the older civilizations of
  Greece and Asia Minor.
• This assured Romans that
  they were not mere
  newcomers to the
  Mediterranean world.
         Roman Beginnings
• Rome was only a small town on the west
  coast of Italy when Athens flourished.
• By 323 B.C., however, when Alexander
  the Great had conquered his empire,
  Rome was emerging as a strong city-state.
• Between 265 B.C. and 44 B.C., Rome
  won control of the Mediterranean world,
  uniting many different peoples and regions
  under its rule.
            Ancient Rome
•   The Italian peninsula juts out like a boot into the Mediterranean Sea.
•    Off the toe of the boot lies the island of Sicily.
•   The sea provided some protection for the early peoples of Italy.
•   Later, the Romans used the sea as a highway for conquest and trade.
•   At the top of the boot are the Alps, which block cold winds and give
    the region a pleasant climate.
     – However, the Alps give only limited protection from invaders.
•   The Po River, which is fed by melting snows from the Alps, provides
    water for the rich farming region of the northern plain.
•   Another mountain range, the Apennines (AP uh NiNZ), runs down the
    length of Italy.
•   Unlike the mountains in Greece, which isolated the city-states, the
    Apennines were a less serious barrier to unity in Italy.
•   Most people lived in the west, where the land was more fertile than in
    the east.
•   In the wet there were also good harbors and long rivers that be easily
    navigated by small boats.
                 Geography 2
• Another mountain range, the
  Apennines (AP uh NiNZ), runs
  down the length of Italy.
• Unlike the mountains in
  Greece, which isolated the
  city-states, the Apennines
  were a less serious barrier to
  unity in Italy.
• Most people lived in the west,
  where the land was more
  fertile than in the east.
• In the wet there were also
  good harbors and long rivers
  that be easily navigated by
  small boats.
               Geography 2
• The city of Rome enjoyed many natural
  advantages. It was located on the fertile coastal
  plain halfway up Italy's west coast.
• From the seven hills overlooking the Tiber River,
  Romans could watch for enemy attacks.
• The Tiber provided food and transportation.
  Since Rome lay some distance inland, it was not
  exposed to raids from the sea.
• Romans built the port of Ostia at the mouth of
  the Tiber for ships too large to move up the river
           Early Peoples of Rome
• The early Latins, a simple and hardy people,
• (1) worked chiefly at farming and cattle-raising;
• (2) maintained close family ties, with the father
  exercising absolute authority;
• (3) worshipped tribal gods (Jupiter, the chief god; Mars,
  god of war; Neptune, god of the sea; and Venus,
  goddess of love), and
• (4) defended Rome against frequent attacks.
• The Latins who founded Rome were farmers and
• During their early history, they fought with other Latins
  for control of neighboring areas.
• Their struggles helped shape a belief in duty, discipline,
  and patriotism.
 Early People of Rome (Etruscans)
• The Etruscans (ih TRUHS kuhnz), who had
  migrated into Italy from Asia Minor, seized Rome
  about 600 B.C.
• During the next 100 years, the Romans
  absorbed many ideas from their Etruscan
• They adopted the Etruscan alphabet, which the
  Etruscans had borrowed from the Greeks.
• They copied Etruscan styles of art and
  worshipped Etruscan gods alongside their own.
• And they learned Etruscan building techniques,
  including the arch.
     Greeks and Phoenicians
• At the same time the Romans learned
  from advanced civilizations of the
  Phoenicians and Greeks, who had set up
  colonies in Sicily and Italy.
• For example, from the Greeks, the
  Romans learned to build fortified cities and
  to grow grapes and olives.
• Rome was captured about 750 B.C. by its
  northern neighbors, the Etruscans. From these
  more advanced people, the Latins, or Romans,
  learned to
• (1) construct buildings, roads, and city walls,
• (2) make metal weapons, and
• (3) apply new military tactics. The Romans in
  500 B.c. drove out the Etruscans and
  established an independent republic.
• The Roman Republic at first was an aristocracy,
  with power in the hands of the wealthy
  landowning nobles, the patricians.
• Only they could serve
• as consuls (heads of state) ) and as members of
  the hereditary legislative Senate, which passed
  laws, approved appointments and controlled
  foreign affairs.
• Largely excluded from government were the
  rest of the Roman people, mainly small farmers
  and city workers, known as plebeians.
            (5TH–3RD CENTURIES B.C.)

