Ancient Rome - Candida Martinelli s Italophile Site

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					                   ANCIENT ROME
                  DOWN TO 476 A.D.
                          BY ROBERT F. PENNELL
                         Edited by Candida Martinelli

    This free e-book was created and is distributed not-for-profit by Candida Martinelli of
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 the Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) by Caspar Van Wittel from the early 18th century.

                                                                                                   CHAPTER XI DIVISIONS OF THE ROMAN
PREFACE ........................................................................ 7                 TERRITORY—NOTED MEN OF THE PERIOD....40
CHAPTER I GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY .................... 8                                                   ROADS ........................................................................41
                                                                                                      NOTED MEN ..............................................................41
ITALY............................................................................. 11              CHAPTER XII FOREIGN CONQUEST ..................44
CHAPTER III THE ROMANS AND THEIR EARLY                                                             CHAPTER XIII ROME AND CARTHAGE
GOVERNMENT............................................................ 13                          BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND PUNIC
                                                                                                   WARS (241-218) ............................................................49
INTERNAL HISTORY OF ROME ............................ 15                                           CHAPTER XIV THE SECOND PUNIC WAR—
                                                                                                   FROM THE PASSAGE OF THE PYRENEES TO
   THE ARMY ................................................................ 16                    THE BATTLE OF CANNAE (218-216)......................52
CHAPTER V THE DYNASTY OF THE TARQUINS                                                              CHAPTER XV THE SECOND PUNIC WAR-FROM
......................................................................................... 19       CANNAE TO THE BATTLE OF ZAMA (216-202)..58
CHAPTER VI THE CONSULS AND TRIBUNES .. 21                                                             AFFAIRS IN SICILY..................................................59
CHAPTER VII THE COMITIA TRIBUTA AND                                                                   THE CAMPAIGNS IN SPAIN ...................................60
THE AGRARIAN LAWS............................................. 24                                     OPERATIONS IN ITALY ..........................................61
CHAPTER VIII THE CONTEST OF THE                                                                       INVASION OF AFRICA ............................................62
PLEBEIANS FOR CIVIL RIGHTS............................ 26                                          CHAPTER XVI ROME IN THE EAST ....................64
CHAPTER IX EXTERNAL HISTORY .................... 31                                                CHAPTER XVII THE SYRIAN WAR ......................67
   THE FIRST SAMNITE WAR (343-341) ................... 33                                          CHAPTER XVIII CONQUEST OF MACEDONIA
   THE LATIN WAR (340-338)..................................... 33                                 AND GREECE (I71-146) ..............................................70
   THE SECOND AND THIRD SAMNITE WARS (326-                                                         CHAPTER XIX THE THIRD PUNIC WAR, AND
   290).............................................................................. 34           FALL OF CARTHAGE ................................................73
CHAPTER X WARS WITH PYRRHUS (281-272) . 37                                                         CHAPTER XX ROME AND SPAIN-THE
NUMANTINE AND SERVILE WARS (206-132) ..... 76                                                     GAUL ............................................................................114
   THE NUMANTINE WAR (143-133) ........................ 77                                           THE WAR WITH THE BELGAE ............................115
   THE SERVILE WAR (134-132) ................................ 78                                     THE VENETI—INVASION OF GERMANY .........116
CHAPTER XXI INTERNAL HISTORY—THE                                                                     INVASION OF BRITAIN.........................................117
GRACCHI...................................................................... 79                     FINAL STRUGGLES OF THE GAULS ..................117
CHAPTER XXII EXTERNAL HISTORY—                                                                    CHAPTER XXXI CLODIUS AND MILO—DEATH
PERGAMUM—JUGURTHINE WAR (118-104)...... 84                                                        OF CRASSUS...............................................................120
   THE WAR WITH JUGURTHA ................................. 84                                     CHAPTER XXXII CAESAR'S STRUGGLE WITH
                                                                                                  POMPEY—BATTLE OF PHARSALIA ..................123
TEUTONES—POLITICAL QUARRELS ................. 87                                                  CHAPTER XXXIII CAESAR'S OPERATIONS IN
                                                                                                  EGYPT, ASIA, AFRICA, AND SPAIN.....................131
SOCIAL WAR (90-88).................................................. 90                              CATO-METELLUS SCIPIO ....................................135
CHAPTER XXV MARIUS AND SULLA-CINNA... 93                                                          CHAPTER XXXIV MURDER OF CAESAR .........136
   THE REFORMS OF SULLA ..................................... 96                                  CHAPTER XXXV THE SECOND
                                                                                                  TRIUMVIRATE—PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM.........138
LUCULLUS—POMPEY AND CRASSUS................. 98                                                      PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM.........................................138
                                                                                                     MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO .................................141
   POMPEY AND CRASSUS ...................................... 100
                                                                                                  CHAPTER XXXVI AUGUSTUS (30 B.C.-14 A.D.)
CHAPTER XXVII CAESAR—CICERO—VERRES                                                                ........................................................................................142
....................................................................................... 103
                                                                                                  CHAPTER XXXVII THE AUGUSTAN AGE ........146
CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE................................. 107                                       CHAPTER XXXVIII THE JULIAN AND
                                                                                                  CLAUDIAN EMPERORS ..........................................149
                                                                                                     TIBERIUS (14-37 A.D.)............................................149
CHAPTER XXX CAESAR'S CAMPAIGNS IN                                                                    CALIGULA (37-41) ..................................................151
 THE CLAUDIAN EMPERORS ............................... 151                                  CHAPTER XLII INVASIONS AND DISTRIBUTION
CHAPTER XXXIX THE FLAVIAN EMPERORS 155                                                      OF THE BARBARIANS.............................................168
 VESPASIAN (69-79). ............................................... 155                     CHAPTER XLIII ROMAN LITERATURE ...........174
 TITUS (79-81)........................................................... 156                 PLAUTUS (254-184) ................................................174
 DOMITIAN (81-96).................................................. 156                       TERENCE (195-159) ................................................174
CHAPTER XL THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS... 157                                                      ENNIUS (139-69)......................................................174
                                                                                              CICERO (106-43)......................................................174
 NERVA (96-98). ....................................................... 157                   CAESAR (100-44).....................................................175
 TRAJAN (98-117)..................................................... 157                     NEPOS (94-24)..........................................................175
 HADRIAN (117-138)................................................ 158                        LUCRETIUS (98-55) ................................................175
 TITUS AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS PIUS (138-161) 159                                                  CATULLUS (87-47) .................................................175
 MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS (161-180).... 159                                                  VIRGIL (70-19).........................................................176
 THE CHRISTIANS................................................... 160                        HORACE (65-8) ........................................................176
CHAPTER XLI PERIOD OF MILITARY                                                                TIBULLUS (54-29) ...................................................176
DESPOTISM—DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE........ 161                                                   PROPERTIUS (49-15) ..............................................176
 COMMODUS (180-192) .......................................... 161                            OVID (43 B.C.—18 A.D.).........................................176
 PERTINAX (192-193) .............................................. 161                        LIVY (59 B.C.—17 A.D.) .........................................176
 JULIANUS (193).—SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (193-                                                      PHAEDRUS ..............................................................176
 211)............................................................................ 161         SENECA (8 B.C.—65 A.D.) .....................................177
 CARACALLA, MACRINUS, AND                                                                     CURTIUS ..................................................................177
 HELIOGABALUS .................................................... 162                        PERSIUS (34-62) ......................................................177
 FROM ALEXANDER SEVERUS TO THE AGE OF                                                         LUCAN (39-65).........................................................177
 THE THIRTY TYRANTS (222-268)....................... 162                                      PLINY THE ELDER (23-79)....................................177
 FIVE GOOD EMPERORS (268-283) ...................... 163                                      STATIUS, MARTIAL, QUINTILIAN, JUVENAL .177
 DIOCLETIAN (284-305).......................................... 163                           TACITUS (54-119)....................................................177
 DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE ................................... 165                                PLINY THE YOUNGER (62-113) ...........................178
 VALENTINIAN AND VALENS (364-375).............. 165                                         CHAPTER XLIV ROMAN ROADS—PROVINCES
....................................................................................... 179          EDUCATION ............................................................196
   PROVINCES............................................................. 180                        BOOKS—LETTER WRITING ................................196
CHAPTER XLV ROMAN OFFICERS, ETC......... 182                                                      CHAPTER XLVII PUBLIC BUILDINGS,
                                                                                                  SQUARES, ETC. .........................................................198
   THE CONSULS ........................................................ 183
   PRAETORS............................................................... 183                    CHAPTER XLVIII COLONIES—THE
   AEDILES .................................................................. 183                 CALENDAR—RELIGION ........................................201
   QUAESTORS............................................................ 184                         THE CALENDAR.....................................................201
   TRIBUNI PLEBIS .................................................... 184                           RELIGION.................................................................201
   CENSORS ................................................................. 184                     FLAMINES................................................................202
   DICTATOR ............................................................... 185                      THE SALII.................................................................203
   MAGISTER EQUITUM ........................................... 185                                  THE AUGURES........................................................203
   PONTIFICES ............................................................ 185                       THE FETIALES ........................................................203
   IMPERIUM ............................................................... 185                   CHAPTER XLIX THE ROMAN ARMY IN
   POTESTAS ............................................................... 186                   CAESAR'S TIME ........................................................204
CHAPTER XLVI HOUSES, CUSTOMS,                                                                     CHAPTER L LEGENDARY ROME.......................206
INSTITUTIONS, ETC................................................ 187
   MEALS...................................................................... 188
   DRESS—BATHING................................................. 189                                B.C. ............................................................................212
   FESTIVALS, GAMES, ETC. ................................... 191                                    THE EMPIRE ............................................................214
   THE AMPHITHEATRE, THEATRE, AND CIRCUS                                                          SPECIMEN EXAMINATION PAPERS...................215
   ................................................................................... 192           HARVARD COLLEGE ............................................215
   A TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION .............................. 193                                         YALE COLLEGE......................................................216
   POMOERIUM........................................................... 194                          UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. .219
   NAMES ..................................................................... 194
   MARRIAGE.............................................................. 194                     ABOUT THE AUTHOR .............................................229
   FUNERALS .............................................................. 195
                                       range of requirement in leading
                                       The maps and plans have been
                                       specially drawn and engraved for
This compilation is designed to        this book. The design has been
be a companion to the author's         to make them as clear and open
History of Greece. It is hoped         as possible; consequently,
that it may fill a want, now felt in   names and places not mentioned
many high schools and                  in the text have, as a rule, been
academies, of a short and clear        omitted.
statement of the rise and fall of
Rome, with a biography of her          ROBERT F. PENNELL.
chief men, and an outline of her       RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA, July.
institutions, manners, and             1890.
                                       [Illustration: GAIUS IULIUS
For this new edition the book has      CAESAR, from original
been entirely rewritten, additional    publication.]
matter having been introduced
whenever it has been found
necessary to meet recent

The penults of proper names
have been marked when long,
both in the text and Index. The
Examination Papers given are
introduced to indicate the present
                                       invasions of the country. The         (Gaul this side of the Alps), and
                                       Apennines, which are a                corresponds in general to
CHAPTER I                              continuation of the Alps, extend      modern Lombardy. The little
GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY                     through the whole of the              river Athesis, north of the Padus,
                                       peninsula. Starting in the            flows into the Adriatic. Of the
                                       Maritime Alps, they extend            tributaries of the Padus, the
                                       easterly towards the Adriatic         Ticínus on the north, and the
Italy is a long, narrow peninsula
                                       coast, and turn southeasterly         Trebia on the south, are of
in the southern part of Europe,
                                       hugging the coast through its         historical interest.
between the 38th and 46th
                                       whole extent. This conformation
parallels of north latitude. It is
                                       of the country causes the rivers      The portion of Northern Italy
720 miles long from the Alps to
                                       of any size below the basin of the    bordering on the Mediterranean
its southern extremity, and 330
                                       Po to flow into the Tyrrhenian        is a mountainous district, and
miles broad in its widest part, i.e.
                                       (Tuscan) Sea, rather than into        was called LIGURIA. In this
from the Little St. Bernard to the
                                       the Adriatic.                         district on the coast were Genua
hills north of Trieste. It has an
                                                                             and Nicaea. The district north of
area of nearly 110,000 square
                                                                             the Athesis, between the Alps
miles, about that of the State of
                                                                             and the Adriatic, was called
                                                                             VENETIA, from which comes the
                                                                             name Venice. Here were located
The Alps separate Italy on the
                                                                             Patavium (Padua), Aquileia, and
north and northwest from the rest
                                                                             Forum Julii.
of Europe. The pass over these
mountains which presents the           Dolomites, Italy
                                                                             Gallia Cisalpína contained many
least difficulties is through the
                                       Northern Italy, between the Alps      flourishing towns. North of the
Julian Alps on the east. It was
                                       and the Apennines, is drained by      Padus were Veróna, Mediolánum
over this pass that the
                                       the Padus (Po) and its tributaries.   (Milan), Cremóna, Mantua,
Barbarians swept down in their
                                       It was called GALLIA CISALPÍNA        Andes, and Vercellae, a noted
battle-field. South of this river      coast were UMBRIA, PICÉNUM,        Herculaneum, Pompeii,
were Augusta Taurinórum                and SAMNIUM.                       Caudium, Salernum, Casilínum,
(Turin), Placentia, Parma,                                                and Nola. The famous volcano
Mutina, and Ravenna. The               The cities of Latium were Rome,    of Vesuvius was here, and also
Rubicon, a little stream flowing       on the Tiber, and its seaport,     Lake Avernus.
into the Adriatic, bounded Gallia      Ostia, near the mouth of the
Cisalpína on the southeast. The        same river. Ten miles northwest    In Umbria, on the coast, were
Mucra, another little stream, was      of Rome was Veii, an Etruscan      Ariminum and Pisaurum; in the
the southern boundary on the           city, and about the same           interior were Sentinum and
other side of Italy.                   distance southeast was Alba        Camerínum. The river Metaurus,
                                       Longa. Nearly the same             noted for the defeat of
CENTRAL ITALY, Italia Propria,         distance directly south of Rome,   Hasdrubal, was likewise in
or Italy Proper, included all of the   on the coast, was Lavinium, and    Umbria.
peninsula below these rivers as        east-northeast of Rome was
far down as Apulia and Lucania.        Tibur. Neighboring to Alba         In Picenum was Ancona. In
In this division are the rivers        Longa were Tusculum and the        Samnium were Cures and
Tiber, Arnus, Liris, and Volturnus,    Alban Lake. The Pomptine           Beneventum.
which empty into the                   Marshes were near the coast, in
Mediterranean, and the                 the southern part of Latium.       SOUTHERN ITALY included
Metaurus, Aesis, and Aternus,          Lake Regillus was near Rome.       APULIA and CALABRIA on the
which empty into the Adriatic.                                            Adriatic, LUCANIA and
                                       In Etruria were Florentia,         BRUTTUM on the Tyrrhenian
The most important subdivision         Faesulae, Pisae, Arretium,         Sea.
of Central Italy was LATIUM,           Volaterrae, Clusium, and
bordering on the Tyrrhenian Sea.       Tarquinii; also Lake Trasiménus.   Apulia is the most level of the
North of it on the same coast was      In Campania were Capua,            countries south of the Rubicon.
ETRURIA, and to the south was          Neapolis (Naples), Cumae,          Its only stream is the Aufidus, on
CAMPANIA. On the Adriatic              Baiae, a watering place,           the bank of which at Cannae was
fought a famous battle. Arpi,       Selínus, Egesta (or Segesta),
Asculum, and Canusium are           Panormus, Leontíni, and Enna.
interior towns.                     There are many mountains, the
                                    chief of which is Aetna.
In Calabria (or Iapygia) were the
cities of Brundisium and            SARDINIA is nearly as large as
Tarentum.                           Sicily. CORSICA is considerably
                                    smaller. ILVA (Elba) is between
The chief towns in Lucania and      Corsica and the mainland.
Bruttium were settled by the        IGILIUM is off Etruria; CAPREAE
Greeks. Among them were             is in the Bay of Naples;
Heracléa, Metapontum, Sybaris,      STRONGYLE (Strombóli) and
and Thurii, in Lucania; and         LIPARA are north of Sicily, and
Croton, Locri, and Rhegium, in      the AEGÁTES INSULAE are
Bruttium.                           west of it.

The islands near Italy were
important. SICILY, with an area
of about 10,000 square miles,
and triangular in shape, was
often called by the poets
TRINACRIA (with three
promontories). The island
contained many important cities,
most of which were of Greek
origin. Among these were
Syracuse, Agrigentum, Messána,
Catana, Camarína, Gela,             Map of Italy today
                                    whom settled in Venetia, the          Many well preserved monuments
                                    latter in Liguria.                    of their art have been discovered,
CHAPTER II THE EARLY                                                      but no one has yet been able to
INHABITANTS OF ITALY                The ETRUSCANS at the time             decipher any of the inscriptions
                                    when Roman history begins were        upon them. The power of these
                                    a powerful and warlike race,          people was gradually lessened
                                    superior to the Italians in           by the Romans, and after the fall
So far as we know, the early
                                    civilization and the arts of life.    of Veii, in 396, became
inhabitants of Italy were divided
                                    They probably came from the           practically extinct.
into three races, the IAPYGIAN,
                                    north, and at first settled in the
                                    plain of the Po; but being            The ITALIANS were of the same
IAPYGIANS were the first to
                                    afterwards dislodged by the           origin as the Hellénes, and
settle in Italy. They probably
                                    invading Gauls, they moved            belonged to the Aryan race, a
came from the north, and were
                                    farther south, into Etruria. Here     people that lived in earliest times
pushed south by later
                                    they formed a confederation of        possibly in Scandinavia. While
immigrations, until they were
                                    twelve cities between the Arno        the Hellénes were settling in
crowded into the southeastern
                                    and the Tiber. Of these cities the    Greece, the Italians entered Italy.
corner of the peninsula
                                    most noted were Volsinii, the
(Calabria). Here they were
                                    head of the confederacy, Veii,        At this time the Italians had made
mostly absorbed by the Greeks,
                                    Volaterrae, Caere, and Clusium.       considerable progress in
who settled in the eighth and
                                    This people also formed               civilization. They understood, in
seventh centuries all along the
                                    scattering settlements in other       a measure, the art of agriculture;
southern and southwestern
                                    parts of Italy, but gained no firm    the building of houses; the use of
coast, and who were more highly
                                    foothold. At one time, in the sixth   wagons and of boats; of fire in
civilized. Besides the Iapygians,
                                    century, they were in power at        preparing food, and of salt in
and distinct from the Etruscans
                                    Rome. Corsica, too, was at this       seasoning it. They could make
and Italians, were the Venetians
                                    time under their control. Their       various weapons and ornaments
and the Ligurians, the former of
                                    commerce was considerable.            out of copper and silver; husband
and wife were recognized, and        harbors. It is watered by two           the people assembled and
the people were divided into         rivers, the Tiber, and its tributary,   offered sacrifice to their common
clans (tribes).                      the Anio. Hills rise here and           god, Jupiter (Latiaris).
                                     there; as Soracte in the
That portion of the Italians known   northeast, the promontory of            [Illustration: Latium, from the
as the LATINS settled in a plain     Circeium in the southwest,              original publication.]
which is bounded on the east         Janiculum near Rome, and the
and south by mountains, on the       Alban range farther south. The
west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and      low lands (modern Campagna)
on the north by the high lands of    were malarious and unhealthy.
Etruria.                             Hence the first settlements were
                                     made on the hills, which also
                                     could be easily fortified.

                                     The first town established was
                                     ALBA; around this sprung up
                                     other towns, as Lanuvium, Aricia,
                                     Tusculum, Tibur, Praeneste,
                                     Laurentum, Roma, and Lavinium.

                                     These towns, thirty in number,
Italian countryside                  formed a confederacy, called the
                                     LATIN CONFEDERACY, and
This plain, called LATIUM (flat      chose Alba to be its head. An
country), contains about 700         annual festival was celebrated
square miles (one half the size of   with great solemnity by the
Rhode Island), with a coast of       magistrates on the Alban Mount,
only fifty miles, and no good        called the Latin festival. Here all
                                       early Romans as a stronghold         the Romans were no exception,
                                       against the Etruscans. It was        were composed of several
CHAPTER III THE                        connected with Rome by a             groups of FAMILIES. The
ROMANS AND THEIR                       wooden bridge (Pons Sublicius).]     Romans called these groups
EARLY GOVERNMENT                       rising to a considerable height,     GENTES, and a single group
                                       around one of which, the             was called a GENS. All the
                                       PALATINE, first settled a tribe of   members of a gens were
                                       Latins called RAMNES,—a name         descended from a common
We have learned the probable           gradually changed to ROMANS.         ancestor, after whom the gens
origin of the LATINS; how they                                              received its name.
settled in Latium, and founded         When this settlement was formed
numerous towns. We shall now           is not known. Tradition says in
examine more particularly that         753. It may have been much
one of the Latin towns which was       earlier. These first settlers of
destined to outstrip all her sisters   Rome were possibly a colony
in prosperity and power.               from Alba. In the early stages of
                                       their history they united            Ancient walled community in Italy
Fourteen miles from the mouth of       themselves with a Sabine colony
the Tiber, the monotonous level        that had settled north of them on    The head of each family was
of the plain through which the         the QUIRÍNAL HILL. The name          called PATER-FAMILIAS, and he
river flows is broken by a cluster     of TITIES was given to this new      had absolute authority [Note:
of hills [Note: The seven hills of     tribe. A third tribe, named          Called patria potestas.] over his
historic Rome were the Aventine,       LUCERES, composed, possibly,         household, even in the matter of
Capitoline, Coelian, Esquiline         of conquered Latins, was             life and death.
(the highest, 218 feet), Palatine,     afterwards added and settled
Quirínal, and Viminal. The             upon the COELIAN HILL.               The Roman government at first
Janiculum was on the other side                                             was conducted by these Fathers
of the Tiber, and was held by the      All early communities, to which      of the families, with a KING,
elected from their own number,        addressed, were called PATRES,      Roman citizens who could bear
and holding office for life. His      or "Fathers”, for they were         arms. [Note: We must remember
duties were to command the            Fathers of the families.            that at this time no one was a
army, to perform certain                                                  Roman citizen who did not
sacrifices (as high priest), and to   The Romans, as we saw above,        belong to some family. All other
preside over the assembly of the      were divided at first into three    residents were either slaves or
Fathers of the families, which        tribes, Ramnes, Tities, and         had no political rights, i.e. had no
was called the SENATE, i. e. an       Luceres Each tribe was              voice in the government.] This
assembly of old men (Senex).          subdivided into ten districts       assembly of Roman citizens met,
                                      called CURIAE, and each curia       from time to time, in an enclosed
This body was probably originally     into ten clans called GENTES (3     space called the COMITIUM,
composed of all the Fathers of        tribes, 30 curiae, and 300          which means a place of
the families, but in historical       gentes). Every Roman citizen,       gathering or coming together.
times it was limited to THREE         therefore, belonged to a            This was between the Palatine
HUNDRED members, holding life         particular family, at the head of   and Quirínal hills near the
office, and appointed during the      which was a pater- familias;        FORUM, or market-place. This
regal period by the king. Later       every family belonged to a          assembly itself was called the
the appointment was made by           particular gens, named after a      COMITIA CURIÁTA, i.e. an
the Consuls, still later by the       common ancestor; every gens         assembly composed of the 30
Censors, and for nearly one           belonged to a particular curia;     curiae. This body alone had the
hundred years before Christ all       and every curia to a particular     power of changing the existing
persons who had held certain          tribe.                              laws; of declaring war or peace;
offices were thereby vested with                                          and of confirming the election of
the right of seats in the Senate.     We have learned that in the early   kings made by the senate. The
Hence, during this later period,      government of Rome there was a      voting in this assembly was taken
the number of Senators was            king, and a senate that advised     by each curia, and the majority of
greatly in excess of three            the king. Besides this, there was   the curiae decided any question.
hundred. The Senators, when           an assembly composed of all
                                     successor, Ancus Marcius,           extending about ten or twelve
                                     subdued several cities along the    miles from the river. It was not
CHAPTER IV THE                       river, and at its mouth founded a   materially increased during the
EARLY GROWTH AND                     colony which was named OSTIA,       next two centuries.
INTERNAL HISTORY OF                  the seaport of Rome.
ROME                                                                     The original founders of Rome
                                                                         and their direct descendants
                                                                         were called PATRICIANS, i.e.
                                                                         belonging to the Patres, or
The position of Rome was                                                 Fathers of the families. They
superior to that of the other                                            formed a class distinct from all
towns in the Latin Confederacy.                                          others, jealously protecting their
Situated on the Tiber, at the head                                       rights against outsiders.
of navigation, she naturally                                             Attached to the Patricians was a
became a commercial centre.                                              class called CLIENTS, who,
Her citizens prospered and grew                                          though free, enjoyed no civil
wealthy, and wealth is power.                                            rights, i.e. they had no voice in
Her hills were natural                                                   the government, but were bound
strongholds, easily held against a                                       to assist in every way the
                                     The Tiber river
foe. Thus we see that she soon                                           Patrician, called PATRON, to
                                     and the seven hills of Rome
became the most powerful of the                                          whom they were attached. In
Latin cities, and when her                                               return, the latter gave them his
                                     At this time (about 625 B.C.) the
interests conflicted with theirs,                                        support, and looked after their
                                     Roman territory (ager Románus)
she had no scruples about                                                interests. These clients
                                     comprised nearly 250 square
conquering any of them and                                               corresponded somewhat to serfs,
                                     miles, being irregular in shape,
annexing their territory. Thus                                           worked on the fields of their
                                     but lying mostly along the
Alba was taken during the reign                                          patrons, and bore the name of
                                     southern bank of the Tiber and
of Tullus Hostilius, and his                                             the gens to which their patron
belonged. Their origin is            acted as their patron.               not Patricians or slaves were
uncertain; but they may have                                              called Plebeians.
come from foreign towns              These three classes, clients,
conquered by the Latins, and         slaves, and resident foreigners,
whose inhabitants had not been       were all of a different race from
made slaves.                         the Romans. This should be
                                     constantly borne in mind.
In addition to the clients there
were actual slaves, who were the     We have learned that Rome, as
property of their masters, and       she grew in power, conquered
could be bought or sold at           many of the Latin towns, and
pleasure. Sometimes a slave          added their territory to hers. The
was freed, and then he was           inhabitants of these towns were
called a LIBERTUS (freedman)         of the same race as the Romans,      Ancient Italian town
and became the client of his         but were not allowed any of their
former master.                       civil rights. Most of them were
                                     farmers and peasants. Many of        THE ARMY
As Rome grew into commercial         them were wealthy. This class of
prominence, still another class of   inhabitants on the ager
people flocked into the city from    Romanus, or in Rome itself, were     Until the time of Servius Tullius
foreign places, who might be         called Plebeians (Plebs,             (about 550) the army was
called resident foreigners,          multitude). Their very name          composed entirely of patricians.
corresponding in general to the      shows that they must have been       It was called a Legio (a word
Metics at Athens. Such were          numerous. They belonged to no        meaning levy), and numbered
many merchants and workmen of        gens or curia, but were free, and    three thousand infantry called
all trades. These all were           allowed to engage in trade and to    milites, from mille, a thousand,
supposed to be under the             own property. In later times         one thousand being levied from
protection of some patrician who     (from about 350) all who were        each tribe. The cavalry
numbered three hundred at first,    eighteen centuries of cavalry.
one hundred from each tribe, and
was divided into three companies    In the second, third, and fourth
called Centuries.                   classes there were twenty
                                    centuries each, ten in active
During the reign of Servius the     service, and ten in reserve. The
demands of the plebeians, who       fifth class had thirty centuries of
had now become numerous, for        soldiers, and five of mechanics,
more rights, was met by the so      musicians, etc.
called SERVIAN reform of the
constitution. Heretofore only the   The first four ranks of the troops
patricians had been required to     were made up of the infantry
serve in the army. Now all males    from the first class. All were         Roman soldiers
were liable to service. To          armed with a leather helmet,
accomplish this, everyone who       round shield, breastplate,             Each soldier of the infantry paid
was a land-owner, provided he       greaves (leg-pieces), spear, and       for his own equipments; the
owned two acres, was enrolled       sword. The fifth rank was              cavalry, however, received from
and ranked according to his         composed of the second class,          the state a horse, and food to
property. There were five           who were armed like the first,         keep it.
"Classes" of them. The several      without breastplate. The sixth
classes were divided into 193       rank was composed of the third         This new organization of both
subdivisions called "Centuries,"    class, who had neither                 patricians and plebeians was
each century representing the       breastplate nor greaves. Behind        originally only for military
same amount of property. In the     these came the fourth class,           purposes,—that the army might
first class there were forty        armed with spears and darts, and       be increased, and the expenses
centuries in active service,        the fifth class, having only slings.   of keeping it more equitably
composed of men under forty-six,                                           divided among all the people.
forty centuries of reserve, and                                            But gradually, as the influence of
the wealthy plebeians began to       assembly was virtually controlled
be felt, the organization was        by them. In this assembly
found well adapted for political     magistrates were elected, laws
purposes, and all the people         made, war declared, and
were called together to vote         judgment passed in all criminal
under it. It was called the          cases.
assembly of centuries. The           [Illustration: Campania, from the
place of meeting was on the          original publication.]
outside of the city.

In this assembly each century
had one vote, and its vote was
decided by the majority of its
individual voters. The tendency
of this system was to give the
wealthy the whole power; for
since each century represented
the same amount of property, the
centuries in the upper or richer
classes were much smaller than
those in the lower or poorer
classes, so that a majority of the
centuries might represent a small
minority of the people. The
majority of the wealthy people at
Rome were still patricians, so the
                                    Capitoline Hill, and near by         used.
                                    shrines to JUNO and MINERVA.
CHAPTER V THE                       This temple to Jupiter was called    Under the second king of this
DYNASTY OF THE                      the CAPITOLIUM, and from it we       dynasty, Servius Tullius, the city
TARQUINS                            get our word CAPITOL. It was         was surrounded with a wall,
                                    looked upon as the centre of         which included the Palatine,
                                    Roman religion and authority,        Quirínal, Coelian, and Aventine
                                    and at times the Senate was          hills, and also the Janiculum,
Of the seven traditional kings of   convened in it.                      which was on the opposite side
Rome, the last three were                                                of the river, and connected with
undoubtedly of Etruscan origin,                                          the city by a bridge (pons
and their reigns left in the city                                        sublicius).
many traces of Etruscan
influence. The Etruscans were                                            The establishment of the new
great builders, and the only                                             military organization, mentioned
buildings of importance that                                             in the previous chapter, was
Rome possessed, until a much                                             attributed also to this king.
later period, were erected under
this dynasty. The names of          Statue of Romulus and Remus          The pupil will notice the similarity
these kings are said to have        nursing from the wolf on the         between these reforms of Tullius
been LUCIUS TARQUINIUS              Capitoline in Rome.                  and those of Solon of Athens,
PRISCUS, SERVIUS TULLIUS,                                                who lived about the same time.
his son-in-law, and LUCIUS          During this reign the famous         Thus early was the Greek
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS.                CLOÁCA MAXIMA, or great              influence felt at Rome.
                                    sewer intended to drain the
Under the first of these kings      Campagna, is also said to have       During the reign of Tullius a
were built the fine temple of       been constructed. This sewer         temple in honor of DIÁNA was
JUPITER CAPITOLÍNUS, on the         was so well built that it is still   erected on the Aventine, to be
used by all the Latin towns.

Tarquinius Superbus added to
territory of the city of GABII, and
planted two military colonies,
which were afterwards lost. The
dynasty of the Tarquins ended
with the overthrow of this king,
and a Republic was established,
which lasted until the death of
Julius Caesar.

                                        of office never exceeded six         some of the richest of the landed
                                        months, and he must be a             plebeians, and called them
CHAPTER VI THE                          patrician. He exercised his          CONSCRIPTI. [Note: This is the
CONSULS AND                             authority only outside of the city   origin of the phrase used by
TRIBUNES                                walls. It was at this time, about    speakers addressing the Senate,
                                        500, that the COMITIA                viz.: "Patres (et) Consripti"]
                                        CENTURIÁTA came to be the            These, however, could take no
                                        more important assembly,             part in debates, nor could they
At the close of the dynasty of the      superseding in a great measure       hold magistracies.
Tarquins, the regal form of             the COMITIA CURIÁTA.
government was abolished, and                                                In the Senate, thus constituted,
instead of one king who held            We must remember that in this        the nomination of all magistrates
office for life, two officers, called   assembly all criminal cases were     made in the Comitia Centuriáta
CONSULS, were elected                   tried, magistrates nominated, and    was confirmed or rejected. In
annually from the PATRICIANS,           laws adopted or rejected. We         this way it controlled the election
each of whom possessed                  must not forget that, since it was   of the Consuls, whose duties, we
supreme power, and acted as a           on a property basis, it was under    must remember, were those of
salutary check upon the other; so       the control of the patricians, for   generals and supreme judges,
that neither was likely to abuse        the great mass of plebeians were     though every Roman citizen had
his power. This change took             poor. Still there were many          the privilege of appealing from
place towards the close of the          wealthy plebeians, and so far the    their decision in cases which
sixth century before Christ.            assembly was a gain for this         involved life.
In times of great emergency a                                                Two subordinate officers, chosen
person called DICTATOR might            About this time the Senate, which    from the patricians, were
be appointed by one of the              heretofore had consisted solely      appointed by the Consuls.
Consuls, who should have                of Fathers of the families           These officers, called
supreme authority; but his tenure       (Patres), admitted into its ranks    QUAESTÓRES, managed the
finances of the state, under the      Publicans), would extort all they   troops, were patricians, and
direction of the Senate.              could from the tax-payers, thus     naturally favored their own party.
                                      enriching themselves unlawfully.    Hence we see that the cavalry
The wars in which the Romans          So the hard times, the              service was at this time made up
had been engaged, during the          oppression of the tax-gatherer,     entirely of young patricians, while
century preceding the                 and the unjust law about debt,      the older ones were in the
establishment of the Republic,        made the condition of the poor      reserve corps, so that the brunt
had impoverished the state and        unendurable.                        of military duty fell on the
crippled its commerce. This was                                           plebeians.
felt by all classes, but especially
by the small landed plebeians                                             This state of things could not last,
whose fields had been                                                     and, as the opportunity for
devastated. They were obliged                                             rebelling against this unjust and
to mortgage their property to pay                                         cruel oppression was offered, the
the taxes, and, when unable to                                            plebeians were not slow in
meet the demands of their                                                 accepting it.
creditors, according to the laws
they could be imprisoned, or                                              The city was at war with the
even put to death.                                                        neighboring Sabines, Aequians,
                                                                          and Volscians, and needed extra
The rich land-owners, on the          Statue of Roman soldier             men for defence. One of the
other hand, increased their                                               Consuls liberated all who were
wealth by "farming" the public        The military service, too, bore     confined in prison for debt, and
revenues; i.e. the state would let    hard upon them. Many were           the danger was averted. Upon
out to them, for a stipulated sum,    obliged to serve more than their    the return of the army, however,
the privilege of collecting all       due time, and in a rank lower       those who had been set free
import and other duties. These,       than was just; for the Consuls,     were again thrown into prison.
in turn (called in later times        who had charge of the levy of       The next year the prisoners were
again needed. At first they           within the city walls, and could
refused to obey, but were finally     never be exercised outside of
persuaded by the Dictator. But        them.
after a well-earned victory, upon
their return to the city walls, the   The person of the Tribunes was
plebeians of the army deserted,       also made sacred, to prevent
and, marching to a hill near by,      interference with them while in
occupied it, threatening to found     discharge of their duties, and if
a new city unless their wrongs        any one attempted to stop them
were redressed. This is called        he was committing a capital
the First Secession of the Plebs,     crime. Thus, if the Consuls or
and is said to have been in 494.      Quaestors were inclined to press
                                      the law of debt to extremes, or to
The patricians and richer             be unjust in the levying of troops,
plebeians saw that concessions        the Tribunes could step in, and
must be made, for the loss of         by their VETO stop the matter at
these people would be ruin to         once.
Rome. Those in debt were
released from their obligations,      This was an immense gain for
and the plebeians received the        the plebeians, and they were
right to choose annually, from        justified in giving the name of
their own numbers, two officers       SACRED MOUNT to the hill to
called TRIBÚNI PLEBIS, who            which they had seceded.
should look after their interests,
and have the power of VETOING         The number of Tribunes was
any action taken by any               afterwards increased to five, and
magistrate in the city. This          still later to ten.
power, however, was confined
                                     the first secession, were filled by     interest to the plebeians. By it
                                     elections held at first in the          any member could be punished
CHAPTER VII THE                      Comitia Centuriáta, but later in        for misconduct, and though at
COMITIA TRIBUTA AND                  an assembly called the COMITIA          first measures passed in it were
THE AGRARIAN LAWS                    TRIBÚTA, which met sometimes            not binding on the people at
                                     within and sometimes without the        large, it presently became a
                                     city walls.                             determined body, with competent
                                                                             and bold leaders, who were felt
The next gain made by the            This assembly was composed of           to be a power in the state.
plebeians was the annual             plebeians, who voted by "tribes"
appointment from their own ranks     (tributa, meaning composed of           The aim of the patricians was
of two officers, called AEDILES.     tribes), each tribe being entitled      now to lessen the power of the
[Note: The word "Aedile" is          to one vote, and its vote being         Tribunes; that of the plebeians, to
derived from Aedes, meaning          decided by the majority of its          restrain the Consuls and extend
temple.] These officers held         individual voters. [Note: These         the influence of the Tribunes.
nearly the same position in          "tribes" were a territorial division,   Party spirit ran high; even hand
reference to the Tribunes that the   corresponding roughly to "wards"        to hand contests occurred in the
Quaestors did to the Consuls.        in our cities. At this time there       city. Many families left Rome
They assisted the Tribunes in the    were probably sixteen, but later        and settled in neighboring places
performance of their various         there were thirty-five. The             to escape the turmoil. It is a
duties, and also had special         plebeians in the city lived mostly      wonder that the government
charge of the temple of Ceres. In    in one quarter, on the Aventine         withstood the strain, so fierce
this temple were deposited, for      Hill.]                                  was the struggle.
safe keeping, all the decrees of
the Senate.                          The Comitia Tribúta was                 The AGRARIAN LAWS at this
                                     convened and presided over by           time first become prominent.
These two offices, those of          the Tribunes and Aediles. In it         These laws had reference to the
Tribune and Aedile, the result of    were discussed matters of               distribution of the PUBLIC
LANDS. Rome had acquired a            dues. In course of time, this
large amount of land taken from       land, which was handed down          SPURIUS CASSIUS, an able
the territory of conquered cities.    from father to son, and frequently   man, now came forward (486?),
This land was called AGER             sold, began to be regarded by        proposing a law that the state
PUBLICUS, or public land.             the occupants as their own           take up these lands, divide them
                                      property. Also the land tax          into small lots, and distribute
Some of this land was sold or         (TRIBÚTUM), which was levied         them among the poor plebeians
given away as "homesteads,"           on all ager privátus, and which      as homes (homesteads). The
and then it became AGER               was especially hard upon the         law was carried, but in the
PRIVÁTUS, or private land. But        small plebeian land-owners,          troublesome times it cost
the most of it was occupied by        could not legally be levied upon     Cassius his life, and was never
permission of the magistrates.        the ager occupátus. Thus the         enforced.
The occupants were usually rich       patricians who possessed, not
patricians, who were favored by       owned, this land were naturally
the patrician magistrates. This       regarded as usurpers by the
land, so occupied, was called         plebeians.
possessio; but it really was still
the property of the state. The
rent paid was a certain per cent
(from 10 to 20) of the crops, or so
much a head for cattle on
pasture land. Although the state
had the undoubted right to claim
this land at any time, the            Italian hilltop farm
magistrates allowed the
occupants to retain it, and were      The first object of the AGRARIAN
often lenient about collecting        LAWS was to remedy this evil.
                                       notwithstanding violent               according to the wishes and
                                       opposition by the patricians, a       traditions of the patricians only.
CHAPTER VIII THE                       measure to the effect that the        A change was demanded. This
CONTEST OF THE                         Tribunes should hereafter be          was obtained by the
PLEBEIANS FOR CIVIL                    chosen in the Comitia Tribúta,        TERENTILIAN ROGATION, a
RIGHTS                                 instead of the Comitia Centuriáta.    proposal made in 461 by Gaius
                                       Thus the plebeians gained a very      Terentilius Harsa, a Tribune, to
                                       important step. This bill is called   the effect that the laws thereafter
                                       the PUBLILIAN LAW                     be written. The patrician
The plebeians were now (about          (Plebiscítum Publilium). [Note:       families, led by one Kaeso
475) as numerous as the                All bills passed in the Comitia       Quinctius, made bitter opposition.
patricians, if not more so. Their      Tribúta were called Plebiscíta,       Kaeso himself, son of the famous
organization had become                and until 286 were not                Cincinnátus, was impeached by
perfected, and many of their           necessarily binding upon the          the Tribune and fled from the
leaders were persistent in their       people at large; but this bill        city.
efforts to better the condition of     seems to have been recognized
their followers. Their especial        as a law.]                            Finally it was arranged that the
aim was to raise their civil and                                             Comitia Centuriáta should select
political rights to an equality with   For the next twenty years the         from the people at large ten men,
those of the patricians. The           struggle continued unabated.          called the DECEMVIRATE, to
struggle finally culminated in the     The plebeians demanded a              hold office for one year, to direct
murder of one of the Tribunes,         WRITTEN CODE OF LAWS.                 the government and supersede
Gnarus Genucius, for attempting                                              all other magistrates, and
to veto some of the acts of the        We find among all early peoples       especially to draw up a code of
Consuls.                               that the laws are at first the        laws to be submitted to the
                                       unwritten ones of custom and          people for approval. A
VALERO PUBLILIUS, a Tribune,           precedent. The laws at Rome,          commission of three patricians
now (471) proposed and carried,        thus far, had been interpreted        was sent to Athens to examine
the laws of that city, which was    were approved, but they              position of the debtor was
now (454) at the height of its      neglected to do so, and began to     apparently made more
prosperity. Two years were          act in a cruel and tyrannical        endurable. The absolute control
spent by this commission, and       manner. The people, growing          of the pater familias over his
upon their return in 452 the        uneasy under their injustice,        family was abolished. The close
above mentioned Decemvirate         finally rebelled when one of the     connection heretofore existing
was appointed.                      Decemviri, Appius Claudius,          between the clients and patrons
                                    passed a sentence that brought       was gradually relaxed, the former
The laws drawn up by this board     an innocent maiden, Virginia, into   became less dependent upon the
were approved, engraved on ten      his power. Her father, Virginius,    latter, and finally were absorbed
tables of copper, and placed in     saved his daughter's honor by        into the body of the plebeians.
the Forum in front of the Senate-   stabbing her to the heart, and       Gentes among the plebeians
House. Two more tables were         fleeing to the camp called upon      now began to be recognized;
added the next year. These          the soldiers to put down such        previously only the patricians had
TWELVE TABLES were the only         wicked government.                   been divided into gentes.
Roman code.
                                    A second time the army deserted      Thus we see, socially, the two
                                    its leaders, and seceded to the      orders were approaching nearer
                                    SACRED MOUNT, where they             and nearer.
                                    nominated their own Tribunes.
                                    Then, marching into the city, they   In 449 Valerius and Horatius
                                    compelled the Decemviri to           were elected Consuls, and were
                                    resign.                              instrumental in passing the so
Forum Romanum from the                                                   called VALERIO-HORATIAN
Capitoline                          The TWELVE TABLES have not           laws, the substance of which was
                                    been preserved, except in            as follows:—
The DECEMVIRI should have           fragments, and we know but little
resigned as soon as these laws      of their exact contents. The         I. Every Roman citizen could
appeal to the Comitia Centuriáta                                         influential, that for a long time no
against the sentence of any         In 445 the Tribune Canuleius         plebeian was elected.
magistrate.                         proposed a bill which was
                                    passed, and called the               As an offset to these gains of the
II. All the decisions of the        CANULEIAN LAW, giving to the         plebeians, the patricians in 435
Comitia Tribúta (plebiscita), if    plebeians the right of               obtained two new officers, called
sanctioned by the Senate and        intermarriage (connubium) with       CENSORS, elected from their
Comitia Centuriáta, were made       the patricians, and enacting that    own ranks every five years
binding upon patricians and         all issue of such marriages          (lustrum) to hold office for
plebeians alike. This assembly      should have the rank of the          eighteen months.
now became of equal importance      father.
with the other two.                                                      The duties of the Censors were:-
                                    Canuleius also proposed another
III. The persons of the Tribunes,   bill which he did not carry; viz.    I. To see that the citizens of
Aediles, and other plebeian         that the consulship be open to       every class were properly
officers, were to be considered     the plebeians. A compromise,         registered.
sacred.                             however, was made, and it was
                                    agreed to suspend for a time the     II. To punish immorality in the
IV. The Tribunes could take part    office of Consul, and to elect       Senate by the removal of any
in the debates of the Senate, and   annually six MILITARY                members who were guilty of
veto any of its decisions.          TRIBUNES in the Comitia              offences against public morals.
                                    Centuriáta, the office being open
Two years later (447), the          to all citizens. The people voted    III. To have the general
election of the Quaestors, who      every year whether they should       supervision of the finances and
must still be patricians, was       have consuls or military tribunes,   public works of the state. This
intrusted to the Comitia Tribúta.   and this custom continued for        office became in after years the
Heretofore they had been            nearly a half-century. The           most coveted at Rome.
appointed by the Consuls.           patricians, however, were so
A few years later, in 421, the      II. To forbid any citizen's holding   interests were now more likely to
plebeians made another step         more than 500 jugera (300 acres)      be protected. The temple of
forward by obtaining the right of   of the public lands, or feeding       CONCORDIA in the Forum was
electing one of their number as     thereon more than 100 oxen or         dedicated by Camillus as a mark
Quaestor. There were now four       500 sheep.                            of gratitude for the better times
Quaestors.                                                                that these rogations promised.
                                    III. To compel all landlords to
Thus the patricians, in spite of    employ on their fields a certain      The plebeians, however, did not
the most obstinate resistance,      number of free laborers,              stop until all the offices, except
sustained loss after loss. Even     proportionate to the number of        that of Interrex, were thrown
the rich plebeians, who had         their slaves.                         open to them. First they gained
hitherto often found it for their                                         that of Dictator, then those of
interest to side with the           IV. To allow all interest hitherto    Censor and of Praetor, and
patricians, joined the farmers or   paid on borrowed money to be          finally, in 286, by the law of
lower classes.                      deducted from the principal, and      HORTENSIUS, the plebiscita
                                    the rest to be paid in three yearly   became binding upon all the
Finally, in 367, the Tribunes       instalments.                          people without the sanction of
Licinius and Sextius proposed                                             the Senate and Comitia
and passed the following bills,     These rogations were a great          Centuriáta. After 200 the sacred
called the LICINIAN                 gain for the poorer classes. It       offices of PONTIFEX and
ROGATIONS.                          gave them an opportunity for          AUGUR also could be filled by
                                    labor which had previously been       plebeians.
I. To abolish the six military      performed mostly by slaves.
tribunes, and elect annually, as    They were less burdened by            Thus the strife that had lasted for
formerly, two Consuls, choosing     debts, and had some prospect of       two centuries was virtually
one or both of them from the        becoming solvent. But most of         ended; and although the Roman
plebeians.                          all, since the office of Consul was   patricians still held aloof from the
                                    open to them, they felt that their    commons, yet their rights as
citizens were no greater than
those of the plebeians.

