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					                               Global scientific harvest

                        'Monitoring particle 'Higgs boson - 10

 In a move important scientific may lead to solving many of the puzzles concerning
 universe and the secrets of 'Big Bang', which was formed from the substantia ‫بنشأة‬
 nigra, scientists announced LHC Alhadroni great of the European Organization for
 Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland early July last year, for the discovery and
  monitoring of an atomic particle named 'Higgs boson' Higgs boson theoretically
     responsible for the fusion of the primary components of the material and the
    acquisition of material for mass, which is believed to be a missing link in the
understanding of how galaxies form and celestial bodies and how the evolution of the
                                  .universe in general

   And 'Higgs boson' is the only molecule between atomic particles found in nature,
    which is not inferred on while physically by the experience of recent laboratory
  CERN, was Scottish physicist Peter Higgs predicted its existence 48 years ago. The
accelerator) huge protons located underground on ( ‫ سينكروترون‬LHC Alhadroni great, it
the border between France and Switzerland near Geneva, was designed at a cost of ten
  billion dollars, in order to simulate the process of collision particles of cosmic and
   conditions that followed the 'Big Bang' Big Bang, and thus try to solving puzzles
        .related to how the emergence of matter and the origins of the universe

 He had been monitoring particle 'Higgs boson' first laboratory CERN in December /
 December 2011, however, it has not been announced officially only last July, due to
 make some experiments emphatic and review the accuracy of measurements and the
 results derived, which was welcomed The huge steel in the scientific community, to
     .'the degree that prompted some to be described as 'discovery of the century

                             landing Kiraossite on Mars - 10
Although it is not the first time that succeed where a space probes to reach Mars, and
  in contact with the surface, however, enables SIP Kiraossite Curiosity of landing
   smoothly and peace on this planet Red August 8 / August, the magnitude of the
    sophisticated equipment and laboratories mechanism, represents a significant
 scientific achievement and a huge event worthwhile, and it is because of the hopes
     .and aspirations ahead and desired of SIP-capacity, and this task as a whole

it is an integral laboratory, which ,‫ كسابقيه‬The Kiraossite no longer probe traditionally
includes a large number of devices and sophisticated scientific instruments capable of
    imaging the surface of Mars and perform some tests and analyzes are automatic,
    making those who call it 'Scientific Laboratory Mars'. Among these devices, for
   example, a laser strong can melt rocks after nine meters, and chemical laboratory
  moving to edit components rocks and analyze elements of chemical, as well as arm
  powerful mechanism capable of drilling in rocks and soil, and two cameras can be
                    .their capture panoramic images three-dimensional

 And participated in the task of manufacturing, sending and landing Kiraossite on
Mars, about five thousand scientists and technicians specialized, and the total cost of
this task more than $ 2.5 billion. And will remain Kiraossite on Mars two years, in
   order to gather information and search for signs of life on the surface of the Red
                                        .Planet

Scientists hope to contribute to the information being collected by Kiraossite, to find a
 definitive answer about the chances of having a form of life on Mars. Scientists also
hope that this information helps NASA to send the first manned mission to Mars, and
                            .landing rights for the first time

                    electronic chip to treat paralysis and blindness - 10
      Away from drug therapy or surgical intervention and other treatment methods
   traditional, that can not deal with specific conditions, such as paralysis or loss of
    limbs or eyesight, advanced science Albwynek Bionics on the possibility of the
  application of biological processes technically or vice versa, consistently, to try to
    find a cure for such cases, and give hope for all who lost a hand or an eye in an
     .accident or other, the possibility of compensation is part of what has been lost

In this context, there has been the year 2012 something like revolution in the field of
performance compensatory by sensors electronic installed brain, so when succeeded
  medical team American transplant chip very small in people's brains one infected
paralyzed, so that they work on the measurement of the nature of the impulses of the
  .brain cells nerve and then sent to the robotic arm to be translated into movement

 This technique has achieved impressive performance, it was able Kathy Hetteanson,
  infected full paralysis for nearly 15 years, well in control robotic arm installed and
   used in constipation and move some objects. Also applied the same technology to
other U.S. sick are Jean Skjoarman infected paralyzed full 13 years ago, which led to
 improve the synergy and skill and speed has greatly. Similarly one has been able to
.blind partially restore vision, through the planting of a similar chip behind the retina