• The plebeians clamored for democratic
  reforms. Over the course of two centuries,
  they gained the right to
• (1) elect tribunes empowered to veto (forbid)
  actions of the consuls and the Senate,
• (2) enact laws in the people's assemblies,
• (3) hold all government offices, including
  those of consul and senator.
            Roman Republic
• The plebeians' demands also resulted in
  codification (arranging and writing down) of
  Roman law into the Twelve Tables. This
  prevented judges—who were nobles—from
  twisting unwritten laws to favor their own class.
  Each had the right to veto, or block, an action of
  the other.
• In Latin, the word "veto" means "I forbid."
• The Romans achieved these reforms rather
  harmoniously, because both the patricians and
  the plebeians willingly compromised their
  differences for the good of the Republic.
Twelve Tables                                                                         450 BC

                     TABLE I      Procedure: for courts and trials

                     TABLE II     Trials, continued.

                     TABLE III    Debt

                     TABLE IV     Rights of fathers (paterfamilias) over the family

                     TABLE V      Legal guardianship and inheritance laws

                     TABLE VI     Acquisition and possession

                     TABLE VII    Land rights

                     TABLE VIII   Torts and delicts (Laws of injury)

                     TABLE IX     Public law

                     TABLE X      Sacred law

                     TABLE XI     Supplement I

                     TABLE XII    Supplement II

In 450 B.C., Rome's first written law code was carved onto 12 stone tablets
that were set up in the Forum, or central marketplace. The Twelve Tables
of Law showed the strict separation between patricians and plebeians.
Laws prohibited plebeians from serving as consuls, entering the Senate, or
marrying patricians. Yet by listing laws and punishments, the Twelve Tables
protected all citizens from unfair treatment.
      ITALY (340–270 B.C.)
• In a series of wars Rome conquered the Italian
  peninsula. The Romans
(1) in central Italy, overwhelmed the other Latins
  as well as the Samnites and Etruscans,
(2) in northern Italy, drove back the Gauls, and
(3) in southern Italy, captured the Greek colonies.
          Rome conquers Italy
Rome succeeded in conquering and uniting Italy because
  of its:
• Powerful Armies. Roman citizen-soldiers felt deeply
  responsible to their Republic. They fought not for a
  despot but for their own freedom, land, and government.
  Well-trained and strictly disciplined, the Roman legions
  were the ancient world's most effective fighting force.
• Ability to Move Troops. The Apennine Mountains,
  running north and south through Italy, did not obstruct
  Roman troop movements appreciably.
• Wise Treatment of Conquered Peoples. The Romans
  secured the friendship and allegiance of the conquered
  peoples by granting them the privileges of either partial
  or full Roman citizenship. From these allies Rome
  received troops and support for its foreign policy.
                          Punic Wars
•       The First Punic War (264–241 B.c.). Fighting chiefly on the
        island of Sicily and in the Mediterranean Sea, Rome's citizen-
        soldiers eventually defeated Carthage's mercenaries (hired
        foreign soldiers). Rome annexed Sicily and then Sardinia and
•       The Second Punic War (218–201 B.c.). Hannibal, Carthage's
        great general, led an army from Spain across the Alps and into
        Italy. At first he won numerous victories. However, he was unable
        to seize the city of Rome. Gradually the tide of battle turned in
        favor of Rome.. Rome annexed Carthage's Spanish provinces
        and reduced Carthage to a second-rate power.
    –      Reasons for Rome's victory: (a) superior wealth and military power,
           (b) the loyalty of most of its allies, and (c) the rise of capable
           generals, notably Fabius and Scipio. Scipio was named Africanus
           because he triumphed over Hannibal in North Africa.
•       The Third Punic War (149–146 B.c.). Some Romans believed
        that Carthage remained a threat. Rome finally attacked Carthage,
        destroyed the city, and annexed the territory.
                      Roman Army
•    At first, only patricians served in the Roman army. But the Republic
    faced many enemies, including the Etruscans, neighboring Latins,
    and the Gauls who lived north of the Po River. After the Gauls
    burned Rome in 390 B.C., the Senate turned to the plebeians for
    help. It required all citizens who owned land—plebeians and
    patricians—to serve in the army.
•   Roman soldiers trained in the use of slings, javelins, spears, and
    swords. Wealthy Romans provided their own equipment and served
    without pay. Poorer citizens received small salaries. Roman
    commanders enforced strict discipline. Such training and discipline
    made the Roman army highly effective.
•   The Roman army was divided into legions of about 6,000 soldiers.
    Each legion was divided into smaller units that could be moved
    around swiftly. This freedom of movement gave the Roman army an
    advantage over the massed ranks of its enemies.
              (BY THE 1ST CENTURY B.C.)