To recapitulate:—

Full citizenship comprised four
rights, viz.: that of trading and
holding property
(COMMERCIUM); that of voting
(SUFFRAGIUM); that of
intermarriage (CONNUBIUM);
and that of holding office

The first of these rights the
plebeians always enjoyed; the
second they obtained in the
establishment of the COMITIA
TRIBÚTA; the third by the
CANULEIAN BILL; the fourth by
the LICINIAN and subsequent

[Illustration: City of Rome to the
extent of the Aurelian Walls]

                                     was fought on July 18, 390. The      Romans subsequently planted
                                     Romans were thoroughly               many, were outposts established
CHAPTER IX                           defeated and their city lay at the   to protect conquered territory. A
EXTERNAL HISTORY                     mercy of the foe. The Celts,         band of Roman citizens was
                                     however, delayed three days          armed and equipped, as if for
                                     before marching upon Rome.           military purposes. They took with
                                     Thus the people had time to          them their wives and children,
The first authentic history of
                                     prepare the Capitol for a siege,     slaves and followers, and
Rome begins about 400. The
                                     which lasted seven months,           established a local government
city then possessed, possibly,
                                     when by a large sum of money         similar to that of Rome. These
three hundred square miles of
                                     the barbarians were induced to       colonists relinquished their rights
territory. The number of tribes
                                     withdraw.                            as Roman citizens and became
had been increased to twenty-
                                                                          Latins; hence the name LATIN
five. Later it became thirty-five.
                                     During this siege the records of     COLONIES.] The neighboring
                                     the city's history were destroyed,   Latin town of TUSCULUM, which
In 391 a horde of Celtic
                                     and we have no trustworthy data      had always been a faithful ally,
barbarians crossed the
                                     for events that happened             was annexed to Rome.
Apennines into Etruria and
                                     previous to 390.
attacked CLUSIUM. Here a
                                                                          The trying times of these years
Celtic chief was slain by Roman
                                     The city was quickly rebuilt and     had caused numerous enemies
ambassadors, who, contrary to
                                     soon recovered from the blow. In     to spring up all around Rome; but
the sacred character of their
                                     387 the lost territory adjacent to   she showed herself superior to
mission, were fighting in the
                                     the Tiber was annexed, and           them all, until finally, in 353, she
ranks of the Etrurians. The
                                     military colonies were planted at    had subdued the whole of
Celts, in revenge, marched upon
                                     Sutrium and Nepete upon the          Southern Etruria, and gained
Rome. The disastrous battle of
                                     Etruscan border, and also at         possession of the town of
the ALLIA, a small river about
                                     Circeii and Setia. [Note: These      CAERE, with most of its territory.
eleven miles north of the city,
                                     military colonies, of which the      The town was made a
MUNICIPIUM, the first of its kind.    spreading over the southern half      each other, been waging war
                                      of Italy, had in 423 captured the     upon the Volsci. The Samnites
The inhabitants, being of foreign     Etruscan city of CAPUA, and           went so far as to attack Teánum,
blood and language, were not          three years later the Greek city of   a city of Northern Campania,
allowed the full rights of Roman      CUMAE. Since then they had            which appealed to Capua for aid.
citizenship, but were permitted to    been practically masters of the       The Samnites at once appeared
govern their own city in local        whole of Campania.                    before Capua, and she, unable to
matters as they wished. Many                                                defend herself, asked aid of
towns were subsequently made                                                Rome.
MUNICIPIA. Their inhabitants
were called CIVES SINE                                                      Alarmed at the advances of the
SUFFRAGIO, "citizens without                                                Samnites, Rome only awaited an
suffrage."                                                                  excuse to break her treaty. This
                                                                            was furnished by the Capuans
During the next ten years (353-                                             surrendering their city
343) Rome subdued all the                                                   unconditionally to Rome, so that,
lowland countries as far south as                                           in attacking the Samnites, she
TARRACÍNA. To the north,                                                    would simply be defending her
across the Tiber, she had                                                   subjects.
acquired most of the territory
belonging to VEII and CAPÉNA.                                               Thus began the SAMNITE
                                                                            WARS, which lasted for over half
In 354 she formed her first           Painting, The Household Gods,         a century with varying success,
connections beyond the Liris, by      by J. W. Waterhouse                   and which were interrupted by
a treaty with the SAMNITES, a                                               two truces. It is usual to divide
race that had established itself in   After the treaty of 354 mentioned     them into three parts, the First,
the mountainous districts of          above, both the Romans and            Second, and Third Samnite
Central Italy. This people,           Samnites had, independently of        Wars.
                                    Rome a proposition that one of      part of the Ager Románus, and
                                    the Consuls and half of the         the inhabitants Roman plebeians.
THE FIRST SAMNITE                   Senate be Latins; but it was
WAR (343-341)                       rejected. A war followed, in the    Besides acquiring Latium, Rome
                                    third year of which was fought      also annexed, as municipia,
                                    the battle of Trigánum, near        three more towns, Fundi,
The accounts of this war are so     Mount Vesuvius. The Romans,         Formiae, and Velítrae, a Volscian
uncertain and confused that no      with their Samnite allies, were     town.
clear idea of its details can be    victorious through the efforts of
given. It resulted in no material   the Consul, TITUS MANLIUS           LATIUM was now made to
advantage to either side, except    TORQUÁTUS, one of the               include all the country from the
that Rome retained Capua and        illustrious names of this still     Tiber to the Volturnus.
made it a municipium, annexing      doubtful period. The remainder
its territory to her own.           of the operations was rather a      Rome about this time established
                                    series of expeditions against       several MARITIME (Roman)
                                    individual cities than a general    COLONIES, which were similar
THE LATIN WAR (340-                 war.                                to her MILITARY (Latin)
338)                                                                    COLONIES, except that the
                                    In 338 all the Latins laid down     colonists retained all their rights
                                    their arms, and the war closed.     as Roman citizens, whereas the
The cities of the LATIN             The Latin confederacy was at an     military colonists relinquished
CONFEDERACY had been for a          end. Rome now was mistress.         these rights and became Latins.
long time looking with jealous      Four of the Latin cities, TIBUR,    The first of these colonies was
eyes upon the rapid progress of     PRAENESTE, CORA, and                ANTIUM (338); afterwards were
Rome. Their own rights had          LAURENTUM, were left                established TARRACÍNA (329),
been disregarded, and they felt     independent, but all the rest of    MINTURNAE, and SINUESSA
that they must now make a stand     the towns were annexed to           (296). Others were afterwards
or lose everything. They sent to    Rome. Their territory became        founded.
                                                                         the Etruscans. The last of these
Later, when Antium was changed                                           was the weakest, and had been
into a military colony, its navy                                         declining ever since the capture
was destroyed, and the beaks                                             by the Romans of Veii in 396,
(rostra) of its ships were taken to                                      and of Caere in 353.
Rome, and placed as ornaments         Forum Boarium
on the speaker's stand opposite                                          In the contest which followed
the Senate-House. Hence the           Maenius, one of the Censors,       between Rome and the
name ROSTRA.                          was chiefly instrumental in        Samnites, the combatants were
                                      bringing about these               very nearly matched. Rome had
At this time the FORUM, which         improvements.                      her power more compact and
had been used for trading                                                concentrated, while the Samnites
purposes of all kinds, was                                               were superior in numbers, but
improved and beautified. It                                              were more scattered. They were
became a centre for political
                                      THE SECOND AND                     both equally brave.
discussions and financial             THIRD SAMNITE WARS
proceedings. The bankers and          (326-290)                          During the first five years of the
brokers had their offices here.                                          war (326-321), the Romans were
Smaller Fora were started near                                           usually successful, and the
                                      The results of the First Samnite
the river, as the Forum Boarium                                          Samnites were forced to sue for
                                      War and the Latin War were, as
(cattle market) and the Forum                                            peace. In this period Rome
                                      we have seen, to break up the
Holitorium (vegetable market).                                           gained no new territory, but
                                      Latin confederacy, and enlarge
                                                                         founded a number of military
                                      the domain of Rome.
                                                                         posts in the enemy's country.
                                      There were now in Italy three
                                                                         The peace lasted for about a
                                      races aiming at the supremacy,
                                                                         year, when hostilities were again
                                      the Romans, the Samnites, and
                                                                         renewed. By this time the
Samnites had found a worthy          Caudine Forks (321), one of the      (310) the Samnites were so
leader in Gavius Pontius, by         most humiliating defeats that        thoroughly whipped by QUINTUS
whose skill and wisdom the           ever befell the Roman arms. The      FABIUS, then Dictator, at LAKE
fortune of war was turned against    army was made to pass under          VADIMÓNIS in Etruria, that they
the Romans for seven years           the yoke,—which was made of          could no longer make any
(321-315). He allured the            three spears, two stuck into the     effective resistance, and at last
Romans into a small plain, at        ground parallel to each other and    (304) agreed to relinquish all
each end of which was a defile       the third placed above them,—        their sea-coast, their alliances
(Furculae Caudinae). On              and then suffered to depart.         and conquests, and acknowledge
reaching this plain they found                                            the supremacy of Rome.
Pontius strongly posted to           Rome was filled with dismay at
oppose them. After a bloody but      the news. The citizens dressed       During this war the Etruscans
fruitless attempt to force him to    in mourning, business and            made their last single effort
retreat, the Romans themselves       amusements were suspended,           against the Roman power. An
were compelled to give way. But      and every energy was devoted to      expedition was sent in 311 to
meanwhile Pontius had also           repairing the disaster.              attack the military colony of
occupied the defile in their rear,   Compliance with the terms of the     Sutrium, which had been
and they were obliged to             treaty was refused, on the           founded seventy-six years
surrender.                           ground that no treaty was valid      before. The Consul Quintus
                                     unless sanctioned by a vote of       Fabius went to the rescue, raised
A treaty was signed by the           the people. It was determined to     the siege, drove the Etruscans
Consuls Titus Veturius and           deliver the Consuls who had          into the Ciminian forests, and
Spurius Postumius, according to      signed it to the enemy.              there completely defeated them.
which peace was to be made,
and everything restored to its       Pontius, indignant at the broken     Six years intervened between the
former condition.                    faith, refused to accept them, and   Second and the THIRD
                                     the war was renewed. It              SAMNITE WAR (298-290). This
Such was the affair at the           continued for seven years, when      time was employed by the
Samnites in endeavoring to unite   and, rushing into the midst of the     other nations on the south from
Italy against Rome. They were      enemy, was slain. [Note: It is         the Umbrians, Gauls, and
joined by the UMBRIANS,            said that the father of Decius         Etruscans on the north.
GAULS, and ETRUSCANS. The          acted in a similar manner in a
LUCANIANS alone were with          battle of the Latin war.] His          In 283, at Lake Vadimónis, the
Rome.                              soldiers, rendered enthusiastic        Romans defeated the Senonian
                                   by his example, rallied and            and Boian Gauls, and founded
The war was of short duration,     pushed back the Gauls. The             the military colony of SENA
and was practically decided by     victory was now complete, for the      GALLICA.
the sanguinary battle of           Samnites were already fleeing
SENTINUM (295) in Umbria.          before that part of the army
The Samnites, led by Gellius       which was under Fabius.
Egnatius, were routed by the
Roman Consuls QUINTUS              The war dragged on for five
FABIUS MAXIMUS and                 years, when the Consul MANIUS
                                   crushed the Samnites, and also
In this battle the struggle was    the SABINES, who had recently
long and doubtful. The Samnites    joined them. The Samnites were
were assisted by the Gauls, who    allowed their independence, and
were showing themselves more       became allies of Rome. The
than a match for the part of the   Sabines were made Roman
Roman army opposed to them,        citizens (sine suffragio), and their
and commanded by Decius.           territory was annexed to the Ager
Following the example of his       Románus. This territory now
illustrious father, the Consul     reached across Italy from the
vowed his life to the Infernal     Tuscan to the Adriatic Sea,
Gods if victory were granted,      separating the Samnites and
                                    their jealousy of each other; so      bound themselves not to allow
                                    that they were unable to oppose       their vessels to appear in the
CHAPTER X WARS                      any firm and united resistance to     Gulf of Tarentum beyond the
WITH PYRRHUS (281-                  the progress of Rome. It had          Lacinian promontory. As usual,
272)                                been their custom to rely largely     the Romans found no difficulty in
                                    upon strangers for the recruiting     evading their treaty whenever it
                                    and management of their               should profit them.
                                    armies,—a fact which explains in
In the early times of Rome, while   part the ease with which they         Thurii was attacked by the
she was but little known, it had    were overcome.                        Lucanians, and, despairing of aid
been the custom of Greece to                                              from Tarentum, called on Rome
send colonies away to relieve the                                         for assistance. As soon as
pressure of too rapid increase.                                           domestic affairs permitted, war
We find them in Spain, France,                                            was declared against the
Asia Minor, and especially in                                             Lucanians, and the wedge was
Sicily and Southern Italy, where                                          entered which was to separate
the country became so                                                     Magna Graecia from Hellas, and
thoroughly Grecianized that it                                            deliver the former over to Rome.
was called MAGNA GRAECIA.
Here were many flourishing          Satellite image of Sicily with Etna   Pretending that the war was
cities, as Tarentum, Sybaris,       erupting                              instigated by Tarentum, Rome
Croton, and Thurii. These had,                                            decided to ignore the treaty, and
at the time of their contact with   Of these cities TARENTUM was          sent a fleet of ten vessels into the
Rome, greatly fallen from their     now the chief. With it a treaty       Bay of Tarentum. It was a gala
former grandeur, owing partly to    had been made by which the            day, and the people were
the inroads of barbarians from      Tarentines agreed to certain          assembled in the theatre that
the north, partly to civil          limits beyond which their fleet       overlooked the bay when the
dissensions, and still more to      was not to pass, and the Romans       ships appeared. It was
determined to punish the            3,000 cavalry, and 20 elephants.    surprise of a charge of elephants
intrusion. A fleet was manned,      He at once set about compelling     than by the tactics of the
and four of the Roman squadron      the effeminate Greeks to prepare    phalanx. However, they retired
were destroyed.                     for their own defence. Places of    in good order. Pyrrhus is said to
                                    amusement were closed; the          have been much impressed by
An ambassador, Postumius, sent      people were forced to perform       the heroic conduct of the foe, and
by Rome to demand satisfaction,     military duty; disturbers of the    to have said, "Another such
was treated with insult and         public safety were put to death;    victory will send me back without
contempt. He replied to the         and other reforms were made         a man to Epirus." He recognized
mockery of the Tarentines, that     which the dangers of the            the inferior qualities of his Greek
their blood should wash out the     situation seemed to demand.         allies, and determined to make a
stain. The next year one of the     Meanwhile the Romans acted          peace. A trusted messenger,
Consuls was ordered south.          with promptness, and boldly         CINEAS, was sent to Rome. He
                                    challenged him to battle. The       was noted for his eloquence,
Meanwhile Tarentum had sent         armies met in 280 on the plain of   which was said to have gained
envoys to ask aid of PYRRHUS,       HERACLÉA, on the banks of the       more for his master than the
the young and ambitious KING        Liris, where the level nature of    sword. Through him Pyrrhus
OF EPÍRUS. He was cousin of         the country was in favor of the     promised to retire to Epirus if
Alexander the Great, and, since     Greek method of fighting. The       safety was guaranteed to his
he had obtained no share in the     Macedonian phalanx was the          allies in Italy.
division of the conquests of this   most perfect instrument of
great leader, his dream was to      warfare the world had yet seen,     The eloquence of Cineas was
found an empire in the West that    and the Roman legions had           fortified with presents for the
would surpass the exhausted         never yet been brought into         Senators; and though these were
monarchies of the East.             collision with it.                  refused, many seemed disposed
                                                                        to treat with him, when the aged
Pyrrhus landed in Italy in 281      The Romans, under LAEVÍNUS,         APPIUS CLAUDIUS CAECUS
with a force of 20,000 infantry,    were defeated, more by the          (Blind) was led into the Senate,
and declared that Rome should      Senate; and, on his part, Pyrrhus    The wounded beasts became
never treat with an enemy in       refused to grant the desired         furious and unmanageable, and
arms.                              exchange.                            threw the army into disorder.
                                                                        With this battle ended the career
Cineas was deeply impressed by     Many Italian nations now joined      of Pyrrhus in Italy. He returned
the dignity of the Romans, and     Pyrrhus, and hostilities were        home, and two years later was
declared that the Senators were    renewed. The armies again met        accidentally killed by a woman at
an assembly of kings and Rome      in 279 on the plain of ASCULUM,      Argos.
itself a temple.                   in Apulia; but though the Romans
                                   were defeated, it was only           The departure of Pyrrhus left all
Pyrrhus then tried force, and,     another of those Pyrrhic victories   Italy at the mercy of Rome. Two
hastily advancing northward,       which were almost as disastrous      years later, in 272, the garrison
appeared within eighteen miles     as defeat.                           at Tarentum surrendered, the city
of the city. Here his danger                                            walls were demolished, and the
became great. The defection he     The same year Pyrrhus retired to     fleet given up.
had hoped for among the Latins     Sicily to defend Syracuse against
did not take place, and the        the Carthaginians, who were
armies which had been operating    allied to the Romans. He
elsewhere were now ready to        remained on the island three
unite against him. He therefore    years. Upon his return to Italy he
retired into winter quarters at    met the Romans for the last time
Tarentum, where he received the    in 274, near BENEVENTUM,
famous embassy of GAIUS            where he was defeated by the
FABRICIUS, sent to propose an      Consul MANIUS CURIOUS
interchange of prisoners. It was   DENTÁTUS. The Romans had
in vain that bribes and threats    by this time become accustomed
were employed to shake the         to the elephants, and used
courage of the men sent by the     burning arrows against them.
                                   districts (tribes), four of which   to thirty-five.
                                   were in Rome. The elections
CHAPTER XI DIVISIONS               were all held at Rome.              b. Of the ALLIES of Rome
OF THE ROMAN                                                           (Socii), whose cities and
TERRITORY—NOTED                    These districts were made up,—      adjoining territory composed
MEN OF THE PERIOD                                                      more than one half of the country
                                   a. Of ROME.                         controlled by Rome.

                                   b. Of the ROMAN COLONIES,           These allies were allowed local
Rome was now mistress of all       mostly maritime, now numbering      government, were not obliged to
Italy south of the Arnus and       seven, but finally increased to     pay tribute, but were called upon
Aesis. This country was divided    thirty-five.                        to furnish their proportion of
into two parts.                                                        troops for the Roman army.
                                   c. Of the MUNICIPIA (towns
I. The AGER ROMÁNUS,               bound to service).                  The inhabitants of this country
including about one quarter of                                         were divided into five classes,
the whole, bounded on the north    d. Of the PRAEFECTÚRAE              viz.—
by CAERE, on the south by          (towns governed by a praefect,
FORMIAE, and on the east by        who was sent from Rome and          a. Those who possessed both
the APENNINES.                     appointed by the Praetor).          PUBLIC and PRIVATE RIGHTS
                                                                       as citizens, i. e. FULL RIGHTS.
II. The DEPENDENT                  The DEPENDENT                       [Note: Public rights consisted of
COMMUNITIES.                       COMMUNITIES were made               the jus suffragii (right of voting at
                                   up,—                                Rome); jus honorum (right of
The Ager Románus was                                                   holding office), and jus
subdivided, for voting and         a. Of the LATIN (military)          provocationis (right of appeal).
financial purposes, into thirty-   COLONIES, now numbering             Private rights were jus connubii
three, afterwards thirty-five      twenty-two, afterwards increased    (right of intermarriage); and jus
commercii (right of trading and       of most of the Municipia, who        her empire, so that not even the
holding property). Full rights        possessed only private rights, the   successes of Hannibal caused
were acquired either by birth or      citizens of all the Praefectúrae,    more than a momentary shaking
gift. A child born of parents, both   and the citizens of all the Latin    of fidelity, for which ample
of whom enjoyed the jus               colonies.                            punishment was both speedy
connubii, was a Roman citizen                                              and certain.
with full rights. Foreigners were
sometimes presented with              ROADS
citizenship (civitas)]

b. Those who were subjects and        Even at this early date, the
did not possess full rights.          necessity of easy communication
                                      with the capital seems to have
c. Those who were ALLIES              been well understood. Roads
(Socii).                              were pushed in every direction,—     Via Appia Antica with fragments
                                      broad, level ways, over which        of an ancient tomb
d. Those who were SLAVES,             armies might be marched or
who possessed no rights.              intelligence quickly carried. They
                                      were chains which bound her
                                      possessions indissolubly
                                                                           NOTED MEN
e. Those who were RESIDENT
FOREIGNERS, who possessed             together. Some of them remain
the right of trading.                 today a monument of Roman            The three most noted men of the
                                      thoroughness, enterprise, and        period embraced in the two
To class a belonged the citizens      sagacity,—the wonder and             preceding chapters were Appius
of Rome, of the Roman colonies,       admiration of modern road-           Claudius, the Censor and
and of some of the Municipia.         builders. By these means did         patrician; and Manius Curius
                                      Rome fasten together the             Dentátus and Gaius Fabricius,
To class b belonged the citizens      constantly increasing fabric of      plebeians.
                                      APPIA, was built under his            Dentátus, was from the
We have seen that all plebeians       supervision. This road ran at first   peasants. He was a Hernican.
who were land-owners belonged         from Rome as far as Capua. It         As a soldier he was successful.
to one of the tribes, and could       was constructed so well that          As a statesman he was
vote in the Comitia Tribúta; this,    many parts of it are today in good    incorruptible, and of great use to
however, shut out the plebeians       condition. The road was               his country. Previous to the
of the city who owned no land,        afterward extended to                 battle of Asculum, Pyrrhus
and also the freedmen, who were       Brundisium, through Venusia and       attempted to bribe him by large
generally educated and                Tarentum.                             sums of money, and, failing in
professional men, such as                                                   this, thought to frighten him by
doctors, teachers, etc.               MANIUS CURIUS DENTÁTUS                hiding an elephant behind a
                                      was a peasant, a contemporary         curtain; the curtain was suddenly
APPIUS CLAUDIUS as Censor,            of Appius, and his opponent in        removed, but Fabricius, though
in 312, deprived the landowners       many ways. He was a strong            immediately under the elephant's
of the exclusive privilege of         friend of the plebeians. He           trunk, stood unmoved.
voting in the Comitia Tribúta, and    obtained for the soldiers large
gave to property owners of any        assignments of the Ager               In this generation we find Roman
sort the right to vote. Eight years   Publicus. He drained the low          character at its best. Wealth had
later this law was modified, so       and swampy country near Reáte         not flowed into the state in such
that it applied to the four city      by a canal. He was the                large quantities as to corrupt it.
tribes alone, and the thirty-one      conqueror of Pyrrhus. A man of        The great mass of the people
rural tribes had for their basis      sterling qualities, frugal and        were peasants, small land-
landed property only.                 unostentatious, after his public      owners, of frugal habits and
                                      life he retired to his farm and       moral qualities. But
During the censorship of Appius,      spent the remainder of his days       comparatively few owned large
Rome had its first regular water      in seclusion as a simple peasant.     estates as yet, or possessed
supply by the Appian aqueduct.                                              large tracts of the Ager Publicus.
The first military road, the VIA      GAIUS FABRICIUS, like                 A century later, when most of the
available land in the peninsula
was held by the wealthy and
farmed by slaves, we find a great

The fall of TARENTUM marks an
important era in Roman history.
Large treasures were obtained
from this and other Greek cities
in Southern Italy. Luxury
became more fashionable;
morals began to degenerate.
Greed for wealth obtained by
plunder began to get possession
of the Romans. From now on the
moral tone of the people
continued to degenerate in
proportion as their empire

                                      Carthaginian power.                  The power of Carthage lay in her
                                                                           commerce. Through her hands
CHAPTER XII FOREIGN                   Like Rome, Carthage had an           passed the gold and pearls of the
CONQUEST                              obscure beginning. As in the         Orient; the famous Tyrian purple;
                                      case of Rome, it required            ivory, slaves, and incense of
                                      centuries to gain her power.         Arabia; the silver of Spain; the
                                                                           bronze of Cyprus; and the iron of
                                      It was the policy of Carthage to     Elba.
FIRST PUNIC WAR. (264-241)
                                      make a successful revolt of her
[Note: The word "Punic" is
                                      subdued allies an impossibility,     But the harsh and gloomy
derived from Phoenici. The
                                      by consuming all their energies in   character of the people, their
Carthaginians were said to have
                                      the support of her immense           cruel religion, which sanctioned
come originally from
                                      population and the equipment of      human sacrifice, their disregard
PHOENICIA, on the eastern
                                      her numerous fleets and armies.      of the rights of others, their well
coast of the Mediterranean.
                                      Hence all the surrounding tribes,    known treachery, all shut them
Their first ruler was Dido. The
                                      once wandering nomads, were          off from the higher civilization of
Latin student is of course familiar
                                      forced to become tillers of the      Rome and Greece.
with Virgil's story of Dido and
                                      soil; and, with colonies sent out
                                      by herself, they formed the so       The government of Carthage was
                                      called Libyo- Phoenician             an ARISTOCRACY. A council
While Rome was gradually
                                      population, open to the attack of    composed of a few of high birth,
enlarging her territory from
                                      all, and incapable of defence.       and another composed of the
Latium to the Straits of Messána,
                                      Thus the country around              very wealthy, managed the state.
on the other shore of the
                                      Carthage was weak, and the           Only in times of extraordinary
Mediterranean, opposite Italy and
                                      moment a foreign enemy landed        danger were the people
less than one hundred miles from
                                      in Africa the war was merely a       summoned and consulted.
Sicily, sprang up, through
                                      siege of its chief city.
industry and commerce, the
                                                                           Rome had made two treaties with
Carthage; one immediately after      MAMERTINES, a band of                intervention of the Carthaginians,
the establishment of the             brigands who came from               a truce had been formed
Republic, in 500, the other about    Campania. The latter, making         between Hiero and the brigands,
340. By these treaties               Messána their head- quarters,        and the siege of Messána was
commerce was allowed between         had been pillaging all of the        raised. The city itself was
Rome and its dependencies and        island that they could reach.        occupied by a fleet and garrison
Carthage and her possessions in      Being shut up in Messána by          of Carthaginians under HANNO,
Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. But   Hiero, they asked aid of Rome on     The Romans, though the
the Romans were not to trade in      the ground that they were from       Mamertines no longer needed
Spain, or sail beyond the Bay of     Campania. Although Rome was          their aid, landed at Messána and
Carthage.                            in alliance with Hiero, and had      dislodged the Carthaginians,
                                     but recently executed 300
In leaving Sicily, Pyrrhus had       mercenaries for doing in             Thus opened the FIRST PUNIC
exclaimed, "What a fine battle-      Rhegium what the Mamertines          WAR. The Romans at once
field for Rome and Carthage!" If     had done in Sicily,—she              formed a double alliance with
Carthage were mistress of this       determined to aid them, for Sicily   Syracuse and Messána, thus
island, Rome would be shut up in     was a rich and tempting prey.        gaining control of the eastern
her peninsula; if Rome were in                                            coast of Sicily and getting their
possession of it, "the commerce                                           first foothold outside of Italy.
of Carthage would be
intercepted, and a good breeze                                            The most important inland city of
of one night would carry the                                              Sicily was AGRIGENTUM. Here
Roman fleets to her walls".                                               the Carthaginians the next year
                                                                          (262) concentrated their forces
At this time the island was          The Straits of Messina looking to    under HANNIBAL, son of Cisco.
shared by three powers,—             Campania (Calabria)                  The Romans besieged the city,
HIERO, king of Syracuse, the                                              but were themselves cut off from
CARTHAGINIANS, and the               Meanwhile, however, through the      supplies by Hanno, who landed
at Heracléa in their rear. Both                                              land.
besieged and besiegers suffered
much. At last a battle was fought                                            Four naval battles now followed:
(262), in which the Romans were                                              1st, near LIPARA (260); 2d, off
victorious, owing to their superior                                          MYLAE (260); 3d, off TYNDARIS
infantry. Agrigentum fell, and                                               (257); 4th, off ECNOMUS (256).
only a few strongholds on the
coast were left to the                                                       In the first of these only
Carthaginians.                                                               seventeen ships of the Romans
                                       The ships were made the more          were engaged under the
The Romans now began to feel           formidable by a heavy iron beak,      CONSUL GNAEUS CORNELIUS
the need of a fleet. That of           for the purpose of running down       SCIPIO. The fleet with its
Carthage ruled the sea without a       and sinking the enemy's vessels;      commander was captured.
rival: it notonly controlled many of   a kind of hanging stage was also
the seaports of Sicily, but also       placed on the prow of the ship,       In the second engagement, off
threatened Italy itself. With their    which could be lowered in front       Mylae, all the Roman fleet under
usual energy, the Romans began         or on either side. It was             GAIUS DUILIUS took part. The
the work. [Note: In 259, three         furnished on both sides with          Carthaginians were led by
years previous to the battle of        parapets, and had space for two       Hannibal, son of Gisco. The
Ecnomus, the Romans under              men in front. On coming to close      newly invented stages or
Lucius Scipio captured Blesia, a       quarters with the enemy, this         boarding-bridges of the Romans
seaport of Corsica, and                stage was quickly lowered and         were found to be very effective.
established there a naval              fastened to the opposing ship by      The enemy could not approach
station.] A wrecked Carthaginian       means of grappling irons; thus        near without these bridges
vessel was taken as a model,           the Roman marines were                descending with their grappling
and by the spring of 260 a navy        enabled to board with ease their      irons and holding them fast to the
of 120 sail was ready for sea.         opponents' ship, and fight as if on   Romans. The Carthaginians
                                                                             were defeated, with the loss of
nearly half their fleet.                                                      way, it gained a victory over the
                                        MARCUS ATILIUS REGULUS                Carthaginian fleet off the
A bronze column, ornamented             was put in command of the             Herméan promontory, sinking
with the beaks of the captured          Roman forces in Africa. For a         114 of the enemy's ships.
vessels, was erected at Rome in         time he was very successful, and
honor of this victory of Duilius.       the Carthaginians became              It arrived at Clupea in time to
The pedestal of it is still standing,   disheartened. Many of the towns       save its friends. The war in
and on it are inscribed some of         near Cartilage surrendered, and       Africa was now abandoned. The
the oldest inscriptions in the Latin    the capital itself was in danger.     fleet, setting sail for home, was
language.                               Peace was asked, but the terms        partly destroyed in a storm, only
                                        offered were too humiliating to be    eighty ships reaching port.
The third engagement, off               accepted.
Tyndaris, resulted in a drawn                                                 Hostilities continued for six years
battle.                                 Regulus, who began to despise         without any great results.
                                        his opponents, remained inactive      Panormus was taken in 254; the
In the fourth engagement, off           at Tunis, near Carthage,              coast of Africa ravaged in 253;
Ecnomus, the Carthaginians had          neglecting even to secure a line      Thermae and the island of Lipara
350 sail. Thirty Carthaginian and       of retreat to his fortified camp at   were taken in 252, and Eryx in
twenty-four Roman vessels were          Clupea. The next spring (255)         249.
sunk, and sixty-four of the former      he was surprised, his army cut to
captured. The Punic fleet               pieces, and he himself taken          DREPANA and LILYBAEUM
withdrew to the coast of Africa,        prisoner. He subsequently died        were now the only places in
and prepared in the Bay of              a captive at Carthage.                Sicily, held by Carthage. A
Carthage for another battle. But                                              regular siege of Lilybaeum was
the Romans sailed to the eastern        The Romans, learning of this          decided upon, and the city was
side of the peninsula which helps       defeat, sent a fleet of 350 sail to   blockaded by land and sea; but
to form the bay, and there landed       relieve their comrades who were       the besieging party suffered as
without opposition.                     shut up in Clupea. While on its       much as the besieged, its
supplies were frequently cut off    meanwhile took the field in Sicily.   and the remainder in ten annual
by the cavalry of the               He was a man of great activity        payments. Thus ended the First
Carthaginians, and its ranks        and military talent, and the          Punic War.
began to be thinned by disease.     Romans at first were no match
                                    for him. He seemed in a fair way
The Consul, Publius Claudius,       to regain all Sicily. The apathy of
who had charge of the siege,        the Senate was so great, that at
determined to surprise the          last some private citizens built
Carthaginian fleet, which was       and manned at their own
stationed at Drepana (249). He      expense a fleet of 200 sail.
was unsuccessful, and lost three
fourths of his vessels. Another     GAIUS LUTATIUS CATALUS,
fleet of 120 sail sent to aid him   the Consul in command,
was wrecked in a violent storm.     surprised the enemy and
                                    occupied the harbors of Drepana
The Romans were now in              and Lilybaeum in 242. A
perplexity. The war had lasted      Carthaginian fleet which came to
fifteen years. Four fleets had      the rescue was met and
been lost, and one sixth of the     destroyed off the AEGÁTES
fighting population. They had       INSULAE in 241. Hamilcar was
failed in Africa, and the two       left in Sicily without support and
strongest places in Sicily were     supplies. He saw that peace
still in the enemy's hands. For     must be made.
six years more the war dragged
on (249-243).                       Sicily was surrendered.
                                    Carthage agreed to pay the cost
A new Carthaginian commander,       of the war,— about
HAMILCAR BARCA (Lightning),         $3,000,000,—one third down,
                                    into the government of Rome a        their produce, and five per cent
                                    new system; viz. the                 of the value of their imports and
CHAPTER XIII ROME                   PROVINCIAL SYSTEM.                   exports. They were not obliged
AND CARTHAGE                                                             to furnish troops, as were the
BETWEEN THE FIRST                   Heretofore the two chief             dependants of Rome in Italy.
AND SECOND PUNIC                    magistrates of Rome, the
                                    Consuls, had exercised their         The provincial government was a
WARS (241-218)                      functions over all the Roman         fruitful source of corruption. As
                                    possessions. Now Sicily was          the morals of the Romans
                                    made what the Romans called a        degenerated, the provinces were
Twenty-three years elapsed          provincia, or PROVINCE.              plundered without mercy to
between the First and Second        Sardinia and Corsica formed          enrich the coffers of the
Punic Wars. The Carthaginians       another province (235).              avaricious governors.
were engaged during the first
part of this time in crushing a     Over each province was placed a      The Adriatic Sea at this time was
mutiny of their mercenary troops.   Roman governor, called               overrun by Illyrican pirates, who
                                    Proconsul. For this purpose two      did much damage. Satisfaction
Rome, taking advantage of the       new Praetors were now elected,       was demanded by Rome of
position in which her rival was     making four in all. The power of     Illyricum, but to no purpose. As a
placed, seized upon SARDINIA        the governor was absolute; he        last resort, war was declared,
and CORSICA, and, when              was commander in chief, chief        and the sea was cleared of the
Carthage objected, threatened to    magistrate, and supreme judge.       pirates in 229.
renew the war, and obliged her to
pay more than one million dollars   The finances of the provinces        "The results of this Illyrican war
as a fine (237).                    were intrusted to one or more        did not end here, for it was the
                                    QUAESTORS. All the                   means of establishing, for the
The acquisition of Sicily,          inhabitants paid as taxes into the   first time, direct political relations
Sardinia, and Corsica introduced    Roman treasury one tenth of          between Rome and the states of
Greece, to many of which the         Flaminius, by his agrarian laws      This contest continued for ten
suppression of piracy was of as      gained the bitter hatred of the      years, and in 225 Etruria was
much importance as to Rome           nobility. He was the first           invaded by an army of 70,000
herself. Alliances were              Governor of Sicily, and there        men. The plans of the invaders,
concluded with CORCÝRA,              showed himself to be a man of        however, miscarried, and they
EPIDAMNUS, and APOLLONIA;            integrity and honesty, a great       were hemmed in between two
and embassies explaining the         contrast to many who succeeded       Roman armies near TELAMON
reasons which had brought            him.] carried an agrarian law, to    in 222, and annihilated. The
Roman troops into Greece were        the effect that this land be given   Gallic king was slain at the hands
sent to the Aetolians and            to the veterans and the poorer       of the Consul MARCUS
Achaeans, to Athens and              classes. The law was executed,       CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS.
Corinth. The admission of the        and colonies planted. To the         PAGE 61 Rome was now
Romans to the Isthmian Games         Gauls this seemed but the first      mistress of the whole peninsula
in 228 formally acknowledged         step to the occupation of the        of Italy, excepting some tribes in
them as the allies of the Greek      whole of their country. They all     Liguria, who resisted a short time
states."                             rose in arms except the              longer.
The Romans now began to look                                              Three military (Latin) colonies
with hungry eyes upon GALLIA                                              were founded to hold the Gauls
CISALPÍNA. The appetite for                                               in check; PLACENTIA and
conquest was well whetted.                                                CREMÓNA in the territory of the
There had been peace with the                                             Insubres, and MUTINA in that of
Gauls since the battle of Lake                                            the Boii. The Via Flaminia, the
Vadimónis in 283. The ager                                                great northern road, was
publicus, taken from the Gauls                                            extended from SPOLETIUM to
then, was still mostly unoccupied.                                        ARIMINUM. [Note: During this
In 232 the Tribune Gaius             Lago Arancio, Sicily                 period the Comitia Centuriáta
Flaminius [Note: Gaius                                                    was reorganized on the basis of
tribes (35) instead of money.]       and ability in camp under his
                                     father. He was a fine athlete,
Meanwhile Carthage was not           well educated in the duties of a
idle. After subduing the revolt of   soldier, and could endure long
the mercenaries in 237, she          privation of sleep and food. For
formed the project of obtaining      the last few years he had been in
SPAIN as compensation for the        command of the cavalry, and had
loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and        distinguished himself for personal
Corsica. Hamilcar Barca, by          bravery, as well as by his talents
energetic measures, established      as a leader.
(236-228) a firm foothold in
Southern and Southeastern            Hannibal resolved to begin the
Spain.                               inevitable struggle with Rome at
                                     once. He therefore laid siege to
At his death, his son-in-law,        Saguntum, a Spanish town allied
Hasdrubal, continued his work.       to Rome. In eight months the
Many towns were founded, trade       place was compelled to
prospered, and agriculture           capitulate (219).
flourished. The discovery of rich
silver mines near Carthago Nova      When Rome demanded
was a means of enriching the         satisfaction of Carthage for this
treasury. After the assassination    insult, and declared herself ready
of Hasdrubal, in 220, the ablest     for war, the Carthaginians
leader was Hannibal, son of          accepted the challenge, and the
Hamilcar. Although a young man       Second Punic War began in 218.
of but twenty-eight, he had had a
life of varied experience. As a
boy he had shown great courage
                                    Celtic territory, with little           arrived with his troops. He
                                    opposition. The last of July            obtained all the boats possible,
CHAPTER XIV THE                     found him on the banks of the           and constructed numerous rafts
SECOND PUNIC WAR—                   Rhone, opposite Avenio                  to transport his main body of
FROM THE PASSAGE                    (Avignon). The Romans were              troops. A detachment of soldiers
OF THE PYRENEES TO                  astonished at the rapidity of his       was sent up the river with orders
                                    movements.                              to cross at the first available
THE BATTLE OF                                                               place, and, returning on the
CANNAE (218-216)                    The Consuls of the year were            opposite bank, to surprise the
                                    SCIPIO and SEMPRONIUS.                  Celtic forces in the rear. The
                                    The former had been in Northern         plan succeeded. The Celts fled
                                    Italy, leisurely collecting forces to   in confusion, and the road to the
In the spring of 218 Hannibal
                                    attack Hannibal in Spain; the           Alps was opened. Thus Scipio
started from Carthágo Nova to
                                    latter was in Sicily, making            was outgeneralled in the very
invade Italy. His army consisted
                                    preparations to invade Africa.          beginning.
of 90,000 infantry, 12,000
                                    Scipio set sail for Spain, touching
cavalry, and 37 elephants. His
                                    at Massilia near the end of June.
march to the Pyrenees occupied
                                    Learning there for the first time
two months, owing to the
                                    that Hannibal had already left
opposition of the Spanish allies
                                    Spain, he hoped to intercept him
of Rome. Hannibal now sent
                                    on the Rhone. The Celtic tribes
back a part of his troops,
                                    of the neighborhood were won
retaining 50,000 infantry and
                                    over to his side. Troops
9,000 cavalry, all veterans. With
                                    collected from these were
these he crossed the mountains,                                             Scipio bust from Naples, the
                                    stationed along the river, but
and marched along the coast by                                              Museo archeologico nazionale
                                    Scipio's main army remained at
Narbo (Narbonne) and
                                    Massilia. It was Hannibal's policy
Nemansus (Nîmes), through the                                               His course now should have
                                    to cross the river before Scipio
been to return to Northern Italy      and a night, however, the army         exhausted soldiers. Here they
with all his forces, and take every   reached the summit of the pass.        encamped, in September, and
means to check Hannibal there.        Here, on a table-land, his troops      recruited their wearied energies.
Instead, he sent most of his          were allowed a brief rest.
troops to Spain under his brother                                            This famous march of Hannibal
Gnaeus Scipio, and himself, with                                             from the Rhone lasted thirty-
but a few men, set sail for Pisae.                                           three days, and cost him 20,000
                                                                             infantry and 3,000 cavalry.
Meanwhile Hannibal hurried up
the valley of the Rhone, across                                              The Romans were still
the Isara, through the fertile                                               unprepared to meet Hannibal.
country of the Allobroges,                                                   One army was in Spain under
arriving, in sixteen days from                                               Gnaeus Scipio; the other in
Avenio, at the pass of the first                                             Sicily, on its way to Africa, under
Alpine range (Mont du Chat).                                                 the Consul Sempronius. The
Crossing this with some difficulty,                                          only troops immediately available
owing to the nature of the country                                           were a few soldiers that had
and the resistance of the Celts,                                             been left in the valley of the Po to
he hastened on through the                                                   restrain the Gauls, who had
country of the Centrónes, along                                              recently shown signs of
the north bank of the Isara. As                                              defection.
he was leaving this river and         Map of Hannibal’s crossing of the
approaching the pass of the Little    Alps                                   Publius Cornelius Scipio, upon
St. Bernard, he was again                                                    his return from Massilia, took
attacked by the Celts, and            The hardships of the descent           command of these. He met
obliged to make the ascent            were fully as great, and the fertile   Hannibal first in October, 218,
amidst continual and bloody           valley of the Po was a welcome         near the river Ticinus, a tributary
encounters. After toiling a day       sight to the half-famished and         of the Po. A cavalry skirmish
followed, in which he was           give the enemy a hot reception,         joined by the troops that had
wounded and rescued by his          if, as he expected, they should         wintered at Placentia.
son, a lad of seventeen,            pursue his retreating vanguard.
afterwards the famous Africanus.    Sempronius was caught in the            In the spring, Hannibal, instead
The Romans were discomfited,        trap, and all his army, except one      of attempting to pursue his march
with considerable loss.             division of 10,000, was cut to          by either of the highways which
                                    pieces. The survivors took              were fortified, outflanked the
They then retreated, crossing the   refuge in Placentia and                 Romans by turning aside into
Po at Placentia, and destroying     Cremona, where they spent the           Etruria. His route led through a
the bridge behind them.             winter. Sempronius himself              marshy and unhealthy country,
Hannibal forded the river farther   escaped to Rome.                        and many soldiers perished.
up, and marched along its right                                             Hannibal himself lost an eye from
bank until he reached its           The result of TREBIA was the            ophthalmia. When he had
confluence with the Trebia,         insurrection of all the Celtic tribes   arrived at Faesulae a report of
opposite Placentia. Here he         in the valley of the Po, who            his course first reached
encamped.                           increased Hannibal's army by            Flaminius, who at once broke
                                    60,000 infantry and 4,000               camp and endeavored to
Meanwhile Sempronius, who had       cavalry. While the Carthaginian         intercept his enemy. Hannibal,
been recalled from Sicily,          was wintering near Placentia, the       however, had the start, and was
relieved the disabled Scipio.       Romans stationed troops to              now near LAKE TRASIMÉNUS.
                                    guard the two highways leading
Early one raw morning in            north from Rome and ending at           Here was a pass with a high hill
December, 218, the vanguard of      Arretium and Ariminum, The              on one side and the lake on the
the Carthaginians was ordered to    Consuls for this year were              other. Hannibal, with the flower
cross the Trebia, and, as soon      GAIUS FLAMINIUS and                     of his infantry, occupied the hill.
any resistance was met, to          GNAEUS SERVILIUS. The                   His light-armed troops and
retreat. The other troops of        former occupied Arretium, the           horsemen were drawn up in
Hannibal were drawn up ready to     latter Ariminum. Here they were         concealment on either side.
                                       with scarcely any resistance, and      was not in immediate danger,
                                       the Consul himself was killed.         raised another army, and placed
                                       Fifteen thousand Romans fell,          the Dictator in command. Fabius
                                       and as many more were                  was a man of determination and
                                       captured. The loss of the              firmness, well advanced in years.
                                       Carthaginians was but 1,500,           He determined to avoid a pitched
                                       and was confined mostly to the         battle, but to dog the steps of the
                                       Gallic allies. All Etruria was lost,   enemy, harassing him and
Bust of Hannibal, Hanba’al in his      and Hannibal could march               cutting off his supplies as far as
own language meaning “mercy of         without hindrance upon Rome,           possible.
Baal”                                  whose citizens, expecting the
                                       enemy daily, tore down the             Meanwhile Hannibal again
The Roman column advanced              bridges over the Tiber and             crossed the mountains into the
(May, 217), without hesitation, to     prepared for a siege. QUINTUS          heart of Italy to Beneventum, and
the unoccupied pass, the thick         FABIUS MAXIMUS was                     from there to Capua, the largest
morning mist completely                appointed Dictator.                    Italian city dependent upon
concealing the position of the                                                Rome. The Dictator followed,
enemy. As the Roman vanguard           Hannibal, however, did not             condemning his soldiers to the
approached the hill, Hannibal          march upon Rome, but turned            melancholy task of looking on in
gave the signal for attack. The        through Umbria, devastating the        inaction, while the enemy's
cavalry closed up the entrance to      country as he went. Crossing the       cavalry plundered their faithful
the pass, and at the same time         Apennines, he halted on the            allies. Finally, Fabius obtained
the mist rolled away, revealing        shores of the Adriatic, in             what he considered a favorable
the Carthaginian arms on the           Picénum. After giving his army a       opportunity for an attack.
right and left. It was not a battle,   rest, he proceeded along the           Hannibal, disappointed in his
but a mere rout. The main body         coast into Southern Italy.             expectations that Capua would
of the Romans was cut to pieces,                                              be friendly to him, and not being
                                       The Romans, seeing that the city       prepared to lay siege to the town,
had withdrawn towards the           to the hills with the oxen. Their    adhered to his former tactics.
Adriatic. Fabius intercepted him    engagement with the Romans           Marcus made an attack, but paid
near Casilinum, in Campania, on     had resulted in a severe loss to     dearly for his rashness, and his
the left bank of the Volturnus.     Fabius.                              whole corps would have been
The heights that commanded the                                           annihilated had not Fabius come
right bank of the river were        Hannibal then proceeded,             to his assistance and covered his
occupied by his main army; and      without opposition, in a             retreat. Hannibal passed the
the road itself, which led across   northeasterly direction, by a very   winter of 217-216 unmolested.
the river, was guarded by a         circuitous route. He arrived in
strong division of men.             Luceria, with much booty and a       The season was spent by the
                                    full money-chest, at harvest time.   Romans in active preparations
Hannibal, however, ordered his      Near here he encamped in a           for the spring campaign. An
light-armed troops to ascend the    plain rich in grain and grass for    army of 80,000 infantry and
heights over the road during the    the support of his army.             6,000 cavalry was raised and put
night, driving before them oxen                                          under the command of the
with burning fagots tied to their   At Rome the policy of Fabius was     Consuls, LUCIUS ÆMILIUS
horns, giving the appearance of     severely criticised. His apparent    PAULLUS and GAIUS
an army marching by torchlight.     inaction was displeasing to a        TERENTIUS VARRO. It was
The plan was successful. The        large party, and he was called       decided to test Hannibal's
Romans abandoned the road           Cunctator (the Delayer). At          strength once more in open
and marched for the heights,        length the assembly voted that       battle. His army was only half as
along which they supposed the       his command be shared by one         strong as the Roman in infantry,
enemy were going. Hannibal,         of his lieutenants, Marcus           but was much superior in cavalry.
with a clear road before him,       Minucius. The army was divided
continued his march with the bulk   into two corps; one under            In the early summer of 216 the
of his army. The next morning       Marcus, who intended to attack       Consuls concentrated their
he recalled his light-armed         Hannibal at the first opportunity;   forces at CANNAE, a hamlet
troops, which had been sent on      the other under Fabius, who still    near the mouth of the Aufidus.
Early one morning in June the
Romans massed their troops on
the left bank of the river, with
their cavalry on either wing, the
right under Paullus, and the left
under Varro. The Proconsul
Servilius commanded the centre.