     And despite the fact that the road is still a long way towards overcoming the
 difficulties of applying this technology - whether related by cost or non-attainment
capacity compensatory gained level natural movement - but the successes gives hope
 can restore patients paralyzed or blindness someday for their missing, or at least a
                                    .fraction of them

              a new technique for genetically engineering materials - 10
The past year has seen, a new scientific breakthrough in the field of modified products
  or transgenic organisms, through to reach more than a new technology for what is
   known manner gene targeting, allows specialists and workers in this field make
                 .genetic modifications required at low cost and easily

      Perhaps the most important and most recent of these techniques, known as
  'Alnyuklizzat double copying genetic', TALENS or (Transcription Activator-Like
     Effector Nucleases) with which to remove or change the gene specific utmost
efficiency and precision, where she works the following or enzymes Alnyukles in this
 case to locate gene to be deleted with the utmost precision, and then replace it with
                         .the desired new gene, without error
 This in turn means overcoming one of the biggest obstacles and problems of genetic
modification and genetic engineering, which is the inability of professionals to control
.sometimes in place to add new gene into the genome or DNA type you want to delete



                        Encyclopedia of the Human Genome - 10
 Human genome is the genetic material consisting of DNA skimmed oxygen known
simply as DNA or DNA, which contains turn on genetic instructions that describe the
  biological evolution of living organisms and most viruses, and even all the genetic
    instructions and biological characteristics necessary to perform vital functions.
  Therefore, the study of the human genome that can contribute to the progress and
 development of many other areas, such as gene therapy and the development of new
      .and effective drugs for the treatment of genetic diseases, and other diseases

    From this point of view, the first scientists particularly important to study and
understand the human genome, has been allocated huge budgets to work and carry out
  experiments and research projects pioneer in this field, and that examples Human
 Genome Project Human Genome Project, which ran for 15 years starting from 1990,
  U.S. funding , and contributed to the identification of DNA sequences, and other
                          .scientific benefits are substantial

 The continuation of these attempts, the effort of the research project on behalf of the
ENCODE or (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) for detection of the largest database of
   special scientific studies of the human genome, specifically DNA elements DNA,
  where it was published summary of these results in the September / September last
  within thirty different research paper, leading some naming 'Encyclopedia rights' or
 'Encyclopedia of the Human Genome' on the database and the overall results derived
                                      .from this project

 Have contributed to the results of the project are already in the spotlight on some of
the ambiguities of the genome, and in understanding how human DNA, which could
 help in the future to understand how genetic variations affect the human traits and
            .diseases, and even how human evolution since its inception

 The ENCODE project's budget had reached nearly $ 290 million, and the number of
  researchers involved 442 researchers, resulted in their research, the study of 147
   species of cells, and determine the nature of 80% of the functional parts of the
                                       .genome

                  cheap new technology for seawater desalination - 10
 In order to seek sources of cheap and practical for drinking water or agriculture, and
to cover the growing demand for drinking water, which causes scarcity and shortages
  in the death of a person every twenty seconds across the world, enabling a research
    team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, led by world Jeffrey
 Grossman, from development a new way of using nanotechnology to desalinate sea
  water. This method is characterized by being cheap and economic, which gives it a
big advantage to traditional techniques currently available, which are very expensive
                                   .and uneconomical
      The method to use Filter Nanomitri new material graphene Graphene, which
   contributes installed nanometer and agglutination atoms in a manner which Leaf
     similarity to some extent shaped houses bees compact, in the custody of salts
 unwanted sea water, producing clean water and safe to drink in large quantities. The
   research team was able to question of increasing the efficiency and speed of this
  article in the custody of the salts by adjusting holes intra nanoparticles of a certain
    size, while addressing the edges of these holes chemical elements belong to the
              .hydroxyl group hydrophilic, to work to absorb unwanted salts

                        a new leap for Laser Applications - 10
    The year elapsed groundbreaking new scientific applications lasers, the team
 succeeded joint research from America and Germany, in the development of X-ray
laser and exploited in the detection of installation and structure a protein, namely the
non-active enzyme is responsible for the survival of the parasite and a single cell that
            .)causes African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis

    In order to achieve this purpose, the team used nearly 180 thousand individual
package of laser pulses, in order to work diffraction pattern necessary to measure and
determine the crystal structure or specially engineered enzyme, and this after inducing
                    .a certain way to produce crystals very accurate