• After the Second Punic War, Rome conquered
  (1) Macedonia, including Greece, and
• (2) Syria, including most of southwestern Asia.
  Egypt, recognizing
• Rome's might, submitted to Roman domination
  of the eastern Mediterranean. In
• 30 B.C. Rome annexed Egypt. Rome was now
  master of the entire Mediterranean world.
• 1. Conquests Introduce Greek Culture. The Romans
  enthusiastically accepted the advanced Hellenistic culture of
  the eastern Mediterranean (see pages 50-51). They
   (a) shipped Greek treasures—books, statues, and vases—to Rome,
   (b) enslaved educated Greeks to serve as tutors, actors, writers, and
      scientists, and
   (c) imitated Greek culture extensively. Roman arms conquered Greece,
      but Greek culture conquered Rome.
• Conquests Bring Wealth to Some Romans.
   (a) Nobles cheaply acquired huge estates in the provinces and in Italy.
      They often seized public lands illegally.
   (b) Merchants and business people prospered by filling army contracts,
      buying booty, supplying slaves, and trading with the provinces.
   (c) Government officials in the provinces amassed huge fortunes at the
      expense of their subject peoples.
• These wealthy classes enjoyed lives of ease and luxury.
  Hard work, discipline, and patriotism—early Roman
         AFFECT ROME
• Conquests Ruin Small Farmers and Workers. Small
  farmers and city work-ers could not compete with slave
  labor employed by huge estates and in industry. Unable
  to pay their debts, farmers abandoned their lands and
  migrated to the cities; city workers suffered serious
   – To gain the support of landless farmers and unemployed
     workers, Roman politicians sponsored free government
     programs of bread and circuses (food and entertainment).
• Conquests Change the Character of the Army. The
  small farmer had been the backbone of the Roman
  army. As he disappeared, the nature of the army
  changed. Citizen-soldiers, loyal to the state, were
  replaced by professional soldiers, fighting for pay and
  booty, loyal to their own commanders.
• By the 2nd century B.C., the common people were again
  demanding economic and political reforms.
• The aristocracy, controlling the Senate, bitterly opposed
  measures that threatened their wealth and power.
• Since the spirit of compromise of the early Republic was
  dead, peaceful reform failed. In a series of civil wars,
  rival Roman generals battled for supremacy.
• The entire conflict, lasting more than 100 years, wrecked
  the Roman Republic and its many democratic features.
• In 27 B.C. the Republic was replaced by an absolute
  monarchy, the Roman Empire.
                   First Triumvirate
•   One general, Pompey (PAHM Pee), led his legions
    in a series of successful campaigns in Asia Minor,
    Syria, and Palestine. However, when he returned to
    Rome and the Senate and looked for allies. He
    found one in a talented young general, Julius
•   Caesar had won victories in Spain and had
    attracted a large following in Rome. Like Pompey,