The Carthaginians were drawn
up in the form of a crescent,
flanked by cavalry. Both armies
advanced to the attack at the
same time. The onset was
terrible; but though the Romans
fought with a courage increased
by the thought that their homes,
wives, and children were at
stake, they were overwhelmed
on all sides. Seventy thousand
fell on the field, among whom
were Paullus, Servilius, many
officers, and eighty men of
senatorial rank. This was the
most crushing defeat ever
experienced by the Romans. All
Southern Italy, except the Latin
colonies and the Greek cities on
the coast, went over to Hannibal.
                                      luxurious and effeminate habits,     Macedonia, and earnestly urged
                                      are said to have injured his         Hasdrubal Baroa, his lieutenant
CHAPTER XV THE                        soldiers. But Hannibal's             in Spain, to come to his
SECOND PUNIC WAR-                     superiority as a general is          assistance. He hoped, with this
FROM CANNAE TO THE                    unquestionable, and his want of      army from the north, with
BATTLE OF ZAMA (216-                  success after this was due to        supplies and reinforcements from
                                      insufficient aid from home, and to   Carthage, and with such troops
202)                                  the fact that the resources of       as he might obtain from
                                      Rome were greater than those of      Macedonia, to concentrate a
                                      Carthage. The Latin allies of        large force at Rome and compel
ROME was appalled; but though         Rome had remained true to their      her into submission.
defeated, she was not subdued.        allegiance, and only one city of
All the Latin allies were             importance was under his             The Romans, realizing the
summoned for aid in the common        control. It was an easy matter to    position of Hannibal, kept what
peril. Boys and old men alike         conquer the enemy in open            forces they could spare in Spain,
took up arms even the slaves          battle, but to support his own       under the two Scipio brothers,
were promised freedom if they         army was more difficult, for all     Publius and Gnaeus. With these
would join the ranks.                 Italy had been devastated. On        they hoped to stop
                                      the other hand, the Romans were      reinforcements from reaching the
Hannibal marched from Cannae          well supplied with food from their   enemy from that quarter. At the
into Campania. He induced             possessions in Sicily.               same time their army in Northern
Capua, the second city of Italy, to                                        Greece effectually engaged the
side with him. But his                Hannibal saw, therefore, that        attention of Philip. Thus two
expectations that other cities        more active measures than those      years (214-212) passed without
would follow her example were         already employed were                any material change in the
not fulfilled. He went into winter    necessary. He sent to Carthage       situation of affairs in Italy.
quarters here (215-214). The          an appeal for aid. He formed an
Capuans, notorious for their          alliance with Philip V. of           In 212, while the Carthaginians
were in the extreme south of          was removed to Lucania and           Such was the fate of this famous
Italy, besieging Tarentum, the        Bruttium. The punishment             city. Founded in as early times
Romans made strenuous efforts         inflicted upon Capua was severe.     as Rome itself, it became the
to recover Campania, and              Seventy of her Senators were         most flourishing city of Magna
especially Capua. Hannibal,           killed, three hundred of her chief   Graecia, renowned for its luxury
learning the danger, marched          citizens imprisoned, and the         and refinement, and as the home
rapidly north, and failing to break   whole people sold as slaves.         of all the highest arts and culture.
through the lines which enclosed      The city and its territory were
the city, resolved to advance on      declared to be Roman territory,
Rome itself.                          and the place was afterwards         AFFAIRS IN SICILY
                                      repeopled by Roman occupants.
Silently and quickly he marched
along the Via Latino through the                                           HIERO II, tyrant of Syracuse,
heart of the territory of Rome, to                                         died in 216. During his long
within three miles of the city, and                                        reign of more than fifty years he
with his vanguard he even rode                                             had been the stanch friend and
up to one of the city gates. But                                           ally of Rome in her struggles with
no ally joined him; no Roman                                               Carthage. Hieronymus, the
force was recalled to face him;                                            grandson and successor of
no proposals of peace reached                                              Hiero, thought fit to ally himself
his camp. Impressed by the                                                 with Carthage. The young tyrant,
unmoved confidence of the                                                  who was arrogant and cruel, was
enemy, he withdrew as quickly                                              assassinated after reigning a few
as he came, and retreated to his                                           months.
headquarters in the South.
                                      Map showing Capua south-east         The Roman Governor of Sicily,
Capua fell in 211, and the seat of    of Rome                              MARCELLUS, troubled by the
war, to the great relief of Rome,                                          Carthaginian faction in Syracuse,
threatened the city with an attack    close of the siege by a Roman         Carthaginians under HANNO and
unless the leaders of this faction    soldier, who would have spared        HASDRUBAL. The greatest of
were expelled. In return, they        his life had he not been too intent   these was fought in 215 at Ibera,
endeavored to arouse the              on a mathematical problem to          the location of which is uncertain.
citizens of the neighboring city of   comply with the summons to            Spain was gradually being
Leontini against Rome and the         surrender. On his tombstone, it       gained over to Rome, when the
Roman party in Syracuse.              is said, was engraved a cylinder      Carthaginians, making desperate
Marcellus at once attacked and        enclosing a sphere.] to defeat the    efforts, sent large reinforcements
stormed Leontini. The                 movements of the Romans. The          there (212). The armies of the
Syracusans then closed their city     city was finally betrayed by a        Scipios were separated,
gates against him. A siege of         Spanish officer, and given up to      surprised, and overwhelmed.
two years (214-212) followed,         plunder. The art treasures in         Both their leaders were slain, and
famous for the various devices        which it was so rich were             Spain was lost to Rome.
adopted by the noted                  conveyed by Marcellus to Rome.
mathematician ARCHIMÉDES              From this time (212) the city         Unless checked, the
[Note: Archimédes was a great         became a part of the province of      Carthaginians would now cross
investigator in the science of        Sicily and the headquarters of        the Alps, enter Italy, and, joining
mathematics. He discovered the        the Roman Governor.                   forces with Hannibal, place
ratio of a sphere to its                                                    Rome in great danger. PUBLIUS
circumscribed cylinder. One of                                              CORNELIUS SCIPIO, son of one
his famous sayings was, "Give         THE CAMPAIGNS IN                      of the slain generals, then but
me where to stand, and I will         SPAIN                                 twenty-four years of age, offered
move the world." He exerted his                                             to go to Spain and take
ingenuity in the invention of                                               command. He had previously
powerful machines for the             PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO,             made himself very popular as
defence of Syracuse. Eight of         with his brother, GNAEUS              Aedile, and was unanimously
his works on mathematics are in       CORNELIUS SCIPIO CALVUS,              elected to the command. On his
existence. He was killed at the       were winning victories over the       arrival in Spain in 210, he found
the whole country west of the        spent the winter (209-208) in           intended to become a candidate
Ebro under the enemy's control.      Gaul.                                   for the consulship.

Fortunately for the Romans, the      The two Carthaginian generals
three Carthaginian generals,         now in Spain, Mago, and                 OPERATIONS IN ITALY
HASDRUBAL and MAGO,                  Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco,
brothers of Hannibal, and            retired, the latter to Lusitania, the
HASDRUBAL, son of Gisco, did         former to the Baleares, to wait for     The news of the approach of
not act in harmony. Thus Scipio      reinforcements from home.               Hasdrubal caused intense
was enabled, in the following                                                anxiety at Rome. Every nerve
spring (209), to capture Carthago    The next year another battle was        was strained to prevent the union
Nova, the head-quarters of the       fought near Baecula, resulting in       of the two brothers. The Consuls
enemy. A good harbor was             the total defeat of the                 for this year (207) were GAIUS
gained, and eighteen ships of        Carthaginians, who retreated to         CLAUDIUS NERO, a patrician,
war, sixty-three transports,         Gadus, in the southwestern part         and MARCUS LIVIUS, a
$600,000, and 10,000 captives        of Spain.                               plebeian. To the former was
fell into the hands of the                                                   intrusted the task of keeping
Romans.                              The country being now (206)             Hannibal in check in Bruttium,
                                     under Roman influence, Scipio           while the duty of intercepting
Shortly after, Scipio fought         crossed the straits to Africa, and      Hasdrubal was given to the latter.
Hasdrubal, the brother of            visited the Numidian princes,
Hannibal, at BAECULAE, in the        SYPHAX and MASINISSA,                   The Carthaginian had already
upper valley of the Baetis           whom he hoped to stir up against        reached the neighborhood of the
(Guadalquivir); but the battle was   Carthage. On his return, after          river Metaurus, a small stream
not decisive, for Hasdrubal was      quelling a mutiny of the soldiers,      south of the Rubicon. From here
soon seen crossing the               who were dissatisfied about their       he sent messengers to inform his
Pyrenees, with a considerable        pay, he resigned his command,           brother of his approach and
force, on his way to Italy. He       and started for Rome, where he          proposed line of march. These
messengers were captured by                                                Spain. Syphax, however, sided
Nero, and the contents of their
                                      INVASION OF AFRICA                   with Carthage; but in 203 Scipio
despatches learned. He at once                                             twice defeated him and the
pushed north with his forces,         Scipio, on his return from Spain,    Carthaginian forces.
joined Livius, met Hasdrubal on       urged an immediate invasion of
the METAURUS early in 207,            Africa. He was elected Consul in     Negotiations for peace followed,
and defeated his army with great      205, receiving Sicily as his         but the war party in Carthage
slaughter. Among the slain was        province, with permission to         prevailed. Hannibal was
Hasdrubal himself. Nero               cross into Africa if it seemed to    recalled. He returned to fight his
returned south without delay, and     him wise. He was so popular          last battle with Rome, October
the first intimation that Hannibal    that voluntary contributions of      19, 202, at ZAMA, a short
had of this battle was the sight of   men, money, and supplies             distance west of Carthage. The
his brother's head thrown into the    poured in from all sides. The old-   issue was decided by the valor of
camp by the victorious foe.           fashioned aristocracy, however,      the Roman legions, who loved
                                      did not like him, as his taste for   their commander and trusted his
The war in Italy was now virtually    splendid living and Greek culture    skill. Hannibal met his first and
ended, for, although during four      was particularly offensive to        only defeat, and Scipio won his
years more Hannibal stood at          them; and a party in the Senate      title of AFRICÁNUS. The battle
bay in a corner of Bruttium, he       would have recalled him, had not     was a hard one. After all the
was powerless to prevent the          the popular enthusiasm in his        newly enrolled troops of Hannibal
restoration of Roman authority        favor been too strong to be          had been killed or put to flight,
throughout Italy. Nothing now         resisted.                            his veterans, who had remained
remained to Carthage outside of                                            by him in Italy, although
Africa, except the ground on          In 204 he sailed from Lilybaeum,     surrounded on all sides by forces
which Hannibal was making his         and landed near Utica. He was        far outnumbering their own,
last stand.                           welcomed by Masinissa, whose         fought on, and were killed one by
                                      friendship he had gained in his      one around their beloved chief.
                                      previous visit to Africa from        The army was fairly annihilated.
Hannibal, with only a handful,
managed to escape to                   Such was the result of the
Hadrumétum.                            seventeen years' struggle.
                                       Scipio was welcomed home, and
The battle of Zama decided the         surnamed AFRICANUS. He
fate of the West. The power of         enjoyed a triumph never before
Carthage was broken, and her           equalled. His statue was placed,
supremacy passed to Rome.              in triumphal robes and crowned
She was allowed to retain her          with laurels, in the Capitol. Many
own territory intact, but all her      honors were thrust upon him,
war-ships, except ten, were given      which he had the sense to
up, and her prisoners restored;        refuse. He lived quietly for some
an annual tax of about $200,000,       years, taking no part in politics.
for fifty years, was to be paid into
the Roman treasury, and she
could carry on no war without the
consent of Rome. Masinissa
was rewarded by an increase in
territory, and was enrolled among
the "allies and friends of the
Roman people."

Rome was now safe from any
attack. She had become a great
Mediterranean power. Spain
was divided into two provinces,
and the north of Africa was under
her protection.
                                      which enjoyed a semi-               of the Macedonian and Syrian
                                      independence. Under                 kings, sought the protection of
CHAPTER XVI ROME IN                   incompetent rulers, she saw         Rome.
THE EAST                              portion after portion of her
                                      dominions fall from her. Thus       The punishment of the Illyrican
                                      arose Pergamus, Pontus,             pirates in 228 brought Rome into
                                      Cappadocia, and Phrygia.            closer relations with Greece.
ROME was now in a position to
                                                                          These connections had been
add new nations to her list of
                                      MACEDONIA was ruled by Philip       sufficient to open the Eastern
subjects. The kingdoms of the
                                      V., and included also a large       ports to her trade, but her
East which formerly composed a
                                      portion of Northern Greece.         struggle with Carthage had left
part of the vast empire of
                                                                          her no time or strength to
Alexander the Great, and which
                                      GREECE proper was divided           interfere actively in Eastern
finally went to swell the limits of
                                      between the ACHAEAN and             politics, until she was forced to
Roman authority, were Egypt,
                                      AETOLIAN LEAGUES, the               take action by the alliance of
Syria, Macedonia, and Greece
                                      former including the most of the    Philip V of Macedonia and
                                      Peloponnesus, the latter the        Hannibal, and by the former's
                                      greater part of Central Greece.     threatened invasion of Italy in
EGYPT was governed by the
                                                                          214. A small force was sent into
Ptolemies, and included at this
                                      Ever since the repulse of           Greece, which was soon largely
time the valley of the Nile,
                                      Pyrrhus, Rome had been slowly       increased by the dissatisfied
Palestine, Phoenicia, the island
                                      drifting into closer contact with   subjects of Philip.
of Cyprus, and a number of
                                      the East. She formed an alliance
towns in Thrace.
                                      with Egypt in 273. From this        The only object of Rome in the
                                      country had come in part her        First Macedonian War (214-205)
SYRIA, extending from the
                                      supply of corn during the Second    was to prevent Philip from
Mediterranean to the Indus, was
                                      Punic War. In 205, Ptolemy V        lending aid to Hannibal; and in
composed of various nations
                                      became king, and, through fear      this she was partially successful.
None of the Macedonian troops         peace.                               barbarity that the people rose
entered Italy, but four thousand                                           against him; and from a similar
of them were at Zama.                 Some of Philip's soldiers had        cause Greece was driven to seek
                                      been captured at Zama. He            alliances which would protect her
                                      demanded their return. The           against him.
                                      answer was, that, if he wished
                                      war again, he could have it.         Rome was unwilling to undertake
                                                                           a new war, but the people were
                                      There were several other             induced to vote for one, on the
                                      reasons which led to the             representation that the only
Philip V of Macedonia, 238-179        SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR                means of preventing an invasion
B.C.                                  (200-197). Philip had agreed         of Italy was to carry the war
                                      with ANTIOCHUS III, king of          abroad.
The military operations of this       Syria, to attempt with him the
war were of slight importance.        division of Egypt, since it seemed   This year (200) the Consul,
Marcus Valerius Laevinus was          probable that the young king,        Publius Sulpicius Galba, was
sent to the Adriatic, and pushed      Epiphanes (Ptolemy V), who was       sent with a considerable force
the king so hard that he was          only four years old, would not be    across the Adriatic. His
obliged to burn the fleet in which    able to make an effectual            campaign, and that of the Consul
he intended to sail for Italy.        resistance. The ministers of         Villius during the next year, were
Philip was at this time at war with   Egypt sought the protection of       productive of no decisive results,
Aetolia. Laevinus assisted the        Rome. On their journey, the          but in 198 the Consul TITUS
Aetolians, and the king was too       Roman envoys sent to assume          QUINCTIUS FLAMINÍNUS, a
fully occupied at home to think of    the office of protectorship          man of different calibre,
operations farther away. But in       remonstrated with Philip.            conducted the war with vigor. He
205, the Romans, wishing to                                                defeated Philip on the Aóus,
concentrate their energies upon       In Asia Minor Philip had             drove him back to the pass of
the invasion of Africa, made          conducted himself with such          Tempe, and the next year utterly
defeated him at
CYNOSCEPHALAE.                        The next year (196), at the
                                      Isthmian Games, the "freedom of
The king had drawn up his forces      Greece" was proclaimed to the
in two divisions. With the first he   enthusiastic crowds, and two
broke through the line of the         years later Flamininus withdrew
legions, which, however, closed       his troops from the so called
in around him with but little loss.   "three fetters of Greece,"—
The other division was attacked       Chalcis, Demetrias, and
by the Romans, while it was           Corinth,—and, urging the Greeks
forming, and thoroughly               to show themselves worthy of the
discomfited. The victory of the       gift of the Roman people, he
Romans was decisive.                  returned home to enjoy a well
                                      earned triumph.
About the same time the
Achaeans captured CORINTH             The chief result of the second
from Philip, and the Rhodians         Macedonian war was, therefore,
defeated his troops in Caria.         the firm establishment of a
                                      ROMAN PROTECTORATE
Further resistance was                OVER GREECE AND EGYPT.
impossible. Philip was left in        The wedge had been entered
possession of Macedonia alone;        and the interference of Rome in
he was deprived of all his            Eastern affairs was assured.
dependencies in Greece, Thrace,
and Asia Minor, and was
forbidden, as Carthage had
been, to wage war without
Rome's consent.
                                      pleasure, the power behind his        Thermopylae drove back the
                                      throne was HANNIBAL. This             intruder, who hastily retired to
CHAPTER XVII THE                      great soldier, after his defeat at    Asia Minor. The Aetolians were
SYRIAN WAR                            Zama, did not relinquish the aim      punished for their infidelity.
                                      of his life. He became the chief
                                      magistrate of his native city, and    In 190, LUCIUS CORNELIUS
                                      in a short time cleared the moral     SCIPIO was elected Consul, and
Antiochus III of Syria, who had
                                      atmosphere, which was charged         put in command of the army in
proposed to share Egypt with
                                      with corruption and depravity.        the East, with the understanding
Philip, had been engaged for
                                      Under him Carthage might have         that he should be accompanied
some time in a campaign in the
                                      risen again. But his intrigues        by his brother Africanus, and
East, and did not hear of his
                                      with Antiochus, with whom he          have the benefit of his military
ally's danger until too late to aid
                                      wished to make an alliance, gave      skill and experience. Under his
him. However, he claimed for
                                      Rome an opportunity to interfere.     command, the Romans crossed
himself portions of Asia Minor
                                      His surrender was demanded.           the Hellespont and sought
and Thrace, which Philip had
                                      He fled, and, after wandering         Antiochus in his own kingdom.
previously held, and which Rome
                                      from coast to coast, became the
now declared free and
                                      trusted adviser of the Syrian king.   Hannibal could do nothing with
independent. He crossed the
                                                                            the poorly disciplined troops of
Hellespont into Thrace in 196,
                                      Had Antiochus been energetic          the king. They were met by the
but did not dare to enter Greece,
                                      after his arrival in Greece, he       invading forces at MAGNESIA, in
although earnestly urged to do so
                                      could have accomplished               Lydia, in 190, and 80,000
by the Aetolians, until after
                                      something before the Roman            Asiatics were put to rout by
Flamininus had withdrawn all his
                                      troops came. But he disregarded       30,000 Romans, 50,000 being
troops (192).
                                      the warnings of Hannibal, and         slain. The loss of the victors was
                                      spent valuable time in minor          slight.
Antiochus was no general.
                                      matters. The Romans arrived in
Himself irresolute and fond of
                                      191, and under Glabrio at             On that day the fate of Asia was
sealed. Antiochus relinquished      assimilated to their neighbors.       the ascendency. Asiaticus was
all pretensions to any territory    This war is noticeable chiefly for    accused of misappropriating
west of the river Halys and the     the reason that Manlius               funds obtained during his
Taurus mountains. His chariots,     undertook it without the authority    campaign in the East. As he was
elephants, fleet, and treasures     of the Senate, the first instance     about to produce his account-
were all surrendered.               of its kind, and a precedent which    books before the Senate, his
                                    was too frequently followed in        brother, Africanus, seized them,
Scipio returned home to enjoy a     later times. On his return to         tore them to pieces, and threw
triumph, and added ASIATICUS        Rome he was allowed a triumph,        the remnants on the floor.
to his name, as his brother had     which stamped his act as legal.       Asiaticus, however, was
taken that of Africanus in                                                sentenced to pay a fine. When it
commemoration of his victory.       These wars in the East brought        was afterwards intimated that his
                                    to Rome immense riches, which         brother too was implicated, he
Gneius Manlius Vulso succeeded      laid the foundation of its Oriental   proudly reminded his enemies
Scipio in the East. He made a       extravagance and luxury, and          that their insinuations were ill-
campaign against the Gauls, who     finally undermined the strength of    timed, for it was the anniversary
had settled in Galatia about a      the state. From Greece were           of Zama. This remark changed
century before, and had become      introduced learning and               the tide of feeling, and no more
wealthy by means of constant        refinement, from Asia immorality      charges were made.
plunderings. The excuse for the     and effeminacy. The vigor and
campaign was, that they had         tone of Roman society are             Two years later (183), Africanus
served in the Syrian army; the      nowhere more forcibly shown           died in voluntary exile at
reason was, their wealth, and the   than in the length of time it took    Liternum, on the coast of
ambition of the Consul for glory.   for its subjugation by these          Campania. He had lived little
                                    ruinous exotics.                      more than fifty years. His wife,
The Galatians were easily                                                 Aemilia, was the daughter of
overcome, their wealth seized,      Meanwhile, at Rome the political      Paullus, who fell at Cannae, and
and they themselves became          enemies of the Scipios were in        the sister of him who afterwards
conquered Perseus of                not so courted at Rome as in         PHILOPOEMEN. [Note: See
Macedonia. His daughter,            later days.                          Ancient Greece, page 145.]
CORNELIA, afterwards became
the mother of the famous            Hannibal, after the defeat of
GRACCHI.                            Antiochus, was demanded by the
                                    Romans, but, escaping, took
Next to Caesar, Scipio was          refuge in Crete, and
Rome's greatest general. During     subsequently with Prusias, King
the campaign in the East, he met    of Bithynia. His surrender was
Hannibal at the court of            demanded, and troops were sent       Hannibal, 247-183 B.C.
Antiochus. In the conversation      to arrest him. Seeing no way of
Hannibal is reported to have said   escape, he opened the bead on
that he considered Alexander the    his ring and swallowed the
greatest general, Pyrrhus next,     poison which it contained (183).
and, had he himself conquered
Scipio, he would have placed        Thus died one of the greatest of
himself before either.              commanders, without attaining
                                    the aim of his life. He had lived
Scipio lived to see Rome grow       but fifty-four years, yet his life
from an Italian power to be         was so marked that people have
practically the mistress of the     ever since looked with wonder
world. He was of marked             upon the tremendous magnitude
intellectual culture, and as        of what he undertook, and came
conversant with Greek as with       so near accomplishing.
his mother tongue. He
possessed a charm which made        This same year is also
him popular at a time when the      memorable for the death of "the
culture and arts of Greece were     last of the Greeks,"
                                    and was succeeded by his son        as CURULE AEDILE, in 192, he
                                    PERSEUS.                            prosecuted persons who had
CHAPTER XVIII                                                           made an illegal use of the public
CONQUEST OF                         The new king was as able as his     pastures. He was sent to Ulterior
MACEDONIA AND                       father, and more impatient of       Spain in 191 as governor, where,
GREECE (I71-146)                    subjection. He made friends with    after some reverses, he put down
                                    the surrounding princes, formed     all insurrections. He was Consul
                                    a marriage connection with          in 182, and did good work in
                                    Antiochus IV of Syria, and strove   conquering a tribe of marauders
Although Philip had aided the       to arouse among the Greeks          in Liguria. For this he was
Romans in their campaign            memories of their former            allowed a triumph.
against Antiochus, he did not       greatness.
receive from them the expected                                          He was elected Consul a second
reward in additions to his          The Senate, hearing of his          time in 168, and sent against
territory. Immediate resistance     numerous intrigues, determined      Perseus. The war was brought
would be futile; but he labored     to check him. War was declared      to a speedy end by the battle of
patiently and quietly to increase   in 171; but the forces sent by      PYDNA, on the Thermáic Gulf,
his resources, and to stir up       Rome were at first led by           June 22. The king fled to
among the neighboring Greeks        incompetent men, and nothing        Samothráce with his treasures
hostile feeling towards Rome.       was accomplished until LICIUS       and family. He was shortly
He placed his army on the best      AEMILIUS PAULLUS was made           afterwards captured, but was
footing possible, and soon began    Consul, and took charge of the      treated with kindness by the
to enlarge his boundaries.          war in 168.                         Consul.
Complaints were made to Rome,
and the king was compelled to       Paullus (229-160) was the son of    Paullus now travelled through
give up his conquests, and          the Consul of the same name         Greece. Later, assisted by
confine himself to the limits of    who was killed at Cannae. His       commissioners, he arranged the
Macedonia. In 179 Philip died,      integrity was first shown when,     affairs of Macedonia. The
country was divided into four         from the various peoples he had     became a great friend of the
small republics, independent of       conquered.                          younger Africánus, whom he
each other, but prohibited from                                           accompanied to the siege of
intermarriage and commerce with       Perseus spent his last days in      Carthage.
one another.                          confinement near Rome,
                                      enduring, it is alleged, base and   Like Macedonia, Greece was
On his return to Rome in 167, he      cruel treatment. He was the last    separated into parts,
enjoyed a triumph, which was          king of Macedonia.                  independent of each other, with
graced by Perseus and his three                                           no rights of connubium or
children. He was Censor in 164,                                           commercium. Utter
and died four years later.                                                demoralization soon ensued,
                                                                          which proved a sure preventive
Paullus had two sons by his first                                         to all alliances liable to shake the
wife. The elder of these was                                              authority of Rome.
adopted by Fabius Maximus
Cunctátor, the younger by the                                             Trouble again arose in
son of Africánus the elder, his       Perseus, last king of Macedonia     Macedonia twenty years after
brother-in-law. He was of the                                             Pydna, culminating in what is
"blue" blood of Rome, of perfect      After the victory at Pydna, the     sometimes called the FOURTH
honesty, and very popular, a          sympathy shown in Greece for        MACEDONIAN WAR (149-146).
good general, but somewhat            the conquered monarch made          Under the leadership of
superstitious. A patron of            the Romans more watchful of her     ANDRISCUS, who claimed to be
learning and the fine arts, he        interests there. All suspected to   a son of Perseus, the people
gave his sons the best training       be enemies were removed as          rebelled against the protection of
under Greek masters. A strong         hostages to Italy, and among        Rome. They were twice
proof of his popularity is the fact   these was the historian             defeated in 148 by the praetor
that his body was carried to its      POLYBIUS. He lived in Rome          QUINTUS CAECILIUS
last resting place by volunteers      for more than twenty years, and     METELLUS, who gained the
agnomen of MACEDONICUS.               was marked by special cruelties.
The country was made a Roman          The city was burned to the
province, with a Roman                ground; beautiful pictures and
magistrate at its head.               costly statuary were ruthlessly
                                      destroyed. Gold in abundance
At this time the Achaeans were        was carried to Rome. The last
quarrelling with Sparta. Metellus     vestige of Greek liberty vanished.
warned them to desist, and when       The country became a Roman
the Achaeans advanced against         province under the name of
him, he easily defeated them          ACHAIA.
                                      Corinth, the "eye of all Greece,"
Metellus was a moderate               remained in ruins for a century,
reformer and a model man. He          when it was rebuilt in 46 by Julius
belonged to an illustrious            Caesar, who planted on its site a
plebeian gens, the Caecilian.         colony of veterans and freedmen.
Before his death in 115 three of
his sons had been consuls, one
censor, and the fourth was a
candidate for the consulship.

Metellus was succeeded in
cruel and harsh leader. The
remnant of the Achaean army
had taken refuge in CORINTH.
The Senate directed Mummius to
attack the city. Its capture in 146
                                   prosperity of the city, and from      hearted, they sent ambassadors
                                   that time never ceased to urge its    to Rome. The answer given
CHAPTER XIX THE                    destruction. The embassy did          them was obscure. They were
THIRD PUNIC WAR, AND               not reach any decision, but           requested to make reparation to
FALL OF CARTHAGE                   allowed matters to go on as they      Rome, and at the same time they
                                   might. Finally, when some             were assured that nothing should
                                   sympathizers with Masinissa           be undertaken against Carthage
                                   were banished from the city, he       herself. But in 149 the Consuls
Fifty years had passed since       attacked and defeated the             crossed with a large army into
Zama. It was a period of great     Carthaginians, compelled their        Sicily, where the troops were
commercial prosperity for          army to pass under the yoke, and      organized, and Carthaginian
Carthage, but her government       afterwards treacherously              ambassadors were expected.
was weakened by the quarrels of    destroyed it (150). Carthage was
conflicting factions.              compelled to give up some of her      When they appeared, the
                                   territory, and pay $5,000,000         Consuls declared that the Senate
MASINISSA, King of Numidia, an     indemnity.                            did not wish to encroach upon
ally of the Romans, was a                                                the freedom of the people, but
continual source of annoyance to   After this victory, matters came to   only desired some security; for
Carthage. He made inroads          a crisis. The city must be            this purpose it demanded that,
upon her territory, and, as she    disciplined for warring with an       within thirty days, three hundred
was bound by her treaty not to     ally of Rome. Cato never failed       children of the noblest families
war upon any allies of Rome, her   to close any speech he might          should be delivered into their
only recourse was to complain to   make in the Senate with the           hands as hostages. This
the Senate. In 157 an embassy      same cruel words, Delenda est         demand was met. The Romans
was sent to inquire into the       Carthago, "Carthage must be           then coolly crossed over to
troubles. MARCUS PORCIUS           destroyed." The people of             Africa, and informed the
CATO, the chief of the embassy,    Carthage were called to account.      Carthaginians that they were
was especially alarmed at the      Desponding and broken-                ready to treat with them on any
question not previously settled.                                           PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO
                                      The Romans, who expected to          AFRICÁNUS, the Younger, was
When the ambassadors again            find a defenceless population,       elected Consul while but thirty-
appeared before the Consuls,          imagined that the storming of the    seven (under the legal age), for
they were told that Carthage          place would be an easy matter.       the express purpose of giving
must deliver over all her arms        But despair had suggested to the     him charge of the siege. After
and artillery; for, they said, as     Carthaginians means of defence       two years of desperate fighting
Rome was able to protect her,         in every direction. All assaults     and splendid heroism on the part
there was no need of Carthage         were repelled. Everybody was         of the defenders, the famished
possessing arms. Hard as was          engaged day and night in the         garrison could hold out no longer.
this command, it was obeyed.          manufacture of arms. Nothing
They were then told that              can be more heartrending than        Carthage fell in 146, and the
Carthage had indeed shown her         this last struggle of despair.       ruins of the city burned for
good will, but that Rome had no       Every man and every woman            seventeen days. The destruction
control over the city so long as it   labored to the uttermost for the     was complete. A part of her
was fortified. The preservation of    defence of the city with a furious   territory was given to Numidia.
peace, therefore, required that       enthusiasm.                          The rest was made a Roman
the people should quit the city,                                           province, and called AFRICA.
give up their navy, and build a
new town without walls at a                                                The year 149 saw the death of
distance of ten miles from the                                             two men who had been
sea. The indignation and fury                                              Carthage's most bitter enemies,
which this demand excited were                                             but who were not allowed to see
intense. The gates were                                                    her downfall,— MASINISSA and
instantly closed, and all the                                              CATO, the one aged ninety, the
Romans and Italians who               Masinissa, ruler of Namidia          other eighty-five.
happened to be within the city
were massacred.                       Two years after the siege began,     Masinissa's (239-149) hostility
dates from the time he failed to      capacity as Censor, he acted
get the promised hand of              with extreme rigor. He zealously
Hasdrubal's daughter,                 asserted old-fashioned
Sophonisba, who was given to          principles, and opposed the
his rival, Syphax. After the battle   growing tendency to luxury. All
of Zama, most of the                  innovations were in his eyes little
possessions of Syphax fell to         less than crimes. He was the
Masinissa, and among them this        author of several works, one of
same Sophonisba, whom he              which, a treatise on agriculture,
married. Scipio, however,             has been preserved.
fearing her influence over him,
demanded her as a Roman
captive, whereupon she took
poison. Masinissa was a
courageous prince, but a
convenient tool for the Romans.

(234-149,) whose long public
career was a constant struggle
with the enemies of the state         Cato the Elder, the Censor, 234-
abroad, and with the fashions of      149 B.C.
his countrymen at home, was a
type of the old Roman character,      Cicero's "Cato Major" represents
with a stern sense of duty that       him in his eighty-fourth year
forbade his neglecting the            discoursing about old age with
interests of state, farm, or          Africánus the younger, and
household. In 184, in his             Laelius, a friend of the latter.
                                    tribes was the CELTIBÉRI, who        classes lands on favorable
                                    occupied the interior of the         conditions, and did much to
CHAPTER XX ROME                     peninsula. They were always          produce contentment among the
AND SPAIN-THE                       uncertain and intractable,           natives. But farther west, in the
NUMANTINE AND                       continually breaking out into        valleys of the Douro and Tagus,
SERVILE WARS (206-                  revolt. In 195, Cato the elder put   and in Lusitania (Portugal), there
                                    down a rebellion led by them. He     seems to have been constant
132)                                established more firmly the          warfare.
                                    Roman power east of the Ibérus.
                                    He disarmed the inhabitants of       In 154, MUMMIUS, the same
Africanus the elder left Spain in   this part of Spain, and compelled    who eight years later sacked
206. After a provincial             all from the Pyrenees to the         Corinth, was Governor of Farther
government of nine years (206-      Guadalquivir to pull down their      Spain. His defeat by the
197), the country was divided       fortifications.                      Lusitanians encouraged the
into two provinces, separated by                                         Celtibéri to revolt again, and
the IBÉRUS (Ebro), and each         Still the smouldering fires of       there followed another defeat,
province was assigned to a          rebellion were not extinguished,     with a massacre of many Roman
praetor. It was some time,          for, sixteen years later (179), we   citizens. Two years later (152),
however, before Spain was really    find TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS             CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS
brought into a state of complete    GRACCHUS, the father of the          avenged these losses, founded
peace and order. The mountains      famous Gracchi, as Governor of       Corduba, and governed the
and forests were a formidable       Spain, fighting the troublesome      country humanely. His
obstacle to the Roman legions,      Celtibéri. He captured over one      successors, LUCIUS LUCULLUS
and favored guerilla warfare,       hundred of their towns, but          and SERVIUS GALBA, were so
which makes conquest slow and       tempered his victories with          cruel and grasping as to drive the
laborious.                          moderate measures, showing           Lusitanians into another open
                                    himself greater in peace than in     rebellion, headed by
The most warlike of the Spanish     war. He granted to the poorer        VIRIÁTHUS, a bold and daring
bandit. During seven years (147-                                         which was never lost. The
140) he defeated again and
                                    THE NUMANTINE WAR                    country now, with the exception
again the armies sent against       (143-133)                            of its northern coast, was
him. The Celtibéri joined his                                            nominally Roman territory.
standards, and Spain seemed         The Celtibéri, however, were still   Several towns were established
likely to slip from the Romans.     in arms. The strong city of          with Latin municipal rights
The only check to these             NUMANTIA, the capital of one of      (municipia), and, on the whole,
successes was during the            their tribes, witnessed more than    order was maintained. Along the
command of METELLUS                 one defeat of a Roman Consul         coast of the Mediterranean there
MACEDONICUS (143); when he          before its walls (141-140).          sprang up many thriving and
was recalled, matters returned to   Finally Rome sent out her best       populous towns, which became
their former condition.             general, Africanus the younger.      centres of civilization to the
                                                                         neighboring districts, and were
In 140, the Consul Mancínus was     After devoting several months to     treated by Rome rather as allies
obliged to capitulate, and, to      the disciplining of his troops, he   than as subjects. Some of them
save himself and his army, made     began (134) a regular siege of       were allowed to coin the silver
a treaty which the Senate           the place. It was defended with      money of Rome. The civilizing
refused to sanction.                the utmost bravery and tenacity,     process, due to Roman
                                    until, forced by the last extreme    influence, went on rapidly in
Viriáthus was finally (139)         of famine, it surrendered (133).     these parts, while the interior
assassinated by persons hired by    The inhabitants were sold as         remained in barbarism.
the Consul Caepio; his people       slaves, and the town was levelled
were then subdued, and the          to the ground. The victor was        In 105 the peninsula was overrun
government was ably conducted       honored with the title of            by the Cimbri, a barbarous race
(138) by DECIMUS JUNIUS             NUMANTÍNUS.                          from the north. The country was
BRUTUS.                                                                  ravaged, but finally saved by the
                                    The fall of Numantia gave Rome       brave Celtibéri, who forced the
                                    a hold upon the interior of Spain,   invaders back into Gaul.
                                     prophet. A number of defeats
                                     were suffered by the Roman
THE SERVILE WAR (134-                armies, until, finally, PUBLIUS
132)                                 RUTILIUS captured the
                                     strongholds of the slaves,
                                     TAUROMENIUM and ENNA, and
While the Numantine war was          thus closed the war. For his
still in progress, a war with the    success he was allowed an
slaves broke out in Sicily, where    ovation.
they had been treated with
special barbarity.

For a long time slave labor had
been taking the place of that of
freemen. The supply was
rendered enormous by constant
wars, and by the regular slave
trade carried on with the shores
of the Black Sea and Greece.
The owners of the slaves
became an idle aristocracy.

The immediate cause of the
outbreak in Sicily was the cruelty
of a wealthy slave-owner,
Damophilus. The leader of the
slaves was EUNUS, who
pretended to be a Syrian
                                      settled by a DECREE OF THE            the descendants of the original
                                      SENATE (Senatus Consultum).           founders of the city. The nobles
CHAPTER XXI                           To be sure the Comitia declared       were the descendants of any one
INTERNAL HISTORY—                     for war or peace, but the Senate      who had filled one of the
THE GRACCHI                           conducted the war and settled         following six curule offices, viz.
                                      the conditions of peace. It also      Dictator, Magister Equitum,
                                      usually assigned the commands,        Consul, Interrex, Praetor, or
                                      organized the provinces, and          Curule Aedile. These nobles
We have seen how the long             managed the finances.                 possessed the right to place in
struggle between the patricians                                             their hall, or carry in funeral
and plebeians terminated in a         The causes for this ascendency        processions, a wax mask of this
nominal victory for the latter.       of the Senate are not hard to         ancestor, and also of any other
From about 275, the outward           find. It was a body made up of        member of the family who had
form of the old constitution had      men capable of conducting             held a curule office.
undergone little change. It was       affairs. It could be convened at
nominally that of a "moderate         any time, whereas the voters of       A plebeian who first held this
democracy." The Senate and            the Comitias were scattered over      office was called a novus homo,
offices of state were, in law, open   all Italy, and, if assembled, would   or "new man."
to all alike. In practice, however,   not be competent to decide
the constitution became an            questions demanding knowledge         The Senate, thus made up of
oligarchy. The Senate, not the        of military matters and foreign       patricians and nobles, had at this
Comitias, ruled Rome.                 policy.                               time the monopoly of power.
Moreover, the Senate was                                                    Legally, however, it had no
controlled by a class who             The Senate and the Roman              positive authority. The right of
claimed all the privileges of a       nobility were in the main the         the people to govern was still
nobility. The Comitias were           same. All patricians were             valid, and there was only wanting
rarely called upon to decide a        nobles, but all nobles were not       a magistrate with the courage to
question. Most matters were           patricians. The patricians were       remind them of their legal rights,
and urge the exercise of them.      Africánus the younger. The         return home he passed through
                                    sons, TIBERIUS and GAIUS,          Tuscany where he was
Such a magistrate was found in      grew up under the care of their    astonished to see large tracts of
TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS                 noble and gifted mother, who       the ager publicus (see Chapter
GRACCHUS. With him was              was left a widow when they were    VII.) cultivated by slave gangs,
ushered in the contest which        mere boys.                         while the free poor citizens of the
lasted for more than a century,                                        Republic were wandering in
and brought to the surface some                                        towns without employment, and
of the proudest names of Roman                                         deprived of the land which,
history. On one side or the other                                      according to law (see the Licinian
we find them,—MARIUS and                                               Rogations), should have been
SULLA, CAESAR and POMPEY,                                              divided among them, and not
AUGUSTUS and ANTONY—                                                   held in large quantities by the
arraying Rome against herself,                                         rich land-owners.
until the glories of the Republic   Tuscan fields and farm
were swallowed up in the misrule                                       Tiberius determined to rectify this
and dishonor of the Empire.         Tiberius (164-133) entered the     wrong. In 133 he offered himself
                                    army, and served under his         as candidate for the tribuneship,
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus        brother-in- law during the third   and was elected. He then began
the elder (see Chapter XX)          Punic war. Ten years later (136)   boldly the battle for the
belonged to the nobility, but not   he was Quaestor in Spain, where    commons. He proposed to
to the aristocracy. He married      he won the affections of the       revise the Agrarian Law, now a
CORNELIA, the daughter of           people by adhering to the mild     dead letter, which forbade the
Africánus the elder. They had       policy which his father had        holding of more than 320 acres
twelve children, of whom all but    previously followed. His popular   of the ager publicus by one
three died young. Two sons and      measures here displeased his       individual. Occupants who had
a daughter lived to maturity. The   brother-in-law, and he ceased to   fenced this land and improved it
daughter, SEMPRONIA, married        be a favorite with him. On his     were to be compensated
therefore.                            violate this rule, and offered        patricians were compelled to
                                      himself as candidate for the next     vacate. But the commissioners
The wealthy classes and the           year. The election day came,          became unpopular, for those who
Senate at once took sides             and when it became evident that       received lands were not always
against Tiberius, and the struggle    he would be re-elected, the           satisfied, and those who were
began. One of the other               aristocrats, who had turned out in    obliged to leave them were
Tribunes, OCTAVIUS CAECÍNA,           full force on the Campus Martius      enraged. The commissioners
who was himself a large land-         with their retinues of armed          were suspended, and the law
owner, taking advantage of his        slaves and clients, raised a riot,    repealed.
authority as Tribune, interposed      and, killing Gracchus with three
his veto to prevent a vote upon       hundred of his followers, threw
the question.                         their bodies into the Tiber (133).
                                      Thus was shed the first blood of
Gracchus, full of enthusiasm over     the civil struggle. The mob was
the justice of his cause, obtained,   led by SCIPIO NASÍCA, the
contrary to all precedent, the        uncle of Tiberius. Africánus,
removal of his colleague from         when he heard of the murder of        Piazza Navona, built on part of
office, and passed his Agrarian       his brother-in-law, exclaimed,        the Central Campus Martius
Law. Three commissioners were         "Justly slain."
appointed, himself, his brother,                                            The mantle of Tiberius fell on
and his father-in-law, APPIUS         The agrarian law, however,            GAIUS GRACCHUS. For a time
CLAUDIUS, to carry it into effect.    which had passed, was too             after his brother's death he
                                      evidently just to be openly           retired from politics, and served
It was contrary to the law that a     ignored. The remaining two            in the army in Africa and
person should hold the office of      commissioners continued their         Sardinia, where he was
Tribune for two successive years.     work, until, within two years,        Quaestor. His valor, wisdom,
But Gracchus, in his desire to        40,000 families were settled on       and justice made him justly
carry out his plans, determined to    tracts of the public land which the
popular, but caused him to be       The transferring of the juries to   without trial, unless the state was
regarded with suspicion at Rome.    the Equites made Gaius for a        held to be in danger.
In 123 he was elected Tribune,      time very powerful. He caused
and twice re-elected. He revived    another law to be passed, to the    Nearly all Roman writers unite in
his brother's agrarian law, and     effect that no Roman citizen        attacking the reputation of the
became at once the avowed           should be put to death without      Gracchi; but viewed in the light of
enemy of the Senate. As a           legal trial and an appeal to the    to-day their characters were
means of increasing his             assembly of the people.             noble, and their virtues too
popularity, he endeavored to                                            conspicuous to be obscured.
admit all the Italians to the       But the plan of Gaius to extend
privileges of Roman citizenship,    the franchise to all the Italians   A few years previous to this, the
and to limit the price of bread.    ruined his popularity. The          younger Africánus died (129).
                                    Roman citizens had no desire to     His remark about the death of
Gains gained the favor of the       share their rights with the         Tiberius Gracchus gave dire
Equites (Knights), the              Etruscans and Samnites. Riots       offence to the popular party, and
commercial class, by carrying       again broke out, as ten years       a few days later he was found
through the assembly a law by       before. The aristocracy again       dead in his bed, probably "a
which all judicial functions were   armed itself. Gaius with 3,000 of   victim of political assassination."
taken from the Senate and           his friends was murdered in 121,
intrusted to the Knights.           and the Senate was once more        Africánus was a man of
Heretofore all civil and criminal   master of the situation.            refinement and culture, a warm
cases of importance had been                                            friend of scholars, a patron of the
tried before a jury chosen from     However, the results obtained by    Greek historian POLYBIUS, and
the Senate. These juries were       the Gracchi still remained. Forty   of the poets LUCILIUS and
often venal and corrupt, and it     thousand peasants had been          TERENCE. He was opposed to
was a notorious fact that their     settled on public land. The jury    the tendency of his age towards
verdicts could be bought.           law was in force. No Roman          luxury and extravagance. He
                                    citizen could be put to death       was an orator, as well as a
general. The one blot on his
career is the terrible destruction
of Carthage, which he possibly
might have averted had he
shown firm opposition to it.

SCIPIO NASÍCA, who led the
mob against Tiberius, was
compelled, though Pontifex
Maximus, to leave the city, and
died an exile in Asia.