  This method, although challenged and the presence of some observations on them,
excel so much on the traditional method known as X-ray diffraction X-ray diffraction
   working Balsnkerutron, which can not detect the structure of organic molecules,
especially those that do not have a crystalline structure or particular order, such as cell
   membranes live, or you can specify the changes. And as such can be useful new
method to identify the effect of some drugs on organic molecules and enzymes active,
               .and then access to effective treatment for many diseases

                          Detection Faramionat Majorana - 10
   According to the basics of physics, there for most types of particles, equivalent
  antiparticle in static mass and spin lifetime, but opposite electric shipment albeit
completely equal. For example, the antiparticle of the electron anti positively charged
    electron is called a positron, and is produced naturally in the special cases of
                                   .radioactive decay

  In this context, under the command and presence Faramionat Majorana Majorana
Fermions - the proportion of the world Italian Majorana, the particles act as counter to
   itself - in doubt for a long time, that the team was able to joint research from the
 Netherlands last November to provide conclusive evidence of the existence of these
 foreign material, which is described as quasi-particles Quasi-particles, which can be
     .described as a group of interacting electrons behave as particles individually

   The value of this disclosure the possibility of exploiting Faramionat Majorana in
performance computing quantitative Quantum Computing, and then the production of
new types of computers super speed and power, featuring calculations based on these
   particles being more efficient in storing and processing data, processing methods
 .currently used in Current conventional computers based on bits regular Regular bits
   In another turn, enables research team second achievement is similar on the road
 computing quantity, through the design of crystallization very accurate composed of
   three hundred atom only, can lead alone complex calculations, and this from the
reality of their dependence on a particular property in quantum mechanics, a property
 Matching Superposition or coincided with the presence of the same molecule in two
    different quantitative at the same time, which can be used so performance two
  calculations Makdtan in the same time, and then the production of new computers
                                     .uncanny speed

                      new hopes for the treatment of cancer - 10
    Revealed three research teams separately from America, the Netherlands and
   Germany, for a new reality is the presence of stem cells cancerous in malignant
   tumors solid, and this contrary to what is believed now that cancer is caused by
   changes and genetic surprise inside normal cells makes them divided in can not
                     .adjust, causing transformation to the tumor

So expected to contribute to this discovery to change the style and strategy treatment
     currently used, and this by focusing on the eradication of cancer stem cells
responsible for tumor growth malignant again, rather than trying to target tumor cells
  .and reduce the size of the cancerous tumor, which usually reappear and inflation

On the other hand The year 2012 also saw more than medical achievement in terms of
    the treatment of breast cancer, which alone causes nearly half a million deaths
  annually. The scientists were able to develop and invent new technology could be
 addressed this disease without surgery, without general anesthesia, and through the
  use of a needle private chilled to 170 degrees below zero, they are used to destroy
 cancer tumors, and this cross-converted to snowball. Some specialists assert, on the
effectiveness of eradication method excessive cooling this to get rid of breast cancer,
              .and also capacity to treat kidney cancer, prostate and liver

                        Production of eggs from stem cells - 01
  Stem cells are the body's master cells, and the source of all cells and tissues. It is
 characterized by its ability to reproduce and evolve to 220 other species of human
 cells, so vigorous attempts are under way to be harnessed in the treatment of many
                  .diseases, including cancer, diabetes and infertility

In this context, the research team has succeeded in the generation of Japanese oocytes
  (immature) of industrial stem cells, by stimulating embryonic stem cells to mice to
    become viable eggs, and therefore able to enrichment and the production of new
 breeds. This method requires that the female rats host developing eggs in their bodies
for a period, which means that the process of producing eggs and fertilized in this way
     is not a laboratory or industrial fully. However, this disclosure - even if that is
  provoke more of a problem controversial moral and religious - can contribute to the
     other in the treatment of infertility in humans, and in the disclosure of genetic
     biological transformation mechanisms, and this according to what, head of the
                                       .Japanese team


  On the other hand an American research team demonstrated the existence of stem
cells in the ovary are able to produce eggs with an adult woman, and this research has
been published in the journal 'Nature the Midesan' in February / February. This - that
      sure his health - means that women can - in theory - produce eggs until the
   menopause, and also means the possibility of infertility treatment resulting from
  deficiencies in the work of the ovary, and treatment of women who suffer from an
 impaired ability to have children, especially after the of contracting cancer, and this
        .according to president of the American research team Jonathan Tilley

				
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