Caesar resented the Senate. In 61 B.C., he had hoped to be elected
consul, but the Senate, fearing his popularity, blocked his bid for power.
In 60 B.C., Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance with Marcus Lucius
Crassus, a wealthy general. They agreed to pool their re-sources and
rule Rome together. Their alliance is known as the First Triumvirate (tri
UHM ver iht), or three-man commission.
The First Triumvirate gained control of Rome but was soon split by
          Julius Caesar rules Rome
•  Between 49 B.C. and 44 B.C., Caesar won a string of victories in the Middle
   East, North Africa, and Spain. On his triumphant return to Rome, he
   pardoned many senators who had sup-ported Pompey. In 44 B.C., he was
   appointed , dictator for life.
• Caesar introduced reforms meant to strengthen Rome and protect his own
1. He distributed land to the poor and granted Roman citizenship to people in
   provinces out-side Italy.
      – This action helped unite the empire by giving people in the provinces a stake in
2.   To reduce unemployment, he began many building projects.
3.   He increased pay for soldiers and
4.   moved to end corruption in the provinces.
5.   He also introduced a more accurate calendar based on Hellenistic
•    The Julian calendar, as it was called, was used in Europe until 1582 A.D.
•    Although the Senate and Assembly of Tribes continued to exist, Caesar had
     absolute power.
               Death of Caesar
• Opposition to Caesar grew in the Senate.
• Some senators denounced him as a tyrant while others
  were jealous of his popularity.
• On March 15, 44 B.C., a group of conspirators led by
  Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus stabbed Caesar to
  death in the Senate.
• A farsighted leader, Caesar planned to establish stable
  government, reform provincial rule, provide land for the
  poor, and beautify the city of Rome.
• But he lacked time. In 44 B.C. a group of conspirators,
  some envying his power and others hoping to restore the
  Republic, assassinated Caesar.
• In the civil war that followed, the Republic suffered a fatal
     The Second Triumvirate
• Before his death, Caesar had adopted his 18-year-old
  grandnephew Octavian as his son and heir.
• After Caesar's assassination, Octavian formed the
  Second Triumvirate with two of Caesar's chief
  commanders, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus.
• After crushing Caesar's assassins, the Second
  Triumvirate dissolved into a power strug-gle between
  Antony and Octavian.
• When Antony married Cleopatra, queen of Egypt,
  Octavian feared they planned to seize power. Octavian
  defeated them.
• Antony and Cleopatra fled back to Egypt. They later
  committed suicide when
            The Age of Augustus
• On his return to Rome, Octavian promised to share control
  of the empire with the Senate. In practice, however, he had
  absolute authority.
• In 27 B.C., the Senate, realizing that peace depended on his
  leadership, gave Octavian the title Augustus, or "Exalted
  One," a name normally reserved for the gods.
• After 100 years of civil war, peace was finally restored under
• Under Augustus, Rome ceased to be a republic and
  became an empire.
• The Senate gave him the title imperator ([HM puh RAHT
  uhr), or commander-in-chief of the Roman armies.
• The English word "emperor" is derived from this Latin title.
• Although the Senate still existed, Augustus ruled as a
              The Age of Augustus
•    Between 27 B.C. and 14 A.D., Augustus sponsored many reforms
     to strengthen the empire.
1.   He reorganized the army into a highly disciplined, professional
     body, loyal to the emperor.
2.   He encouraged former soldiers to settle in the provinces, where
     they could bolster local defense.
3.   He developed public works programs to build infrastructure and
4.   He developed an efficient civil service system
     1. high level jobs were open to people with the best qualifications
        regardless of social class
     2. civil servants were given salaries
5. He continued Caesar's policy of granting Roman citizenship to
   people in the provinces.
       Such measures ensured the loyalty of these people to Rome
       and spread Roman ideas.
    DICTATORSHIP (27 B.C.–476 A.D.)
The Roman Empire, existing about 500 years, was a military dictatorship.
     Of the many Roman emperors, some dominated the army; others
     were its puppets. Some devoted themselves to the Empire's welfare;
     others sought personal advantages. However, only a few were
     qualified to meet imperial problems.
•    The outstanding Roman emperors were:.
•    Claudius (41–54 A.D.) established Roman authority in the southern
     part of Britain. In Italy he promoted public works.
•    Vespasian (69–79 A.D.) dispatched an army, led by his son Titus, to
     Palestine. Titus suppressed a Hebrew revolt, destroyed Jerusalem,
     and expelled most Jews from Palestine.
•    Trajan (98–117 A.D.), through conquest, expanded the Empire to its
     greatest territorial extent. His most important acquisition was Dacia
     (modern Rumania). He wads a Spaniard
•    Hadrian (117–138 A.D.), to repel barbarian tribes seeking to enter the
     Empire, built defensive walls in northern Britain and central Europe.
     Tireless worker. Issued laws to protect women and children, and
     mistreatment of slaves.
              More Roman Emperors
•   Marcus Aurelius (161–180 A.D.) was a conscientious and high-minded ruler
    concerned with the people's welfare. He was also a Stoic philosopher who wrote
    the famous book, Meditations. He led troops and conquered a large part of the
    Germanic tribes in the area of Germania. His death marked the end of the Pax
•   Diocletian (284–305 A.D.) became emperor after a period of incompetent rule
    and internal strife. To simplify government, he divided the Empire into East and
    West—each portion administered separately. To prevent civil war, he
    established a system of succession to the throne. Nevertheless, his death led to
    renewed civil wars. Diocletian was the last Roman emperor who actively
    persecuted Christians.
•   Constantine (312–337 A.D.) reunited the Empire by military force and moved
    his capital from Rome to Constantinople (formerly Byzantium). By the Edict of
    Milan (313 A.D.), he ended the persecution of Christians. Just before his death,
    Constantine himself was converted to Christianity.
•   Justinian, Roman emperor at Constantinople (527–565 A.D.), directed jurists to
    codify these laws. The Justinian Code influenced the legal systems of western
    Europe and, less directly, the United States.