The Forum at the Time of Marius.
The Senate and Assembly

                                      Pamphylia. It was made a             the whole kingdom, and attacked
                                      province under the name of           his other cousin, Adherbal, who
CHAPTER XXII                          ASIA.                                appealed to Rome.
EXTERNAL HISTORY—                                                          Commissioners were sent to
PERGAMUM—                                                                  investigate. They were bought
JUGURTHINE WAR (118-                  THE WAR WITH                         off by Jugurtha, and returned
                                      JUGURTHA                             home without accomplishing
104)                                                                       anything. Adherbal was
                                                                           afterwards captured, savagely
                                      After the destruction of Carthage,   tortured, and finally killed.
Pergamum was an ancient city of       the most important kingdom in
Mysia on the Caícus, fifteen          Africa was NUMIDIA. It               The Senate, compelled by the
miles from the sea. It first          contained a number of flourishing    popular indignation to make an
became important after the death      towns, which were centres of a       investigation, moved so slowly
of Alexander. Its first king,         considerable commerce.               that some of its members were
Attalus I (241-197), added a          Masinissa left this kingdom to his   accused of accepting bribes.
large territory to the city. He was   son Micipsa. The latter had two      War was declared at last, but the
an ally of the Romans, and his        sons and a nephew,                   campaign languished, and peace
successors remained their firm        JUGURTHA. The nephew was a           was soon made on such easy
friends. The city became one of       brilliant young man, who had         terms for the prince that it was
the most prosperous and famous        served under Scipio in the           evident his money had again
in Asia Minor, noted for its          Numantine war, and returned to       been freely used. The
architectural monuments, its fine     Africa covered with honors. He       scandalous transaction was
library, and its schools. Attalus     was named joint heir with his        denounced at Rome by the
III, at his death in 133,             cousins to the kingdom of            Tribune MEMMIUS. Jugurtha
bequeathed to Rome his                Numidia. Micipsa dying soon          then repaired to the city in
kingdom, which included Lydia,        after, Jugurtha murdered one of      person, and bought up all the
Pisidia, Lycaonia, and                his cousins, Hiempsal, claimed       authorities except Memmius,
whom he found incorruptible. He                                           family of the Caesars. By this
had another cousin in the city,                                           marriage with Julia, the aunt of
whom he caused to be                                                      Julius Caesar, he became a
murdered. After this the Senate                                           person of social distinction.
ordered him to leave, and as he
departed, it is said he exclaimed,                                        The campaign was moderately
"Venal city, destined soon to                                             successful. Jugurtha was
perish, if a purchaser be found!"     Gaius Marius, 157-86 B.C.           defeated near the river Muthul,
                                                                          and made to retire into the
War was now begun in earnest          Marius, born at Arpínum in 157,     desert, where his stronghold,
(110), but resulted in a crushing     was the son of a farmer, and was    Thala, was captured. He sued
defeat of the Romans, whose           himself bred to the plough. He      for peace, but, as unconditional
army was sent under the yoke.         joined the army at an early age,    surrender was demanded, he still
Humiliated by the defeat, the         and soon attracted notice for his   held out. The popular party at
Senate in the following year sent     punctual performance of all         Rome, irritated that such a petty
QUINTUS CAECILIUS                     duties, and his strictness in       prince should give so much
METELLUS, nephew of Metellus          discipline. He was present at the   trouble, demanded that Marius
Macedonicus, to take charge of        siege of Numantia, and his          should be made Consul and
the war. He was a man of              courage caused Scipio to predict    have charge of the war. When
integrity, with some experience       for him a brilliant career. He      the lieutenant asked Metellus for
as an officer, and a rigid            soon rose to be Military Tribune.   leave of absence to enable him
aristocrat. Realizing the danger      In 119 he was chosen Tribune of     to be present at the elections, as
of failure, he took with him as his   the People, and two years later     was necessary according to the
lieutenant the ablest soldier that    Praetor. The fact that he was       law, his general ridiculed the
he could find, GAIUS MARIUS.          respected and valued in high        idea, and told him to wait another
                                      circles is shown by his             twenty years. He went, however,
                                      subsequent marriage into the        and was elected in 107, being
                                                                          the first plebeian chosen to that
office for more than a century.      remainder continued to be
                                     governed by native princes, until
Metellus was recalled, enjoyed a     the civil war between Caesar and
triumph, and received the            Pompey. In 104 Marius returned
agnomen of NUMIDICUS.                home, and entered Rome in
                                     triumph. Jugurtha was thrown
Marius was every inch a soldier.     into a dungeon, and there
He saw that the Roman legions        starved to death.
must be reorganized and better
disciplined. He enlisted men who
had no other occupation, that
they might become professional
soldiers. Some men of rank who
had a taste for war also went with
him. Among these was a young
With this army Marius soon
wrested from Jugurtha all his
strongholds. In less than two
years the war was over. By his
ally, Bocchus, King of Mauritania,
Jugurtha was betrayed (106) into
the hands of Sulla, who was
acting as the Quaestor of Marius.

The western portion of Numidia
was given to Bocchus as the
reward of his treachery, while the
                                     Fortunately, they turned to the    but the survivors became
                                     Pyrenees, and, sweeping over       hardened soldiers. Corps of
CHAPTER XXIII THE                    the mountains, overran for a       engineers were attached to each
CIMBRI AND                           season the province of Spain.      legion, and the soldiers were
TEUTONES—POLITICAL                                                      taught the use of tools, as well as
QUARRELS                                                                of arms. At length, in his fourth
                                                                        consulship (102), he felt
                                                                        prepared to meet the enemy.

The war with Jugurtha ended                                             The barbarians, on their return
none too soon, for Marius was                                           from Spain, separated their
needed in a struggle requiring all                                      forces, the Cimbri marching
his talents.                                                            around the northern foot of the
                                                                        Alps towards Noricum, with the
The CIMBRI and TEUTONES,                                                intention of invading Italy from
barbarous nations from Northern                                         that quarter, while the Teutones
Europe, were threatening the         A well equiped Roman soldier       remained in Gaul.
frontiers of Italy. Already the
Roman armies had met with five       Marius, appointed Consul a         As the latter advanced, Marius
successive defeats at their hands    second time, devoted his           took up his position in a fortified
on the banks of the Rhone.           energies to forming and training   camp near AQUAE SEXTIAE
Eighty thousand Romans and           the army. He selected the plains   (Aix). He allowed the enemy to
forty thousand camp followers        on the banks of the Rhone in       march past him, and then
are said to have fallen in these     Southern Gaul as best adapted      followed cautiously, waiting for a
battles. Had the barbarians at       for his purpose. Here he drilled   favorable opportunity to fall upon
this moment chosen to enter          his troops, accustoming them to    them. In the battle that followed,
Italy, the destruction of Rome       the greatest possible exertions.   the barbarians were no match for
would have been a certain result.    Many perished under the strain,    the drilled legionaries, who were
irresistible. The contest lasted                                       nominal price. II. The land in
two days, and the vast host of                                         Cisalpine Gaul, which the
the Teutones was cut to pieces                                         Cimbrians had occupied, should
(20 July, 102). At the close of                                        be divided among the Italian and
this battle word was brought to                                        Roman citizens. III. Colonies
Marius that he had been elected                                        from the veterans of Marius were
Consul for the fifth time.                                             to be founded in Sicily, Achaia,
                                                                       and Macedonia.] and compelled
Meanwhile, the Cimbri had                                              the Senators to take an oath to
crossed the Alps and were                                              execute their laws. Metellus
ravaging the fertile fields of                                         Numidicus refusing to comply
Lombardy, meeting with but                                             with their wishes, Saturnínus
slight opposition from Catulus,     Another well equiped Roman         sent a guard to the Senate-
the other Consul.                   soldier                            House, dragged him out, and
                                                                       expelled him from the city.
The next year Marius came to his    No sooner was the danger from
rescue. Near VERCELLAE the          the invasion over than political   During this troublesome time,
Cimbri met the same fate as their   quarrels broke out at Rome with    Marius showed that he was no
brethren, and Italy was saved       great fury. Marius was elected     politician. He lacked judgment
(101).                              Consul for the sixth time. The     and firmness, and by
                                    popular heroes of the hour were    endeavoring to please all parties
                                    two demagogues, the Tribune        he pleased none.
                                    SATURNÍNUS and the Praetor
                                    GLAUCIA. They carried corn         On the popular side there were
                                    laws and land laws, [Note: These   two parties, the moderate one,
                                    were the APPULEIAN LAWS            led by MEMMIUS, who had
                                    (100):—I. Any Roman citizen        exposed the Senate in its
                                    could buy corn of the state at a   dealings with Jugurtha, and the
radical one, led by Saturnínus
and Glaucia. Memmius and
Glaucia both ran for the
consulship, and as the former
seemed likely to be successful,
he was murdered. A reaction
then set in, and Saturnínus and       Mithradátes, King of Pontus
Glaucia were declared public
enemies. They took refuge in the      For the next eight years (99-91)
Senate-House, the roof of which       Rome enjoyed a season of
was torn off, and the wretches        comparative quiet.
were stoned to death.

The fall of Saturnínus and
Glaucia was followed in 99 by the
recall of Metellus from
banishment. He died shortly
afterwards, and it was suspected
that he was a victim of treachery.

Marius having now become
generally unpopular on account
of his vacillating course in the
recent troubles, went into
voluntary exile, travelling through
Asia Minor, and visiting the court
of Mithradátes, King of Pontus.

                                    or occasionally from removal,          dollars or more. This name was
                                    they were filled by the Censor,        given to them because at first
CHAPTER XXIV                        [Note: See the duties of Censor]       they served in the army as
INTERNAL HISTORY-                   who appointed a person that had        horsemen, though in later times
THE SOCIAL WAR (90-                 held one of the following offices:     the cavalry was composed only
88)                                 Dictator, Consul, Praetor, Curule      of allied troops. The Equites
                                    Aedile, or, after the time of Sulla,   were originally from the
                                    Quaestor. All persons who had          aristocracy alone, but, as the
                                    held these offices, or that of         plebeians increased in wealth,
At this time there was a bitter     Tribune, were allowed to join in       many of them became rich
rivalry between the Senate and      debate in the Senate, but not to       enough to be included in this
the equestrian order, or            vote. No Senator could engage          class.
commercial class. From the          in business. Hence he must be
former were chosen the              wealthy.                               There was no hostility between
governors of the provinces, from                                           the Senate and the Equites until,
the latter came the tax-gatherers   We saw in Chapter IV that              in 123, Gaius Gracchus passed
(publicani) and the money-          Roman citizens were divided into       the Lex Judicaria, which
brokers (negotiatores). It will     six classes according to their         prescribed that the jurors
help us to understand better the    property, and that these classes       (judices) should be chosen from
condition of affairs, if we study   were subdivided into one               the Equites, and not the Senate.
the composition of the Senate       hundred and ninety-three other         From this time dates the struggle
and the Equites.                    classes called centuries. About        between the two classes, and the
                                    225, the number was increased          breach widened every year. On
The Senators, three hundred in      to three hundred and seventy-          the one side were the nobles,
number (later their number was      three. Eighteen of the centuries       represented by the Senate; on
increased to six hundred), held     of the first class were called         the other side, the equestrian
their office for life. When         EQUITES, and must have                 order. Since the jurors were
vacancies occurred from death,      property worth twenty thousand         chosen from the latter, it had
control of the courts, and often      In 91, MARCUS LIVIUS                  name ITALIA. All Italians were to
made an unscrupulous use of its       DRUSUS, the Tribune, took up          be citizens of Corfinium, and
power, especially in those courts     the task of reform. He was            here was to be the place of
which were established to try         noble, wealthy, and popular, and      assembly and the Senate-
governors for extortion in the        he hoped to settle the question       House.
management of provinces               peacefully and equitably. But his
(quaestiones rerum                    attempt to reform the courts          Rome, in the face of this danger,
repetundarum). From the               displeased the Equites, his           acted promptly and with
Equites, too, were taken the tax-     agrarian and corn laws made him       resolution. The Consuls, Lucius
gatherers of the provinces. They      many enemies, and his attempt         Julius Caesar and Publius
pillaged and robbed the people at     to admit the Italians to the rights   Rutilius Lupus, both took the
will, and, if a governor had the      of Roman citizenship aroused          field; with each were five
courage to interfere with them, a     great opposition.                     lieutenants, among whom were
threat of prosecution was held                                              Marius and Sulla.
over his head. The average            His laws were passed, but the
governor preferred to connive at      Senate pronounced them null           This war (90-88), called the
their exactions; the bolder ones      and void. He was denounced in         SOCIAL WAR, i.e. the war with
paid with fines or exiles for their   that body as a traitor, and was       the allies (Socii), was at first
courage. Another trouble was          struck down by an assassin in         disastrous to Rome. The allies
threatening the commonwealth.         the same year.                        overran Campania, defeated the
The Italian allies of Rome did not                                          Romans several times, and
possess the franchise belonging       The death of Drusus drove the         entered into negotiations with the
to a Roman citizen. For nearly        Italians to despair. Eight nations    Northern Italians, whose fidelity
two centuries they had shared         entered into a close alliance,        began to waver.
dangers and victories with the        chose CORFINIUM, in the
Romans; they now eagerly              Pelignian Apennines, as their         It is not strange, therefore, that
demanded all their privileges.        capital, and formed a Federal         opinions at Rome began to be
                                      Republic, to which they gave the      turned in the direction of a more
liberal policy. It was decided to   was torn asunder by violent
make concessions. Towards the       personal rivalries. There was no   4. That those exiled on suspicion
close of the year 90, the Consul    class not affected by the wide-    of having aided in the Italian
Caesar carried the JULIAN LAW,      spread tightness in the money      revolt be recalled.
by which the Roman franchise        market. The treasury was empty,
was extended to all who had not     and many capitalists became        In spite of the bitterest
yet revolted. The next year this    insolvent. War with Mithradátes,   opposition, these bills were
law was supplemented by the         King of Pontus, had been           passed. But the triumph of
PLAUTIAN PAPIRIAN LAW,              declared, and both Marius and      Sulpicius was of short duration.
which allowed every citizen of an   Sulla were eager to have the       Sulla, who with his troops had
Italian town the franchise, if he   command.                           been encamping near Nola in
handed in his name to the                                              Campania, marched upon the
Praetor at Rome within sixty        At this time (88) the TRIBUNE      city, and for the first time a
days. About the same time was       PUBLIUS SULPICIUS RUFUS            Consul entered Rome at the
passed another law, the             brought forward the following      head of his legions.
CALPURNIAN, which permitted         bills:—
Roman magistrates in the field to
bestow the franchise on all who     1. That the command of the war
wished it. These laws resulted in   against Mithradátes be given to
disorganizing the rebellion. The    Marius.
Samnites and Lucanians held out
the longest, but were finally put   2. That the new citizens should
down by Marius.                     be distributed through all the
The end of the Social War
brought no peace at Rome. The       3. That any Senator who owed
newly enfranchised Italians were    more than four hundred dollars
not fully satisfied. The Senate     be deprived of his seat.
                                      his brilliant successes seems to     matched against Numidian
                                      have been the enthusiastic           archers. In 92 he went as
CHAPTER XXV MARIUS                    devotion of his troops, whom he      Propraetor to govern the
AND SULLA-CINNA                       always held well under control,      province of Asia, and here he
                                      even when they were allowed to       first met MITHRADÁTES.
                                      indulge in plunder and license. It
                                      was to Sulla's combined
With the name of MARIUS is
                                      adroitness and courage that
usually coupled that of LUCIUS
                                      Marius owed the final capture of
                                      Jugurtha. He served again under
"He was a patrician of the purest
                                      Marius in the campaigns against
blood, had inherited a moderate
                                      the Cimbri and Teutones, and
fortune, and had spent it, like
                                      gave efficient help towards the
other young men of rank,
                                      victory. But the Consul became
lounging in theatres and amusing
                                      jealous of his rising power, and     Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 138-78
himself with dinner parties. He
                                      all friendly feeling between the     B.C.
was a poet, an artist, and a wit.
                                      two ceased.
Although apparently indolent, he
was naturally a soldier,                                                   This monarch, who ruled over
                                      After this campaign Sulla lived at   Pontus, was an extraordinary
statesman, and diplomatist. As
                                      Rome for some years, taking no       man. He spoke many
Quaestor under Marius in the
                                      part in politics, and during this    languages, was the idol, of his
Jugurthine War, he had proved a
                                      time his name and that of his        subjects, and had boundless
most active and useful officer." In
                                      rival are almost unheard. He         ambition. He doubted the
these African campaigns he
                                      appeared before the public again     durability of the Roman Empire,
showed that he knew how to win
                                      in 93, when he was elected           and began to enlarge his own
the hearts and confidence of his
                                      Praetor, and increased his           territory, with no apparent fear of
soldiers; and through his whole
                                      popularity by an exhibition of a     Rome's interference.
subsequent career, the secret of
                                      hundred lions in the arena,
Cappadocia, a neighboring           opportunity to advance his own       Strait, connects the sea of
country, was under Roman            interests and extend his realm.      Marmara with the Black Sea
protection, and was ruled by a      He collected all his available
prince, ARIOBARZÁNES, that          forces, and invaded Bithynia.        Such was the condition in the
Rome had recognized. This           With his fleets he sailed through    East when Sulpicius Rufus
country Mithradátes attacked.       the Dardanelles into the             carried the bills mentioned in the
He killed the prince, and placed    Archipelago. The extortions of       last chapter. One of these bills
on the throne his own nephew.       the Roman governors had been         was that Marius have charge of
                                    so great, that Ionia, Lydia, and     the war against Mithradátes.
Rome interfered, and Sulla was      Caria, with all the islands near     This was not to Sulla's liking. He
instructed to visit the monarch.    Asia Minor, gladly revolted from     was in Campania with the legions
He accomplished his mission         Rome, and accepted his               that had served in the Social
with his usual adroitness, and      protection. All the Roman            War. The soldiers were devoted
returned to Rome with new           residents with their families were   to him, and ready to follow him
honors. He took an active part in   massacred on a single day. It is     anywhere. Sulla, therefore,
the Social War, eclipsing the       said that 80,000 persons             taking matters into his own
fame of his rival, Marius. He was   perished. Mithradátes himself        hands, marched into the city at
now the recognized leader of the    next crossed the Bosphorus, and      the head of his troops. The
conservative and aristocratic       marched into Northern Greece,        people resisted; Sulpicius was
party. The feeling between the      which received him with open         slain; Marius fled for his life, and
rivals was more bitter than ever,   arms.                                retired to Africa, where he lived
for Marius, though old, had by no                                        for a time, watching the course of
means lost his prestige with the                                         events.
popular party.
                                                                         Sulla could not remain long at the
It was at this time that                                                 capital. The affairs of the East
Mithradátes, learning of the                                             called him away; and no sooner
Social War, thought it a good       Boat entering the Bosphorus          was he gone than the flames of
civil war burst out anew (87).      murder whomever he wished.           Archeláus at CHAERONÉA in
                                    The houses of the rich were          Boeotia, and the next year at
LUCIUS CORNELIUS CINNA, a           plundered, and the honor of          ORCHOMENOS.
friend of Marius, was Consul that   noble families was exposed to
year. He tried to recall Marius,    the mercy of the slaves.
but was violently opposed and       Fortunately Marius died sixteen
finally driven from the city. The   days after he entered office, and
Senate declared him deposed         the shedding of blood ceased.
from his office. He invoked the
aid of the soldiers in Campania,    For the next three years Cinna
and found them ready to follow      ruled Rome. Constitutional           The Hellespont(Dardanelles), the
him. The neighboring Italian        government was practically           strait between the Aegean Sea
towns sent him men and money,       suspended. For the years 85          and the Sea of Marmara
and Marius, coming from Africa,     and 84 Cinna himself and a
joined him with six thousand        trusty colleague were Consuls,       Meanwhile Sulla's lieutenant,
troops. They marched upon           but no regular elections were        LUCULLUS, raised a fleet and
Rome. The city was captured.        held. In 84, he was murdered,        gained two victories off the coast
Cinna was acknowledged              when on the eve of setting out       of Asia Minor. The Asiatic king
Consul, and the sentence of         against Sulla in Asia.               was now ready to negotiate.
outlawry which had been passed                                           Sulla crossed the Hellespont in
on Marius was revoked.              Sulla left Italy for the East with   84, and in a personal interview
                                    30,000 troops. He marched            with the king arranged the terms
The next year Marius was made       against Athens, where                of peace, which were as follows.
Consul for the seventh time, and    Archeláus, the general of            The king was to give up Bithynia,
Cinna for the second. Then          Mithradátes, was intrenched.         Paphlagonia, and Cappadocia,
followed the wildest cruelties.     After a long siege, he captured      and withdraw to his former
Marius had a bodyguard of           and pillaged the city, March 1,      dominions. He was also to pay
slaves, which he sent out to        86. The same year he defeated        an indemnity amounting to about
$3,500,000, and surrender eighty     success was largely due. The          invest the Senate, the thinned
ships of war.                        next year, 83, the Marian party       ranks of which he filled with his
                                     was joined by the Samnites, and       own creatures, with full control
Having thus settled matters with     the war raged more fiercely than      over the state, over every
the king, Sulla punished the         ever. At length, however, Sulla       magistrate and every province.
Lydians and Carians, in whose        was victorious under the walls of
territory the Romans had been        Rome. The city lay at his mercy.      In 79 he resigned his dictatorship
massacred, by compelling them        His first act, an order for the       and went to Puteoli, where he
to pay at one time five years'       slaughter of 6,000 Samnite            died the next year, from a
tribute. He was now ready to         prisoners, was a fit prelude to his   loathsome disease brought on by
return to Rome.                      conduct in the city. Every effort     his excesses.
                                     was made to eradicate the last
The same year that Cinna died,       trace of Marian blood and
Sulla landed at Brundisium, with     sympathy from the city. A list of     THE REFORMS OF
40,000 troops and a large            men, declared to be outlaws and       SULLA
following of nobles who had fled     public enemies, was exhibited in
from Rome. Every preparation         the Forum, and a succession of
was made by the Marian party for     wholesale murders and                 Sulla restricted the power of the
his reception; but no sooner did     confiscations throughout Rome         magistrates to the advantage of
he land in Italy than the soldiers   and Italy, made the name of           the Senate. Senators were alone
were induced to desert to him in     Sulla forever infamous.               made eligible for the tribuneship,
immense numbers, and he soon                                               and no former Tribune could hold
found himself in possession of all   Having received the title of          any curule office. No one could
Lower Italy. Among those who         Dictator, and celebrated a            be Praetor without having first
hastened to his standard was         splendid triumph for the              been Quaestor, or Consul
young POMPEY, then but               Mithradátic war, he carried (80-      without having held the
twenty-three years old, and it       79) his political measures. The       praetorship. Every candidate for
was to his efforts that Sulla's      main object of these was to           the office of Quaestor must be at
least thirty years old. The          summoned by the Senate to
number of Praetors was               return, marched against the city
increased from six to eight; that    at the head of his forces. He was
of Quaestors, from twelve to         defeated by Crassus and
twenty. The Consuls and              Pompey in 78, and soon after
Praetors were to remain at Rome      died.
during their first year of office,
and then go to the provinces as
Proconsuls and Propraetors.

Three hundred new Senators,
taken from the Equites, were
added, and all who had been
Quaestors were made eligible to
the Senate.

The control of the courts was
transferred from the Equites to
the Senate.

On the death of Sulla, in 78,
chosen Consuls; but such was
the instability of the times that
they were sworn not to raise an
army during their consulship.
Lepidus attempted to evade his
oath by going to Gaul, and, when
                                      the Spaniards. Many Roman           young man, was sent to co-
                                      refugees and deserters joined       operate with Metellus. Sertorius
CHAPTER XXVI                          him. He defeated one of Sulla's     proved more than a match for
SERTORIUS—                            generals, and drove out of          both of these generals, and
SPARTACUS—                            Lusitania (Portugal) METELLUS       defeated them near Saguntum.
LUCULLUS—POMPEY                       PIUS, [Note: Son of Metellus
                                      Numidicus. He received the          The position of the Romans was
AND CRASSUS                           agnomen of Pius on account of       becoming critical, for Sertorius
                                      the love which he displayed for     now formed a league with the
                                      his father, whom he begged the      pirates of the Mediterranean. He
Quintus Sertorius (121-72), a         people to recall from banishment    also entered into negotiations
native of the little Sabine village   in 99.] who had been specially      with Mithradátes, and opened
of Nursia under the Apennines,        sent against him from Rome.         correspondence with the slaves
had joined the party of Marius,                                           in Italy, who were rebelling.
and served under him in the           The object of Sertorius was to
campaigns against the Cimbri          establish a government in Spain     But intrigues and jealousies
and Teutones. In 97 he served         after the Roman model. He           arose in his camp. The outcome
in Spain, and became acquainted       formed a Senate of three            of these was that he was
with the country with which his       hundred members, and founded        treacherously murdered by
fame is chiefly associated. In 91     at Osca a school for native         Perperna at a banquet in 72, and
he was Quaestor in Cisalpine          children. He was strict and         with his death fell the Marian
Gaul. He was a partisan of            severe towards his soldiers, but    party in Spain.
Marius during his troubles with       kind to the people. A white fawn
Sulla, and on Sulla's return from     was his favorite pet and constant   Meanwhile a dangerous enemy
the East he left Rome for Spain,      follower. He ruled Spain for six    was threatening Italy within her
where he took the lead of the         years. In 77 he was joined by       own borders. In 73 a band of
Marian party. His bravery,            PERPERNA a Roman officer.           gladiators, under the leadership
kindness, and eloquence pleased       The same year Pompey, then a        of one of their number, named
SPARTACUS escaped from the            in Spain, met five thousand of       distinguished himself in the
training school at Capua and          those who had escaped from the       Social War, where he gained the
took up a strong position on          array of Spartacus. These he         favor of Sulla, and accompanied
Mount Vesuvius. They were             slew to a man. Crassus pointed       him, as Quaestor, in his
joined by large numbers of            the moral of his victory by          campaign against Mithradátes in
slaves and outcasts of every          hanging, along the road from         88. With Cotta he was chosen to
description, and were soon in a       Rome to Capua, six thousand          the consulship in 74. The
position to defeat two Praetors       captives whom he had taken.          province of Cilicia was assigned
who were sent against them.                                                to him, Bithynia to Cotta.
                                                                           Mithradátes invaded Bithynia,
The next year they assumed the                                             defeated Cotta, and besieged
offensive; and Spartacus found                                             him at Chalcédon.
himself at the head of 100,000
men. Four generals sent against                                            Lucullus, after reorganizing and
him were defeated; and for two                                             disciplining his army, went to the
years he ravaged Italy at will, and                                        aid of his colleague, drove the
even threatened Rome. But                                                  king into Pontus, and defeated
intestine division showed itself in   Two gladiators, relief from first    him at Cabíra in 72, and his fleet
his ranks; his lieutenants grew       century A.D.                         at Tenedos in 71, compelling him
jealous of him, and his strength                                           to take refuge with his son-in-law,
began to wane.                        Mithradátes meanwhile, taking        TIGRÁNES, King of Armenia.
                                      advantage of the troubles at
In 71 the command of the war          Rome, was again in arms, and in      Lucullus endeavored to work
was given to CRASSUS, who             74 LUCIUS LICINIUS                   reforms in the administration of
finished it in six months.            LUCULLUS was sent against            provincial governments in the
Spartacus fell, fighting bravely,     him.                                 East. The revenues of the
near Brundisium. Pompey,                                                   provinces were farmed out, and
returning from the Sertorian war      Lucullus, of plebeian birth, first   the measures of Lucullus were
intended to protect the tax-         was very rich, and was famed for      (106-48) led a soldier's life from
payers against the tax-gatherers     the luxurious dinners which he        his boyhood to his death. When
(publicani). His reforms met with    gave.                                 a youth of seventeen he fought
bitter opposition at Rome,                                                 by his father's side in the civil
especially from the Equites,                                               struggles between Marius and
whose chief source of income                                               Sulla. He was a partisan of the
was often this same tax-farming.                                           latter, and connected himself with
Intrigues against him by persons                                           the cause of the aristocracy. He
sent from Rome began to create                                             defeated the followers of Marius
dissatisfaction among his troops.                                          in Sicily and Africa, and in 81
He had been a severe                                                       was allowed to enjoy a triumph,
disciplinarian, and so it was all                                          though still an Eques and not
                                     Roman dinning room, room with
the easier to turn the soldiers                                            legally qualified. Sulla then
                                     three couches
against him.                                                               greeted him with the surname of
                                                                           Magnus, which he ever
In 68 he won a victory over                                                afterwards bore. He was then
Tigránes and Mithradátes, at the     POMPEY AND CRASSUS                    sent to Spain, with what success
river Arsanias; but his legions                                            we have seen in the previous
refused to follow him farther, and   The Sullan system stood for nine      chapter. In 70 Pompey and
he was obliged to lead them into     years, and was then overthrown,       MARCUS LICINIUS CRASSUS
winter quarters in Mesopotamia.      as it had been established, by a      were elected Consuls amid great
The next year his soldiers again     soldier. It was the fortune of        enthusiasm.
mutinied, and he was replaced        Pompey, a favorite officer of
by Pompey.                           Sulla, to cause the first violation   Crassus (108-53), the conqueror
                                     of the laws laid down by his          of Spartacus, had amassed
Returning to Rome, Lucullus          general.                              immense wealth by speculation,
spent the rest of his days in                                              mining, dealing in slaves, and
retirement, dying about 57. He       GNEIUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS                other methods. Avarice is said to
have been his ruling passion,         charge of an expedition against      In three months the pirates were
though he gave large sums to the      the Greek pirates. From the          swept from the sea.
people for political effect.          earliest times these marauders
                                      had been in the habit of             The next year (66) Pompey's
Neither Pompey nor Crassus,           depredating on the shores of the     powers were still further enlarged
according to the laws passed by       Mediterranean. During the civil      by the MANILIAN LAW,
Sulla, was eligible to the            wars of Rome they had become         proposed by the Tribune
consulship. The former had            much bolder, so that the city was    Manilius. By this law the entire
never been Quaestor, and was          compelled to take an active part     control of the Roman policy in the
only thirty-five years old; the       against them. They had               East was given to Pompey. His
latter was still Praetor, and ought   paralyzed the trade of the           appointment was violently
to have waited two years.             Mediterranean, and even the          opposed by the Senate,
                                      coasts of Italy were not safe from   especially by CATULUS, the
The work of Sulla was now             their raids.                         "father of the Senate," and by the
quickly undone. The Tribunes                                               orator HORTENSIUS; but
regained their prerogative, the       GABINIUS, a Tribune, proposed        CICERO with his first political
veto. The control of the criminal     that Pompey should hold his          speech (Pro Lege Manilia) came
courts was transferred again          command for three years; that he     to Pompey's assistance, and to
from the Senate to the Equites,       should have supreme authority        him was given the command by
and the former body was cleared       over all Roman magistrates in        which he became virtually
of its most worthless members,        the provinces throughout the         dictator in the East. His
who had been appointed by             Mediterranean, and over the          operations there were thoroughly
Sulla.                                coasts for fifty miles inland. He    successful, and, though he
                                      was to have fifteen lieutenants,     doubtless owed much to the
For three years (70-67) after the     all ex-praetors, two hundred         previous victories of Lucullus, he
expiration of his consulship,         ships, and all the troops he         showed himself an able soldier.
Pompey remained quietly at            needed.                              Mithradátes was obliged to flee
Rome. He was then put in                                                   across the Black Sea to
Panticapaeum (Kertch).               reign of fifty-seven years. With    enjoyed a well earned triumph.
                                     him ceased for many years all       He was forty-five years old, had
In the year 64 Pompey went to        formidable opposition to Rome in    accomplished a really great work,
Syria, took possession of the        Asia.                               had founded several cities which
country in the name of Rome,                                             afterwards became centres of
and made it a province.                                                  Greek life and civilization, and
                                                                         was hailed as the conqueror of
Next he was invited to act as                                            Spain, Africa, and Asia.
judge between Hyrcánus and
Aristobúlus, two aspirants to the                                        The rest of Pompey's life is
Jewish throne. His decision was                                          closely connected with that of
contrary to the wishes of the        Pontus, top right on map            Caesar. His wife, Julia, was
people, and to enforce it he led                                         Caesar's daughter, and thus far
his army against Jerusalem,          Besides Syria, Pontus, to which     the relations between the two
which he captured after a siege      Bithynia was joined, and Crete      men had been friendly.
of three months. He installed        were now made provinces.
Hyrcánus on the throne on            Cilicia was reorganized, and        Pompey's absence in the East
condition of an annual tribute.      enlarged by the addition of         was marked at Rome by the rise
                                     Pamphylia and Isauria. The          to political importance of
Meanwhile Mithradátes had            three countries in Asia Minor not   CAESAR and CICERO, and by
returned to Pontus for the           yet provinces, but dependencies,    the conspiracy of CATILINE.
prosecution of his old design; but   were Galatia, ruled by Deiotarus;
so great was the terror inspired     Cappadocia, by Ariobarzánes;
by the Roman arms, that even         and Paphlagonia, by Attalus.
his own son refused to join him.
Desperate at the turn affairs had    After an absence of nearly seven
taken, the aged monarch put an       years, Pompey returned to
end to his own life in 63, after a   Rome, January 1, 61, and
                                     Julius, and Julia, who became         when scarcely fifteen, a priest of
                                     the wife of Marius. Gaius Julius      Jupiter (flamen dialis), which
CHAPTER XXVII                        held no higher office than            sacred office carried with it a
CAESAR—CICERO—                       Praetor. He was married to            handsome income.
VERRES                               Aurelia, a stately woman of
                                     simple and severe tastes. Their
                                     son Gaius was born on July 12th,
The Caesars were a family
belonging to the Julian gens,        During Cinna's consulship (86),
which claimed descent from           Caesar is first mentioned as a
IÚLUS, the son of AENÉAS.            youth, tall, slight, handsome, with
Eight generations of Caesars had     dark, piercing eyes, sallow
held prominent places in the         complexion, and features refined      Bust of Gaius Julius Caesar
commonwealth. They had been          and intellectual. The bloody
Consuls, Praetors, Censors,          scenes attending the proscription     Shortly after the death of his
Aediles, and were aristocrats of     of his uncle Marius, to whose         father, in 84, Caesar married
the moderate wing. The direct        party his father belonged, must       Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna.
ancestry of GAIUS JULIUS             have made a deep impression           By this marriage he was
CAESAR can be traced no              upon him. One of his most             connected more closely with the
further back than his grandfather.   intimate companions was               popular party, whose champion
This gentleman, of the same          CICERO, who was six years his         he remained.
name as the great Caesar,            senior.
married Marcia, who claimed                                                When Sulla returned to Rome
descent from Ancus Marcius, the      Marius had seen in his nephew         from his Eastern campaign,
fourth King of Rome. They had        the materials which make great        Caesar was but eighteen. In the
three children, Gaius Julius, the    men, and determined to help him       wholesale murders that followed,
father of the Dictator, Sextus       to promotion. He made him,            his party was ruined, his nearest
friends dispersed or killed. He     against the pirates that were          campaign against the pirates
himself was yet free from           making their head-quarters in          who were marauding along the
proscription, for Sulla wished to   Lesbos. The Praetor, finding his       coast of that country. While here
win such a promising young man      troops insufficient to accomplish      he was informed of Sulla's death,
to his own side. He made            his work, sent Caesar to               and at once left the army and
proposals that Caesar divorce his   Nicomédes, a Roman ally and            returned home (77). The next
wife and marry one whom he          the King of Bithynia, to obtain        year he began his struggle with
might select. Caesar refused.       additional forces. He was              the nobility by prosecuting for
Force was then tried. His           successful in his mission, and,        extortion Dolabella, a former
priesthood was taken from him,      upon his return to Lesbos,             Governor of Macedonia.
and his wife's dowry. His estate    distinguished himself for his          Dolabella was a favorite of the
was confiscated, and, when this     bravery in the attack upon             Senate, and his cause was
had no effect, he was himself       Mityléne, and was awarded the          theirs. The best talent was
declared an outlaw, and a price     oak wreath, a coveted honor, for       engaged to defend him, and
was set on his head. Influential    saving the life of a fellow-soldier.   Caesar lost the case.
friends, however, interceded in
his behalf, and the Dictator was                                           Feeling his deficiency as an
finally persuaded to pardon him;                                           orator, Caesar went to Rhodes
but with reluctance, and with the                                          and studied rhetoric under the
remark that in Caesar was the                                              famous Apollonius. He had
making of many a Marius. The                                               recovered his property and
youth then left Italy, and joined                                          priesthood, and could well afford
the army in Asia.                                                          the time. While on his way he
                                    Another bust of Caeser                 was captured by pirates, and not
Here Caesar served his                                                     released until a ransom of some
apprenticeship as a soldier. He     Caesar is next seen in Cilicia,        $50,000 was raised and paid.
joined the forces of the Praetor    serving under Servilius, in a          Upon arriving at Milétus he at
Thermus, who had been sent                                                 once got together some vessels,
returned to the island where he                                          of office he spent in Sicily, in the
had been in captivity, seized the   MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO                performance of his duties. There
crew of pirates, took them to       (106-43) was a townsman of           he obtained an insight into the
Pergamus, and had them tried,       Marius. He belonged to the           corrupt extortions of the Roman
convicted, and crucified. He then   Equites, and received a good         governors. Five years later, he
resumed his journey to Rhodes,      education under the best Greek       conducted his famous case
where he remained two years in      teachers. As he ripened into         against Verres.
the pursuit of his studies. Then    manhood, he chose in politics the
the report of the uprisal of        party opposed to Caesar, and for
Mithradátes reached him, and he     a profession he selected the bar,
at once crossed over to the         hoping to gain fame as a speaker
mainland, collected a body of       before the Senate, and finally to
volunteers, and saved Caria to      become one of its members. He
Rome.                               took part in the Social War (89),
                                    but during the troubled times that
Having finished his studies,        followed he remained quietly
Caesar returned to Rome and         engaged in literary pursuits. His    Bust of Cicero
lived quietly for a time with his   first public oration (80), the
wife and mother, watching the       defence of Roscius, who was          VERRES had been a follower of
course of events.                   falsely accused of murdering his     Sulla, and during the
                                    father, was a great success, and     proscriptions had amassed some
While Caesar was thus preparing     guaranteed for him a brilliant       property. Afterwards he held
himself for the great struggle in   future. Cicero improved the next     official positions in Greece and
which he was destined to take       few years by study and travel in     Asia, where he became notorious
the leading part, Cicero, the       Asia and Greece. Shortly after       for his greediness and cruelty.
companion of his youth, was         his return, in 75, he was elected    With the money thus acquired,
beginning to attract attention at   Quaestor, and thus became a          he had bought his election to the
Rome.                               member of the Senate. His year       praetorship, became Senator,
and was sent by his colleagues                                             which he found the easier as he
to govern Sicily. His government      It was about this time that Caesar   was known to belong to the
there may have been no worse          finished his rhetorical studies      popular party, of which Marius
than that of many other               abroad, and returned home. He        and Sertorius had been leaders.
proconsuls in the different           was elected Military Tribune as a
provinces, but we have a fuller       reward for what he had
account of it owing to the            accomplished in Caria. Two
prosecution of Cicero, whose          years later, in 68, he was elected
speeches against Verres are           Quaestor, thereby acquiring a
preserved.                            seat in the Senate. At this time
                                      his aunt Julia died, and, as one
Verres was Governor of Sicily for     of her nearest relatives, he
three years. In his official          delivered the funeral oration.
position, he was judge of all civil
and criminal cases. Every suit        Caesar was now beginning to
brought before him he gave to         know Pompey, and saw that their
the party that could pay him best.    interests were common. The
Property was confiscated on           latter, although but six years
false charges, and works of art of    older, was already a great man
great value were stolen. By such      and a distinguished soldier.
a course Verres collected, it is      Cornelia, Caesar's wife, died,
said, property to the value of        and he married for a second wife
$4,000,000. Two thirds of this he     Pompeia, the cousin of Pompey.
expected to spend in silencing        When sent as Quaestor to
accusations. The rest he hoped        Farther Spain, in 67, he
to enjoy in peace, but Cicero's       completed the work begun by
eloquence forced him to abandon       Pompey and settled the finances
his defence and retire into exile.    of the troubled country, a task
                                    aspiring to the consulship was        Manilian Law. Thus Cicero
                                    LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILÍNA, a            reached the goal for which he
CHAPTER XXVIII                      villain steeped in every crime, but   had been so long striving.
TROUBLES AT ROME—                   adroit, bold, and withal
CONSPIRACY OF                       captivating. In 68 he had been        Caesar was rising at the same
CATILINE                            Praetor, the next year Governor       time. The year previous (65) he
                                    in Africa, where by his extortions    had been Curule Aedile, had built
                                    he had obtained enough money,         a row of costly columns in front of
                                    as he hoped, to purchase his          the Capitol, and erected a temple
While Pompey was absent in the      election to the consulship. On        to the Dioscúri (Castor and
East, matters at Rome were daily    his return home he was                Pollux). But what made him
becoming worse, and shaping         impeached for his                     especially pleasing to the
themselves for the speedy           misgovernment, but acquitted          populace was his lavish display
overthrow of the Republic. There    through Cicero's defence and the      at the public games and
were many who had suffered          careful selection of a jury.          exhibitions.
under Sulla, and who were
anxious to regain what they had     He then came forward as               Caesar was now looked upon as
lost, and there were many who,      candidate for the consulship of       a prominent democratic leader.
enriched by the Dictator, had       the next year (63). There were        In 63 the office of Pontifex
squandered their ill-gotten         two other candidates, Antonius,       Maximus, the head of the state
wealth, and now only waited a       the uncle of Mark Antony, and         religion, became vacant by the
leader to renew the assault upon    Cicero himself. Antony was sure       death of its occupant, Metellus
the state. The Senate was           of an election, so the struggle       Pius. Caesar became a
jealous of the power of the         was really between Catiline and       candidate for the office, and was
people, and the people distrusted   Cicero. The latter was elected,       elected, receiving more votes
the Senate.                         owing to the popularity he had        than both the rival candidates
                                    acquired by his prosecution of        combined. He also received
Among the patricians who were       Verres and his defence of the         further evidence of the popular
favor by being chosen Praetor for      trained soldiers; and those inside   time Praetor, and the persons of
the next year (62).                    of the city, headed by Catiline.     public officers were sacred. The
                                       Here secret meetings were held,      Sempronian Law of Gracchus
Cicero's consulship would have         the purpose of which was to          forbade the executing of any
closed without adding anything to      excite an uprising, kill the         Roman citizen without giving him
his fame had it not been for           magistrates, seize the               a right of appeal to the Assembly.
Catiline. The latter's failure to be   government, and then unite with      Too many were implicated in the
elected caused him to enter into       the army in Etruria. Cicero was      conspiracy for this to be safe.
a plot to seize and burn the city.     informed of these meetings by
He had many followers, men of          spies, and just before the plans     In the debate in the Senate, the
noble families, among whom             for the uprising were matured, he    principal speakers were Caesar,
were the former Consul Lentulus,       disclosed them to the Senate.        Cato, and Cicero.
who had been recently expelled
from the Senate by the Censors,                                             Cato and Cicero advocated
and Cethégus, a bankrupt                                                    immediate death; Caesar,
spendthrift, who was anxious to                                             imprisonment for life. The
regain a fortune by a change in                                             motives of the men are so
government. There were                                                      characteristic that they form a
veterans of Sulla, starving            The hills around Fiesole,            complete key to their several
peasants who had been                  Tuscany                              public careers. Cicero, vain and
dispossessed of their farms, and                                            selfish, weak in council, and
outlaws of every description.          Catiline fled from Rome; but his     distrustful of the temper of the
The conspirators were divided          accomplices, of whom Lentulus        people and of his own ability to
into two parties; those outside of     and Cethégus were the most           rule their factions, feared that
the city, headed by Marcus             prominent, were arrested in the      they would become dangerous
Manlius, whose head-quarters           city. A serious difficulty now       enemies to himself; Cato,
were at Faesulae (Fiesole),            arose as to the disposition of the   desiring the reformation of the
where was gathered an army of          prisoners. Lentulus was at that      state, would make an example
and warning for the future. The      there he fell fighting with           Nepos, a Tribune, forbade his
one, forgetful of the state, was     desperate courage at the head of      speaking, on the ground that one
overcome by personal fears; the      his motley force of soldiers near     who had put to death Roman
other, unmindful of self, would      Pistoria.                             citizens without a hearing did not
have purity at any cost.                                                   deserve to be heard. Amid the
                                     The name of "Father of his            uproar Cicero could only shout
Caesar, on the other hand,           Country" was given to Cicero for      that he had saved his country.
wished everything done in strict     the vigilance shown in this affair.   Metellus threatened to impeach
accordance with the laws; as a                                             him, and excitement in the city
bold and wise statesman, he          The execution of Lentulus and         was at fever heat. The Tribune
urged that nothing was more          Cethégus resulted as Caesar           moved before the Assembly that
impolitic than lawless violence on   had expected. It was a lawless        Pompey be recalled. The Senate
the part of the rulers. Cicero was   act on the part of the Consul and     feared his coming. Caesar, who
the timid magistrate; Cato, the      the Senate, and it was felt that by   was now Praetor (judge), favored
injudicious reformer; but Caesar,    it the constitution was still more    it, and earnestly seconded the
with his keener knowledge and        endangered. The people                proposal of Metellus. Cato, who
stronger hand, was the safer         demanded that Pompey return.          was also Tribune, ordered
guide.                               In him they thought to have a         Metellus to stop speaking, and
                                     deliverer from internal strifes.      snatched his manuscript from his
A sentence of death was voted;                                             hand. The aristocrats drew their
and Cicero, with unseemly haste,     Cicero was wrapped up in his          swords, and broke up the
caused the conspirators to be        own conceit, imagining himself a      meeting. Constitutional law was
strangled that same night            second Romulus. On the last           trampled under foot on all sides.
(December 5, 63). The                day of the year (63), as was the      The Senate was riding rough-
suppression of the conspiracy in     custom of the retiring Consuls,       shod over all opponents.
the city was followed by the         he arose in the Forum to deliver      Metellus and Caesar were
defeat of the army in Etruria.       a speech, reviewing the acts of       declared deposed from their
Thither Catiline had fled, and       his year of consulship. Metellus      offices. The people, however,
believed in Caesar. He was          Rome. His administration was      triumphal robe in that body
followed to his home by crowds,     thorough and complete, and a      whenever he pleased.
who begged him to be their          just reward for it would, he
leader, and make an example of      hoped, be the consulship.         Caesar returned from Spain in
the law-breakers in the Senate.                                       60, with wealth and military fame.
But Caesar refused. He would                                          Though feared and detested by
have nothing to do with                                               the Senate, he was the favorite
lawlessness; he let his                                               of the people, and could depend
opponents play that rôle, and                                         upon their support. Pompey had
awaited the results. The Senate                                       the army behind him. He
soon saw its mistake, and                                             received Caesar with pleasure,
requested him to resume his                                           for he had been a friend in all his
official duties.                                                      career.

