cycladic and minoan art by xiaoyounan


									Cycladic culture flourished on the islands of the central
         Aegean during the Early Bronze Age
       Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean Art
              (from ca. 3000 - 1200 B.C.)
         Aegean Civilization denotes the Bronze Age
 civilization that developed in the basin of the Aegean
   Sea. It had three major cultures: the Cycladic, the
 Minoan and the Mycenaean. Aegean art is noticeable
   for its naturalistic, vivid style, originated in Minoan
     Crete. Not much was known about the Aegean
        civilization until the late 19th century, when
  archaeological excavations began at the sites of the
legendary cities of Troy, Mycenae, Knossos, and other
                  centers of the Bronze Age.
                    Cycladic Culture
•   Cycladic culture - Early Bronze Age
    (About 3000-2200 B.C.)
      The Cycladic civilization of the Aegean Sea flourished at about the same
    time as the early Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. That is
    considered the forerunner of the first truly European civilization - Greece.
      On the mainland their villages have been small independent units, often
    protected by thick walls. Over time, the buildings on Crete and in the
    Cyclads became more complex.Cycladic culture developed pottery, often
    decorated with rectangular, circular, or spiral designs. They also produced
    silver jewelry. The sculpture produced there was very unique compared to
    the art being produced by the Egyptians and Mesopotamians. These
    sculptures, commonly called Cycladic idols, were often used as grave
    offerings. Characteristic of that sculpture is that all were made of Parian
    marble, with its geometric, two-dimensional nature, which has a strangely
    modern familiarity. The Cycladic artists made obvious attempts to represent
    the human form. Therefore, Cycladic sculpture can safely be called the first
    truly great sculpture in Greece.
            Early Cycladic
• Female figurine of the Plastiras type
  Early Cycladic I period - Plastiras phase
  3200-2800 BC
 Cycladic Idol
3000-2000 B.C.
Louvre, Paris
 Cycladic Idol
3000-2000 B.C.
Louvre, Paris
  CYCLADIC POTTERY: Pottery collared jar with sea-
urchin-shaped body and incised herringbone decoration.
      3200-2800 BC. Found on   Antiparos.
CYCLADIC POTTERY: Pottery 'sauceboat' of the Keros-
Syros culture. 2700-2200 BC. From Chalandriani, Syros.
CYCLADIC POTTERY: Pottery 'hedgehog' from
    Chalandriani, Syros. 2700-2200 BC.
CYCLADIC SCULPTURE: Female figurine of
   Dokathismata type, 2500-2300 BCE.
CYCLADIC SCULPTURE: Harpist and double-
flute player found together in a single grave on
            Keros. 2700-2500 BC.
CYCLADIC SCULPTURE: Front view of an Early Spedos
            figurine. 2700-2500 BCE.
CYCLADIC PAINTING: Flying Fish fresco.
   Phylakopi. Melos, 16th cent. BCE.
Fresco on Santorini, 1600 BCE
Plan of Akrotiri with the location of the shrines
                                   Minoan Art
•   Minoan Culture - Middle Bronze Age
    (About 2200-1800 B.C.)
      Newcomers arrived in the Cyclades and on the mainland and caused destruction. For about two
    centuries civilization was disrupted. New pottery and the introduction of horses at this time
    indicate that the invaders were of the Indo-European language family.
      Minoan culture developed on Crete, in the 2nd millennium B.C. Impressive buildings, frescoes,
    vases, and early writing are evidence of that flourishing culture. Great royal palaces built around
    large courtyards were the focal points of these communities. The Minoan empire appears to have
    coordinated and defended the bronze-age trade. They maintained a marine empire, trading not
    only with the Cyclades and the mainland but also with Sicily, Egypt, and cities on the eastern
    shore of the Mediterranean. Minoan religion featured a female snake deity, whose worship
    involved the symbolism of fertility and the lunar and solar cycles.
      Minoan art is unusual for the time. It is naturalistic, quite different from the stiff stereotypes of
    contemporary art elsewhere. The vibrant colors, smooth lines, and sense of nature make Minoan
    art a pleasure for eyes even today. Minoan artists broke away from the two-dimensional
    expression of figure and created three-dimensional figures. The frescoes are art of exceptional
    beauty and their fluidity makes the figures dynamic. The easy pleasure-loving lifestyle comes
    across in their art. The Minoan civilization rivaled that of Egypt. From Crete, this style spread to
    the Aegean. On the Greek mainland it was modified by geometric tendencies.
    Minoan palaces: Knossos, Phaestos, Malia, Zakros.
Minoan Pottery Culture
 MINOAN NEOLITHIC: Mother and Child.
Neolithic. Sesklo Culture, Thessaly. 4000 BC.
•   Mycenaean culture - Late Bronze Age
    (1600-1200 B.C.)
      It is believed that the Mycenaeans were responsible for the end of the Minoan culture with which
    they had many ties. This theory is supported by a switch on the island of Crete from the Cretan
    Linear A Script to the Mycenaean Linear B style script and by changes in ceramics styles and
    decoration. The styles on painted vases and weapons that depicted hunting and battle scenes are
    more formal and geometric than those of earlier examples, anticipating the art of classical Greece.
       The architecture and art of Greek mainland was very different from the one of Crete. Mycenae
    and Tiryns were two major political and economic centers there at the time.
       Cyclopean Architecture is the Mycenaean type of building walls and palaces. Palaces were
    built as large citadels made of piled up stones, as opposed to the openness of Minoan palaces.
    The citadel of Mycenae is an Acropolis - a citadel on raised area. The Lion Gate - entrance to the
    Acropolis of the city of Mycenae is an excellent example of this building practice combined with a
    corbelled arch - the triangular arch shape that the lions stand within.
       Megaron is the fortress palace of the king at the center of a typical Mycenaean city. This is a
    characteristic form of Mycenaean palace found at many sites, including Troy. They are very
    symmetrical and its basic form is a forerunner of later Greek temple forms.
       Tholos tombs are conical chambers with the subterranean burial chambers. The stonework of
    the tholos is very much influenced by Egyptian masonry techniques. There are 9 at Mycenae.
    There were found the gold death masks, weapons, and jewelry at the royal burial sites similar to
    Egyptian practice.
       Mycenaean civilization mysteriously disappeared shortly after 1200 B.C. most likely, to
    widespread fighting among the Mycenaean Greeks.
       Mycenaean cities: Mycenae, Tiryns, Troy
Tomb of Atreus (tholos tomb) &
   Mask of Agamemnon
Stemmed cup with murex decoration, late 14th century B.C.; Late
                       Helladic IIIA:2
             Terracotta; H. 8 3/8 in. (21.23 cm)
Stirrup jar with octopus, ca. 1200–1100 B.C.; Late Helladic IIIC
               Terracotta; H. 10 1/4 in. (26.01 cm)
Lion’s Gate & Building @ Atreus

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