• Roman law was intended to be impartial and humane. Two of its principles were:
(a) All persons are equal before the law.
(b) Accused persons are guaran-teed legal protection. For example, forced confessions are
          ROMAN EMPIRE
•   Germanic (Teutonic) Tribes Exert Pressure (1st–4th Centuries A.D.).
    Germanic, or Teutonic, tribes—primitive, warlike peoples—lived in central and
    eastern Europe. They were attracted to the Roman Empire by its fertile land,
    great wealth, and advanced civilization.
•   Early Germanic efforts to enter the Empire were thwarted by Roman troops.
    Later, Rome permitted some Germanic peoples to settle within its borders and
    enlisted Germanic soldiers in its armies.
•   The Huns Invade Europe (4th and 5th Centuries A.D.). The Huns, savage
    invaders from central Asia, terrorized Europe, causing many Germanic tribes
    to flee into the Roman Empire. Attila, the "Scourge of God," later led the Huns
    in ravaging the Empire until turned back by a combined Roman-Germanic
    force at the Battle of Chalons (451 A.D.). The Huns, nevertheless, had
    weakened Rome militarily and hastened its downfall.
•   The Germanic Tribes End the Roman Empire (4th and 5th Centuries
    A.D.). The full-scale Germanic migrations into Roman territory could not be
    stemmed by the enfeebled Roman government. Gradually the Germanic tribes
    estab-lished kingdoms within the Empire: the Visigoths in Spain, the
    Ostrogoths in Italy, the Vandals in North Africa, the Franks in Gaul, and the
    Angles and Saxons in Britain.
•   In 476 A.D. Germanic mercenaries overthrew the last emperor in Rome. This
    event, according to most historians, ended the Western Roman Empire
•   Why could the Germanic tribes crush Rome, so long the master of the
    Mediterranean world? The answer lies not in Germanic strength but in
    Roman weakness. By the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the Roman Empire
    had declined because of the following internal conditions:
• Political.
(a) The dictatorial government was frequently inefficient and cor-rupt and did
    not command the people's loyalty.
(b) The vast Empire, having primitive transportation and communication, could
    not be governed efficiently from one central city.
(c) Rivalry over succession to the throne often resulted in destructive civil wars.
• Social.
(a) People were interested mainly in luxury and survival. The early Roman
    ideals of patriotism, service, and morality had almost vanished.
(b) Sharp class distinctions existed. The upper classes were wealthy and
    educated; the lower classes were poor and ignorant.
(c) Cities—previously centers of culture and industry—declined as people fled
    to the rural regions.
                     More Reasons
• Economic.
(a) Small farmers had abandoned their lands, and many had become workers
    on large estates.
- No longer independent, they lost the incentive to improve farming methods or
    to increase production.
(b) The self-sufficiency of the large estates hampered trade and curtailed
    industry, thus causing an economic decline.
(c) Heavy, often unjust, taxation burdened the people and destroyed their
    ambition to work and progress.
(d) The widespread use of slaves in industry and agriculture caused great
    unemployment among the plebeians.
• Military.
(a) The warlike spirit of early pagan Rome was weakened by Christian
    teachings of peace and universal love.
(b) The Roman armies included many Germanic mercenaries of uncertain
(c) The armies, considering themselves masters of the state, not its servants,