The next year (61) Caesar was                                         Caesar felt that, with the people
sent to Farther Spain as            Roman Spain, Lusitania is         and the army through Pompey on
Propraetor. He had already left a   today’s Portugal                  his side, he only needed the
favorable impression there as                                         capitalists to make his success
Quaestor. Portions of the           Meanwhile Pompey had returned     sure. CRASSUS was counted as
country were still unsubdued.       from the East. He landed at       the richest man at Rome. He
Many of the mountain passes         Brundisium in December, 62, and   was won over. These three then
were held by robbers, whose         proceeded with a large band of    formed what is known as the
depredations caused much            captured princes and immense      FIRST TRIUMVIRATE,—"a union
trouble. He completed the           treasures to Rome, which he       of shrewdness, renown, and
subjugation of the peninsula, put   entered in triumph amidst the     riches," by which Caesar
down the brigands, reorganized      greatest enthusiasm. By a         expected to rise to great power,
the government, and sent large      special vote of the Senate he     Pompey to retain his power, and
sums of money to the treasury at    was permitted to wear his         Crassus to gain greater wealth.
                                     ideas of reform, and to show the      veterans of Pompey. Caesar
                                     aristocracy of what stuff he was      proposed to pay the holders a
CHAPTER XXIX THE                     made.                                 reasonable sum for their loss,
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE                                                          though legally they had no claim
                                     It would have been well for           whatever on the land. Although
                                     Cicero, and better for the state,     Bibulus interfered, Cato raved,
                                     had the orator been willing to join   and the Tribunes vetoed, still the
Pompey was ostensibly at the
                                     hands with Caesar and Pompey;         Assembly passed the law, and
head of the first Triumvirate, and
                                     but he was too vain of his own        voted in addition that the Senate
in return supported Caesar in his
                                     glory to join hands with those        be obliged to take an oath to
candidacy for the consulship.
                                     who were his superiors, and he        observe it.
Crassus was to contribute his
                                     clung to the Senate, feeling that
wealth to influence the election.
                                     his talents would shine there
Caesar was elected without
                                     more, and be more likely to
opposition (59); his colleague,
                                     redound to his own personal
the Senate's tool, was Marcus
                                     Caesar's consulship increased
Caesar had now reached the
                                     his popularity among all except
highest round in the ladder of                                             Pompey, Roman General, 106-
                                     the aristocrats. His AGRARIAN
political offices. He had shown                                            48 B.C.
                                     LAW, carefully framed and
himself in all his course to be
                                     worded, was bitterly opposed by
careful in keeping within the                                              The LEGES JULIAE were a code
                                     the Senate, especially by his
bounds of the constitution, never                                          of laws which Caesar drew up
                                     colleague, Bibulus, and by Cato.
exerting himself in political                                              during his year of office. They
                                     The law provided that large tracts
quarrels except to defend the law                                          mark an era in Roman law, for
                                     of the ager publicus, then held on
against lawlessness. Now he                                                they cover many crimes the
                                     easy terms by the rich patricians,
was in a position to push his                                              commission of which had been
                                     be distributed among the
for a long time undermining the       two men whom it would be              for the tribuneship, and was
state.                                dangerous for Caesar to leave         successful. He then proposed to
                                      behind. Cato, the ultra aristocrat,   the Assembly that any person
The most important of these was       hated him bitterly. Cicero, whose     who had put to death a Roman
the LEX DE REPETUNDIS,                ambition was to lead the Senate,      citizen without allowing him to
aimed at the abuses of governors      a body only too willing to crush      appeal to the people be
of provinces. It required all         Caesar, might do him great            considered a violator of the
governors to make a double            harm. It was Caesar's good            constitution. The proposal was
return of their accounts, one to      fortune, or, as some believe, the     carried. All knew that Cicero was
be left in the province open for      result of his own scheming, that      meant, and he fled at once to
inspection, the other to be kept at   both these men were put               Macedonia. His property was
Rome.                                 temporarily out of the way.           confiscated, his houses were
                                                                            destroyed, and his palace in the
When Caesar's term of office          CLODIUS PULCHER was a                 city was dedicated to the
was nearly ended, he obtained         young aristocrat, notorious for his   Goddess of Liberty.
from the reluctant Senate his         wildness. At one time, by
appointment as Proconsul of           assuming the dress of a woman,        The kingdom of Cyprus, which
Gaul for five years. He must          he had gained admittance to the       had long been attached to that of
leave the city, however, in safe      festival of Bona Dea, which was       Egypt, had been bequeathed to
hands, otherwise all his work         celebrated only by women. He          Rome at the death of Ptolemy
would be undone. He managed           was discovered and brought to         Alexander in 80. The Senate
the consular elections for the        trial before the Senate, but          had delayed to accept the
next year (58) so adroitly, that      acquitted by means of open            bequest, and meanwhile the
Piso and Gabinius, on whose           bribery. Cicero had been              island was ruled by Ptolemy of
friendship he could rely, were        instrumental in bringing him to       Cyprus, one of the heirs of the
elected.                              trial, and Clodius never forgot it.   dead king.
                                      He got adopted into a plebeian
There were in Rome, however,          family in order to be a candidate     Clodius, on the plea that this king
harbored pirates, persuaded the
Assembly to annex the island,
and to send Cato to take charge
of it. He accepted the mission,
and was absent two years. His
duties were satisfactorily
performed, and he returned with
about $7,000,000 to increase the
Roman treasury. Thus, Cicero
and Cato being out of the city,
the Senate was without a leader
who could work injury in Caesar's

                                     Switzerland, Holland, and            had invited a tribe of Germans
                                     Belgium. The inhabitants were        under Ariovistus to come into
CHAPTER XXX                          all of the Celtic race, except a     Gaul and settle, and be their
CAESAR'S CAMPAIGNS                   few Germans who had crossed          allies. These Germans had
IN GAUL                              the Rhine and settled in the         attacked and conquered the
                                     North, and the AQUITÁNI, who         Aeduans, taken from them
                                     lived in the Southwest and who       hostages, and with the
                                     are represented by the Basques       Sequanians were in the
Caesar was now in the prime of       of to-day.                           ascendency.
manhood, in the full vigor of mind
and body. His previous               The Gauls were more or less          In Switzerland lived the
experience in camp life had been     civilized since they had come into   HELVETII. They had so
comparatively small. His early       contact with the Romans, but         increased in numbers that their
service in Asia, and his more        they still had the tribal form of    country was too small for them.
recent campaigns in Spain,           government, like the early           They therefore proposed to
however, had shown his aptitude      Romans. There were more than         emigrate farther into Gaul, and
for military life.                   fifty of these tribes, which were    the Sequanians, whose lands
                                     mostly hostile to one another, as    bordered on those of the
The Romans had already               well as divided into factions        Helvetians, gave them
obtained a foothold in Gaul.         among themselves. This               permission to march through
Since 118, the southern part of      condition favored a conquest, for    their country.
the country along the seaboard       the factions were frequently
had been a Roman province,           Roman and non-Roman. Two of          Such was the state of affairs
called GALLIA NARBONENSIS,           the chief tribes were the AEDUI      when Caesar arrived in Gaul.
from the colony of Narbo which       and SEQUANI. The former had          Feeling that the passage of such
the Romans had founded. The          been taken under the protection      a large body of emigrants
rest of Gaul included all modern     of Rome; the latter, impatient of    (368,000) through Gaul would be
France, and a part of                control and Roman influence,         dangerous to the province (Gallia
Narbonensis), he determined to       to the Germans who had settled
interfere. The Helvetians were       west of the Rhine. After several
                                                                          THE WAR WITH THE
met at BIBRACTE, near Autun,         fruitless attempts at negotiation,   BELGAE
and after a terrible battle, which   during which the bad faith of
raged from noon until night, were    Ariovistus became conspicuous,       While Caesar was in Hither Gaul,
defeated with great slaughter        the forces came together.            he learned from Labiénus that
(58). The survivors, about one       Though the Germans were              the BELGAE were forming a
third, were treated kindly, and      brave, they were no match for        league to resist the Romans.
most of them sent back to            the drilled legionaries, who         This people occupied the
Switzerland.                         fought with the regularity of a      northeastern part of Gaul, and
                                     machine. Few of the barbarians       embraced several tribes, of
                                     escaped, but among these was         which the principal were the
                                     Ariovistus.                          REMI, BELLOVACI,
                                                                          SUESSIÓNES, and NERVII.
                                     The campaigns of this year being     The last were the fiercest and
                                     ended, the legions were sent into    least civilized.
                                     winter quarters among the
                                     Sequanians under Labiénus, the       Caesar raised two new legions,
                                     lieutenant of Caesar. He himself     making eight in all, and marched
                                     went into Cisalpine Gaul to          against the Belgae as soon as
                                     attend to his duties as              the spring opened. His sudden
                                     administrator, and to have           approach alarmed the Remi, who
                                     communication with his friends at    lived nearest to Central Gaul,
                                     Rome.                                and they immediately put
Roman Gaul, very roughly
today’s France and Belgium                                                themselves under his protection.
                                                                          From them he learned that the
Caesar now turned his attention                                           Belgae could muster about
                                                                          300,000 men.
                                      assured. But the enemy fought        part of Gaul (Brittany) except the
By skilful tactics and a successful   on with a bravery that excited the   VENETI had given hostages to
attack he put to flight and nearly    admiration of Caesar. Of sixty       Crassus, son of the Triumvir, and
annihilated the Suessiónes. The       thousand men scarcely five           lieutenant of Caesar. This tribe
Bellovaci now put themselves          hundred survived. The women          refused to give hostages, and,
under his protection, but the         and children were cared for          inducing others to join them,
Nervii remained in arms. One          kindly by Caesar, and settled in     seized some Roman officers sent
day, while the six legions were       their own territory.                 among them by Crassus. The
forming camp on the bank of the                                            campaign of the third year (56)
river Sabis, the Nervii and their     The Aduatuci, who had assisted       was directed against these
allies suddenly rushed upon           the Nervii in their struggle, were   people. They were mostly sailors
them from an ambuscade in the         conquered by Caesar and sold         and fishermen, with villages built
woods on the opposite bank.           into slavery.                        on the end of promontories and
The troops were entirely                                                   easily defended by land. In a
unprepared, and so quick was          Thus ended the Belgian               naval engagement, which lasted
the enemy's charge that the           campaign (57). The legions were      nearly all day, their whole fleet
Romans had not time to put on         put into winter quarters near        was destroyed. The leaders of
their helmets, to remove the          where the war had been waged,        the Veneti were put to death for
covering from their shields, or to    and Caesar went to Italy. In his     their treachery in seizing Roman
find their proper places in the       honor was decreed a                  officers, and the rest were sold
ranks. Great confusion followed,      thanksgiving lasting fifteen days.   into slavery.
and they became almost panic-
stricken. Caesar rushed into                                               The legions spent the winter of
their midst, snatched a shield        THE VENETI—INVASION                  56-55 in the northern part of
from a soldier, and by his            OF GERMANY                           Gaul, among the Aulerci and
presence and coolness revived                                              neighboring tribes.
their courage. The Nervii were
checked, and victory was              All the tribes in the northwestern   During this winter another wave
of Germans passed over the                                                time, and returned in September,
Rhine into Gaul. They had been                                            as the equinox was near and the
driven from their homes by a                                              weather unsettled. The legions
powerful tribe called the SUEVI.                                          were sent into winter quarters
In the spring of 55 Caesar                                                among the Belgae, and Caesar
collected his troops and                                                  set out for Cisalpine Gaul.
advanced to within twelve miles
of the German camp, and gave                                              During this winter (55-54), orders
the invaders twenty-four hours to                                         were given to build a large fleet,
leave the country. Before the                                             as Caesar intended to return to
expiration of the time, they                                              Britain the next year. After all
attacked Caesar's outposts,                                               preparations were completed, he
killing several Knights, and two                                          set sail, July 20, 54, and the next
men of aristocratic families. In                                          day landed on the island. He
the general engagement that         Roman soldier from first century      defeated the Britons under their
followed, the Germans were          B.C.                                  leader CASSIVELAUNUS, and
totally routed and most of them                                           compelled them to pay tribute
were slain.                                                               and give hostages. Many
                                                                          thousand prisoners were taken,
Caesar next determined to cross
                                    INVASION OF BRITAIN                   and sold in Italy as slaves.
the Rhine into Germany, thinking
thus to inspire the Germans with    It was now August and Caesar
greater fear of the Romans. He      occupied the rest of the season       FINAL STRUGGLES OF
built his famous bridge, crossed    by crossing the Channel to
                                    Britain (England). Landing near
                                                                          THE GAULS
it, remained eighteen days in
Germany, and, thinking his object   Deal, with but little resistance on
accomplished, returned to Gaul,     the part of the natives, he           In the winter of 54-53 the legions
destroying the bridge behind him.   explored the country for a short      were distributed among several
tribes. That stationed in the         previous winter. The tribe was         upon Genabum, and plundered
territory of the Eburónes was         completely destroyed, but their        and burnt the town.
commanded by the lieutenants,         leader, Ambiorix, escaped and
Gabínus and Cotta. News               was never captured. During this        Vercingetorix saw that he was no
reached the encampment that           summer Caesar again crossed            match for the legions in open
there was an uprisal of the           the Rhine. At the close of the         battle. He proposed, therefore,
Eburónes. It was decided to           summer he returned to Cisalpine        to cut off Caesar's supplies by
break up camp, and go, if             Gaul, supposing that the Gauls         burning all the towns of the
possible, to the winter quarters of   were totally subdued. He was           Bituriges, and laying the country
their nearest companions. On          mistaken. The patriotism of the        waste. Avaricum alone was
the march they were surprised         people was not yet extinguished.       spared. Within its walls were
and nearly all killed. Only a few     The chiefs of all the tribes           placed the best of their goods
stragglers carried the news to        secretly established                   and a strong garrison. Thither
Labiénus, who was wintering with      communication with each other.         Caesar marched, and, after a
a legion among the Remi.              A day was settled upon for a           well defended siege, captured
                                      general uprising. The Roman            the town and killed every person
This success moved the Nervii to      inhabitants of Genabum, on the         in it, excepting eight hundred,
attack Quintus Cicero, the            Liger, were massacred. The             who escaped to the camp of
lieutenant who was wintering with     leading spirit in this last struggle   Vercingetorix. Large quantities
his legion among them. Word           of the Gauls was                       of corn were taken, with which
was sent to Caesar, who had           VERCINGETORIX, chief of the            Caesar supplied his soldiers. He
fortunately not yet left Gaul. He     Averni.                                then marched against Gergovia,
hastened to Cicero's relief, raised                                          the capital of the Averni. As the
the siege, and all but annihilated    Caesar hastened across the             town was on a high plateau, and
the revolting Nervii.                 Alps, surmounted the difficulties      too strong to be stormed, he laid
                                      of crossing the Cevennes when          siege to it. A part of the army,
In 53 Caesar punished the             the snow was very deep,                contrary to instructions, one day
Eburónes for their action in the      collected his legions, marched         attempted to assault the place.
The battle which followed was       him. The relieving army, though      distributed among the soldiers.
disastrous to the Romans, and       five times as large as his, was      Vercingetorix was kept to be
the only defeat Caesar received     driven back and sent flying          exhibited in the triumph at Rome,
in Gaul. Forty-six officers and     home.                                and afterwards died in a
seven hundred men fell. The                                              dungeon.
siege was raised. It was a
serious position for Caesar. All                                         With the fall of Alesia, the
Gaul was in flames. Retreating                                           subjugation of Gaul was
at once, he formed a junction                                            practically completed.
with Labiénus at Agendicum, and
with all his troops started for                                          The next year (51) Caesar
Gallia Narbonensis to protect it                                         honored several chiefs with
from invasion.                                                           privileges; some of the nobles
                                                                         were granted the franchise, and
On his route was ALESIA. Here                                            some admitted to the Senate.
Vercingetorix was intrenched                                             The work of Romanizing Gaul
with eighty thousand troops. It                                          was fairly begun. Two provinces
was, like Gergovia, situated on a   Locations of battles in Gaul (note   were formed, Gallia and Belgica,
hill and considered impregnable.    Paris, today’s capital of France)    and later (17 A.D.) the former of
Caesar laid siege to this place                                          these was subdivided into
(52). Vercingetorix appealed to     Seeing that all was over,            Lugdunensis and Aquitania.
all Gaul for aid. Hardly had the    Vercingetorix called a council of    Roman money was introduced,
fortress been invested when         his chiefs and advised surrender.    and Latin became the official
Caesar's army was surrounded        A message was sent to Caesar.        language.
by an immense force of Gauls        He demanded unconditional
that had come to the rescue.        surrender, and was obeyed. The
Caesar needed now all his skill     people were sold into slavery,
and genius. But they did not fail   and the money obtained
                                     person which for the moment           pressed it. Day after day the
                                     was convenient to him; and yet        opposing parties met in bloody
CHAPTER XXXI                         for five years this man was the       affrays. For seven months the
CLODIUS AND MILO—                    leader of the Roman mob. He           brawl continued, until Milo's party
DEATH OF CRASSUS                     could defy justice, insult the        finally got the ascendancy; the
                                     Consuls, beat the Tribunes,           Assembly was convened, and
                                     parade the streets with a gang of     the recall voted.
                                     armed slaves, killing persons
During the nine years (59-50)        disagreeable to him; and in the       For seventeen months Cicero
passed by Caesar in Gaul, great      Senate itself he had high friends     had been in Greece, lamenting
confusion prevailed at Rome.         and connections, who threw a          his hard lot. He landed at
The Republic needed a strong,        shield over him when his              Brundisium on August 5, 57, and
firm hand, which would stop the      audacity had gone beyond              proceeded to Rome. Outside the
shedding of blood and insure         endurance." Milo was as               city all men of note, except his
security of person and property.     disreputable as Clodius. His          avowed enemies, were waiting to
Pompey had attempted to bring        chief fame had been gained in         receive him. The Senate voted
about this result, but had failed.   the schools of the gladiators.        to restore his property, and to
There were two prominent             Gangs of armed slaves                 rebuild his palace on the Palatine
factions, one led by CLODIUS,        accompanied him everywhere,           Hill and his other villas at the
the other by MILO.                   and there were constant               public expense. But Clodius,
                                     collisions between his retainers      with his bands of ruffians,
"Clodius is the most                 and those of Clodius.                 interrupted the workmen
extraordinary figure in this                                               engaged in the repair of his
extraordinary period. He had no      In 57 Consuls were elected who        Palatine house, broke down the
character. He had no                 favored Cicero, and his recall        walls, and, attacking Cicero
distinguished talent save for        was demanded. Clodius and his         himself, nearly murdered him.
speech; he had no policy; he was     followers opposed the recall.
ready to adopt any cause or          The nobles, led by their tool Milo,   At last Clodius even attempted to
burn the house of Milo. The long                                         provisions, and to avoid being
struggle between these two                                               surrounded by the cavalry of the
ruffians culminated when Milo                                            enemy. But Crassus allowed
was a candidate for the                                                  himself to be deceived by an
consulship, and Clodius for the                                          Arab chief, who lured him to the
praetorship. The two meeting by                                          sandy plains of Mesopotamia at
accident in the Via Appia at                                             Carrhae.
Bovillae, Clodius was murdered,
20 January, 52. This act of        Bust of Crassus, 115-53 B.C.,         The forces of the Parthians,
violence strengthened Pompey,      famous for defeating Spartacus        divided into many bodies,
who was nominated sole Consul.     and the slave revolt                  suddenly rushed upon the
Milo was impeached. His guilt                                            Roman ranks, and drove them
was evident, and he went into      CRASSUS now undertook the             back. The young Crassus
exile at Massilia. Cicero          war against the Parthians. He         attempted a charge at the head
prepared an elaborate speech in    was accompanied by his son,           of fifteen hundred horsemen.
his defence, but did not dare to   who had done good service             The Parthians yielded, but only to
deliver it.                        under Caesar in Gaul. They            draw him into an ambush, where
                                   arrived at Zeugma, a city of          he perished, after great deeds of
During the interval between the    Syria, on the Euphrátes; and the      valor. His head, carried on the
two campaigns of 57 and 56,        Romans, seven legions strong,         end of a pike, was borne before
Caesar renewed his alliance with   with four thousand cavalry, drew      the eyes of his unhappy father,
his two colleagues in interviews   themselves up along the river.        who, crushed by grief and
that were held at Ravenna and      The Quaestor, CASSIUS, a man          despair, gave the command into
Luca. He retained the command      of ability, proposed to Crassus a     the hands of Cassius. Cassius
of Gaul; Pompey, that of Spain;    plan of the campaign, which           gave orders for a general retreat.
Crassus, that of Syria.            consisted in following the river as   The Parthians subjected the
                                   far as Seleucia, in order not to be   Roman army to continual losses,
                                   separated from his fleet and          and Crassus himself was killed in
a conference (53).

In this disastrous campaign there
perished more than twenty
thousand Romans. Ten
thousand were taken prisoners
and compelled to serve as slaves
in the army of the Parthians.

The death of Crassus broke the
Triumvirate; that of Julia, in 54,
had sundered the family ties
between Caesar and Pompey,
who married Cornelia, the widow
of the young Crassus, and
daughter of Metellus Scipio.

                                    but reconciled to subjugation; a     The law requiring a candidate to
                                    nation of warriors, as much          give up his command had been
CHAPTER XXXII                       devoted to him as his own            suspended several times before
CAESAR'S STRUGGLE                   legions." The nobility had           this; so that Caesar's request
WITH POMPEY—                        watched his successes with bitter    was reasonable. His enemies in
BATTLE OF PHARSALIA                 envy; but they were forced to        the city were numerous and
                                    vote a thanksgiving of twenty        powerful, and he felt that, if he
                                    days, which "the people made         returned as a private citizen, his
                                    sixty."                              personal safety would be in
Pompey was elected sole Consul                                           danger; whereas, if he were a
in February, 52. He at once         Caesar now declared through his      magistrate, his person would be
threw off all pretence of an        followers at Rome that he            considered sacred.
alliance with Caesar, and           desired a second consulship.
devoted himself to the interests    But he wished first to celebrate     The Senate, on the other hand,
of the Senate and aristocracy.      his triumph, and on this account     felt that, if he carried his point,
                                    would not disband his army; for,     the days of their influence were
The brilliant successes of Caesar   according to the custom, he          numbered. Their first step,
in Gaul had made a profound         could not triumph without it.        therefore, was to weaken
impression upon the minds of the    According to another custom,         Caesar, and to provide their
citizens, to whom the name of       however, he must disband it          champion, Pompey, with a force
the northern barbarians was still   before he could offer himself as a   in Italy. They voted that Caesar
fraught with terror. Caesar had     candidate for the consulship. But    should return to Pompey a legion
won for himself distinction as a    he asked permission to set aside     which had been loaned him, and
soldier greater than the Scipios,   this custom, and to become a         also should send another legion
or Sulla, or Pompey. "He was        candidate while he was in the        back to Italy. The vote was taken
coming back to lay at his           province in command of the           on the ostensible plea that the
country's feet a province larger    army.                                troops were needed in Asia
than Spain, not only subdued,                                            Minor against the Parthians; but
when they reached Italy they          When the action of the Senate         marched to Ariminum.
were placed under Pompey's            was reported to Caesar, he
command in Campania. The              called together his soldiers, and
Consuls chosen for the year 49        addressed them thus: "For nine
were both bitter enemies of           years I and my army have served
Caesar. He had taken up his           our country loyally and with some
winter quarters at Ravenna, the       degree of success. We have
last town in his province             driven the Germans across the
bordering on Italy. From here he      Rhine; we have made Gaul a            Map showing Ravenna and
sent a messenger with letters to      province; and the Senate, for         Rome
the Senate, stating that he was       answer, has broken the
ready to resign his command, if       constitution in setting aside the     Meanwhile the report of his
Pompey did the same. The              Tribunes who spoke in my              movements reached Rome. The
messenger arrived at Rome,            defence. It has voted the state in    aristocracy had imagined that his
January 1, 49, on the day in          danger, and has called Italy to       courage would fail him, or that
which the new Consuls entered         arms, when no single act of mine      his army would desert.
upon their duties.                    can justify it in this course." The   Thoroughly frightened, Consuls,
                                      soldiers became enthusiastic,         Praetors, Senators, leaving
The letters were read in the          and were eager to follow their        wives, children, and property to
Senate, and there followed a          leader without pay. Contributions     their fate, fled from the city to
spirited discussion, resulting in a   were offered him by both men          seek safety with Pompey in
decree that Caesar should resign      and officers. LABIENUS, his           Capua. They did not stop even
his command. The Tribunes             trusted lieutenant, alone proved      to take the money from the
opposed; but, being threatened        false. He stole away, and joined      treasury, but left it locked.
by the Consuls, they were             Pompey. Caesar then sent for
compelled to leave the city, and      two legions from across the Alps.     Caesar paused at Ariminum, and
went directly to Ravenna.             With these legions he crossed         sent envoys to the Senate,
                                      the RUBICON into Italy, and           stating that he was still desirous
of peace. If Pompey would            advanced, with constantly            readiness for them to depart.
depart to his province in Spain,     increasing forces, until when he
he would himself disband his         reached Corfinium his army had       Hoping to intercept Pompey,
own troops. He was even willing      swelled to thirty thousand troops.   Caesar hastened to this port. On
to have a personal interview with                                         his arrival outside of the town,
Pompey. This message was                                                  the Consuls, with half the army,
received by the Senate after its                                          had already gone. Pompey,
flight from Rome. The substance                                           however, was still within the
of its reply was, that Pompey did                                         place, with twelve thousand
not wish a personal interview, but                                        troops, waiting for transports to
would go to Spain, and that                                               carry them away. He refused to
Caesar must leave Ariminum,                                               see Caesar; and, though the
return to his province, and give                                          latter endeavored to blockade the
security that he would dismiss his   Mark Antony, 82-30 B.C.              port, he was unsuccessful, owing
army.                                                                     to want of ships.
                                     This place had been occupied by
These terms seemed to Caesar         Domitius with a party of             Thus Pompey escaped. With
unfair, and he would not accept      aristocrats and a few thousand       him were the Consuls, more than
them. Accordingly he sent his        men. Caesar surrounded the           half the Senate, and the
lieutenant, Mark Antony, across      town, and when Domitius              aristocracy. Caesar would have
the mountains to Arretium, on the    endeavored to steal away, his        followed them, but a fleet must
road to Rome. He himself             own troops took him and              first be obtained, and matters
pushed on to Ancóna, before          delivered him over to Caesar.        nearer home demanded his
Pompey could stop him. The           The capture of Corfinium and the     attention.
towns that were on his march         desertion of its garrison filled
threw open their gates, their        Pompey and his followers with        In sixty days Caesar had made
garrisons joined his army, and       dismay. They hurried to              himself master of Italy. On his
their officers fled. Steadily he     Brundisium, where ships were in      way to Rome he met Cicero, and
invited him to attend the Senate,    for Gaul to join his troops on his   Afranius and Petreius strongly
but he preferred to stay away.       way to Spain.                        intrenched at ILERDA in
Caesar entered the city                                                   Catalonia (Northern Spain).
unattended, and assembled the        He had much to accomplish.           Within forty days he brought
Senate through the Tribunes,         Spain was in the hands of            them to terms, and Varro, who
Mark Antony and Cassius              Pompey's lieutenants, Afranius,      was in Southern Spain, was
Longínus. The attendance was         Petreius, and Varro, who had six     eager to surrender. All Spain
small, as most of the members        legions and allied troops. From      was at his feet.
were with Pompey. In his             Sicily and Sardinia came most of
address to the Senate Caesar         the grain supplies of Rome, and      Before leaving Spain, Caesar
spoke of his own forbearance         it was important to hold these       summoned the leading
and concessions, of their unjust     islands. To Sicily he sent Curio     Spaniards and Romans to
demands, and their violent           and to Sardinia Valerius. Cato,      Cordova, for a conference. All
suppression of the authority of      who was in charge of Sicily,         promised obedience to his
the Tribunes. He was still willing   immediately abandoned it and         authority. He then set sail from
to send envoys to treat with         fled to Africa. Sardinia received    Gades to Tarragóna, where he
Pompey, but no one was found         Caesar's troops with open arms.      joined his legions and marched
willing to go. After three days                                           back to Massilia, which he found
spent in useless discussion,         Upon his arrival in Gaul, Caesar     hard pressed and ready to
Caesar decided to act for            found that the inhabitants of        surrender. The gates were
himself. By his own edict, he        Massilia had risen against his       opened. All were pardoned, and
restored the children of the         authority, led by the same           Domitius was allowed to escape
victims of Sulla's proscription to   Domitius whom he had sent            a second time.
their rights and property. The       away unharmed from Corfinium.
money in the treasury was voted      Caesar blockaded the city, and,      Caesar left a portion of his forces
him by the Assembly of the           leaving Decimus Brutus in            in Gaul, and with the rest arrived
people. He took as much of it as     charge of operations, continued      at Rome in the early winter of 49-
he needed, and started at once       his journey to Spain. He found       48. Thus far he had been
successful. Gaul, Spain,              debts as they were one year
Sardinia, Sicily, and Italy were      before, the interest was remitted
his. He had not succeeded,            and the principal declared still
however, in getting together a        due. This measure relieved the
naval force in the Adriatic, and he   debtors somewhat.
had lost his promising lieutenant,
Curio, who had been surprised         It was now nearly a year since
and killed in Africa, whither he      Caesar crossed the Rubicon.           Today’s Brindisi (just above the
had gone in pursuit of Cato and       Pompey, during the nine months        heel of Italy’s boot) has only the
Pompey's followers.                   that had elapsed since his            bases of the columns to mark the
                                      escape from Brundisium, had           end of the Via Appia from Rome
During Caesar's absence, affairs      been collecting his forces in
at Rome had resumed their usual       Epírus. Here had gathered many        Caesar reached Brundisium at
course. He had left the city          princes from the East, a majority     the end of the year 49. His
under charge of his lieutenant,       of the Senatorial families of         forces were fewer in number than
Aemilius Lepidus, and Italy in        Rome, Cato and Cicero, the            those of his adversary,
command of Mark Antony.               vanquished Afranius, and the          amounting to not more than
Caesar was still at Massilia,         renegade Labiénus. There were         15,000 infantry and 600 cavalry.
when he learned that the people       nine full legions, with cavalry and   But his legionaries were all
of Rome had proclaimed him            auxiliaries, amounting in all to      veterans, inured to toil and
Dictator. Financial troubles in the   100,000 men.                          hunger, to heat and cold, and
city had made this step                                                     every man was devoted to his
necessary. Public credit was                                                leader.
shaken. Debts had not been
paid since the civil war began.                                             On the 4th of January he set sail
Caesar allowed himself only                                                 from Brundisium, landing after an
eleven days in Rome. In this                                                uneventful voyage at
time estimates were drawn of all                                            Acroceraunia. He advanced at
once towards Dyrrachium where       movements.
were Pompey's head-quarters,
occupied Apollonia, and             The great general was now ready
intrenched himself on the left      for action. He built a line of
bank of the river Apsus. The        strongly fortified forts around
country was well disposed and       Pompey's camp, blockading him
furnished him with ample            by land. He turned the streams
supplies.                           of water aside, causing as much
                                    inconvenience as possible to the
Caesar sent back the vessels on     enemy. So the siege dragged on
which he crossed to transport his   into June.
remaining troops, but they were                                         The area of battle, in today’s
intercepted on their way across     Two deserters informed Pompey       Albania, Macedonia, Serbia,
and many of them destroyed. He      of a weak spot in Caesar's line.    Montenegro, and Greece
was therefore compelled to          At this point Pompey made a
confine himself to trifling         sudden attack. For once             This victory was the ruin of
operations, until his lieutenant,   Caesar's troops were surprised      Pompey's cause. Its importance
Mark Antony, could fit out a        and panic-stricken. Even his        was exaggerated. His followers
second fleet and bring over the     own presence did not cause          were sure that the war was
remainder of his legions. When      them to rally. Nearly one           practically over; and so certain
Antony finally crossed, he landed   thousand of his men fell, thirty-   were they of ultimate success
one hundred miles up the coast.     two standards, and a few            that they neglected to follow up
Pompey's forces were between        hundred soldiers were captured.     the advantage gained, and gave
him and Caesar, and his position                                        Caesar opportunity to recover
was full of danger; but Caesar                                          from the blow.
marched rapidly round
Dyrrachium, and joined him                                              The latter now retired from the
before Pompey knew of his
sea-board into Thessaly.              ancient Roman families, the          Senate had taken from Caesar.
Pompey followed, confident of         leaders of society in Roman          Outside him on the plain were his
victory. The nobles in his camp       salons, and the chiefs of the        allies covered by the cavalry.
amused themselves with                political party of the optimates     Opposite Pompey was Caesar,
quarrelling about the expected        (aristocracy) were here present      with the famous Tenth Legion.
spoils of war. Cato and Cicero        on the field. The other great        His left and centre were led by
remained behind in Epirus, the        actions were fought by the           his faithful Tribunes, Mark Antony
former disgusted at the actions of    ignoble multitude whose deaths       and Cassius Longínus.
the degenerate nobility, the latter   were of less significance. The
pleading ill health.                  plains of Pharsalia were watered     At the given signal Caesar's front
                                      by the precious blood of the elect   ranks advanced on a run, threw
The two armies encamped on a          of the earth."                       their darts, drew their swords,
plain in Thessaly near the river                                           and closed in. At once Pompey's
Enipeus, only four miles apart.       For several days the armies          cavalry charged, outflanking the
Between them lay a low hill           watched each other without           enemy's right wing, and driving
called PHARSÁLUS, which gave          decisive action. One morning         back the opposing cavalry, who
name to the battle which              towards the end of May (August       were inferior in numbers. But as
followed.                             9, old style) Caesar noticed a       they advanced flushed with
                                      movement in Pompey's lines that      victory, Caesar's fourth line,
"The battle of PHARSALIA              told him the expected attack was     which he had held in reserve,
(August 9, 48) has acquired a         coming.                              and which was made up of the
special place in history, because                                          flower of his legions, appeared in
it was fought by the Roman            The position of the Senatorial       their way. So fierce was their
aristocracy in their own persons      army was well taken. Its right       attack that the Pompeians
in defence of their own               wing rested on the Enipeus, its      wavered, turned, and fled. They
supremacy. Senators and the           left was spread out on the plain.    never rallied. The fourth line
sons of Senators, the heirs of the    Pompey himself commanded the         threw themselves upon
names and fortunes of the             left with the two legions the        Pompey's left wing, which was
now unprotected. This wing,           needed the common necessaries
composed of Caesar's old              of life, of dissoluteness and
veterans, was probably in no          profligacy." But Caesar could not
mood to fight its former              delay. Leaving a portion of his
comrades in arms. At any rate, it     forces in camp, by rapid
turned and fled. Pompey himself       marching he cut off the retreat of
mounted his horse and rode off        the enemy. Twenty-four
in despair. Thus the battle ended     thousand surrendered, all of
in a rout. But two hundred of         whom were pardoned. Domitius,
Caesar's men fell, while fifteen      whom we saw at Corfinium and
thousand of the enemy lay dead        Massilia, was killed trying to
on the field.                         escape. Labiénus, Afranius, and
                                      Petreius managed to steal away
The abandoned camp was a              by night. Thus ended the battle
remarkable sight. The luxurious       of Pharsalia.
patricians had built houses of turf
with ivy trained over the
entrances to protect their delicate
skins from the sun's rays;
couches were stretched out
ready for them to take repose
after their expected victory, and
tables were spread with dainty
food and wines on which to feast.
As he saw these preparations
Caesar exclaimed, "These are
the men who accused my
suffering, patient army, which
                                   GREAT. He was certainly a               Ptolemy was at variance with his
                                   good soldier, and is said to have       sister, the famous CLEOPÁTRA,
CHAPTER XXXIII                     excelled in all athletic sports, but    Caesar sided with her. The
CAESAR'S                           he fell short of being a first-class    inhabitants of Alexandría
OPERATIONS IN EGYPT,               general. He won great                   revolted, and besieged Caesar in
ASIA, AFRICA, AND                  successes in Spain, and more            the palace; but with a handful of
                                   especially in the East; but for         soldiers he bravely baffled their
SPAIN                              these he was, no doubt, partly          attacks. Setting fire to the
                                   indebted to what others had             neighboring buildings, he
                                   already done. Of the gifts which        escaped to his ships. Afterwards
Pompey, in his flight from         make a good statesman, he had           he returned and wreaked
Pharsalia, hastened by the         really none. He was too weak            vengeance upon the
shortest way to the sea, and,      and irresolute to choose a side         Alexandrians, establishing
seeing a vessel weighing anchor,   and stand by it. Pitted against         CLEOPÁTRA upon the throne
embarked with a few companions     such a man as Caesar, he could          (47).
who had accompanied him in his     not but fail. But to his credit be it
flight. He went to Mityléne, and   said, that in a corrupt time he
from there to Egypt, hoping to     never used his opportunities for
obtain an asylum with the young    plunder and extortion."
PTOLEMY; but he was seized
upon his arrival, and beheaded,    Meanwhile Caesar, pursuing his
28 September, 48.                  victory with indefatigable activity,
                                   set sail for Egypt. Upon his
Just before his death Pompey       arrival the head of his enemy
                                                                           A bust of Cleopatra, Queen of
had completed his fifty-eighth     was brought to him. He turned
year. "Though he had some          from the sight with tears in his
great and good qualities, he       eyes. The murderers now saw
                                                                           Satisfied with this vengeance,
hardly deserved the surname of     what would be their fate.
Caesar left Egypt, and went to       debts should be paid, and the        lands had been allotted to each
Pontus, where PHARNACES,             rights of property respected. He     soldier out of the ager publicus,
son of Mithradátes, was inciting a   restored quiet, and after a brief    or out of his own estates.
revolt against Rome. Caesar          stay of three months prepared to
attacked and defeated him at         transport his army to Africa. The    Africa must now be subdued.
ZELA (47), with a rapidity           army was in Campania, but            Since the defeat and death of
rendered proverbial by his words,    discontented and mutinous            Curio, King JUBA had found no
Veni, vidi, vici, I CAME, I SAW, I   because of not receiving the         one to dispute his authority.
CONQUERED.                           expected privilege of pillage and    Around him now rallied all the
                                     plunder. They refused to move        followers of Pompey, Metellus
He now passed quickly down the       until certain promised rewards       Scipio, Cato, Labiénus, Afranius,
Hellespont, and had landed in        were received. The Tenth             Petreius, and the slain general's
Italy before it was known that he    Legion broke out into open revolt,   two sons, Sextus and Gnaeus
had left Pontus. During his          and marched from Campania to         Pompeius.
absence from the capital there       Rome to obtain their rights.
had been some minor                  Caesar collected them in the         Utica was made their head-
disturbances; but the mass of the    Campus Martins, and asked            quarters. Here Cato collected
citizens were firmly attached to     them to state their grievances.      thirteen legions of troops of
him. Few could distrust the          They demanded their discharge.       miscellaneous character. Raids
genius and fortune of the            "I grant it, citizens" (Quirites),   were made upon Sicily, Sardinia,
irresistible conqueror. In October   said the Imperator. Heretofore       and the coasts of Italy. Caesar's
of 48 he had been made Dictator      he had always addressed them         officers, if captured, were put to
a second time, and appointed         as "fellow soldiers," and the        death without mercy.
Tribune for life.                    implied rebuke was so keen, that
                                     a reaction at once began, and        Cicero alone of the old Pompeian
Caesar's return in September,        they all begged to be received       party protested against such
47, was marked by no                 again into his service. He           cruelties. He remained in Italy,
proscription. He insisted that all   accepted them, telling them that     was denounced by them as a
traitor, and charged with currying   southeast of Carthage, April 4,     successive days; one over the
favor of the Dictator.               46, the armies met. Caesar's        Gauls, one over Ptolemy of
                                     men were so enthusiastic that       Egypt, one over Pharnaces, and
Caesar sailed from Lilybaeum         they rushed to the charge with      one over Juba. He gratified his
(December 19), effected a            one impulse. There was no real      armed followers with liberal gifts,
landing near Leptis, and             battle, but rather a slaughter.     and pleased the people by his
maintained himself in a fortified    Officers and men fled for their     great munificence. They were
position until he formed useful      lives. Scipio was intercepted in    feasted at a splendid banquet, at
alliances among the                  his flight and slain. Juba and      which were twenty-two thousand
Mauretanians. Many Roman             Petreius fled together, but,        tables, each table having three
residents in the province came to    finding their retreat cut off,      couches, and each couch three
him, indignant at Metellus           engaged, it is said, in mortal      persons. Then followed shows in
Scipio's promise to Juba to give     combat; when the first, Petreius,   the circus and theatre, combats
the province to him in case of       fell, the other threw himself on    of wild beasts and gladiators, in
success. Many deserters also         his own sword. Labiénus and the     which the public especially
came in, enraged that                two sons of Pompey managed to       delighted.
precedence was given to Juba         escape to Spain. Afranius was
over Scipio in councils of war.      captured and executed.              Honors were now heaped upon
But the enemy's army was kept                                            Caesar without stint. A
full of new recruits sent from       Cato, when he heard of the          thanksgiving of forty days was
Utica by Cato.                       defeat, retired to his chamber in   decreed. His statue was placed
                                     Utica, and committed suicide.       in the Capitol. Another was
For three months Caesar failed                                           inscribed to Caesar the Demigod.
to bring on the desired              Thus ended the African              A golden chair was allotted to
engagement; Scipio had learned       campaign.                           him in the Senate-House. The
caution from Pompey's                                                    name of the fifth month (Quintilis)
experience at Pharsalia. Finally,    On his return from Africa, Caesar   of the Roman calendar was
at THAPSUS, one hundred miles        celebrated four triumphs, on four   changed to JULIUS (July). He
was appointed Dictator for two        method of reckoning time had            Roman affairs. The remnant of
years, and later for life. He         been so inaccurate, that now            Scipio's African army rested
received for three years the office   their seasons were more than            there in its wanderings. Thus
of Censor, which enabled him to       two months behind. Caesar               Labiénus and Pompey's two sons
appoint Senators, and to be           established a calendar, which,          managed to collect an army as
guardian of manners and morals.       with slight changes, is still in use.   numerous as that which had
He had already been made              It went into operation January          been defeated at Thapsus.
Tribune (48) for life, and Pontifex   1st, 45. He employed                    There were thirteen legions in all.
Maximus (63). In a word, he was       Sosigenes, an Alexandrian
king in everything excepting          astronomer, to superintend the          Caesar saw that he must make
name.                                 reform.                                 one more struggle. He set out
                                                                              for the province accompanied by
                                      While Sosigenes was at work on          his nephew OCTAVIUS
                                      the calendar, Caesar purified the       (afterwards the Emperor
                                      Senate. Many who were guilty of         AUGUSTUS), and by his trusted
                                      extortion and corruption were           friend and officer, DECIMUS
                                      expelled, and the vacancies filled      BRUTUS. The struggle in Spain
                                      with persons of merit.                  was protracted for several
                                                                              months, but the decisive battle
                                      Meanwhile matters in Spain were         was fought at MUNDA, 17
                                      not satisfactory. After the battle      March, 45, on the Guadalquivir,
                                      of Pharsalia, Cassius Longinus,         near Cordova. The forces were
Statue of Caesar                      Trebonius, and Marcus Aemilius          well matched. The advantage in
                                      Lepidus had been sent to govern         position was on the side of the
Caesar's most remarkable and          the province. They could not            enemy. The battle was
durable reform at this period was     agree. The soldiers became              stubbornly fought, most of it hand
the REVISION OF THE                   mutinous. To Spain flocked all          to hand, with short swords. So
CALENDAR. The Roman                   who were dissatisfied with              equal was the struggle, so
doubtful at one time the issue,
that Caesar himself sprang from
                                        CATO-METELLUS                        QUINTUS CAECILIUS
his horse, seized a standard, and       SCIPIO                               METELLUS PIUS belonged to
rallied a wavering legion. Finally,                                          the illustrious family of the
Labiénus was seen to gallop             MARCUS PORTIUS CATO                  Scipios by birth, and to that of the
across the field. It was thought        UTICENSIS [Note: Cato the            Metelli by adoption. He was one
he was fleeing. Panic seized his        Younger, called UTICENSIS on         of the most unjust and dishonest
troops, they broke and ran.             account of his death at Utica.]      of the Senators that opposed
Thirty thousand were slain,             (95-46) was the great-grandson       Caesar. He was the father-in-law
including three thousand Roman          of Cato the Censor. He was the       of Pompey, by whom he was
Knights, and Labiénus himself.          last of the Romans of the old        made a pliant tool against the
                                        school. Like his more famous         great conqueror.
Gnaeus Pompey shortly after lost        ancestor, he was frugal and
his life, but Sextus lived for a        austere in his habits, upright,
number of years.                        unselfish, and incorruptible. But
                                        he was a fanatic, who could not
Caesar tarried in Spain,                be persuaded to relinquish his
regulating affairs, until late in the   views on any subject. As a
autumn, when he returned to             general, he was a failure, having
Rome and enjoyed another                neither taste nor genius for
triumph over the Iberians               military exploits. He held various
(Spaniards). The triumph was            offices at Rome, as Quaestor
followed, as usual, by games and        and Praetor; but when candidate
festivals, which kept the               for the consulship he was
populace in a fever of delight and      defeated, because he declined to
admiration.                             win votes by bribery and other
                                        questionable methods then in
                                     physicians and scientists were         against Caesar, and also been
                                     encouraged to settle in Rome.          pardoned by him. Cassius, it
CHAPTER XXXIV                        The harbor of Ostia was                was said, hated the tyrant, and
MURDER OF CAESAR                     improved, and a road                   Brutus tyranny.
                                     constructed from the Adriatic to
                                     the Tyrrhenian Sea, over the           These conspirators were soon
                                     Apennines. A temple to Mars            joined by persons of all parties;
Upon his return from Spain,
                                     was built, and an immense              and men who had fought against
Caesar granted pardon to all who
                                     amphitheatre was erected at the        each other in the civil war now
had fought against him, the most
                                     foot of the Tarpeian Rock.             joined hands. Cicero was not
prominent of whom were GAIUS
                                                                            taken into the plot. He was of
                                     In the midst of this useful activity   advanced years, and all who
and CICERO. He increased the
                                     he was basely murdered.                knew him must have felt that he
number of the Senate to nine
                                                                            would never consent to the
hundred. He cut off the corn
                                     CASSIUS LONGINUS and                   taking the life of one who had
grants, which nursed the city
                                     MARCUS JUNIUS BRUTUS                   been so lenient towards his
mob in idleness. He sent out
                                     were the leaders in the                conquered enemies.
impoverished men to colonize old
                                     conspiracy to effect Caesar's
cities. He rebuilt Corinth, and
                                     death, Cassius, a former               On the morning of the IDES
settled eighty thousand Italians
                                     lieutenant of Crassus, had shown       (15th) OF MARCH, 44, as
on the site of Carthage. As a
                                     great bravery in the war with the      Caesar entered the Senate and
censor of morals he was very
                                     Parthians. At Pharsalia he             took his seat, he was
rigid. His own habits were
                                     fought on the side of Pompey,          approached by the conspirators,
marked by frugality. The rich
                                     but was afterwards pardoned by         headed by Tullius Cimber, who
young patricians were forbidden
                                     Caesar. He was married to a            prayed for the pardon of his
to be carried about in litters, as
                                     sister of Brutus. The latter, a        exiled brother; and while the rest
had been the custom. Libraries
                                     nephew and son-in-law of Cato,         joined him in the request, he,
were formed. Eminent
                                     had also fought at Pharsalia           grasping Caesar's hand, kissed
his head and breast. As Caesar       followed; and, in their alarm,           As a general Caesar was
attempted to rise, Cimber            most of the Senators fled. It was       probably superior to all others,
dragged his cloak from his           two days before the Senate met,         excepting possibly Hannibal. He
shoulders, and Casca, who was        the conspirators meanwhile              was especially remarkable for the
standing behind his chair,           having taken refuge in the              fertility of his resources. It has
stabbed him in the neck. The         Capitol. Public sentiment was           been said that Napoleon taught
first blow was struck, and the       against them. Many of Caesar's          his enemies how to conquer him;
whole pack fell upon their noble     old soldiers were in the city, and      but Caesar's enemies never
victim. Cassius stabbed him in       many more were flocking there           learned how to conquer him,
the face, and Marcus Brutus in       from all directions. The funeral        because he had not a mere
the groin. He made no further        oration of Mark Antony over the         system of tactics, but a new
resistance; but, wrapping his        remains produced a deep                 stratagem for every emergency.
gown over his head and the           impression upon the crowd.              He was, however, not only a
lower part of his body, he fell at   They became so excited when             great general, but a pre-eminent
the base of POMPEY'S STATUE,         the speaker removed the dead            statesman, and second only to
which was drenched with the          man's toga, and disclosed his           Cicero in eloquence. As a
martyr's blood.                      wounds, that, instead of allowing       historian, he wrote in a style that
                                     the body to be carried to the           was clear, vigorous, and also
                                     Campus Martius for burial, they         simple. Most of his writings are
                                     raised a funeral pile in the            lost; but of those that remain
                                     Forum, and there burned it. The         Cicero said that fools might try to
                                     crowd then dispersed in troops,         improve on them, but no wise
                                     broke into and destroyed the            man would attempt it.
                                     houses of the conspirators.
                                     Brutus and Cassius fled from the
Marcus Brutus, 85-42 B.C.
                                     city for their lives, followed by the
Great tumult and commotion           other murderers.

                                       sagacious, without passion or        finding it for his interest, he
                                       affection, and showed himself a      deserted the Senate, made
CHAPTER XXXV THE                       match for all his opponents. His     friends with Antony, and with him
SECOND                                 arrival at Rome was disagreeable     and Lepidus formed (27
TRIUMVIRATE—                           to Antony, who was unwilling to      November, 43) the SECOND
PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM                    surrender Caesar's property. He      TRIUMVIRATE, assuming full
                                       claimed that he had already          authority to govern and
                                       expended it for public purposes.     reorganize the state, and to hold
                                       Octavius at once paid the dead       office for five years.
Caesar in his will had appointed       Dictator's legacies, mostly out of
GAIUS OCTAVIUS, the                    his own fortune, thus making         The provinces were divided as
grandson of his sister Julia, heir     himself very popular among the       follows: Lepidus was to have
to three fourths of his property;      people. He then joined the party     Spain and Gallia Narbonensis;
and his other relatives were to        of the Senate, and during the        Antony, the rest of Gaul beyond
have the remaining fourth.             autumn and winter of 44 was its      the Alps and Gallia Cisalpína;
                                       chief champion. He was helped        Octavius, Sicily, Sardinia, and
Young Octavius was in his              by the eloquent Cicero, who was      Africa. A bloody prescription
nineteenth year when Caesar            delivering against Antony his        followed. Among its victims were
was murdered. He went at once          famous fourteen PHILIPPICS,—         CICERO, who was surrendered
to Rome to claim his inheritance.      so called from their resemblance     to please Antony, 300 Senators,
Caesar's widow, Calpurnia, had         to the great orations of             and 2,000 Equites.
intrusted to Mark Antony all the       Demosthenes against Philip.
money in the house,—a large
sum,—and had also delivered to         During the spring of 43 Octavius     PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM
his care all the Dictator's writings   advanced against Antony, who
and memoranda.                         was at Mutina (Modena), and
                                       defeated him in two battles. He      The Triumvirs could now
Octavius was cool and                  was then appointed Consul, and,      concentrate their energies upon
the East, whither BRUTUS and           With Brutus fell the Republic.       the rebel was overcome. He fled
CASSIUS, the murderers of              The absolute ascendency of           to Asia with a few followers, but
Caesar, had fled. These two had        individuals, which is monarchy,      was taken prisoner at Milétus by
organized in the provinces of the      was then established.                one of the lieutenants of Antony,
East an army amounting to                                                   and put to death.
80,000 infantry and 20,000             The immediate result of Philippi
cavalry. They were employed in         was a fresh arrangement of the       Lepidus now claimed Sicily as a
plundering various towns of Asia       Roman world among the                part of his province, and an equal
Minor, and finally, in the spring of   Triumvirs. Antony preferred the      share in the government of the
42, assembled their forces at          East, Octavius took Italy and        Roman world with the other
Sardis preparatory to an invasion      Spain, and Africa fell to Lepidus.   Triumvirs. But his soldiers were
of Europe. After marching                                                   induced to desert him, and he
through Thrace they entered            Octavius tried to establish order    was obliged to surrender to
Macedonia, and found Antony            in Italy, but many obstacles were    Octavius. His life was spared,
and Octavius opposed to them at        to be overcome. Sextus               but he was deprived of his power
PHILIPPI, with an army of              Pompeius, who had escaped            and provinces. He lived twenty
120,000 troops. There were two         from Munda, was in command of        years longer (until 13), but
battles at Philippi in November,       a strong naval force. He             ceased to be a factor in public
42. In the first, Brutus defeated      controlled a large part of the       affairs. Having rid themselves of
Octavius; but Cassius was              Mediterranean, and, by               all rivals, Octavius and Antony
defeated by Antony, and,               waylaying the corn ships bound       redivided the Empire, the former
unaware of his colleague's             for Rome, exposed the city to        taking the West, the latter the
victory, committed suicide. In the     great danger from famine.            East.
second battle, three weeks later,      Octavius was obliged to raise a
Brutus was defeated by the             fleet and meet this danger. At       Antony now repaired to
united armies of the Triumvirs,        first he was defeated by Pompey,     Alexandría, and surrendered
and, following the example of          but later, in 36, in the great sea   himself to the fascinations of the
Cassius, put an end to his life.       fight off NAULOCHUS in Sicily,       famous Cleopátra. He assumed
the habits and dress of an           sea-fight off Naulochus. The          the triumph of the conqueror,
Eastern monarch, and by his          battle lasted a long time, and was    followed his example, and was
senseless follies disgusted his      still undecided, when Cleopátra       found dead on her couch, in royal
friends and supporters. He           hoisted sail and with her sixty       attire, with her two faithful
resigned himself to luxury and       vessels hastened to leave the         attendants also dead at her feet.
idleness, and finally divorced       line. Antony at once followed
himself from his wife Octavia,       her. The battle, however,
sister of Octavius, disregarding     continued until his remaining fleet
his good name and the wishes of      was destroyed, and his army,
his friends. Thus gradually he       after a few days' hesitation,
became more and more                 surrendered.
estranged from Octavius, until
finally the rupture resulted in      Octavius did not follow Antony for
open war.                            about a year. He passed the
                                     winter in Samos, sending
The contest was decided by the       Agrippa to Italy with the veterans.
naval battle off Cape Actium, in     His time was occupied in              Octavius as Augustus Caesar
Greece, September 2, 31.             restoring order in Greece and
Antony had collected from all        Asia, in raising money to satisfy     Octavius was now sole ruler of
parts of the East a large army, in   the demands of his troops, and in     Rome. Before returning to the
addition to his fleet, which was     founding new colonies. At length      capital to celebrate his triumphs,
supported by that of Cleopátra.      he turned his attention to Egypt.     he organized Egypt as a
He wished to decide the contest      After capturing Pelusium, the key     province, settled disputes in
on land; but Cleopátra insisted      of the country, he marched upon       Judaea, and arranged matters in
that they should fight by sea.       Alexandría. Antony, despairing        Syria and Asia Minor. He arrived
The fleet of Octavius was            of success, committed suicide,        at Rome (August 29), and
commanded by Agrippa, who            expiring in the arms of Cleopátra.    enjoyed three magnificent
had been in command at the           The queen, disdaining to adorn        triumphs. The gates of the
temple of JANUS—which were              that he was used and then
open in time of war, and had            pushed aside, attracted and
been closed but twice before,           repelled, deceived by the
once during Numa's reign, and           weakness of his friends and the
once between the First and              strength of his adversaries; and
Second Punic Wars—were                  at last threatened by both the
closed, and Rome was at peace           parties between which he tried to
with all the world.                     steer his course.


CICERO'S public life covered a
period of nearly forty years, from
the dictatorship of Sulla to the fall
of the Republic. Although
endowed by nature with great
talents, he was always under the
sway of the moment, and
therefore little qualified to be a
statesman; yet he had not
sufficient self-knowledge to see
it. Hence the attempts he made
to play a part in politics served
only to lay bare his utter
weakness. Thus it happened
                                     to six hundred, and required a         regular Consuls, of course, were
                                     property qualification for             only too ready to follow his
CHAPTER XXXVI                        membership. He placed himself          wishes. Finally, he was made
AUGUSTUS (30 B.C.-14                 at its head as PRINCEPS                Pontifex Maximus, the head of
A.D.)                                (prince), a title which implied that   the Roman religion.
                                     the Emperor was the first citizen,
                                     without claiming any rights of
                                     royalty, thus lulling any
After enjoying his triple triumph,   suspicions of the populace.
Octavius should, according to the
precedents of the Republic, have     The Senate still decided the most
given up the title of                important questions. It had
IMPERATOR; but he allowed the        jurisdiction in criminal matters,
Senate, which was only too glad      and the right of ratifying new         Bust of Augustus
to flatter him, to give him that     laws. It was convened three
name for ten years,—a period         times each month; viz. on the          Augustus was now supreme ruler
which was repeatedly renewed.        1st, 5th (or 7th), and 13th (or        in fact, if not in name. The
In this way he became                15th). The Emperor voted with          Senate was practically subject to
permanent commander of the           the other Senators.                    his will. The Assemblies
national forces. Next the
                                                                            gradually lost all voice in the
Imperator (Emperor) caused           The Senate next conferred upon         government, and finally
himself to be invested with the      Octavius the title of AUGUSTUS;        disappeared entirely. The
authority of Censor. This            then it made him Proconsul (an         Senate, however, continued
enabled him to revise the list of    officer with the right to govern       nominally to act until the time of
Senators, and to restore to this     provinces), and Consul, with the       Diocletian (284 A.D.).
body something of its ancient        privilege of having twelve lictors,
respectability. By judicious         and of sitting in the curule chair     As Augustus had exclusive
pruning he reduced the number        between the two Consuls. The           command of the armies, he
chose to govern as Proconsul                                               Augustus next devoted himself to
those provinces which required                                             the task of conquering the
military forces. He himself                                                territory between the Lower
resided at the capital, and sent                                           Rhine and Moesia, which was
deputies (legati) to oversee them.                                         occupied by hardy mountaineers
The other provinces, called                                                whose resistance was likely to be
Senatorial, were governed by                                               stubborn. His two step-sons,
Proconsuls appointed by the                                                Drusus and Tiberius, were in
Senate. These were at this time                                            charge of this important work.
Sicily, Africa, Achaia (Greece),     Praetorian Guard relief               They were so successful as to
Macedonia, Asia (Minor),                                                   acquire enough territory to form
Hispania Ulterior, and Gallia        The Roman Empire at this time         two new provinces, Rhaetia and
Narbonensis.                         included all the countries            Noricum (15 B.C.).
                                     bordering on the Mediterranean,
The city government now              extending east to the Parthian        Tiberius also conquered the
included all Italy. In this          kingdom (the Upper Euphrátes)         valley of the Save, and made it
Augustus was assisted by three       and the Arabian Desert, south to      the province of Pannonia
Praefects; one in charge of the      the Desert of Sahara, and west        (Western Hungary), 10 B.C.
corn supplies, a second in           to the Atlantic Ocean. On the
charge of the city proper, and a     north the boundary was                Drusus, while his brother Tiberius
third in charge of his body guard    unsettled, and subject to inroads     was engaged in Pannonia, made
of nine thousand men, called the     of barbarians. In the early part of   a campaign against the Germans
PRAETORIAN GUARD. These              his reign Augustus joined to the      near the Rhine. He had nearly
Praefects soon overshadowed all      Empire a new province, Moesia,        finished the conquest of
the regular magistrates, and         comprising the territory along the    Germany from the Rhine to the
through them Augustus reigned        Lower Danube, and making              Elbe, when he died (9, B.C.), and
supreme.                             nineteen in all.                      was succeeded by his brother
                                                                           Tiberius, who completed his
work.                                 loss in making his way through
                                      the pass into the open plain, but
Drusus received the cognomen          was there met by the enemy in
of Germanicus for his conquests       full force, and his troops were
in Germany. His wife was              annihilated. In despair Varus
Antonia, daughter of Mark             killed himself. Germany was
Antony, by whom he had two            practically lost and the Rhine
sons, Germanicus and Claudius,        became again the Roman
the latter of whom was                frontier. This defeat caused a
afterwards Emperor.                   great stir at Rome, and the
                                      Emperor is said to have              Temple of Mars in the Forum of
In 7 A.D. Lucius Varus was            exclaimed in his sorrow, "Varus,     Augustus
appointed governor of the newly       Varus, give me back my legions!"
acquired territory in Germany.                                             Although married three times, the
When he endeavored to subject         Five years later (14 A.D.)           Emperor had but one child,
these recently conquered              Augustus died. In his last           JULIA (39 B.C.—14 A.D.), by his
peoples to the forms of the           moments he asked his friends if      second wife, Scribonia. She
Roman provincial government,          he had not played well his part in   [Julia] was noted for her beauty
they rose in rebellion under the      the comedy of life.                  and talents, but infamous for her
lead of Arminius (Herman), a                                               intrigues. She was married three
powerful chief.                                                            times; first, to Marcellus, her
                                                                           cousin; secondly, to Agrippa, by
Varus was allured from his                                                 whom she had five children; and
fortified camp (9 A.D.) into a pass                                        thirdly, to the Emperor Tiberius.
in the Teutoberger Forests,                                                She was banished on account of
where he was suddenly attacked                                             her conduct, and died in want.
on all sides. After three days'
fighting, he succeeded with great                                          OCTAVIA, the sister of Augustus,
was noted for her beauty and         and had three sons, two of whom       irresponsible sovereignty he
accomplishments, as well as for      were adopted by Augustus, but         established. He formed his
the nobility of her character. Her   died before him; the third was        empire for the present, to the
son MARCELLUS was adopted            murdered by Tiberius.                 utter ignoring of the future. Thus
by his uncle, but died young (23                                           it would seem that the part he
B.C.). The famous lines of Virgil    Augustus died at the age of           played was that of a shrewd
upon this promising young man        seventy-six. He was frugal and        politician, rather than that of a
(Aeneid VI. 869- 887) were read      correct in his personal habits,       wise statesman.
before the Emperor and his           quick and shrewd in his dealings
sister, moving them to tears, and    with men, bold and ambitious in
winning for the author a             the affairs of state. His
munificent reward.                   greatness consisted rather in the
                                     ability to abstain from abusing
After the death of her first         the advantages presented by
husband, Octavia was married to      fortune, than in the genius which
Mark Antony, by whom she had         moulds the current of affairs to
two daughters, through whom          the will. His success depended
she was the ancestress of three      on the temper of the people and
Emperors, CLAUDIUS,                  the peculiar circumstances of the
CALIGULA, and NERO.                  time. His clearest title to
                                     greatness is found in the fact that
AGRIPPA (63-12), an eminent          he compelled eighty millions of
general and statesman, was a         people to live in peace for more
warm friend and counsellor of        than forty years, He made the
Augustus. At the battle of Actium    world to centre on one will, and
he commanded the fleet of            the horrors which mark the reigns
Octavius. He married Julia, the      of his successors were the
only daughter of the Emperor,        legitimate result of the
                                    stands first in the Augustan age.       however, fitted to grapple with
                                    Born at Andes, near Mantua, 15          the tasks and difficulties of
CHAPTER XXXVII THE                  October, 70, he was educated at         practical life.
AUGUSTAN AGE                        Cremona and Mediolánum. After
                                    completing his education he             In his fortunes and friends he
                                    retired to his paternal estate. In      was a happy man. Munificent
                                    the division of land among the          patronage gave him ample
In speaking of Augustus, we
                                    soldiers after the battle of Philippi   means of enjoyment and leisure;
must take into account the
                                    (42), he was deprived of his            and he had the friendship of all
writers whose names have given
                                    property, which was                     the most accomplished men of
to his its brightest lustre, and
                                    subsequently restored to him by         his day, among whom was
have made the AUGUSTAN AGE
                                    Augustus. He lived partly at            Horace, who entertained a strong
a synonym for excellence in
                                    Rome, partly in Campania. His           affection for him. His fame,
culture, art, and government.
                                    health was never good, and he           which was established in his
Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Livy, and a
                                    died in his fifty-second year (22       lifetime, was cherished after his
host of others, have given his
                                    September, 19 B.C.).                    death as an inheritance in which
reign a brilliancy unmatched in
                                                                            every Roman had a share; and
time, which is rather enhanced
                                    Virgil had neither original nor         his works became school-books
than diminished by the fame of
                                    creative genius. Though he              even before the death of
Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust, who
                                    mainly imitated Greek poetry, his       Augustus, and have continued
preceded, and that of Tacitus,
                                    style is graceful and eloquent, his     such ever since.
Seneca, and others, who
                                    tone inspiring and elevating.
followed; for they belong to an
                                                                            HORACE (65-8 B.C.) was born
epoch in which Augustus stands
                                    In disposition he was childlike,        at Venusia, but received his
the central figure in all which
                                    innocent, and amiable,—a good           education at Rome and Athens.
pertains to the arts of peace.
                                    son, a faithful friend, honest, and     He was present at the battle of
                                    full of devotion to persons and         Philippi (42), where he fought as
In literature the name of VIRGIL
                                    ideal interests. He was not,            Tribune under Brutus. His first
writings were his Satires. These       perhaps nearest to modern             manner, and the latter is
he read to his friends, and their      civilization, partly on account of    constantly referring to him in his
merit was at once recognized.          his fresh and vivid sense of the      poetry. He died (8 B.C.)
His great patron was                   beauties of nature, and partly        childless, and left his fortune to
MAECÉNAS, who introduced him           because his subject is love. His      Augustus.
to the Emperor, and gave him a         representations of this passion
fine country seat near Tivoli,         are graceful, and strikingly true.
among the Sabine Mountains.            He also excelled other poets in
He died the same year as his           the perfect elegance of his form,
patron, and was buried beside          especially in the character and
him at the Esquiline Gate.             rhythm of his verses." He spent
                                       his last days in exile, banished by
The poems of Horace give us a          Augustus for some reason now          Auditorium of Maecenas in Rome
picture of refined and educated        unknown. Some of his most
life in the Rome of his time. They     pleasing verses were written          The prose writers who lived at
are unsurpassed in gracefulness        during this period.                   this period were Livy, Sallust,
and felicity of thought. Filled with                                         and Nepos.
truisms, they were for centuries       One of the most noted men of
read and quoted more than those        the Augustan age was                  LIVY is the best of these. He
of any other ancient writer.           MAECÉNAS, the warm friend             was a native of Patavium
                                       and adviser of Augustus. He           (Padua), a man of rhetorical
OVID (43 B.C.-18 A.D.), a native       was a constant patron of the          training, who spent most of his
of Sulmo, is far inferior to Virgil    literature and art of his             time in Rome. The historical
and Horace as a poet, but ranks        generation. He was very               value of his work cannot be
high on account of his great gift      wealthy, and his magnificent          overestimated, on account of the
for narration.                         house was the centre of literary      scarcity, and in many cases the
                                       society in Rome, He helped both       utter lack, of other historical
"Of the Latin poets he stands          Virgil and Horace in a substantial    documents on the times of which
he wrote. His style is spirited,    republican institutions, a man of     The finest building outside of the
and always interesting. His         great independence of character,      city, in the Campus Martius, was
accuracy, however, is not to be     and a poet of no mean merit, as       the PANTHEON, built by
compared with that of Caesar.       his contemporaries testify.           Agrippa, and now used as a
Only thirty-five out of the one     Unfortunately, none of his            Christian church. Here are
hundred and forty-two books that    writings are preserved.               buried many distinguished men.
he wrote are preserved.                                                   Near by, Augustus erected a
                                    The age of Augustus is also           mausoleum for himself. Here too
NEPOS was a prolific writer, but    noted for the architectural           was a theatre, built by
only a portion of one of his        improvements in Rome.                 Pompey,—the first stone theatre
works, De Viris Illustribus, has    Augustus is said to have found a      of Rome.
come down to us; it is neither      city of stone, and left one of
accurate nor interesting, and of    marble. He himself built twelve
little value.                       temples, and repaired eighty-two
                                    that had fallen into decay. The
SALLUST left two historical         FORUM was beautified by five
productions, one on the             halls of justice (Basilicae), which
conspiracy of Catiline, the other   were erected around its borders.
on the war with Jugurtha. His       The most famous of these was          Pantheon entrance, Rome
style is rhetorical. He excels in   the BASILICA JULIA, begun by
delineating character, but he is    Julius Caesar and finished by
often so concise as to be           Augustus. Public squares were
obscure.                            planned and begun north of the
                                    great Forum, the finest of which
statesman and orator of marked      finished by the Emperor of that
attainments of this time. He was    name.
strongly attached to the old
                                      Rome in 7 B.C., he celebrated a    throne at the age of fifty-six. A
                                      triumph, and afterwards married    silent man, "all his feelings,
CHAPTER XXXVIII THE                   Julia, the dissolute daughter of   desires, and ambitions were
JULIAN AND CLAUDIAN                   Augustus. This marriage proved     locked behind an impenetrable
EMPERORS                              to be the ruin of Tiberius,        barrier." He is said but once to
                                      developing everything that was     have taken counsel with his
                                      bad in his character, and making   officers. He was a master of
                                      him jealous, suspicious, and       dissimulation, and on this
TIBERIUS (14-37 A.D.)                 hypocritical.                      account an object of dislike and
                                                                         suspicion. But until his later
                                                                         years, his intellect was clear and
Augustus was succeeded by                                                far-seeing, penetrating all
TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO                                                   disguises.
CAESAR (born 42 B.C.), the son
of Tiberius Claudius Nero and                                            Throughout his reign Tiberius
Livia. His mother obtained a                                             strove to do his duty to the
divorce from Tiberius, and                                               Empire at large, and maintained
married Augustus.                     Tiberius, 42 B.C – 37 A.D.         with great care the constitutional
                                                                         forms which had been
Tiberius had great military talent.   Augustus, not relishing the        established by Augustus. Only
He was a severe disciplinarian,       changes in his character, sent     two changes of importance were
and commanded the full                him to Rhodes, where he lived      made. First, the IMPERIAL
confidence of his soldiers. As        seven years in retirement.         GUARD, hitherto seen in the city
commander in Cantabria,               Through his mother's influence,    only in small bodies, was
Armenia, Rhaetia, Dalmatia, and       however, he was recalled in 2      permanently encamped in full
Germany, he conducted his             A.D., and was afterwards           force close to the walls. By this
campaigns with success, and           appointed the Emperor's            course the danger of riots was
honor to himself. Returning to        successor. He ascended the         much lessened. Secondly, the
old COMITIAS were practically        the imperium or potestas.               another, the large circle of
abolished. But the Senate was        Tiberius stretched the application      relatives of Augustus, until finally
treated with great deference.        of this offence even to words or        the aged Emperor found himself
                                     conduct which could in any way          alone in the palace with Livia and
Tiberius expended great care on      be considered dangerous to the          her son, Tiberius. All Rome
the provinces. His favorite          Emperor. A hateful class of             execrated the Empress, and her
maxim was, that a good               informers (delatores) sprung up,        son feared and hated her. She
shepherd should shear, and not       and the lives of all were rendered      survived Augustus fifteen years,
flay, his sheep. Soldiers,           unsafe. The dark side of this           and died in 29. Tiberius refused
governors, and officials of all      ruler's character is made               to visit her on her death-bed, and
kinds were kept in a wholesome       specially prominent by ancient          was not present at her funeral.
dread of punishment, if they         historians; but their statements
oppressed those under them.          are beginning to be taken with          SEJÁNUS was the commander
Strict economy in public             much allowance.                         of the Praetorian Guard of
expenses kept the taxes down.                                                Tiberius. He was trusted fully by
Commerce was cherished, and          After a reign of twenty-three           the Emperor, but proved to be a
his reign on the whole was one of    years, Tiberius died, either in a       deep-dyed rascal. He persuaded
prosperity for the Empire.           fainting fit or from violence, at the   Livilla, the daughter-in-law of the
                                     age of seventy-nine.                    Emperor, to poison her husband,
Tiberius was noted especially for                                            the heir apparent, and then he
prosecutions for MAJESTAS, on        LIVIA, the mother of Tiberius,          divorced his own wife to marry
the slightest pretext. Majestas      deserves more than a passing            her. He so maligned Agrippína,
nearly corresponds to treason;       notice. She exercised almost a          the widow of Germanicus and
but it is more comprehensive.        boundless influence on her              daughter of Agrippa and Julia,
One of the offences included in      husband, Augustus. She had              that Tiberius banished her, with
the word was effecting, aiding in,   great ambition, and was very            her sons Nero and Drusus. In 26
or planning the death of a           cruel and unscrupulous. She             he induced the Emperor to retire
magistrate, or of one who had        managed to ruin, one after              to the island of Capreae, and he
himself became the real master         confiscated their property. He
of Rome.                               seemed to revel in bloodshed,
                                                                           THE CLAUDIAN
                                       and is said to have expressed a     EMPERORS
Tiberius at last finding out his       wish that the Roman people had
true character, Sejánus was            but one neck, that he might slay    CLAUDIUS (41-54)
arrested and executed in 31. His       them all at a blow. He was
body was dragged through the           passionately fond of adulation,     A strong party was now in favor
streets, torn in pieces by the         and often repaired to the           of returning to a republican form
mob, and thrown into the Tiber.        Capitoline temple in the guise of   of government; but while the
                                       a god, and demanded worship.        Senate was considering this
                                       Four years of such a tyrant was     question, the Praetorian Guard
CALIGULA (37-41)                       enough. He was murdered by a        settled it by proclaiming
                                       Tribune of his Praetorian Guard.    CLAUDIUS Emperor.
Tiberius having left no son, the
Senate recognized Gaius                                                    Claudius was the uncle of
Caesar, son of Germanicus and                                              Caligula and the nephew of
Agrippína, grandson of Julia, and                                          Tiberius. He was a man of
great-grandson of Augustus, as                                             learning and good parts, but a
Emperor. He is better known as                                             glutton, and the slave of his two
CALIGULA,—a nickname given                                                 wives, who were both bad
him by the soldiers from the                                               women. His first wife,
buskins he wore. He was                Caligula, 12 A.D.-41 A.D.           MESSALÍNA, was so notorious
twenty-five years of age when he                                           that her name has became
began to reign, of weak                                                    almost a synonym for
constitution, and subject to fits.                                         wickedness. His second wife, his
After squandering his own                                                  niece AGRIPPÍNA, sister of
wealth, he killed rich citizens, and                                       Caligula, was nearly as bad.

This woman had by her former         noted general AGRICOLA: It           or three years he was under the
husband, Domitius, a son, whom       remained a Roman province for        influence of his tutor, SENECA,
she induced the Emperor to           four hundred years, but the          the author, and BURRHUS, the
adopt under the name of NERO.        people never assimilated Roman       Praefect of the Praetorian Guard,
The faithless wife then caused       customs, as did the Gauls, and       and his government was during
her husband to be poisoned, and      when the Roman garrisons were        this period the most respectable
her son to be proclaimed             withdrawn, they quickly returned     of any since the time of
Emperor.                             to their former condition.           Augustus. His masters kept the
                                     However, many remains of             young Emperor amused, and
                                     Roman buildings in the island        removed from the cares of state.
                                     show that it was for the time well   But he soon became infatuated
                                     under subjection.                    with an unscrupulous woman,
                                                                          POPPAEA SABÍNA, for whom he
                                     The public works of Claudius         neglected and finally killed his
                                     were on a grand scale. He            wife, Octavia.
                                     constructed a new harbor at the
Claudius, 10 B.C.-54 A.D.            mouth of the Tiber, and built the    It would be useless to follow in
                                     great aqueduct called the AQUA       detail the crimes of Nero from
At Rome the rule of Claudius was     CLAUDIA, the ruined arches of        this time. A freedman,
mild, and on the whole beneficial.   which can be seen to this day.       TIGELLÍNUS, became his
In the government of the             He also reclaimed for agriculture    adviser, and was the real ruler of
provinces he was rigorous and        a large tract of land by draining    the Empire. He encouraged his
severe. He undertook the             the Fucine Lake.                     master in all his vices and
CONQUEST OF BRITAIN, and in                                               wickedness. Poppaea died from
a campaign of sixteen days he
                                     NERO (54-68)                         a kick administered by Nero in
laid the foundation of its final                                          anger; Burrhus was disposed of;
subjugation, which occurred                                               Agrippína, and Britannicus, the
                                     NERO was but sixteen years old
about forty years later, under the                                        true heir to the throne, were
                                     when he began to reign. For two
murdered. The wealthy were           Broad regular streets replaced        meadows, lakes, groves, and
plundered, and the feelings of his   the narrow winding alleys. The        distant views. In front was a
subjects outraged in every           new houses were limited in            colossal statue of Nero himself,
conceivable manner. The              height, built partly of hard stone,   one hundred and ten feet high.
Emperor appeared in public,          and protected by open spaces
contending first as a musician,      and colonnades. The water             Conspiracies having been
and afterwards in the sports of      supply was also carefully             formed in which Seneca and
the circus.                          regulated.                            Lucan were implicated, both men
                                                                           were ordered to take their own
The great fire of 18 July, 64,                                             lives. Nero's life after this
which destroyed a large part of                                            became still more infamous. In a
the city, was ascribed to him, but                                         tour made in Greece, he
without sufficient evidence; and                                           conducted himself so
the stories of his conduct during                                          scandalously that even Roman
the conflagration are doubtless                                            morals were shocked, and
pure fictions. It was necessary,                                           Roman patience could endure
however, to fix the guilt on some                                          him no longer. The Governor of
one; so the CHRISTIANS, then a       Nero, 37 A.D.-69 A.D.                 Hither Spain, GALBA, proclaimed
small sect, made up chiefly of the                                         himself Emperor, and marched
poorer people, were accused of       In addition to rebuilding the city,   upon Rome. Verginius, the
the crime, and persecuted            Nero gratified his love for the       Governor of Upper Germany,
without mercy. They were often       magnificent by erecting a             also lent his aid to the
enclosed in fagots covered with      splendid palace, called the           insurrection. The Senate
pitch, and burned alive.             GOLDEN HOUSE. Its walls               proclaimed Nero a public enemy,
                                     were adorned with gold, precious      and condemned him to death.
In rebuilding Rome, Nero took        stones, and masterpieces of art       He fled from the city and put an
every precaution against the         from Greece. The grounds              end to his life, June 9, 68, just in
recurrence of a conflagration.       around were marvellous in their       time to escape capture. His
statues were broken down, his        began to dislike him, and when        sincerely regretted by the better
name everywhere erased, and          Burrhus died his fate was sealed.     element in the city.
his Golden House demolished.         By the Emperor's command he
With him ended the Claudian line     committed suicide. Opening the        OTHO, the first husband of
of Emperors.                         veins in his feet and arms, he        Poppaea, and the leader in the
                                     discoursed with his friends on the    insurrection against Galba, was
LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA (8             brevity of life until death ensued.   now declared Emperor. No
B.C.-65 A.D.) was born at                                                  sooner did the news of his
Corduba in Spain, of a Spanish       Seneca is the most eminent of         accession reach Gaul than
Roman family, and was educated       the writers of his age. He wrote      VITELLIUS, a general of the
at Rome. His father was a            moral essays, philosophical           army of the Rhine, revolted.
teacher of rhetoric, a man of        letters, physical treatises, and      Otho marched against the rebels,
wealth and literary attainments.     tragedies. Of the last, the best      was defeated, and committed
Seneca began to practise at the      are HERCULES FURENS,                  suicide after a reign of three
bar at Rome, and was gaining         PHAEDRA, and MEDEA.                   months.
considerable reputation, when in
41 he was banished to Corsica.       GALBA (68-69)—OTHO                    VITELLIUS had been a good
Eight years later he was recalled    (69)—VITELLIUS (69)                   soldier, but as a ruler he was
to be tutor of the young Nero,                                             weak and incapable. He was
then eleven years old. He was        GALBA entered the city as a           killed after a reign of less than a
Consul in 57, and during the first   conqueror, without much trouble,      year, during which he had
years of Nero's reign he shared      but on account of his parsimony       distinguished himself by gluttony
the administration of affairs with   and austerity he soon became          and vulgar sensuality.
the worthy Burrhus. His              unpopular, and was murdered by
influence over Nero, while it        his mutinous soldiers fifteen days
lasted, was salutary, though         after he reached Rome. He
often maintained by doubtful         belonged to an old patrician
means. In course of time Nero        family, and his overthrow was
                                      simple, putting to shame the          of Peace, public baths, and the
                                      luxury and extravagance of the        famous COLOSSÉUM was
CHAPTER XXXIX THE                     nobles, and causing a marked          begun, receiving its name from
FLAVIAN EMPERORS                      improvement in the general tone       the Colossus, a statue of Nero,
                                      of society. He removed from the       which had stood near by.
                                      Senate many improper members,
                                      replacing them by able men,
VESPASIAN (69-79).                    among whom was AGRICOLA.
                                      In 70 he put down a formidable
                                      rebellion in Gaul; and when his
The East now made a claim for
                                      son Titus returned from the
the Emperor, and on July 1, 69,
                                      capture of Jerusalem, [Note:
the soldiers who were engaged
                                      Jerusalem was taken in 70, after
in war against the revolted Jews
                                      a siege of several months, the        Vespasianus, 9-79 A.D.
in Judaea proclaimed as
                                      horrors of which have been
Emperor their commander,
                                      graphically detailed by the           On the whole, Vespasian was
                                      Jewish historian Joséphus, who        active and prudent in public
VESPASIÁNUS. He left the
                                      was present in the army of Titus.     affairs, frugal and virtuous in
conduct of the war in charge of
                                      The city was destroyed, and the       private life. The decade of his
his son Titus, and arrived at
                                      inhabitants sold into slavery.]       reign was marked by peace and
Rome in 70. Here he overthrew
                                      they enjoyed a joint triumph. The     general prosperity.
and put to death Vitellius. In the
                                      Temple of Janus was closed, and
course of this struggle the Capitol
                                      peace prevailed during the            One of the ablest men of this age
was burned. This he restored,
                                      remainder of his reign.               was AGRICOLA (37-93). Born at
rebuilding also a large part of the
                                                                            Forum Julii in Gaul, he was made
                                      Much money was spent on public        Governor of Aquitania by
                                      works, and in beautifying the city.   Vespasian in 73. Four years
In his own life Vespasian was
                                      A new Forum was built, a Temple       later he was Consul, and the next
year was sent to Britain, which      which can still be seen.
he conquered, and governed with
                                                                         DOMITIAN (81-96)
marked ability and moderation,
increasing the prosperity of the                                         DOMITIAN was the opposite of
people and advancing their                                               his brother Titus,—cruel,
civilization. He remained in                                             passionate, and extravagant. He
Britain until 85, when he was                                            was murdered after a reign of
recalled. His life was written by                                        fifteen years, during which he
his son-in-law, the historian                                            earned the hatred and contempt
Tacitus.                             Titus Vespasianus, 39-81 A.D.       of his subjects by his crimes and
                                     It was during this reign that
TITUS (79-81)                        HERCULANEUM and POMPEII             In his foreign policy Domitian
                                     were destroyed by an eruption of    showed considerable ability. He
                                     Vesuvius. In this eruption          added to the Empire that part of
Vespasian was succeeded by his       perished PLINY THE ELDER, the       Germany which corresponds to
son TITUS, who emulated the          most noted writer of his day. His   modern Baden and Wirtemberg,
virtues of his father. He finished   work on Natural History, the only   and built a line of fortifications
the Colosséum, begun by              one of his writings that is         from Mentz on the Rhine to
Vespasian, and built a triumphal     preserved, shows that he was a      Ratisbon on the Danube.
arch to commemorate his              true student. His passion for
victories over the Jews. This        investigation led him to approach   With him ended the line of the
arch, called the ARCH OF             too near the volcano, and caused    FLAVIAN EMPERORS, and he
TITUS, was built on the highest      his death.                          was also the last of the so called
part of the Via Sacra, and on its                                        TWELVE CAESARS, a name
walls was carved a                                                       given them by the historian
representation of the sacred                                             Suetonius.
candlestick of the Jewish temple,
                                    TRAJAN, whose character has          Trajan also annexed to the
                                    its surest guaranty in the love      Empire Arabia Petraea, which
CHAPTER XL THE FIVE                 and veneration of his subjects;      afforded an important route
GOOD EMPERORS                       and it is said that, long            between Egypt and Syria. His
                                    afterwards, the highest praise       invasion of Parthia, however,
                                    that could be bestowed on a ruler    resulted in no permanent
                                    was that he was "more fortunate      advantage.
NERVA (96-98).                      than Augustus, and better than
                                    Trajan." Trajan was a soldier,
                                    and, if he lacked the refinements
NERVA was appointed by the
                                    of a peaceful life, he was
Senate to succeed Domitian, and
                                    nevertheless a wise and firm
was the first Emperor who did not
owe his advancement to military
force or influence. He associated
                                    He added to the Empire Dacia,
with himself MARCUS ULPIUS
                                    the country included between the     Trajan’s Column in Forum of
TRAJANUS, then in command of
                                    Danube and the Theiss, the           Trajan
the army on the Rhine. Nerva
                                    Carpathians and the Pruth. This
ruled only sixteen months; but
                                    territory became so thoroughly       During the reign of Trajan the
during that time he restored
                                    Romanized that the language of       Roman Empire REACHED THE
tranquillity among the people,
                                    its inhabitants to-day is founded    SUMMIT OF ITS POWER; but
conferring happiness and
                                    on that of their conquerors nearly   the first signs of decay were
prosperity upon every class.
                                    eighteen centuries ago. It was in    beginning to be seen in the
                                    honor of this campaign into Dacia    financial distress of all Italy, and
                                    that the famous COLUMN OF            the decline of the free peasantry,
TRAJAN (98-117).                    TRAJAN, which still remains,         until in the next century they
                                    was erected.                         were reduced to a condition of
Nerva was succeeded by                                                   practical serfdom.
                                                                         Caledonians and built a fortified
                                    HADRIAN (117-138)                    line of works, known as the
                                                                         PICTS' WALL, extending from
                                    Trajan was succeeded by his          sea to sea. The remains of this
                                    cousin's son, HADRIAN, a native      great work are still to be seen,
                                    of Spain. One of the first acts of   corresponding nearly to the
                                    Hadrian was to relinquish the        modern boundary between
                                    recent conquests of Trajan, and      England and Scotland. He also
Trajan, 53-117 A.D.                 to restore the old boundaries of     visited the East, where the Jews
                                    the Empire. The reasons for this     were making serious trouble, and
The literature of Trajan's reign    were that they had reached the       completed their overthrow.
was second only to that of the      utmost limits which could lend
Augustan age. His time has          strength to the power of Rome,       On his return to the city, the
often been called the SILVER        or be held in subjection without     Emperor devoted himself to its
AGE. Its prose writers were,        constant and expensive military      adornment. Several of his works,
however, unlike those of the        operations. The people               more or less complete, still
Augustan age, far superior to its   occupying the new conquests          remain. The most famous of
poets. The most famous prose        were hardy and warlike,              these is the MAUSOLÉUM
writers were TACITUS, PLINY         scattered over a country easy of     (Tomb) OF HADRIAN, now
THE YOUNGER, and                    defence, and certain to strive       known as the Castle of San
QUINTILIAN.                         constantly against a foreign yoke.   Angelo.

The poets of this period were       Hadrian displayed constant           Hadrian was afflicted with bad
JUVENAL, PERSIUS, MARTIAL,          activity in travelling over the      health, suffering much from
LUCAN, and STATIUS, of whom         Empire, to overlook personally its   diseases from which he could
the last two were of an inferior    administration and protection.       find no relief. On account of this,
order.                              He visited Britain, where he         and to secure a proper
                                    crushed the inroads of the           succession, he associated with
himself in the government TITUS      account of the affectionate          brought with it a pestilence,
AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS, and              respect which he had shown for       which spread devastation
required him to adopt Marcus         Hadrian. He was a man of noble       throughout the West. The
Annius Verus and Lucius Verus.       appearance, firm and prudent,        Christians were charged with
In 138, soon after this              and under him the affairs of state   being the cause of the plague,
arrangement was made, Hadrian        moved smoothly.                      and were cruelly persecuted.
died, leaving the Empire to Titus.                                        Among the victims were Justin
                                                                          Martyr at Rome, and Polycarp at
                                     MARCUS AURELIUS                      Smyrna.
                                     ANTONÍNUS (161-180)
                                                                          The death of Lucius Verus in 168
                                                                          released Aurelius from a
                                     On the death of Antonínus,           colleague who attracted attention
                                     Marcus Annius Verus succeeded        only by his unfitness for his
Castel Sant’Angelo, Hadrian’s        him under the title of Marcus        position. The Emperor was thus
Mausoleum                            Aurelius Antonínus.                  relieved of embarrassments
                                                                          which might well have become
                                     The Moors made an invasion into      his greatest danger. The
TITUS AURELIUS                       Spain; the barbarians broke into     remainder of his reign, however,
ANTONÍNUS PIUS (138-                 Gaul; the army in Britain            was scarcely less unhappy.
                                     attempted to set up another
161)                                 Emperor; and the Parthians in        The dangers from the
                                     the East were in an uneasy state.    troublesome barbarians grew
ANTONÍNUS, a native of Gaul,         The Eastern war, however,            greater and greater. Rome had
was fifty-two years old when he      ended favorably, and the             now passed the age of conquest,
succeeded to the throne. The         Parthian king purchased peace        and began to show inability even
cognomen PIUS was conferred          by ceding Mesopotamia to             to defend what she had acquired.
upon him by the Senate on            Rome. But the returning army         For fourteen years Aurelius was
engaged on the frontiers fighting    began rapidly to wane.               of adoration. The Christians not
these barbarians, and                                                     only refused homage to the
endeavoring to check their                                                Roman gods, but denounced the
advance. He died at Vienna                                                burning of incense as
while thus occupied, in the fifty-                                        sacrilegious. AURELIUS gave
ninth year of his life (180).                                             his sanction to the most general
                                                                          persecution this sect had yet
Peace was shortly afterwards                                              suffered. The last combined
made with the barbarians, a                                               effort to suppress them was
peace bought with money; an                                               under DIOCLETIAN, in 284, but it
example often followed in later      Marcus Aurelius, 121-180 A.D.        ended with the EDICT OF MILAN
times, when Rome lacked the                                               in 312, which famous decree
strength and courage to enforce                                           gave the imperial license to the
her wishes by force of arms.         THE CHRISTIANS                       religion of Christ.

Marcus Aurelius was the              The CHRISTIANS, who were
PHILOSOPHER of the Empire.           gradually increasing in numbers,
His tastes were quiet; he was        were persecuted at different
unassuming, and intent on the        times throughout the Empire.
good of the people. His faults       One ground for these
were amiable weaknesses; his         persecutions was that it was a
virtues, those of a hero. His        crime against the state to refuse
Meditations have made him            to worship the gods of the
known as an author of fine tastes    Romans under whom the Empire
and thoughts. With him ended         had flourished. It was also the
the line of the GOOD                 custom to burn incense in front of
EMPERORS. After his death,           the Emperor's statue, as an act
Rome's prosperity and power
                                     proudest boasts were of his            crown to the highest bidder, who
                                     triumphs in the amphitheatre,          proved to be DIDIUS JULIÁNUS,
CHAPTER XLI PERIOD                   and of his ability to kill a hundred   a wealthy Senator. He paid
OF MILITARY                          lions with as many arrows. After       about a thousand dollars to each
DESPOTISM—DECLINE                    a reign of twelve years his            soldier of the Guard, twelve
OF THE EMPIRE                        servants rid the Empire of his         thousand in number. After
                                     presence.                              enjoying the costly honor two
                                                                            months he was deposed and
COMMODUS (180-192)                   PERTINAX (192-193)
                                                                            In the mean time several soldiers
                                                                            had been declared Emperor by
On the death of Aurelius, his son,   PERTINAX, the Praefect of the          their respective armies. Among
Commodus, hastened to Rome,          city, an old and experienced           them was SEPTIMIUS
and was received by both the         Senator, followed Commodus.            SEVÉRUS, an African, belonging
Senate and army without              His reign of three months was          to the army of the Danube.
opposition. His character was        well meant, but as it was not
the opposite of that of his good     supported by the military it was of    Sevérus was an able soldier. He
father. In ferocity and              no effect. His attempted reforms       disarmed the Praetorians,
vindictiveness he was almost         were stopped by his murder.            banished them from Rome, and
unequalled, even among the                                                  filled their place with fifty
Emperors of unhappy Rome. By                                                thousand legionaries, who acted
means of informers, who were         JULIANUS (193).—                       as his body guard. The person
well paid, he rid himself of the     SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS                      whom he placed in command of
best members of the Senate. His      (193-211)                              this guard was made to rank next
government became so corrupt,                                               to himself, with legislative,
he himself so notorious in crime,                                           judicial, and financial powers.
that he was unendurable. His         The Praetorians now offered the        The Senate he reduced to a
nonentity.                                                                  predecessors. The Praetorians
                                     CARACALLA,                             revolted and murdered him.
After securing the capital,          MACRINUS, AND
Sevérus carried on a campaign        HELIOGABALUS
against the Parthians, and was                                              FROM ALEXANDER
victorious over the rulers of                                               SEVERUS TO THE AGE
                                     Sevérus left two sons, both of
Mesopotamia and Arabia. In 203
he erected, in commemoration of
                                     whom he had associated with            OF THE THIRTY
                                     himself in the government. No          TYRANTS (222-268)
these victories, a magnificent
                                     sooner was he dead than they
arch, which still stands at the
                                     quarrelled, and the elder,
head of the Forum. He died at                                               ALEXANDER SEVÉRUS was a
                                     CARACALLA, murdered the
Eboracum (York), in Britain, while                                          good man, and well educated.
                                     other with his own hand in the
making preparations for a                                                   But he endeavored in vain to
                                     presence of their mother.
campaign against the                                                        check the decline of the state.
Caledonians.                                                                The military had become all
                                     Caracalla was blood-thirsty and
                                     cruel. After a short reign (211-       powerful, and he could effect
                                     216) he was murdered by one of         nothing against it. During his
                                     his soldiers. By him were begun        reign (222-235), the famous
                                     the famous baths which bore his        baths begun by Caracalla were
                                     name, and of which extensive           finished.
                                     remains still exist. Caracalla was
                                     succeeded by MACRÍNUS, who             Sevérus was killed in a mutiny
                                     reigned but one year, and was          led by MAXIMIN, who was
Septimius Severus, 145-211 A.D.
                                     followed by HELIOGABALUS               Emperor for three years (235-
                                     (218-222), a priest of the sun, a      238), and was then murdered by
                                     true Oriental, with but few virtues.   his mutinous soldiers.
                                     His end was like that of his