    often chose the emperors and determined government policy.
•   1. Pax Romana (27 B.c.–180 A.D.). For over 200 years Roman
    military might enforced in the Mediterranean world the Pax Romana,
    or "Roman peace." This was a period of social cohesion on an
    international scale. Trade and commerce expanded; the arts and
    sciences thrived; Greco-Roman, or classical, civilization reached
    everywhere in the Empire. The achievements under the Pax
    Romana prove that peace means progress.
•   2.Roman Law. The Romans developed bodies of law on business
    matters, family relationships, individual rights, and international
    affairs, Justinian, Roman emperor at Constantinople (527–565
    A.D.), directed jurists to codify these laws. The Justinian Code
    influenced the legal systems of western Europe and, less directly,
    the United States.
    – Roman law was intended to be impartial and humane. Two of its
      principles were:
    – (a) All persons are equal before the law.
    – (b) Accused persons are guaran-teed legal protection
               Roman Contributions
•       3. Architecture. The Romans constructed military roads, aqueducts,
        bridges, and marble buildings—some still in use. Roman architects
        effectively employed the arch, dome, and column.
    –      During the reign of Emperor Vespasian, the Romans erected the famous
           stone amphitheater, the Colosseum. In its arena gladiators and wild beasts
           battled to entertain spectators.
•       4. Language. Latin, the Roman language, is (a) the root of the Romance
        (or Romanic) languages: French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and
        Rumanian and
•       (b) the source of about one-half of the words in the English language.
•       5. Literature
•       Cicero (106- 43 B.c.), an orator and writer, is known as the "father of
        Latin prose." He wrote extensively on ethical, religious, and political
        subjects, and delivered famous orations in defense of the Roman
•       Vergil (70–19 B.c.) wrote the famous epic poem, the Aeneid. In relating
        the adventures of Aeneas, whose descendants supposedly founded
        Rome, Vergil extolled Rome's greatness.
•       Horace (65–8 B.c.) wrote Odes, charming poetry about everyday life. A
        moralist, he praised the early Roman virtues of simplicity, courage, and
                 More Contributions
•   6. Historical Writing
•   Livy (59 B.c.–17 A.D.) wrote an encyclopedic history—only part of which
    has survived—of Rome from its founding to the Augustan Age. Livy
    deplored the decay of the early Roman virtues and the fall of the Republic.
•   Plutarch (100 A.D.) compared Roman and Greek heroes in his book of
    biographies, Parallel Lives.
•   Tacitus (55–120 A.D.), in his work Germania, vividly described life among
    the Germanic barbarians.
•   7. Science. The Romans were practical scientists, specializing in sanitation,
    public health, and engineering. The research scientists of the Empire were
    generally non-Romans.
•   Galen (131–201 A.D.), a Greek physician, wrote books summarizing the
    ancient world's medical knowledge. He also performed experiments
    involving the nervous and circulatory systems.
•   Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.), a Greek astronomer, taught—erroneously as
    we now know—that (1) the earth is the center of the universe and (2) the
    sun revolves about the earth. (This Ptolemaic theory was corrected in the
    16th century A.D. by the Copernican theory, see page 131.)

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