GORDIAN, his successor (238-        ruled and revived somewhat the
244), was also slain by his own     shattered strength of the
soldiers in his camp on the         government: CLAUDIUS (268-
Euphrates, and PHILIP (244-249)     270); AURELIAN (270-275);
and DECIUS (249- 251) both fell     TACITUS (275-276); PROBUS
in battle. Under Decius was         (276-282); and CARUS (282-
begun a persecution of the          283). Aurelian undertook a
Christians severer than any that    campaign against the famous           Aurelian, 214-275 A.D.
preceded it.                        ZENOBIA, Queen of PALMÝRA.
                                    In her he found a worthy foe, one
The next seventeen years (251-      whose political ability was           DIOCLETIAN (284-305)
268) is a period of great           rendered more brilliant by her
confusion. Several generals in      justice and courage. Defeated in
                                                                          With this ruler, the last vestige of
different provinces were declared   the field, she fortified herself in
                                                                          the old republican form of
Emperor. The Empire nearly fell     Palmýra, which was taken after a
                                                                          government at Rome disappears.
to pieces, but finally rallied      siege and destroyed. Zenobia
                                                                          Old Rome was dead. Her
without loss of territory. Its      was carried to Rome, where she
                                                                          Senate had lost the last remnant
weakness, however, was              graced the triumph of her
                                                                          of its respectability. Seeing the
apparent to all. This period is     conqueror, but was afterwards
                                                                          necessity of a more united
often called the AGE OF THE         permitted to live in retirement.
                                                                          country and a firmer rule,
THIRTY TYRANTS.                     Aurelian was the first who built
                                                                          DIOCLETIAN associated with
                                    the walls of Rome in their present
                                                                          himself MAXIMIAN, a gigantic
                                                                          soldier, who signalized his
FIVE GOOD EMPERORS                                                        accession by subduing a
(268-283)                                                                 dangerous revolt in Gaul. He
                                                                          also appointed two officers,
FIVE GOOD EMPERORS now                                                    GALERIUS and CONSTANTIUS,

whom he called CAESARS,—            (306-337).                          thirty years, in his sixty-fourth
one to have charge of the East,                                         year (337).
and the other of the West. By       Constantine determined to build
means of these assistants he        for his Empire a new capital,
crushed all revolts, strengthened   which should be worthy of him.
the waning power of the Empire,     He selected the site of
and imposed peace and good          BYZANTIUM as offering the
order upon the world.               greatest advantages; for, being
                                    defended on three sides by the
Diocletian and Maximian             sea and the Golden Horn, it
afterwards resigned, and allowed    could easily be made almost
their two Caesars to assume the     impregnable, while as a seaport     Constantine the Great, 272-337
rank of AUGUSTI, and they in        its advantages were unrivalled,—    A.D.
their turn appointed Caesars as     a feature not in the least shared
assistants.                         by Rome. The project was            Constantine is entitled to great
                                    entered upon with energy; the       credit for the uniform kindness
Soon after his accession            city was built, and named           with which he treated his
Constantius died, and his son       CONSTANTINOPLE. To people           Christian subjects. It is said that
CONSTANTINE was proclaimed          it, the seat of government was      his mother, HELENA, was a
Caesar, against the wishes of       permanently removed thither,        Christian, and that it was to her
Galerius. A bitter struggle         and every inducement was            influence that this mildness was
followed, in which Constantine      offered to immigration. Thus was    due. The sect, notwithstanding
finally overcame all his            born the GREEK EMPIRE,              many persecutions, had kept on
opponents, and was declared         destined to drag out a miserable    increasing, until now we find
sole Emperor. For his successes     existence for nearly a thousand     them a numerous and quite
he was named the GREAT.             years after Rome had fallen a       influential body. It was during his
                                    prey to the barbarians. Its         reign that the DECREE OF
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT               founder died, after a reign of      MILAN was issued, in 313, giving
the imperial license to the religion                                        attempted to restore the old
of Christ; and also in this reign
                                       DECLINE OF THE                       religion, and thus gained for
the famous COUNCIL OF NICE,            EMPIRE                               himself the epithet of
in Bithynia (325), met to settle                                            APOSTATE. The Christians,
questions of creed.                    Constantine was succeeded by         however, had too firm a hold on
                                       his three sons, CONSTANTINE          the state to admit of their powers
In person Constantine was tall         II., CONSTANTIUS, and                being shaken. The failure of
and majestic: he was dexterous         CONSTANS, who divided the            Julian precluded any similar
in all warlike accomplishments;        Empire among themselves (337-        attempt afterward. After a reign
intrepid in war, affable in peace;     353). Constantine and Constans       of three years, he was killed in an
patient and prudent in council,        almost at once quarrelled over       expedition against the Persians.
bold and unhesitating in action.       the possession of Italy, and the     His successor, JOVIAN (363-
Ambition alone led him to attack       difficulty was ended only by the     364), who was chosen by the
the East; and the very madness         death of the former. The other       army, died after a reign of only
of jealousy marked his course          two brothers lived in harmony for    seven months.
after his success. He was filial in    some time, because the Persian
his affection towards his mother;      war in the East occupied
but he can scarcely be called          Constantius, while Constans was      VALENTINIAN and
affectionate who put to death his      satisfied with a life of indolence   VALENS (364-375)
father-in-law, his brother-in-law,     and dissipation. Constans was
his wife, and his son. If he was       murdered in 350, and his brother
great in his virtues, in his faults    was sole Emperor. He died ten        After a brief interregnum, the
he was contemptible.                   years later, and was succeeded       throne was bestowed on
                                       by his cousin, Julian (360- 363)     Valentinian, who associated with
                                                                            himself his brother Valens. The
                                       JULIAN was a good soldier, and       Empire was divided. Valens took
                                       a man calculated to win the love     the East, with Constantinople as
                                       and respect of all. But he           his capital. Valentinian took the
West, making MILAN the seat of          and EUGENIUS (392-394), were         barbarians were driven from the
his government. So completely           either deposed or assassinated,      frontiers on the Rhine and in
had Rome fallen from her ancient        and again there was, for a short     Britain; a revolt in Africa was
position, that it is very doubtful if   time, one ruler of the whole         suppressed. Honorius himself
this monarch ever visited the city      Empire, THEODOSIUS, whom             was weak and jealous. He did
during his reign. [Note: Since the      Gratian had made Emperor of          not hesitate to murder Stilicho as
building of Constantinople no           the East. He was sole Emperor        soon as he was old enough to
Emperor had lived in Rome. She          for one year (394-395). On his       see the power he was wielding.
had ceased to be mistress even          death his two sons divided the       With Stilicho's death his fortune
of the West, and rapidly fell to the    Empire, HONORIUS (395-423)           departed. Rome was besieged,
rank of a provincial city.] He died     taking the West, and Arcadius        captured, and sacked by the
during a campaign on the                the East.                            barbarian ALARIC, in 410. When
Danube. His son GRATIAN                                                      this evil was past, numerous
(375-383) succeeded him. He                                                  contestants arose in different
discouraged Paganism, and                                                    parts of the Empire, each eager
under him Christianity made                                                  for a portion of the fabric which
rapid strides. His uncle Valens                                              was now so obviously crumbling
was slain in a battle against the                                            to pieces.
Goths; but so completely were
the Eastern and Western                                                      Honorius was succeeded, after
Empires now separated, that             Honorius, 384-423 A.D.               one of the longest reigns of the
Gratian did not attempt to make                                              imperial line, by VALENTINIAN
himself sole ruler, but appointed       Honorius was only six years old      III. (423-455). The Empire was
THEODOSIUS to the empty                 when he began to reign. He was       but a relic of its former self.
throne. Gratian, like so many of        placed under the care of a           Gaul, Spain, and Britain were
his predecessors, was murdered.         Vandal named STILICHO, to            practically lost; Illyria and
His successors, MAXIMUS (383-           whom he was allied by marriage.      Pannonia were in the hands of
388), VALENTINIAN II (388-392),         Stilicho was a man of ability. The   the Goths; and Africa was soon
after seized by the barbarians.
Valentinian was fortunate in the     After his death, Ricimer ruled
possession of AETIUS, a              under the title of PATRICIAN,
Scythian by birth, who for a time    until the people demanded an
upheld the Roman name,               Emperor, and he appointed
winning for himself the title of     ANTHEMIUS (467-472), who
LAST OF THE ROMANS. He               attempted to strengthen his
was assassinated by his              position by marrying a daughter
ungrateful master. A few months      of Ricimer; but jealousy soon
later, in 455, the Emperor himself   sprang up between them.
was killed by a Senator,             Ricimer invited a horde of
MAXIMUS, who succeeded him,          barbarians from across the Alps,
but for only three months, when      with whom he captured and
AVÍTUS (455-456), a noble of         sacked Rome, and killed
Gaul, became Emperor. He was         Anthemius. Shortly after,
deposed by RICIMER (457-467),        Ricimer himself died.
a Sueve, of considerable ability,
who for some time managed the        Names which appear only as
affairs of the Empire, making and    names now follow each other in
unmaking its monarchs at             rapid succession. Finally, in 476,
pleasure. After the removal of       ZENO, Emperor of the East,
Avítus, ten months were allowed      declared the office of EMPEROR
to elapse before a successor was     OF THE WEST abolished, and
appointed; and then the crown        gave the government of the
was bestowed upon MAJORIAN           DIOCESE OF ITALY to
(457-461). SEVÉRUS followed          ODOÁCER, with the title of
him, a man too weak to interfere     Patrician.
with the plans of Ricimer.
                                     westward, their march was
                                     irresistible. In 395 they met and      Subsequently a remnant of the
CHAPTER XLII                         defeated the GOTHS, a powerful         Ostrogoths arrived at the
INVASIONS AND                        tribe that lived to the north of the   Danube, also desiring to cross.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE                  Danube, and who were ruled by          To them permission was refused,
BARBARIANS                           a king named Hermanric.                but they seized shipping and
                                                                            crossed, despite the prohibition
                                     The Gothic nation consisted of         of the Romans. They found the
                                     two branches, the                      condition of their brethren, the
The sieges and captures of           OSTROGOTHS, Eastern Goths,             Visigoths, so sad, that they
Rome by the Barbarians we            and the VISIGOTHS, Western             united with them in open revolt,
present in a separate chapter,       Goths, Of these the Ostrogoths         defeated a Roman army sent
instead of in the narrative of the   were the more powerful, but on         against them, and ravaged
Emperors, because by this plan a     the approach of the Huns they          Thrace. The Emperor Valens
better idea of the operations can    were obliged to submit. The            took the field in person, and was
be given; and especially because     Huns moved on, and found but           defeated (378). The Goths then
we can thus obtain a clearer and     little trouble in overrunning the      moved southward and westward
more comprehensive conception        country of the Visigoths, who          into Greece, everywhere pillaging
of the rise of the nations, which,   were so terrified by the hideous       the country.
tearing in pieces the Roman          appearance and wild shouts of
Empire, have made up Modern          the Huns that they fled to the         When Theodosius became
Europe.                              Danube, and besought the               Emperor, he acted cautiously,
                                     Romans to allow them to cross          fortifying strong points from
The HUNS, who originated the         the river and take refuge in their     which to watch the enemy and
movement which overthrew the         territory. The favor was granted,      select a favorable moment for an
Western Empire, came, it is          but the refugees were treated          attack. At length he surprised
supposed, from the eastern part      with indignity, and compelled to       their camp and gained a
of Asia. As they moved               undergo every privation.               complete victory. The Goths
were taken into the service of the   sincere the barbarian was in his      the fleetness of his horse.
Empire, and the first chapter of     offers of peace may be seen           Honorius returned home (404),
the barbarian invasion of the        from the fact that in two years he    and enjoyed a triumph.
Empire was brought to a close.       invaded Italy (400).
                                                                           Rome had scarcely time to
We now meet two of the great         Honorius, who was then Emperor        congratulate herself upon her
names connected with the fall of     of the West, was a man so weak        escape from the Goths, when
Rome, ALARIC and STILICHO.           that even the genius of Stilicho      she was threatened by a new
                                     could not save him. No sooner         enemy.
Theodosius was succeeded by          did he hear of the approach of
Arcadius, and before the end of      Alaric, than he hastened to a         [Illustration on next page: Late
the year the Goths broke into        place of safety for himself,          Roman Empire and Barbarian
open revolt under their leader,      leaving Stilicho to defend Rome.      Invasions/Kingdoms, 285-451.]
Alaric. Athens was compelled to      Troops were called from Britain,
pay a ransom; Corinth, Argos,        Gaul, and the other provinces far
and Sparta were taken and            and near, leaving their places
plundered. No place was strong       vacant and defenceless.
enough to offer effectual            Honorius, who had attempted to
resistance. At this juncture,        escape to Gaul, was surprised by
Stilicho, General of the Western     Alaric, and, taking refuge in the
Empire, hastened to the scene,       fortified town of Asta, was there
and succeeded in surrounding         besieged until the arrival of the
the Goths, but Alaric burst          brave Stilicho, who attacked the
through his lines and escaped.       besiegers, and after a bloody
He then made peace with              fight utterly routed them. In his
Constantinople, and the office of    retreat, Alaric attempted to attack
Master-General of Illyricum was      Verona, but he was again
bestowed upon him. How               defeated, and escaped only by
The Huns, pushing westward,         the northwest of Spain, but met      a lapse of eight centuries
had dislodged the northern tribes   the same fate as the Alans. The      became the second time a prey
of Germany who dwelt on the         Vandals occupied the southern        to the barbarians (24 August,
Baltic. These were the Alans,       part, and from there crossed over    410).
Sueves, Vandals, and                to Africa, where they maintained
Burgundians. Under the              themselves for nearly a century,     The city was plundered for five
leadership of RADAGAISUS,           and at one time were powerful        days, and then Alaric withdrew to
these tribes invaded Italy with     enough, as we shall see, to          ravage the surrounding country.
about two hundred thousand          capture Rome itself.                 But the days of this great leader
men. They were met near                                                  were almost spent. Before the
Florence by Stilicho, and totally   Rome was now for a time              end of the year he died, and
defeated (406). Radagaisus          delivered from her enemies, and      shortly after his army marched
himself was killed. The survivors   the Emperor, no longer needing       into France, where they
turned backward, burst into Gaul,   Stilicho, was easily persuaded       established a kingdom reaching
ravaged the lower portion of the    that he was plotting for the         from the Loire and the Rhone to
country, and finally separated.     throne. He was put to death,         the Straits of Gibraltar.
One portion, the Burgundians,       with many of his friends.
remained on the frontier, and                                            The GERMANS, under their king,
from their descendants comes        With Stilicho Rome fell. Scarcely    CLODION, prompted by the
the name of Burgundy.               two months after his death, Alaric   example of the Burgundians and
                                    again appeared before Rome.          Visigoths, began, about 425, a
The Alans, Sueves, and Vandals      He sought to starve the city into    series of attempts to enlarge their
pushed on into Spain, where they    submission. Famine and               boundaries. They succeeded in
established kingdoms. The           pestilence raged within its walls.   establishing themselves firmly in
Alans occupied the country at the   Finally peace was purchased by       all the country from the Rhine to
foot of the Pyrenees, but were      a large ransom, and Alaric           the Somme, and under the name
soon after subdued by the           withdrew, but soon returned.         of FRANKS founded the present
Visigoths. The Sueves settled in    The city was betrayed, and after     French nation in France (447).
                                     and Eastern Empires; but the         captured, and rased to the
Clodion left two sons, who           prospect of an ally in Gaul, with    ground Aquileia. He then
quarrelled over the succession.      an opportunity of afterwards         scoured the whole country,
The elder appealed to the Huns       attacking Italy from the west, was   sparing only those who
for support, the younger to          too favorable to be neglected.       preserved their lives by the
Rome.                                                                     surrender of their wealth.
                                     A march of six hundred miles
The Huns at this time were ruled     brought the Huns to the Rhine.       It was to this invasion that
by ATTILA, "the Scourge of           Crossing this, they continued        VENICE owed its rise. The
God." The portrait of this monster   their progress, sacking and          inhabitants, who fled from the
is thus painted. His features        burning whatever cities lay in       approach of the Huns, found on
bore the mark of his Eastern         their route.                         the islands in the lagoons at the
origin. He had a large head, a                                            head of the Adriatic a harbor of
swarthy complexion, small deep-      The Visigoths under Theodoric,       safety.
seated eyes, a flat nose, a few      joining the Romans under Aetius,
hairs in the place of a beard,       met the Huns near Orleans.
broad shoulders, and a short         Attila retreated towards Chalons,
square body, of nervous strength     where, in 451, was fought a great
though disproportioned form.         battle, which saved the
This man wielded at will, it is      civilization of Western Europe.
said, an army of over half a         Attila began the attack. He was
million troops.                      bravely met by the Romans; and
                                     a charge of the Visigoths            Venice’s main square and town
At the time he received from the     completed the discomfiture of the    hall, St. Mark’s Square and the
son of Clodion the invitation to     savages. Aetius did not push his     Doge’s Palace, from above
interfere in the affairs of Gaul,    victory, but allowed the Huns to
Attila was already contemplating     retreat in the direction of Italy.
an invasion of both the Western      The "Scourge" first attacked,
                                       (455), had forcibly married
                                       Eudoxia, the widow of the
                                       previous Emperor, Valentinian,
                                       whom he had killed. She in
                                       revenge sent to Genseric a
                                       secret message to attack Rome.
                                       He at once set sail for the mouth
                                       of the Tiber. The capital was
                                       delivered into his hands on his
                                       promise to spare the property of
The Venetian Lagoon in which           the Church (June, 455), and for
Venice was established                 fourteen days the Vandals
                                       ravaged it at pleasure. Genseric
Attila died shortly after (453) from   then left Rome, taking with him
the bursting of a blood-vessel,        Eudoxia.
and with his death the empire of
the Huns ceased to exist. The          This was the last sack of the city
VANDALS, we have seen, had             by barbarians. But twenty-one
established themselves in Africa.      years elapsed before the Roman
They were now ruled by                 Empire came to an end (476).
GENSERIC. Carthage was their
head-quarters, and they were
continually ravaging the coasts of
the Mediterranean with their

Maximus, Emperor of Rome

                                    TERENCE (195-159)                    CICERO (106-43)
LITERATURE                          TERENCE was a native of              MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO, a
                                    Carthage. He was brought to          native of Arpínum, ranks as the
                                    Rome at an early age as a slave      first prose writer in Roman
                                    of the Senator Terentius, by         literature. As an orator Cicero
PLAUTUS (254-184)                   whom he was educated and             had a very happy natural talent.
                                    liberated. Six of his comedies       The extreme versatility of his
                                    are preserved. Like the plays of     mind, his lively imagination, his
PLAUTUS, the comic poet, was
                                    Plautus, they are free               great sensitiveness, his
one of the earliest of Roman
                                    translations from the Greek, and     inexhaustible richness of
writers. Born at Sarsina in
                                    of the same general character.       expression, which was never at a
Umbria, of free parentage, he at
                                                                         loss for a word or tone to suit any
first worked on the stage at
                                                                         circumstances or mood, his
Rome, but lost his savings in
speculation. Then for some time     ENNIUS (139-69)                      felicitous memory, his splendid
                                                                         voice and impressive figure, all
he worked in a treadmill, but
                                                                         contributed to render him a
finally gained a living by          QUINTUS ENNIUS, a native of          powerful speaker. He himself left
translating Greek comedies into     Rudiae, was taken to Rome by         nothing undone to attain
Latin. Twenty of his plays have     Cato the Younger. Here he            perfection. Not until he had
come down to us. They are           supported himself by teaching        spent a long time in laborious
lively, graphic, and full of fun,   Greek. His epic poem, the            study and preparation did he
depicting a mixture of Greek and    Annàles, relates the traditional     make his début as an orator; nor
Roman life.                         Roman history, from the arrival of   did he ever rest and think himself
                                    Aenéas to the poet's own day.        perfect, but, always working,
                                                                         made the most careful
                                                                         preparation for every case. Each
success was to him only a step
to another still higher              Eight hundred and sixty-four of
                                                                           NEPOS (94-24)
achievement; and by continual        Cicero's letters are extant, and
meditation and study he kept         they furnish an inexhaustible         CORNELIUS NEPOS, a native of
himself fully equipped for his       treasure of contemporaneous           Northern Italy, was a friend of
task. Hence he succeeded, as is      history.                              both Cicero and Atticus. He was
universally admitted, in gaining a                                         a prolific writer, but only his De
place beside Demosthenes, or at                                            Viris Illustribus is preserved. It
all events second only to him.       CAESAR (100-44)                       shows neither historical accuracy
                                                                           nor good style.
There are extant fifty-seven
orations of Cicero, and fragments    Of CAESAR'S literary works the
                                     most important are his
of twenty more. His famous
                                     Commentarii, containing the
                                                                           LUCRETIUS (98-55)
Philippics against Antony caused
his proscription by the Second       history of the first seven years of
Triumvirate, and his murder near     the Gallic war, and the history of    TITUS LUCRETIUS CARUS has
his villa at Formiae, in December,   the civil strife down to the          left a didactic poem, De Rerum
43.                                  Alexandrine war. The account of       Natura. The tone of the work is
                                     his last year in Gaul was written     sad, and in many places bitter.
His chief writings on rhetoric       probably by Aulus Hirtius; that of
were De Oratore; Brutus de           the Alexandrine, African, and
Claris Oratoribus; and Orator ad     Spanish wars, by some unknown         CATULLUS (87-47)
M. Brutum. Cicero was a lover        hand. As an orator, Caesar
of philosophy, and his writings on   ranks next to Cicero.
                                                                           GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS,
the subject were numerous.                                                 of Veróna, is the greatest lyric
Those most read are De                                                     poet of Roman literature. One
Senectute, De Amicitia, and De                                             hundred and sixteen of his
poems are extant.
                                    HORACE (65-8)                       OVID (43 B.C.—18 A.D.)

VIRGIL (70-19)                      QUINTUS HORATIUS                    PUBLIUS OVIDIUS NASO left
                                    FLACCUS left four books of          three books of Amores; one of
                                    Odes, one of Epodes, two of         Heroides; the Ars Amatoria;
The great epic Roman poet was       Satires, two of Epistles, and the   Remedia Amoris; the
VIRGIL. His Aenéis, in twelve       Ars Poetica.                        Metamorphoses (fifteen books);
books, gives an account of the                                          the Tristia; and the Fasti.
wanderings and adventures of
Aenéas, and his struggles to
found a city in Italy. The poem
                                    TIBULLUS (54-29)
was not revised when Virgil died,
                                                                        LIVY (59 B.C.—17 A.D.)
and it was published contrary to    ALBIUS TIBULLUS, an elegiac
his wishes.                         poet, celebrated in exquisitely     TITUS LIVIUS left a history of
                                    fine poems the beauty and           Rome, of which thirty-five books
Besides the Aenéis, Virgil wrote    cruelty of his mistresses.          have been preserved.
the Bucolica, ten Eclogues
imitated and partially translated
from the Greek poet Theocritus.     PROPERTIUS (49-15)                  PHAEDRUS
The Georgica, a poem of four
books on agriculture in its
different branches, is considered   SEXTUS PROPERTIUS, a native         PHAEDRUS, a writer of fables,
his most finished work, and the     of Umbria, was also an elegiac      flourished in the reign of Tiberius
most perfect production of          poet, and wrote mostly on love.     (14- 37). He was originally a
Roman art-poetry.                                                       slave. His fables are ninety-
                                                                        seven in number, and are written
                                                                        in iambic verse.

                                                                          poetical talent. He wrote the
                                     LUCAN (39-65)                        Thebaid, the Achilleis
SENECA (8 B.C.—65                                                         (unfinished), and the Silvae.
A.D.)                                LUCAN, a nephew of Seneca,
                                     wrote an epic poem (not finished)    MARTIAL (42-102), wrote sharp
                                     called Pharsalia, upon the civil     and witty epigrams, of which
For an account of this writer see    war between Caesar and               fifteen books are extant. He was
the chapter on the Emperor           Pompey.                              a native of Spain.
                                                                          QUINTILIAN (35-95), was also a
                                     PLINY THE ELDER (23-                 native of Spain. He was a
CURTIUS                              79)                                  teacher of eloquence for many
                                                                          years in Rome. His work On the
                                                                          Training of an Orator, is
QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS                GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, of           preserved.
was a historian who lived in the     Northern Italy, was a great
reign of Claudius (50 A.D.). He      scholar in history, grammar,         JUVENAL (47-130), of Aquínum,
wrote a history of the exploits of   rhetoric, and natural science. His   was a great satirist, who
Alexander the Great.                 work on Natural History has          described and attacked bitterly
                                     come down to us.                     the vices of Roman society.
                                                                          Sixteen of his satires are still in
PERSIUS (34-62)                                                           existence.
                                     STATIUS, MARTIAL,
PERSIUS, a poet of the reign of      QUINTILIAN, JUVENAL
Nero, was a native of Volaterrae.                                         TACITUS (54-119)
He wrote six satires, which are
obscure and hard to understand.      STATIUS (45-96), a native of
                                     Naples, had considerable             CORNELIUS TACITUS was the
great historian of his age. His       large number of subjects, and
birthplace is unknown. His            presenting vivid pictures of the
writings are interesting and of a     times in which he lived. Their
high tone, but often tinged with      diction is fluent and smooth.
prejudice, and hence unfair. He

1. A dialogue on orators. 2. A
biography of his father-in-law,
Agricola. 3. A description of the
habits of the people of Germany.
4. A history of the reigns of
Galba, Otho, Vespasian, Titus,
and Domitian (Historiae). 5.
Annales, a narrative of the
events of the reigns of Tiberius,
Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.


Pliny the Younger was the
adopted son of Pliny the Elder.
He was a voluminous
correspondent. We have nine
books of his letters, relating to a
                                                                      Ocriculum and Narnia, a branch
                                                                      went east through Spoletium,
CHAPTER XLIV ROMAN                                                    joining the main line at Fulsinia.
ROADS—PROVINCES                                                       It then continued through Fanum,
                                                                      Flaminii, and Nuceria, where it
                                                                      again divided, one branch going
                                                                      to Fanum Fortúnae on the
The Romans were famous for
                                                                      Adriatic, the other to Ancóna, and
their excellent public roads, from
                                                                      from there along the coast to
thirteen to fifteen feet wide. The
                                                                      Fanum Fortúnae, where the two
roadbed was formed of four
                                                                      branches, again uniting, passed
distinct layers, placed above the
                                                                      on to Ariminum through
foundation. The upper layer was      Copy of a Roman milestone, and   Pisaurum. From here it was
made of large polygonal blocks       ancient paving stones            extended, under the name of VIA
of the hardest stone, fitted and
                                                                      AEMILIA, into the heart of
joined together so as to make an     There were four main public      Cisalpine Gaul, through Bononia,
even surface. On each side of        roads:—                          Mutina, Parma, and Placentia,
the road were footpaths strewn
                                                                      where it crossed the Po, to
with gravel. Stone blocks for the    1. VIA APPIA, from Rome to       Mediolánum.
use of equestrians were at           Capua, Beneventum, Tarentum,
regular distances, and also          and Brundisium.                  4. VIA AURELIA, the great coast
milestones telling the distance
                                                                      road, reached the west coast at
from Rome.                           2. VIA LATÍNA, from Rome to      Alsium, following the shore along
                                     Aquínum and Teánum, joining      through Etruria and Liguria, by
                                     the Via Appia at Beneventum.     Genua, as far as Forum Julii, in
                                     3. VIA FLAMINIA, the great
                                     northern road. In Umbria, near
                                       his predecessor was expected to        consisted of quaestors,
PROVINCES                              leave within thirty days.              secretary, notary, lictors, augurs,
                                                                              and public criers. His authority
After the conquest of Italy, all the   The governor was assisted by           was supreme in military and civil
additional Roman dominions             two QUAESTORS, who had                 matters, and he could not be
were divided into provinces.           charge of the financial duties of      removed from office. But after
Sicily was the first Roman             the government. Originally the         his term had ended, he could be
province. At first Praetors were       governor was obliged to account        tried for mismanagement.
appointed to govern these              at Rome for his administration,
provinces; but afterwards              from his own books and those of        Many of the governors were
persons who had been Praetors          the Quaestors; but after 61 B.C.,      rascals, and obtained by unfair
at Rome were appointed at the          he was obliged to deposit two          means vast sums of money from
expiration of their office, with the   copies of his accounts in the two      the provincials. One of the most
title of PROPRAETOR. Later,            chief cities of his province, and to   notorious of these was Verres,
the Consuls also, at the end of        forward a third to Rome.               against whom Cicero delivered
their year of office, were sent to                                            his Verrine orations.
govern provinces, with the title of    If the governor misconducted
PROCONSUL. Such provinces              himself in the performance of his      At the time of the battle of Actium
were called Provinciae                 official duties, the provincials       there were eighteen provinces;
Consuláres. The provinces were         might apply for redress to the         viz. Sicilia (227 [Note: The
generally distributed by lot, but      Senate, and to influential             figures in parentheses indicate
their distribution was sometimes       Romans who were their patrons.         the date at which the province
arranged by agreement among                                                   was established.]), Sardinia and
those entitled to them. The            The governor received no salary,       Corsica (227), Hispania Citerior
tenure of office was usually a         but was allowed to exact certain       (205), Hispania Ulterior (205),
year, but it was frequently            contributions from the people of       Illyricum (167), Macedonia (146),
prolonged. When a new                  the province for the support of        Africa (146), Asia (133), Achaia
governor arrived in the province,      himself and his retinue, which         (146), Gallia Citerior (80), Gallia
Narbonensis (118), Cilicia (63),
Syria (64), Bithynia and Pontus
(63), Cyprus (55), Cyrenaica and
Crete (63), Numidia (46), and
Mauritania (46).

Under the Emperors the following
sixteen were added: Rhoetia,
Noricum, Pannonia, Moesia,
Dacia, Britannia, Aegyptus,
Cappadocia, Galatia, Rhodus,
Lycia, Judaea, Arabia,
Mesopotamia. Armenia, and

                                     Equitum, Consul, Praetor,               Marius and Cicero.
                                     Censor, and Curule Aedile.
CHAPTER XLV ROMAN                    These officers had the right to sit     The magistrates were chosen
OFFICERS, ETC.                       in the sella curúlis, chair of state.   only from the patricians in the
                                     This chair was displayed upon all       early republic; but in course of
                                     public occasions, especially in         time the plebeians shared these
                                     the circus and theatre; and it was      honors. The plebeian
[Note: Most of the information
                                     the seat of the Praetor when he         magistrates, properly so called,
given in this chapter is scattered
                                     administered justice. In shape it       were the plebeian Aediles and
in different parts of the history;
                                     was plain, resembling a common          the Tribúni Plebis.
but it seems well to condense it
                                     folding camp-stool, with crooked
into one chapter for readier
                                     legs. It was ornamented with            All the magistrates, except the
                                     ivory, and later overlaid with gold.    Censor, were elected for one
                                                                             year; and all but the Tribunes
The magistrates of Rome were of
                                     The descendants of any one who          and Quaestors began their term
two classes; the Majores, or
                                     had held a curule office were           of office on January 1st. The
higher, and the Minores, or
                                     nobles, and had the right to place      Tribune's year began December
lower. The former, except the
                                     in their halls and to carry at          10th; that of the Quaestor,
Censor, had the Imperium; the
                                     funeral processions a wax mask          December 5th.
latter did not. To the former
                                     of this ancestor, as well as of any
class belonged the Consuls,
                                     other deceased members of the           The offices, except that of
Praetors, and Censors, who were
                                     family of curule rank.                  Tribune, formed a gradation,
all elected in the Comitia
                                                                             through which one must pass if
Centuriáta. The magistrates
                                     A person who first held a curule        he desired the consulship. The
were also divided into two other
                                     office, and whose ancestors had         earliest age for holding each
classes, viz. Curule and Non-
                                     never held one, was called a            was, for the quaestorship,
Curule. The Curule offices were
                                     novus homo, i.e. a new man.             twenty-seven years; for the
those of Dictator, Magister
                                     The most famous new men were            aedileship, thirty-seven; for the
praetorship, forty; and for the        (fasces), to signify the power of      of all civil suits between Roman
consulship, forty-three. No            the magistrate to scourge              citizens. In the absence of both
magistrate received any salary,        criminals. Outside the city, these     Consuls from the city, he acted in
and only the wealthy could afford      fasces showed an axe projecting        their place. Each Praetor was
to hold office.                        from each bundle, signifying the       attended by two lictors in the city,
                                       power of the magistrate to             and by six outside. The Praetor
                                       behead criminals."                     Peregrínus had charge of civil
THE CONSULS                                                                   cases in which one or both
                                       At the expiration of his year of       parties were aliens. The other
                                       office, the Consul was sent to         six Praetors presided over the
The two Consuls were the               govern a province for one year,        permanent criminal courts.
highest magistrates, except when       and was then called the
a Dictator was appointed, and          Proconsul. He was chief in his
were the chiefs of the
administration. Their power was
                                       province in all military, civil, and   AEDILES
                                       criminal cases.
equal, and they had the right
before all others of summoning                                                The Aediles were four officers
the Senate and the Comitia                                                    who had the general
Centuriáta, in each of which they
                                       PRAETORS                               superintendence of the police of
presided. "When both Consuls                                                  the city, and the care of the
were in the city, they usually took    There were eight Praetors,             public games and buildings. Two
turns in performing the official       whose duties were to administer        of the Aediles were taken from
duties, each acting a month; and       justice (judges). After the            the plebeians, and two, called
during this time the Consul was        expiration of their year of office,    Curule Aediles, ranked with the
always accompanied in public by        they went, as Propraetors, to          higher magistrates, and might be
twelve lictors, who preceded him       govern provinces. The most             patricians. They were elected in
in single file, each carrying on his   important Praetor was called           the Comitia Tributa. Their
shoulders a bundle of rods             Praetor Urbánus. He had charge         supervision of the public games
gave them great opportunities for    the city's money, as directed by    power; but Pompey restored it.
gaining favor with the populace,     the Senate. A Quaestor always       The Tribunes did not possess the
who then, as now, delighted in       accompanied every Imperator         imperium.
circuses and contests. A small       (general) in the field as his
sum was appropriated from the        quartermaster. The elections for
public treasury for these games;     Quaestors were held in the          CENSORS
but an Aedile usually expended       Comitia Tribúta.
much from his own purse to
make the show magnificent, and                                           There were two Censors, chosen
                                                                         from Ex-Consuls, and they held
thus to gain votes for the next      TRIBUNI PLEBIS                      office for eighteen months. They
office, that of Praetor. Only the
very wealthy could afford to hold                                        were elected once every five
this office.                         There were ten Tribunes, elected    years, this period being called a
                                     in the Comitia Tribúta. They        lustrum. They ranked as higher
                                     were always plebeians, and their    magistrates without possessing
                                     chief power lay in their right to   the imperium. Their duties were:
QUAESTORS                            veto any decree of the Senate,
                                     any law of the Comitia, and any     (1) To take the census, i.e.
There were twenty Quaestors.         public act of a magistrate. Their   register the citizens and their
Two were city treasurers at          persons were considered sacred,     amount of property, and to fill all
Rome, having charge also of the      and no one could hinder them in     vacancies in the Senate. (2) To
archives. The others were            the discharge of their official     have a general oversight of the
assigned to the different            duties under penalty of death.      finances, like our Secretary of the
governors of the provinces, and      They called together the Comitia    Treasury; to contract for the
acted as quartermasters.             Tribúta, and they also had          erecting of public buildings, and
Through their clerks, the two city   authority to convene the Senate     for the making or repairing of
Quaestors kept the accounts,         and to preside over it. Sulla       public roads, sewers, etc.; to let
received the taxes, and paid out     succeeded in restricting their      out the privilege of collecting the
taxes, for five years, to the                                               Pontifex Maximus (high priest).
highest bidder.[Note: In the
                                      MAGISTER EQUITUM                      Their tenure of office was for life,
intervals of the censorship, the                                            and they were responsible to no
duties under (2) fell to the          This was an officer appointed by      one in the discharge of their
Aediles. ] (3) To punish gross        the Dictator, to stand next in        duties. Their influence was
immorality by removal of the          authority to him, and act as a sort   necessarily very great.
guilty parties from the Senate,       of Vice-Dictator.
the Equites, or the tribe.
DICTATOR                                                                    This was a power to command
                                                                            the armies, and to exercise
In cases of great danger the                                                judicial functions conferred upon
Senate called upon the Consuls                                              a magistrate (Dictator, Consul, or
to appoint a Dictator, who should                                           Praetor) by a special law passed
possess supreme power, but                                                  by the Comitia Curiáta. The
whose tenure of office could                                                Imperium could be exercised
never exceed six months. In                                                 only outside of the city walls
later times Dictators were not        The emperor Augustus as               (pomoerium), except by special
appointed, but Consuls were           pontifex maximus                      permission of the Senate for the
invested with the authority if it                                           purpose of celebrating a triumph.
was thought necessary. Sulla                                                The one receiving the Imperium
and Caesar, however, revived
                                      PONTIFICES                            was called IMPERATOR.
the office, but changed its tenure,
the latter holding it for life.       The priests formed a body
                                      (collegium) of fifteen members, at
                                      the head of whom was the

This was the power, in general,
which all magistrates possessed.

                                    corresponded in general to our       gold, and frescoing.
                                    front hall. From it a door opened
CHAPTER XLVI                        into the ATRIUM, which was a
HOUSES, CUSTOMS,                    large room with an opening in the
INSTITUTIONS, ETC.                  centre of its roof, through which
                                    the rain-water was carried into a
                                    cistern placed in the floor under
                                    the opening. To the right and left
The private houses of the           of the Atrium were side rooms
Romans were poor affairs until      called the ALAE, and the
after the conquest of the East,     TABLÍNUM was a balcony               Reconstruction of the Atrium of a
when money began to pour into       attached to it. The passages         private Roman house
the city. Many houses of            from the Atrium to the interior of
immense size were then erected,     the house were called FAUCES.        The main rooms were lighted
adorned with columns, paintings,    The PERISTYLIUM, towards             from above; the side rooms
statues, and costly works of art.   which these passages ran, was        received their light from these,
Some of these houses are said       an open court surrounded by          and not through windows looking
to have cost as much as two         columns, decorated with flowers      into the street. The windows of
million dollars.                    and shrubs. It was somewhat          rooms in upper stories were not
                                    larger than the Atrium.              supplied with glass until the time
The principal parts of a Roman
                                                                         of the Empire. They were merely
house were the Vestibulum,          The floors were covered with         openings in the wall, covered
Ostium, Atrium, Alae, Tablínum,     stone, marble, or mosaics. The       with lattice-work. To heat a
Fauces, and Peristylium. The        walls were lined with marble         room, portable stoves were
VESTIBULUM was a court              slabs, or frescoed, while the        generally used, in which charcoal
surrounded by the house on          ceilings were either bare,           was burned. There were no
three sides, and open on the        exposing the beams, or, in the       chimneys, and the smoke passed
fourth to the street. The OSTIUM    finer houses, covered with ivory,    out through the windows or the
openings in the roofs.

The rooms of the wealthy were                     Roman lamp
furnished with great splendor.
The walls were frescoed with
scenes from Greek mythology,          MEALS
landscapes, etc. In the
vestibules were fine sculptures,      The meals were the
costly marble walls, and doors        JENTACULUM, PRANDIUM, and            Reconstruction of a dining room
ornamented with gold, silver, and     COENA. The first was our             in a private Roman house
rare shells. There were               breakfast, though served at an
expensive rugs from the East,         early hour, sometimes as early       At elaborate dinners the guests
and, in fact, everything that could   as four o'clock. It consisted of     assembled, each with his napkin
be obtained likely to add to the      bread, cheese, and dried fruits.     and full dress of bright colors.
attractiveness of the room.           The prandium was a lunch             The shoes were removed so as
                                      served about noon. The coena,        not to soil the couches. These
Candles were used in early            or dinner, served between three      couches usually were adapted
times, but later the wealthy used     and sunset, was usually of three     for three guests, who reclined,
lamps, which were made of terra-      courses. The first course            resting the head on the left hand,
cotta or bronze. They were            consisted of stimulants, eggs, or    with the elbow supported by
mostly oval, flat on the top, often   lettuce and olives; the second,      pillows. The Romans took the
with figures in relief. In them       which was the main course,           food with their fingers. Dinner
were one or more round holes to       consisted of meats, fowl, or fish,   was served in a room called the
admit the wick. They either           with condiments; the third course    TRICLINIUM. In Nero's "Golden
rested on tables, or were             was made up of fruits, nuts,         House," the dining-room was
suspended by chains from the          sweetmeats, and cakes.               constructed like a theatre, with
ceiling.                                                                   shifting scenes to change with
                                                                           every course.
                                    shoulder by a buckle. Boys, until   decorations, and all
                                    about sixteen, wore a toga with a   conveniences for cold, warm,
DRESS—BATHING                       purple hem.                         hot, and vapor baths. These
                                                                        bath-houses were very
                                    The women wore a TUNIC,             numerous, and were places of
The Roman men usually wore          STOLA, and PULLA. The stola         popular resort. Attached to many
two garments, the TUNICA and        was a loose garment, gathered in    of them were rooms for exercise,
TOGA. The former was a short        and girdled at the waist with a     with seats for spectators. The
woollen under garment with short    deep flounce extending to the       usual time for bathing was just
sleeves. To have a long tunic       feet. The pulla was a sort of       before dinner. Upon leaving the
with long sleeves was considered    shawl to throw over the whole       bath, it was customary to anoint
a mark of effeminacy. The tunic     figure, and to be worn out of       the body with oil.
was girded round the waist with a   doors. The ladies indulged their
belt. The toga was peculiarly a     fancy for ornaments as freely as
Roman garment, and none but         their purses would allow.
citizens were allowed to wear it.
It was also the garment of peace,   Foot-gear was mostly of two
in distinction from the SAGUM,      kinds, the CALCEUS and the
which was worn by soldiers. The     SOLEAE. The former was much
toga was of white wool and was      like our shoe, and was worn in
nearly semicircular, but being a    the street. The latter were
cumbrous garment, it became         sandals, strapped to the bare
customary in later times to wear    foot, and worn in the house. The
it only on state occasions. The     poor used wooden shoes.
poor wore only the tunic, others
wore, in place of the toga, the     Bathing was popular among the
LACERNA, which was an open          wealthy. Fine buildings were
cloak, fastened to the right        erected, with elegant
Customary clothes of Romans:
citizen, matron, curule
magistrate, emperor, general,
workman, slave.

                                       the most ancient festivals, and
                                       was held in the Lupercal, where
FESTIVALS, GAMES,                      Romulus and Remus were said
ETC.                                   to have been nursed by the she
                                       wolf (lupa). The priests of
                                       Lupercus were called LUPERCI.
The SATURNALIA was the                 They formed a collegium, but
festival of Saturn, to whom the        their tenure of office is not        Recreation of Colosseum
inhabitants of Latium attributed       known. On the day of the festival
the introduction of agriculture and    these priests met at the Lupercal,   Gladiators were men who fought
the arts of civilized life. It was     offered sacrifice of goats, and      with swords in the amphitheatre
celebrated near the end of             took a meal, with plenty of wine.    and other places, for the
December, corresponding to our         They then cut up the skins of the    amusement of the people.
Christmas holidays, and under          goats which they had sacrificed.     These shows were first exhibited
the Empire lasted seven days.          With some of these they covered      at Rome in 264 B.C., and were
During its continuance no public       parts of their bodies, and with      confined to public funerals; but
business was transacted, the law       others, they made thongs, and,       afterwards gladiators were to be
courts were closed, the schools        holding them in their hands, ran     seen at the funerals of most men
had a holiday, and slaves were         through the streets of Rome,         of rank. Under the Empire the
relieved from all ordinary toil. All   striking with them all whom they     passion for this kind of
classes devoted themselves to          met, especially women, as it was     amusement increased to such an
pleasure, and presents were            believed this would render them      extent, that gladiators were kept
interchanged among friends.            fruitful.                            and trained in schools (ludi) and
                                                                            their trainers were called
The LUPERCALIA; a festival in          The QUIRINALIA was celebrated        Lanistae. The person who gave
honor of Lupercus, the god of          on the 17th of February, when        an exhibition was called an
fertility, was celebrated on the       Quirínus (Romulus) was said to       EDITOR. He published (edere),
15th of February. It was one of        have been carried up to heaven.      some time before the show, a list
of the combatants. In the show      applied to a wooden building
the fights began with wooden        erected by Caesar. Augustus         The THEATRE was never as
swords, but at the sound of the     built one of stone in the Campus    popular with the Romans as with
trumpet these were exchanged        Martius, but the most celebrated    the Greeks. The plays of Plautus
for steel weapons. When a           amphitheatre was built by           and Terence were acted on
combatant was wounded, if the       Vespasian and Titus, and            temporary wooden stages. The
spectators wished him spared,       dedicated in 80 A.D. It is still    first stone theatre was built by
they held their thumbs down, but    standing, though partly in ruins,   Pompey in 55 B.C., near the
turned them up if they wanted       covers nearly six acres, and        Campus Martius. It was a fine
him killed. Gladiators who had      could seat ninety thousand          building, with a seating capacity
served a long time, were often      people. The name given to it to-    of forty thousand. The seats
discharged and presented with a     day is the COLOSSÉUM. The           were arranged in a semicircle, as
wooden sword (rudis), Hence         open space in the centre was        at present, the orchestra being
they were called rudiarii.          called the ARÉNA, and was           reserved for the Senators and
                                    surrounded by a wall about          other distinguished persons.
                                    fifteen feet high to protect the    Then came fourteen rows of
THE AMPHITHEATRE,                   spectators from the wild beasts.    seats for the Equites, and behind
THEATRE, AND CIRCUS                 Before the time of Caesar the       these sat the ordinary crowd.
                                    shows were held in the Forum
                                    and in the Circus.                  The CIRCUS MAXIMUS.
The AMPHITHEATRE was a                                                  between the Palatine and
place for the exhibition of                                             Aventine Hills, was built for
gladiatorial shows, combats of                                          chariot races, boxing, and
wild beasts, and naval                                                  gymnastic contests. It was an
engagements. Its shape was                                              immense structure, with galleries
that of an ellipse, surrounded by                                       three stories high, and a canal
seats for the spectators. The       Recreation of the Circus            called Eurípus, and it
word Amphitheatre was first         Maximus of ancient Rome             accommodated one hundred
thousand spectators. In the            sometimes allowed to enjoy a          for sacrifice. 6. Elephants and
centre Caesar erected an obelisk       triumphal procession, provided        rare animals from the conquered
one hundred and thirty-two feet        he had been Dictator, Consul, or      countries. 7. The arms and
high, brought from Egypt. The          Praetor. No one desiring a            insignia of the leaders of the
seats were arranged as in the          triumph ever entered the city until   conquered enemy. 8. The
theatre. Six kinds of games were       the Senate decided whether or         leaders themselves, with their
celebrated: 1st, chariot racing;       not he deserved one. When a           relatives and other captives. 9.
2d, a sham-fight between young         favorable decision was reached,       The lictors of the Imperator in
men on horseback; 3d, a sham-          the temples were all thrown           single file, their fasces wreathed
fight between infantry and             open, garlands of flowers             with laurel. 10. The Imperator
cavalry; 4th, athletic sports of all   decorated every shrine and            himself, in a circular chariot
kinds; 5th, fights with wild beasts,   image, and incense smoked on          drawn by four horses. He was
such as lions, boars, etc.; 6th,       every altar. The Imperator            attired in a gold-embroidered
sea fights. Water was let into the     ascended the triumphal car and        robe, and a flowered tunic; he
canal to float ships. The              entered a city gate, where he         held a laurel bough in his right
combatants were captives, or           was met by the whole body of the      hand, a sceptre in his left, and
criminals condemned to death,          Senate, headed by the                 his brow was encircled with a
who fought until one party was         magistrates.                          laurel wreath. 11. The grown up
killed, unless saved by the                                                  sons and officers of the
kindness of the Emperor.               The procession then proceeded         Imperator. 12. The whole body
                                       in the following order:—              of infantry, with spears adorned
                                                                             with laurel.
A TRIUMPHAL                            1. The Senate, headed by the
PROCESSION                             magistrates. 2. A troop of            The OVATION was a sort of
                                       trumpeters. 3. Carts laden with       smaller triumph. The
                                       spoils, often very costly and         commander entered the city on
The Imperator, when he returned        numerous. 4. A body of flute-         foot, or in later times on
from a successful campaign, was        players. 5. White bulls and oxen      horseback. He was clothed in a
purple-bordered robe. His head        Caesar. To these names was
was crowned with laurel, and a        sometimes added another, the
sheep (ovis) was sacrificed,          agnomen, given for some exploit,
instead of a bull as in the case of   or to show that the person was       Intermarriage (connubium)
a triumph.                            adopted from some other gens.        between patricians and plebeians
                                      Thus Scipio the elder was called     was forbidden previous to 445,
                                      AFRICÁNUS, and all his               and after that the offspring of
POMOERIUM                             descendants had the right to the     such marriages took the rank of
                                      name. Africánus the younger          the father. After the parties had
                                      was adopted from the Cornelian       agreed, to marry, and the
The Pomoerium was the sacred          gens into the Aemilian gens;         consent of the parents or
enclosure of the city, inside of      therefore he added to his other      persons in authority was given,
which no person holding the           names AEMILIÁNUS.                    the marriage contract was drawn
Imperium was allowed to enter.                                             up and signed by both parties.
It did not always run parallel to     The women were called only by        The wedding day was then fixed
the city walls.                       the name of their gens. The          upon. This could not fall upon
                                      daughter of Scipio was called, for   the Kalends, Nones, or Ides of
                                      example, CORNELIA, and to            any month, or upon any day in
NAMES                                 distinguish her from others of the   May or February. The bride was
                                      Cornelian gens she was called        dressed in a long white robe, with
Every man in Rome had three           Cornelia daughter of Scipio. If      a bridal veil, and shoes of a
names. The given name                 there were more than one             bright yellow color. She was
(praenomen), as Lucius, Marcus,       daughter, to the name of the         conducted in the evening to her
Gaius. The name of the gens           eldest was added prima (first), to   future husband's home by three
(nomen), as Cornelius, Tullius,       that of the next, secunda            boys, one of whom carried before
Julius. The name of the family        (second), etc.                       her a torch, the other two
(cognómen), as Scipio, Cicero,                                             supporting her by the arm. They
                                                                           were accompanied by friends of
both parties. The groom                                               washed, and anointed with oil
received the bride at the door,                                       and perfumes, by slaves or
which she entered with distaff                                        undertakers. A small coin was
and spindle in hand. The keys of                                      placed in the mouth of the body
the house were then delivered to                                      to pay the ferryman (Charon) in
her. The day ended with a feast                                       Hades, and the body was laid out
given by the husband, after                                           on a couch in the vestibulum,
which the bride was conducted to                                      with its feet toward the door. In
the bridal couch, in the atrium,                                      early times all funerals were held
which was adorned with flowers.                                       at night; but in later times only
On the following day another                                          the poor followed this custom,
feast was given by the husband,     Noble woman with slaves           mainly because they could not
and the wife performed certain                                        afford display. The funeral, held
religious rites.                                                      the ninth day after the death, was
                                    FUNERALS                          headed by musicians playing
The position of the Roman                                             mournful strains, and mourning
woman after marriage was very                                         women hired to lament and sing
different from that of the Greek.   When a Roman was at the point     the funeral song. These were
She presided over the whole         of death, his nearest relative    sometimes followed by players
household, educated her             present endeavored to catch the   and buffoons, one of whom
children, watched over and          last breath with his mouth. The   represented the character of the
preserved the honor of the          ring was removed from the dying   deceased, and imitated his words
house, and shared the honors        person's hand, and as soon as     and actions. Then came the
and respect shown to her            he was dead his eyes and mouth    slaves whom the deceased had
husband.                            were closed by the nearest        liberated, each wearing the cap
                                    relative, who called upon the     of liberty. Before the body were
                                    deceased by name, exclaiming      carried the images of the dead
                                    "Farewell!" The body was then     and of his ancestors, and also
the crown and military rewards     the Romans was confined to           papyrus tree. Besides the
which he had gained. The couch     reading, writing, and arithmetic;    papyrus, parchment was often
on which the body was carried      but as they came in contact with     used. The paper or parchment
was sometimes made of ivory,       the Greeks a taste for higher        was joined together so as to form
and covered with gold and          education was acquired. Greek        one sheet, and was rolled on a
purple. Following it were the      slaves (paedagogi) were              staff, whence the name volume
relatives in mourning, often       employed in the wealthy families     (from volvere, to roll).
uttering loud lamentations, the    to watch over the children, and to
women beating their breasts and    teach them to converse in Greek.     Letter writing was very common
tearing their hair.                                                     among the educated. Letters
                                   A full course of instruction         were usually written with the
The procession of the most         included the elementary              stylus, an iron instrument like a
illustrious dead passed through    branches mentioned above, and        pencil in size and shape, on thin
the Forum, and stopped before      a careful study of the best Greek    slips of wood or ivory covered
the Rostra, where a funeral        and Latin writers, besides a         with wax, and folded together
oration was delivered. From        course in philosophy and             with the writing on the inside.
here the body was carried to its   rhetoric, under some well known      The slips were tied together by a
place of burial, which must be     professor abroad, usually at         string, and the knot was sealed
outside the city. Bodies were      Athens or Rhodes.                    with wax and stamped with a
sometimes cremated, and in the                                          signet ring. Letters were also
later times of the Republic this                                        written on parchment with ink.
became quite common.               BOOKS—LETTER                         Special messengers were
                                   WRITING                              employed to carry letters, as
                                                                        there was no regular mail
EDUCATION                                                               service. Roman letters differed
                                   The most common material on          from ours chiefly in the opening
                                   which books were written was         and close. The writer always
In early times the education of    the thin rind of the Egyptian        began by sending "greeting" to
the person addressed, and
closed with a simple" farewell,"
without any signature. Thus
"Cicero S. D. Pompeio" (S.D. =
sends greeting) would be the
usual opening of a letter from
Cicero to Pompey.

                                       Temples were numerous. The             with a face in front and another
                                       Pantheon (temple of all the            on the back of his head. From
CHAPTER XLVII PUBLIC                   gods), built by Agrippa and            him is named the month of
BUILDINGS, SQUARES,                    restored by Hadrian, was               January.
ETC.                                   dedicated to Jupiter. It was
                                       situated outside of the city, in the   There were several temples of
                                       Campus Martius, and is now             Jupiter, the most famous of
                                       used as a Christian church. The        which was that of Jupiter
Rome was built on seven hills,—        Temple of Apollo Palatínus, built      Optimus, Maximus, or
the Palatine, the Aventine, the        by Augustus, was on the Palatine       Capitolínus, built during the
Capitoline, the Esquiline (the         Hill. It contained a library, which    dynasty of the Tarquins, and
largest), the Quirínal, the Viminal,   was founded by Augustus. The           splendidly adorned. (See
and the Coelian.                       Temple of Aesculapius was on           Chapter V.) There were also
                                       an island in the Tiber; that of        numerous temples of Juno, of
There were various public              Concordia, on the slope of the         Mars, and of other deities.
squares (forum = square or             Capitoline Hill, was dedicated in
park). Some were places of             377 B.C., and restored by              The COLOSSÉUM was the
resort for public business, and        Tiberius. The Temple of Janus          largest building in Rome.
most were adorned with porticos.       was an arched passage east of
The most celebrated square was         the Forum, the gates of which          There were three theatres; that of
the Forum Románum, or simply           were open during war. Up to the        Pompey, of Marcellus, and of
The Forum. There were also the         time of Ovid the gates had been        Balbus; and several circuses, the
Forum Caesaris and Forum               closed but three times, once in        most famous of which was the
Trajáni. Some served as                Numa's reign, again at the close       Circus Maximus.
markets; as Forum Boarium, the         of the Second Punic War, and
cattle market; Forum Suarium,          after the battle of Actium. Janus      The BASILICAE were halls of
the hog market, etc.                   was one of the oldest Latin            justice (court-houses). The most
                                       divinities, and was represented        important was the Basilica Julia,
begun by Caesar and finished by                                               commemorate his conquest of
Augustus, which was situated on                                               Judaea, The bas- reliefs on this
the south side of the Forum, and                                              arch represent the spoils taken
the foundations of which can still                                            from the temple at Jerusalem,
be seen.                                                                      carried in triumphal procession.
                                                                              3. The ARCH OF SEPTIMIUS
The CURIA, or Senate-house,                                                   SEVERUS, built by the Senate in
was in the Forum. Each of the                                                 207 A. D., at the end of the Via
thirty curiae had a place of                                                  Sacra, in honor of the Emperor
meeting, called also a curia,                                                 and his two sons for their
where were discussed public                                                   conquest of the Parthians and
questions pertaining to politics,                                             Arabians. 4. The ARCH OF
finance, or religion.                 SEWERS intersected Rome in all          GALLIÉNUS. 5. The ARCH OF
                                      directions, and some were of            CONSTANTINE.
The PUBLIC BATHS were                 immense size. The CLOÁCA
numerous. There were Thermae          MAXIMA, built by Tarquin, was           There were two famous
(hot baths) of Nero, of Titus, of     the largest, and is still in use. Its   MAUSOLÉA, that of Augustus,
Trajan, of Caracalla, and of          innermost arch has a diameter of        now in ruins, and that of Hadrian,
others, ruins of which still exist.   fourteen feet.                          which, stripped of its ornaments,
                                                                              is now the Castle of Sant’Angelo.
Pure water was brought into the       There are said to have been
city from the surrounding hills by    twenty TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, of             The COLUMNS commemorating
fourteen different aqueducts, all     which five now remain, 1. The           persons or events were
of which were well built, and         ARCH OF DRUSUS, on the                  numerous. The most remarkable
three of which are still in use.      Appian Way, erected in honor of         of these were erected for naval
The first aqueduct (Aqua Appia)       Claudius Drusus. 2. The ARCH            victories, and called COLUMNAE
was built about 313 B.C., by          OF TITUS, at the foot of the            ROSTRÁTAE. The one of
Appius Claudius.                      Palatine Hill, built by Titus to        Duilius, in honor of the victory at
Mylae (261 B. C.), still stands. It
has three ship-beaks attached to
each side. Columns were built in
honor of several Emperors. That
of Trajan is perhaps best known.

a milestone set up by Augustus
in the Forum, from which all
distances on the different public
roads were measured. It was
called Milliarium Aureum, or the
golden milestone.

[Illustration: Rome and Environs,
by K. D. Servoss, Engineer, N.
Y., from the original publication.]

                                 Latin or military. Members of the     came eight days after the Nones.
                                 former class had all the rights of    If an event happened on these
CHAPTER XLVIII                   Roman citizens; those of the          divisions, it was said to occur on
COLONIES—THE                     latter could not vote in the          the Kalends, Nones, or Ides of
CALENDAR—RELIGION                Comitia at Rome. The Latíni,          the month. If it happened
                                 who were once Roman citizens,         between any of these divisions, it
                                 and who always felt equal to          was said to occur so many days
                                 them, were uneasy in their            before the division following the
Colonies were established by     subordinate position. But by the      event. The year was reckoned
Rome throughout its whole        Julian law, passed in 90 B.C.,        from the foundation of the city
history. They were intended to   they acquired the right of voting     (753 B.C.), and often the names
keep in check a conquered        at Rome, and were placed on the       of the Consuls of that year were
people, and also to repress      same footing as Roman                 added.
hostile incursions. Many were    colonists.
founded to provide for veteran
soldiers; a practice which was                                         RELIGION
begun by Sulla, and continued    THE CALENDAR
under the Emperors.
                                                                       The Romans were religious, and
No colony was established        The Roman year began with             had numerous gods and
without a lex, plebiscítum, or   March. There were twelve              goddesses: JUPITER and JUNO,
senatus consultum. Religious     months, and each month had            the god and goddess of light;
ceremonies always accompanied    three divisions, the KALENDS,         SATURN, the god of seed-
their foundation, and the        NONES, and IDES. The Kalends          sowing; TELLUS, the goddess of
anniversary was observed.        fell on the first of the month; the   the nourishing earth; CERES, the
                                 Nones, on the 7th of March, May,      goddess of growth; CONSUS
The colonies were divided into   July, and October; in other           and OPS, who presided over the
two classes, viz. Roman, and     months, on the 5th. The Ides          harvest; PALES, the god of the
flocks; and LUPERCUS, the god          of their meals upon plates.          fill the vacancy, and she was
of fertility. Various festivals were                                        bound to serve for thirty years.
celebrated in honor of these, as       The PENÁTES were kept and            The Vestals were preceded by a
the Saturnalia, in December; the       worshipped only in the inmost        lictor when in public. They had
Tellilia (Tellus), Cerialia (Ceres),   chambers of houses and               private seats in the public shows,
and Palilia (Pales), in April; and     temples. Their statues, made of      and had the power of delivering
the Lupercalia, in February.           wax, wood, or ivory, were also       from punishment any condemned
                                       kept in the inner hall.              person they happened to meet.
VESTA was the goddess of the                                                They wore white dresses and
house, and as every family had                                              white fillets. Their chief duty was
an altar erected for her worship,                                           to keep the fire always burning
so the state, as a combination of                                           on the hearth (focus publicus) in
families, had a common altar to                                             the temple. They could not
her in the temple of Vesta. In this                                         marry.
temple were also worshipped the
Penátes and Lares.
The LARES were special
guardians of private houses.
                                       A woman of ancient Roman             The FLAMINES were priests
Some protected fields and cities.
Images of Lares of diminutive                                               devoted to the service of some
                                       The priestesses of Vesta were        particular god. There were
size, clad often in dog-skins,
                                       six in number, and were called       fifteen, and they were chosen
were ranged along the hearth.
                                       VESTAL VIRGINS. When a               first in the Comitia Curiáta, and
The people honored them on the
                                       vestal was to be elected, the        afterwards probably in the
Kalends of May and other festival
                                       Pontifex Maximus chose twenty        Tributa. The most distinguished
days by decking them with
                                       young girls from high families. Of   of all the Flamines was the
flowers, and by offering them
                                       these one was chosen by lot to       FLAMEN DIÁLIS (Jupiter). He
wine, incense, flour, and portions
had the right to a lictor, to the                                            numbering probably twenty.
sella curulis, and to a seat in the
                                      THE AUGURES                            They were expected, whenever
Senate. If one in bonds took                                                 any dispute arose with other
refuge in his house, the chains       This body varied in number, from       nations, to demand satisfaction,
were at once removed. This            three, in early times, to sixteen in   to determine whether hostilities
priest, however, could not be         the time of Caesar. It was             should be begun, and to preside
away from the city a single night,    composed of men who were               at any ratification of peace.
and was forbidden to sleep out of     believed to interpret the will of
his own bed for three                 the gods, and to declare whether
consecutive nights. He was not        the omens were favorable or
allowed to mount a horse, or          otherwise. No public act of any
even to touch one, or to look         kind could be performed, no
upon an army outside of the city      election held, no law passed, no
walls.                                war waged, without first
                                      consulting the omens. There
                                      was no appeal from the decision
THE SALII                             of the Augurs, and hence their
                                      power was great. They held
                                      office for life, and were a close
These were priests of Mars,           corporation, filling their own
twelve in number, and always          vacancies until 103 B.C.
chosen from the patricians. They
celebrated the festival of Mars on
the 1st of March, and for several
successive days.
                                      THE FETIALES

                                      This was another body of priests
                                      holding office for life, and
                                     The outer garment was a woollen       QUAESTOR, or quartermaster.
                                     blanket, fastened to the              4. The TRIBÚNI MILITUM,
CHAPTER XLIX THE                     shoulders by a buckle. Higher         numbering six in each legion,
ROMAN ARMY IN                        officers wore a long purple cloak.    and assisting the Imperator in
CAESAR'S TIME                        The offensive armor was a short,      his duties. 5. The PRAEFECTI,
                                     straight two-edged sword              who held various subordinate
                                     (gladius), about two feet long,       commands. 6. The
                                     worn by privates on the right         CENTURIÓNES, who were non-
The LEGIO was composed of            side, so as not to interfere with     commissioned officers, and rose
infantry, and, though larger,        the shield, but on the left side by   in rank for good service. There
corresponded to our regiment. It     officers. The javelin (pilum) was     were sixty centurions in each
was divided into ten cohorts         a heavy wooden shaft with an          legion, six in each cohort, and
(battalions), each cohort into       iron head, the whole about seven      one in each century. They were
three maniples (companies), and      feet long and weighing fully ten      promoted from the ranks, but
each maniple into two centuries      pounds. All legionary soldiers        rarely rose above centurion of
(platoons). In theory the number     were Roman citizens. The              the first rank. All the officers,
in each legion was six thousand,     auxiliaries were hired or drafted     except the centurions, came from
in practice about four thousand.     troops, and were always light-        either senatorial or equestrian
The usual order of battle was to     armed. The cavalry in Caesar's        families.
draw up each legion in three         time was made up of auxiliaries
lines (acies triplex), the first     taken from the different              The COHORS PRAETORIA was
consisting of four cohorts, the      provinces.                            a body of picked troops that
second and third of three each.                                            acted as body guard to the
The defensive armor of the           The officers were: 1. The             Imperator.
legionary soldier was a helmet of    IMPERATOR, or commander in
metal or leather, a shield (four     chief. 2. The LEGÁTI, or staff        The STANDARD (signum) of the
feet by two and a half), greaves,    officers, varying in number.          legion was an eagle with
and corselets of various material.   Caesar had ten. 3. The                outstretched wings, perched
upon a pole.

The Romans when on the march
fortified their camp every night.
They made it rectangular in
shape, and threw up fortifications
always in the same way. It was
surrounded by a ditch and
rampart. The legionary soldiers
encamped next to the wall on the
inside of the fortifications, thus
surrounding the cavalry, the
auxiliaries, the general and his
staff. The general's tent was
called the Praetorium, and the
entrance to the camp in front of
his tent was called the Praetorian
Gate. The opposite entrance
was called the Decuman Gate.

                                     SILVIUS PROCAS, who left two         land. A she wolf, hearing their
                                     sons, NUMITOR, the older, and        cries, ran to them and suckled
CHAPTER L                            AMULIUS. They divided the            them. FAUSTULUS, a shepherd
LEGENDARY ROME                       kingdom, the former choosing the     who was near by, seeing this,
                                     property, the latter the crown.      took the boys home and reared
                                     Numitor had two children, a son      them. When they grew up and
                                     and a daughter. Amulius, fearing     learned who they were, they
AENEAS, son of Anchíses and
                                     that they might aspire to the        killed Amulius, and gave the
Venus, fled from Troy after its
                                     throne, murdered the son, and        kingdom to their grandfather,
capture by the Greeks (1184
                                     made the daughter, RHEA              Numitor. Then (753) they
B.C.?) and came to Italy. He
                                     SILVIA, a Vestal virgin. This he     founded a city on Mount
was accompanied by his son
                                     did to prevent her marrying, for     Palatínus, which they called
IÚLUS and a number of brave
                                     this was forbidden to Vestal         ROME, after Romulus. While
followers. LATÍNUS, who was
                                     virgins. She, however, became        they were building a wall around
king of the district where Aenéas
                                     pregnant by Mars, and had twin       this city, Remus was killed in a
landed, received him kindly, and
                                     sons, whom she named                 quarrel with his brother.
gave him his daughter, LAVINIA,
                                     ROMULUS and REMUS. When
in marriage. Aenéas founded a
                                     Amulius was informed of this, he
city, which he named LAVINIUM,
                                     cast their mother into prison, and
in honor of his wife. After his
                                     ordered the boys to be drowned
death, Iúlus, also called
                                     in the Tiber.
ASCANIUS, became king. He
founded on Mount Albánus a city,
                                     At this time the river was swollen
which he called ALBA LONGA,
                                     by rains, and had overflowed its
and to it transferred the capital.
                                     banks. The boys were thrown
                                     into a shallow place, escaped        Recreation of a kitchen in an
Here a number of kings ruled in                                           ancient Roman home
                                     drowning, and, the water
succession, the last of whom was
                                     subsiding, they were left on dry
Romulus, first king of Rome,         king, and then NUMA
ruled for thirty-seven years (753-   POMPILIUS (716-673 B.C.), a
716 B.C.). He found the city         Sabine from Cures, was chosen.
needed inhabitants, and to           He was a good man, and a great
increase their number he opened      lawgiver. Many sacred rites were
an asylum, to which many             instituted by him to civilize his
refugees fled. But wives were        barbarous subjects. He reformed
needed. To supply this want, he      the calendar, and built a temple      Recreation of ancient Rome
celebrated games, and invited        to the god Janus. TULLUS
the neighboring people, the          HOSTILIUS (673-641B.C.)               The next three kings were of
SABINES, to attend the sports.       succeeded him. His reign was          Etruscan origin. LUCIUS
When all were engaged in             noted for the fall of Alba Longa.     TARQUINIUS PRISCUS (616-
looking on, the Romans suddenly      Then came ANCUS MARCIUS               578 B.C.) went to Rome first
made a rush and seized the           (640-616 B.C.), the grandson of       during the reign of Ancus, and,
Sabine virgins. This bold robbery    Numa. He was a good ruler and         becoming a favorite of his, was
caused a war, which finally          popular. He conquered the             appointed guardian of his sons.
ended in a compromise, and a         Latins, enlarged the city, and        After the death of Ancus, he
sharing of the city with the         built new walls around it. He was     wrested the government from
Sabines. Romulus then chose          the first to build a prison, and to   them, and became king himself.
one hundred Senators, whom he        bridge the Tiber. [Note: This         He increased the Senators to two
called PATRES. He also divided       bridge was called the pons            hundred, carried on many wars
the people into thirty wards. In     sublicius i.e. a bridge resting on    successfully, and thus enlarged
the thirty-seventh year of his       piles.] He also founded a city at     the territory of the city. He built
reign he disappeared, and was        its mouth, which he called            the CLOÁCA MAXIMA, or great
believed to have been taken up       OSTIA.                                sewer, which is used to-day.
into heaven.                                                               Tarquin also began the temple of
                                                                           JUPITER CAPITOLÍNUS, on the
One year followed without any                                              Capitoline Hill. He was killed in
the thirty-eighth year of his reign    oracles and prophecies; but the       Collatínus. Unable to bear the
by the sons of Ancus, from whom        price seemed exorbitant, and he       humiliation, she killed herself in
he had snatched the kingdom.           refused to purchase them. The         the presence of her family,
                                       sibyl then burned three, and,         having first appealed to them to
His successor was his son-in-          returning, asked the same price       avenge her wrongs]. A Republic
law, SERVIUS TULLIUS (578-             for the remaining six. The king       was then formed, with two
534 B.C.), who enlarged the city       again refused. She burned three       Consuls at the head of the
still more, built a temple to Diána,   more, and obtained from the           government.
and took a census of the people.       monarch for her last three the
It was found that the city and         original price. These books were      Tarquin made three attempts to
suburbs contained 83,000 souls.        preserved in the Capitol, and         recover his power at Rome, all
Servius was killed by his              held in great respect. They were      unsuccessful. [Note: The victory
daughter, Tullia, and her              destroyed with the temple by fire,    of Lake Regillus, which has been
husband, Tarquinius Superbus,          on July 6, 83. Two men had            painted by Macaulay in glowing
son of Priscus.                        charge of them, who were called       colors, was gained over Tarquin
                                       duoviri sacrórum. The worship of      in 509 B.C..] In the last attempt
TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS                    the Greek deities, Apollo and         (508 B.C.), he was assisted by
succeeded to the throne (534-          Latóna, among others, was             PORSENA, king of the
510 B.C.). He was energetic in         introduced through these books.       Etruscans. They advanced
war, and conquered many                                                      against the city from the north.
neighboring places, among which        In 510 B.C. a conspiracy was          HORATIUS COCLES, a brave
was Ardea, a city of the Rutuli.       formed against Tarquin by             young man, alone defended the
He finished the temple of Jupiter,     BRUTUS, COLLATÍNUS, and               bridge (pans sublicius) over the
begun by his father. He also           others, and the gates of the city     Tiber until it was torn down
obtained the SIBYLLINE                 were closed against him. [Note:       behind him. He then swam the
BOOKS. A woman from Cumae,             The cause of the conspiracy was       river in safety to his friends.
a Greek colony, came to him,           the violence offered by Sextus,       [Note: See Macaulay's "Lays of
and offered for sale nine books of     Tarquin's son, to Lucretia, wife of   Ancient Rome."]
                                     retirement.                         chosen from their own ranks to
During the siege of the city,                                            represent their interests. These
QUINTUS MUCIUS SCAEVOLA,                                                 officers were called Tribúni
a courageous youth, stole into                                           Plebis.
the camp of the enemy with the
intention of killing King Porsena,                                       Two years later (492 B.C.) Gaius
but by mistake killed his                                                Marcius, one of the patricians,
secretary instead. He was                                                met and defeated the Volsci, a
seized and carried to Porsena,                                           neighboring tribe, at CORIOLI.
who tried to frighten him by                                             For this he received the name of
threats of burning. Instead of       Reconstruction of courtyard         CORIOLÁNUS. During a famine,
replying, Scaevola held his right    garden fountains of Roman home      he advised that grain should not
hand on the burning altar until it                                       be distributed to the plebeians
was consumed. The king,              In 494 B.C. the plebeians at        unless they relinquished their
admiring this heroic act,            Rome rebelled, because they         right to choose the Tribúni Plebis.
pardoned him. Out of gratitude,      were exhausted by taxes and         For this he was banished.
Scaevola told the king that three    military service. A large part of   Having obtained command of a
hundred other men as brave as        them left the city, and crossed     Volscian army, he marched
himself had sworn to kill him.       the Anio to a mountain (Mons        against Rome, and came within
Porsena was so alarmed, that he      Sacer) near by. The Senate sent     five miles of the city. Here he
made peace, and withdrew from        MENENIUS AGRIPPA to treat           was met by a deputation of his
the city. Mucius received his        with them. By his exertions         own citizens, who begged him to
name Scaevola (left-handed) on       [Note: Menenius is said to have     spare the city. He refused; but,
account of this loss of his right    related for them the famous fable   when his wife and mother added
hand.                                of the belly and members.] the      their tears, he was induced to
                                     people were induced to return to    withdraw the army. He was
Tarquin went to Tusculum, where      the city, and for the first time    afterwards killed by the Volscians
he spent the rest of his days in     were allowed to have officers       as a traitor. [Note: See
Shakespeare's "Coriolanus."]       QUINCTUS CINCINNÁTUS was              Lucius Virginius, and the
                                   appointed Dictator. He was one        betrothed of Lucius Icilius. He
After the expulsion of Tarquin,    of the most noted Roman               formed, with one of his tools, an
the FABII were among the most      warriors of this period. The          infamous plot to obtain
distinguished men at Rome.         ambassadors sent to inform him        possession of Virginia, under
There were three brothers, and     of his appointment found him          pretence that she was a slave.
for seven consecutive years one    working with bare arms in his         When, in spite of all the efforts of
of them was Consul. It looked as   field. Cincinnátus told his wife to   the girl's father and lover, the
if the Fabian gens would get       throw over him his mantle, that       Decemvir had, in his official
control of the government. The     he might receive the messengers       capacity, adjudged her to be the
state took alarm, and the whole    of the state with proper respect.     slave of his tool, Virginius
gens, numbering 306 males and      Such was the simplicity of his        plunged a knife into his
4,000 dependents, was driven       character, and yet so deeply did      daughter's bosom, in presence of
from Rome. For two years they      he reverence authority. The           the people in the Forum. The
carried on war alone against the   Aequi could not withstand his         enraged populace compelled the
Veientes, but finally were         vigorous campaign, but were           Decemviri to resign, and Appius,
surprised and slain (477 B.C.).    obliged soon to surrender, and        to escape worse punishment, put
One boy, Quintus Fabius            made to pass under the yoke as        an end to his own life.
Vibulánus, alone survived to       a sign of humiliation. The
preserve the name and gens of      Dictator enjoyed a well earned        MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS
the Fabii.                         triumph.                              was a famous man of a little later
                                                                         period. He was called a second
In 458 B.C. the Romans were        In 451 B.C. one of the Decemviri,     Romulus for his distinguished
hard pressed by the Aequi. Their   APPIUS CLAUDIUS, was                  services. In 396 B.C. he
territory had been overrun, and    captivated by the beauty of a         captured Veii, after a siege of ten
their Consuls, cut off in some     patrician maiden, VIRGINIA,           years. On his return he
defiles, were in imminent danger   [Note: See Macaulay's "Lays of        celebrated the most magnificent
of destruction. LUCIUS             Ancient Rome."] a daughter of         triumph yet seen at Rome. He
was afterwards impeached for                                               gold. To increase the weight,
not having fairly divided the         BRENNUS was the famous               Brennus is said to have thrown
spoils obtained at Veii, and went     leader of the Senones, a tribe of    his sword on the scales. At this
into exile at Ardea. When Rome        Gauls, who invaded Italy about       juncture, as the story runs,
was besieged by the Gauls under       390 B.C. He defeated the             Camillus appeared with his
Brennus, in 390 B.C., Camillus        Romans at the River Allia (July      troops, ordered the gold to be
was recalled and made Dictator.       18, 390 B.C.), and captured the      removed, saying that Rome must
At the head of forty thousand         city, except the Capitol, which he   be ransomed with steel, and not
men he hastened to the city,          besieged for six months.             gold. In the battle which
raised the siege, and in the battle                                        followed, the Gauls were
which followed annihilated the        During the siege he tried to         defeated.
Gauls. He was Dictator five           surprise the garrison, but was
times, Interrex three times,          repulsed by Manlius, who was
Military Tribune twice, and           awakened by the cackling of
enjoyed four triumphs. He died        some geese. Peace was finally
at the advanced age of eighty-        purchased by the Romans by the
eight.                                payment of a thousand pounds of

                                                     390         Siege of Rome by Brennus, Battle at the
CHRONOLOGY                                           Allia river (July 18)
                                                     387         The planting of the first military or Latin
                                                     367         The Licinian Rogations
[The dates previous to 389 B.C. are uncertain.]      353         Caere: the first Municipium
                                                     343-341 First Samnite War
                                                     340-338 The Latin War
B.C.                                                 338         Antium, the first Roman or maritime colony
                                                     326-304 The Second Samnite War
753       Foundation of Rome by Romulus              321         The Caudine Forks
753-510   Regal Period                               298-290 The Third Samnite War
753-716   Romulus                                    295         Sentínum
716-673   Numa Pompilius                             283         Lake Vadimónis
673-641   Tullus Hostilius                           281-272 Pyrrhus
640-616   Ancus Marcius                              280         Heracléa, Cineas
616-578   Tarquinius Priscus                         279         Asculum
578-534   Servius Tullius                            274         Beneventum
534-510   Tarquinius Superbus                        272         Rome mistress of Italy, morality at its
510-30    The Republic                               height
509       Battle of Lake Regillus                    264         Period of foreign conquest begins
508       Porsena, Horatius Codes                    264-241 First Punic War
494       Tribúni Plebis, Menenius Agrippa           260         Lipara, Mylae
492       Corioli, Coriolánus                        257         Tyndaris
477       Destruction of the Fabian Gens             256         Ecnomus, Regulus at Clupea
458       War with the Aequians, Cincinnátus         249         Drepana
451       The Decemviri, Appius Claudius, Virginia   241         Aegátes Insulae, Catulus, Hamilcar Barca
396       Capture of Veil, Camillus                  237         Sardinia and Corsica acquired, and
                                                     provincial system established
229      Illyrican War, Important results               118-104 The Jugurthine War, Metellus, Marius,
222      Gallia Cisalpína acquired by battle of         Sulla
Telamon                                                 102      Aquae Sextiae
220      Hannibal in Spain                              101      Vercellae
219      Saguntum                                       90-89    The Italian or Social War
218-202 Second Punic War                                86       Death of Marius
218      Ticinus, Trebia                                86-84    Sulla's campaign against Mithradátes
217      Trasiménus, Casilínum                          84       Death of Cinna
216      Cannae                                         80       Reforms of Sulla
212      Capture of Syracuse, Archimédes                78        Death of Sulla
207      Baecula, Metaurus                              80-72    Sertorius in Spain
202      Zama                                           73-71    Spartacus
214-205 First Macedonian War                            72-67    Campaign of Lucullus against Mithradátes
200-197 Second Macedonian War                           67       Pompey conquers the pirates
198      Cynoscephalae                                  67-61    Pompey in the East
190      Magnesia                                       63       Cicero Consul, Catiline
183      Death of Africánus, Hannibal, and              59       First Triumvirate formed, Caesar's first
Philopoemen                                             Consulship
171-168 Third Macedonian War                            59       The Leges Juliae, Clodius, Cicero's
168      Pydna                                          banishment, Cato sent to Cyprus
149-146 Third Punic War                                 58-49    Caesar in Gaul
149      Death of Cato the elder                        57       Recall of Cicero, Return of Cato
146      Destruction of Carthage and Corinth            53       Death of Crassus, Murder of Clodius,
143-133 The Numantine War                               Pompey's consulship
134-132 The Servile War                                 52       Separation from Caesar
133      Tiberius Gracchus                              49       Caesar crosses the Rubicon
129      Death of Africánus the younger                 49       Siege and capture of Ilerda
123-121 Gaius Gracchus                                  48       (Jan. 4) Caesar sails from Brundisium,
Victory of Pompey near the sea-board, (Aug. 9)               41-68     The Claudian Emperors.
Pharsalia, (Sept 28) Murder of Pompey, Caesar                41-54     Claudius
establishes Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt                 54-68     Nero
47         Battle of Zela, (Sept.) Caesar returns to         68-69     Galba
Rome                                                         69        Otho
46         (Apr. 4) Thapsus, Death of Cato the               69-96     The Flavian Emperors
younger                                                      69-79     Vespasian
45         (Mar. 17) Munda                                   79        Destruction of Jerusalem
44         (Mar. 15) Murder of Caesar                        79-81     Titus
43         (Nov. 27) The Second Triumvirate, (Dec.)          80        Destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii
Murder of Cicero                                             81-96     Domitian
42         (Nov.) Philippi                                   96-180    The Five Good Emperors
36         Naulochus                                         96-98     Nerva
31         (Sept. 2) Actium                                  98-117    Trajan. Limit of Empire reached
                                                             117-138   Hadrian
                                                             138-161   Antonínus Pius
THE EMPIRE                                                   161-180   Marcus Aurelius
                                                             180-192   Commodus
                                                             192-284   From Pertinax to Diocletian
B.C. / A.D.                                                  284-305   Diocletian
                                                             306-337   Constantine the Great
30-41     The Julian Emperors                                312       Edict of Milan
30-14     Augustus                                           325       Council of Nice
                                                             337-476   From Constantine to Romulus Augustulus

14-37     Tiberius
37-41     Caligula
                                                            1. Basilica; Lex Publilia; Patrician; Triumvir; Tribune;
                                                            citizen,--what were they? [Take four.]
HARVARD COLLEGE                                             2. (a) How did Augustus obtain his power? (b)
                                                            The reign of Hadrian; (c) The first Punic war. [Take
June, 1889                                                  one.]

1. Place or explain the following: Capua; Numidia;          3. (a) The Roman religion; (b) Decay of the Empire,
Veii; Pharsálus;                                            [Take one]
Comitia Centuriata; Decemvir; law of Majestas. With
what important                                              4. Sulla's rule in Rome.
events was each connected? [Omit one; answer
very briefly.]                                              5. The tribes at the time of the Second Punic War.
                                                            [4 and 5
2. The campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy.                       are for "additional readings."]

3. The causes and results of the Samnite Wars.
4. Cato's efforts to reform the government of Rome.
                                                            (a) [Take five.] The Allia, Agrigentum, Lilybaeum,
5. (a) Education in Rome. (b) Amusements at                 Placentia, Cannae,
Rome.                                                       Numantia, Massilia,-where? Mention (with dates)
[Take one]                                                  historical events
                                                            connected with four of these places. [Take any two.]

1. How were the members of the Roman Senate                   September, 1886
chosen at different times?
                                                              1. Give an account of the races which inhabited Italy
2. The origin of the Praetorship. What were the               before the
duties of the Praetor?                                        founding of Rome.

3. Describe or explain any five: Pater Patratus,              2. What were the principal Greek colonies on the
Feriae Latinae,                                               shores of the
Curia, Equites, Flamines, the Licinian Laws, the law          Mediterranean? For what were three of them
of Majestas.                                                  celebrated?

Questions on the "additional reading."                        3. Describe the three forms of the Roman comitia,
                                                              and trace
[Candidates who have read the books                           the development of the comitia tributa.
recommended for additional reading
may substitute one of the following questions for one         4. What were some causes of the victory of Rome in
of the first three in this group.]                            the Punic wars?
                                                              The effect of this victory upon Italy?
4. [TIGHE.] How did the practical powers of the
Roman Senate differ                                           5. Explain patria potestas, princeps senatus,
from its theoretical powers?                                  municipium, ager Romanus, equites.

5. [BEESLEY.] What can be said in defence of the
Lex Frumentaria of
Gaius Gracchus?                                               YALE COLLEGE.

EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION                                    against Catiline.

June, 1889
1. The Patricians and Plebeians: first causes of
strife between them.                                         [Time allowed, 30 minutes.]
Steps in the political progress of the Plebeians.
Censors. Tribunes.                                           1. What powers did Octavianus Augustus take to
Licinian Laws.                                               himself? What change
                                                             did he make in the government of Rome? What
2. Greek influences on Roman life: what were they?           changes did Constantine
In what ways and at                                          make?
what times introduced?
                                                             2. The gradual extension of the right of Roman
3. The Second Punic War: its causes. Hannibal's              citizenship, the
great march. Battles                                         causes of each extension, and dates.
in Italy. Hasdrubal. Transference of the war. The
result. Why did                                              3. What were the possessions of Rome at the
Hannibal fail?                                               beginning of the Christian
                                                             era? How were they acquired, and when?
4. Give some account of the members of the First
Triumvirate.                                                 4. Explain praetorian guards; provincia; colonia;
                                                             tribunus plebis;
5. Arrange in chronological order, with dates:               comitia centuriata.
Actium. The Gracchi.
First Samnite War. Pharsálus Regulus. Teutones               5. Allia, Beneventum, Saguntum, Metaurus,
and Cimbri. Numantia.                                        Pharsalia; where were
Capture of Rome by the Gauls. Cicero's first oration         they? what happened there, and when?
                                                            June, 1885

1886                                                        1. Give an account of the Second Punic War (with
1. Describe the circumstances under which the
tribunate was                                               2. Explain tribunus plebis, censor, dictator,
established.                                                imperator.

2. When and where did the principal military events         3. How were the provinces governed under the
in the war between                                          Republic, and how under
the Caesarians and Pompeians occur?                         the Empire?

3. Sketch briefly the career of Pompeius.                   4. What were the causes of the Social War, and
                                                            what the results?
4. What persons composed the Second
Triumvirate? In what essential                              5. When and where did the following events take
points did the Second Triumvirate differ from the           place: the defeat of
First?                                                      Varus; the first Roman naval victory; the decisive
                                                            victory over
5. When and for what reasons was the right of               Pyrrhus; the death of Brutus and Cassius; the
citizenship given to the                                    conquest of the first
provinces?                                                  Roman province?

6. What radical changes in the government were
made by Diocletian?

                                                              5. Which occurred first: (1) Fall of Carthage, or
UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW                                captivity of
YORK.                                                         Jugurtha; (2) Battle of Actium, or battle of Philippi;
                                                              (3) Death of
35th Academic Examination, November 22,                       Antony, or death of Cicero? (3)
                                                              6. What do you understand by a "proscription"?
                                                              Mention the two which
Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only 48 credits; necessary
                                                              occur in Roman history. (3)
to pass, 36.
                                                              7. What were gladiators? who was their leader
1. Mention two prominent characteristics of the
                                                              when they rebelled? (2)
Roman people. (2)
                                                              8. What notable service was rendered to his country
2. Mention one element which Rome has
                                                              by Camillus;
contributed to the civilization
                                                              Tiberius Gracchus; Marius; Cicero? (4)
of the world. (1)
                                                              9. Mention two laws that are landmarks in Roman
3. Mention two foreign enemies that fought Rome
                                                              history. (2)
on Italian soil; state
the result in each contest. (4)
                                                              10. Give the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the
                                                              beginning of the
4. Describe the situation of any two of the following
                                                              Christian era. (3)
places, and
state an important historical event connected with
                                                              11. Briefly describe the system of slavery as it
each: Caudine
                                                              existed in Rome.(2)
Forks; Pharsalia; Pompeii; Cannae. (4)
                                                              12. What was the Haruspex? how did he determine
future events? (2)
                                                              20. Give a sketch of the character of Sulla. (2)
13. Was the Roman government usually tolerant of
religion? on what
ground were the Christians punished? (2)                      34th Academic Examination, June 14, 1889
14. Describe the way in which the Romans attacked             Time, 9 30 A.M. to 12 M., only 48 credits; necessary
fortified towns.                                              to pass, 36.
Describe two engines used by them for this
purpose.(3)                                                   1. Give a brief account of any two races which
                                                              inhabited Italy before
15. Whence did Rome derive literature and art? (2)            the founding of Rome.(2)

                                                              2. On how many hills was Rome built? Give the
THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF                               names of three of them. (4)
                                                              3. Narrate the circumstances under which the
16. To which of the two great parties in Rome did             Tribunes were first
Sulla belong? (1)                                             elected. (1)

17. Tell something of the reforms which he                    4. What were the "public lands"? what political
instituted. (2)                                               question arose in
                                                              connection with them? (2)
18. Mention two wars in which Sulla was engaged.
(2)                                                           5. What king of Epirus made war on the Romans?
                                                              Why? What grounds had
19. Briefly describe his dictatorship and how it came         he for hoping to succeed? (3)
to an end. (2)
6. Mention two reasons why Hannibal hoped to                 so called. (2)
overcome Rome. Why did he
fail? (3)                                                    13. Mention three objects which a Roman would be
                                                             sure to point out to
7. What importance in Roman history is attached to           a stranger visiting Rome at the time of the Emperor
the following                                                Titus.(3)
dates: B.C. 55, 44, 42? (3)
                                                             14. Mention any three writers of the Augustan age,
8. Briefly describe the political situation when             and the character
Caesar crossed the                                           of the writings of each. (6)
Rubicon. What were the chief consequences of his
act? what was "the                                           15. Mention two principal causes which contributed
Rubicon"? (3)                                                to the downfall of
                                                             Rome. (2)
9. What power was intrusted to a Roman Dictator?
Mention two instances
of this. (3)                                                 THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CAIUS
10. Give the names of the Flavian Emperors, with
some account of one                                          16. To what class of the people did Marius belong?
of them. (4)                                                 (1)

11. What radical change in the Roman government              17. In what war did he first gain great distinction?
was made by                                                  (1)
Diocletian? (1)
                                                             18. By the defeat of what peoples did he gain the
12. Give a brief description of Julian the Apostate;         title of "Saviour
tell why he was                                              of his Country"? (1)
19. How many times was Marius elected Consul?                6. Tell briefly the story of Cincinnatus. (2)
                                                             7. Describe the system of Roman roads, and tell
20. What prolonged struggle had its beginning in the         something of their
quarrels of                                                  effect upon the Republic. (2)
Marius and Sulla? what was the result to the
Republic? (2)                                                8. Give the immediate cause of the First Punic War.
                                                             What was its
                                                             result? (2)
33rd Academic Examination, March 8, 1889
                                                             9. Give the name of Rome's first province. (1)
Time, 9.30 A M. to 12 M., only 44 credits; necessary
to pass, 33.                                                 10. In what battle did the Romans finally overthrow
                                                             Macedonia? What
1. What was the early form of government in Rome?            Roman general commanded in this battle? (2)
                                                             11. Briefly describe the siege of Numantia. (2)
2. Tell what you know about the (a) Patricians, (b)
Plebeians, (c) Tribune, (d) Consul. (4)                      12. What was the effect of their great conquests
                                                             upon the character of
3. Give a brief account of the origin of the Comitia         the Roman people? (2)
Tributa. (2)
                                                             13. What was the cause of the Social War? Give the
4. What was meant by an Agrarian law? who                    result of this
secured the first one? (2)                                   war. (2)

5. Who compiled the laws of the Twelve Tables? (2)           14. Describe the campaign of Pompey against the
pirates, giving the                                            birth? with which, by sympathy? (2)
cause of the campaign, its length, and the result. (3)
                                                               21. Why was the failure of the agitation of the
15. What great religious event occurred during the             Gracchi of very great
reign of the                                                   significance? (2)
Emperor Augustus? (1)

16. For what were the following men noted: (a)                 31st Advanced Academic Examination,
Juvenal,                                                       June 15, 1888
(b) Seneca, (c) Cato the Censor, (d) Fabius,
(e) Caligula? (5)                                              Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., only 48 credits;
                                                               necessary to pass, 36.

THE GRACCHI                                                    1. Into what three principal classes (or races) may
                                                               the inhabitants of
17. Of what great movement did the agitations of               Italy be divided? To what great race did they
the Gracchi form a                                             belong? (4)
part? (1)
                                                               2. Who established the comitia centuriata? How did
18. What measure was proposed by Tiberius                      it differ
Gracchus? what measure by                                      from the comitia curiata? (2)
Caius Gracchus? (2)
                                                               3. Who made the first code of Roman law? (1)
19. Briefly describe the death of each of the
Gracchi. (2)                                                   4. What king aided the Greek colonies in their war
                                                               with Rome? What was
20. With which order of the Roman people were the              the result of the war? (2)
Gracchi allied by
5. In what war was Syracuse taken by the Romans?          12. To what one of the Caesars was Seneca tutor?
What was the cause of                                     (1)
the siege? Give the name of a famous man who was
slain, and state the                                      13. In whose reign occurred the last great
circumstances of his death. (4)                           persecution of the
                                                          Christians? (1)
6. Mention five provinces gained by Rome during
the period of                                             14. Give a brief sketch of the life and character of
conquest, 266-133 B.C. (5)                                Constantine? (3)

7. Give the effects upon Rome of the Eastern              15. Who was the last Western Roman Emperor? (1)
conquests, in regard to
literature and morals. (2)
                                                          THE SAMNITE WARS, AND THE RELATIONS OF
8. What political parties did Marius and Sulla            ROME TO SUBJECT STATES
represent? (2)
                                                          16. What caused Rome to bring the First Samnite
9. What two foreign wars were conducted by                War to an end? (1)
Marius. (2)
                                                          17. Give a brief account of the battle of the Caudine
10. What was the decisive battle in the civil war         Forks, and of
between Pompey and                                        the treaty made there. (4)
Caesar? (1)
                                                          18. What was the result of the battle of Sentinum?
11. Who formed the Second Triumvirate? What               Give the terms of
illustrious man was slain                                 the final peace between the Romans and the
in their proscription? (4)                                Samnites. (3)

19. In the Roman State what three rights did Rome             4. Give an account of the appointment of the
reserve for                                                   Decemvirs and the powers
herself? (3)                                                  intrusted to them. (2)

20. Distinguish between Roman citizens and                    5. Mention two provisions of the Licinian laws or
subjects                                                      rogations. (2)
(or Latins) (2)
                                                              6. What part of Italy did the Samnites possess, and
                                                              what was the cause
30th Advanced Academic Exaination,                            of the First Samnite War? (2)
March 2, 1888
                                                              7. Give the name of one of the Roman military
Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only 48 credits; necessary          roads, tell in which
to pass, 36.                                                  direction it led, and what towns were at its
                                                              extremities. (3)
1. Draw an outline map of Italy, and upon it indicate
the location of                                               8. In what locality were most of the contests of the
Rome and sketch the river Tiber and the outline of            First Punic
Latium (6)                                                    War? (1)

2. When was the Republic established, and who
were the first                                                ANCIENT ROME
Consuls? (3)
                                                              9. Mention one Roman and one Carthaginian
3. What was the cause of the first Secession, and             general noted in the conduct
what were the two                                             of the First Punic War. (2)
conditions of the return? (3)
                                                              10. Describe the battle of Cannae, and tell the result
of the                                                            Rome. (2)
                                                                  18. What was the first form of government at Rome,
11. Mention two reforms or measures favored by                    and after what was
the Gracchi.(2)                                                   it modelled? (2)

12. Compare the character of Marius with that of                  19. How did the Senate differ from the Comitia
Sulla.(2)                                                         Curiata in its
                                                                  membership? (2)
13. Who formed the First Triumvirate, and what
element of strength did                                           20. What authority did the king have, and what
each contribute to it? (3)                                        duties did the Senate
                                                                  perform? (2)
14. What cause was assigned for the assassination
of Caesar? (1)                                                    21. Describe the religion of the early Romans. (1)

15. Describe in a sentence the character of each of
the following:                                                    29th Advanced Academic Examination,
Nero; Trajan. (2)                                                 November 18, 1887

                                                                  Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only 48 credits; necessary
THE EARLY HISTORY OF ROME                                         to pass, 36.

16. Into what two principal branches were the early               1. When was Rome founded? (1)
Italians divided,
and what part of Italy did they occupy? (3)                       2. Under what king was the constitution remodelled,
                                                                  and what was the
17. Tell briefly the traditional story of the founding of         basis of the new constitution? (2)
                                                            Cato in character and
3. Who was the last king? By whom was the                   habits. (2)
government by kings
overturned, and to whom was the power then                  10. What was the object of Catiline's conspiracy, by
intrusted? (3)                                              what Consul was
                                                            it defeated, and in what manner? (3)
4. What caused the struggle between the patricians
and plebeians, how                                          11. What causes led to the formation of the First
long did it continue, and how did it result? (3)            Triumvirate? (1)

5. Give briefly the story of Coriolanus (2)                 12. What was the cause of the battle of Actium, and
                                                            what was its
6. What induced the Gauls to invade Italy 390 B.C.,         result? (2)
where did they
contend with the Roman army, and with what result?          13. Describe the manner in which Octavius
(3)                                                         Augustus became Emperor,
                                                            and the character of his reign. (2)
7. Where was Carthage, by what means did it attain
its power and                                               14. By what Emperor was Jerusalem captured, and
wealth, and when did the Romans and                         in what year? (2)
Carthaginians first contend in
arms? (3)                                                   15. Describe the customs of the Romans at meals,
                                                            and mention some
8. Under what circumstances was Fabius sent                 articles used by them for food. (2)
against Hannibal, what
policy did he pursue, and with what result? (3)
                                                            THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY, AND ITS EARLY
9. Compare Publius Scipio Africanus with Marcus             INHABITANTS
16. Draw a map of Italy, and upon it sketch the         18. What three races occupied Italy in the earliest
Apennine mountains,                                     known times, what
and the rivers Tiber and Arno. (4)                      part of Italy did each occupy, and from which of
                                                        these were the Latins
17. Upon the map indicate the location of the           descended? (7)
following: Rome,
Naples, Tarentum. (3)

                   Robert F. Pennell was born in      Trustees replaced him with
                   Maine in 1850 and received his     Carlton Ritter.
About the Author   AB degree from Harvard             Pennell and his wife, Eleanor,
                   University. In 1889 he was in      had one son. Robert Pennell
                   California and was principal of    died in San Francisco in 1905.
                   the Marysville schools. From
                   1890 - 1893 he was principal of    From University Archives,
                   the Stockton Schools. In 1893,     Meriam Library, Special
                   he was elected principal of the    Collections
                   normal school at Chico. During
                   his term of office, he promoted
                   the beginning of the Normal
                   Record as the school newspaper
                   and the ungraded or country
                   school was added to the training
                   In an introduction to the Normal
                   Record, he wrote " We are trying
                   to lay our course on the broad
                   foundation of scholarship and
                   practical teaching".
                   In January 1896 the graduating
                   class, which had arrived at the
                   normal school at the same time
                   as he did, presented him with a
                   gold headed cane to show their
                   respect and esteem. In 1897, a
                   newly appointed Board of

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