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					Overview                     Communication:
                             Animal protection
Lead-in

10.1 Raised by animals       Reference

10.2 Zoos: for or against?   Review and practice

10.3 Pet TV                  Film bank: Wolves
                     Overview

Lead-in   Vocabulary:   animals

10.1      Grammar:      phrasal verbs

          Can do:       talk about people who
                        influenced you
10.2   Grammar:   countable/uncountable nouns

       Can do:    write a short contribution for
                  a bulletin board
10.3         Grammar:      the definite article (the)

             Vocabulary:   verb + prepositions (1)
             Can do:       speculate about sounds and
                           pictures

Com. Focus: Animal protection
Reference
Practice
Film bank    Wolves
                               Lead-in
1 a Look at the photos. Which of the following animals can
       you see?
             tiger lion elephant hyena dog cat bear wolf
             snake horse cow zebra spider eagle whale




A                 B              C               D
    horses         eagle             spider      killer whale

Key
Notes
1 tiger  n. 老虎
2    ,虎
3 lion ln n. 狮
     子
4
  hyen
5
     hin n. 鬣狗
6    ;袋狼
7 wolf l n. 狼
8 snake ne n. 蛇
9 zebra i n.
    斑马
  spider    n.
    蜘蛛
  eagle il   n. 鹰
       b Divide the words above into: wild animals, domestic
          animals, insects and sea animals.

      Suggested answers:
      wild animals: tiger, lion, elephant, hyena, bear, wolf, snake,
      zebra, eagle, whale;
      domestic animals: dog, cat, horse, cow;
      insects: spider;
      sea animals: snake, whale




Key
c Add two more animals to each list.
      2 a Complete the expressions with a word from the box.

             fish birds horse mouse rat cat

1 What’s Claire doing? She’s been as quiet as a ______ for the
                                                    mouse
  last hour!
2 We need to prepare lots of food for tonight. David eats like a
  ______.
   horse
3 Forget about your ex-boyfriend. After all, there are plenty
        ___
  more fish in the sea.
4 I hate working in the city and being part of the ___ race. I want
                                                   rat
  to move to the country.

Key
                                                           cat
 5 How did Tom find out about his present? Who let the ___ out
   of the bag?
 6 I’d like to visit my old school and also see some friends who
                                          birds
   live nearby. That way I can kill two _____ with one stone.




Key
    Notes

1 mouse  n. ([复] ice )
     n. (小) 鼠;小家鼠,鼷
2 鼠(较rat为小)
  rat  n. (大)鼠;大家鼠,沟鼠,褐 (家) 鼠 (较
3    mouse为大);
     〈口〉〈喻〉耗子,鼠辈
4
     Claire le n. 克莱尔 (女子名)
     ex-boyfriend een   n. 前男友
2 b Discuss with other students. Do you have similar
    expressions in your language?
10.1 Raised by animals
    Introduction
    Reading
    Vocabulary | phrasal verbs
    Pronunciation
    Listening and speaking
Introduction
There have been forty well-documented cases of ‘feral’
children (children raised by animals in the wild) in the last
few hundred years. Most of these children were either lost
or taken by animals when they were only a few months old
and have grown up learning the behaviour and customs of
the animal that has adopted them. These animals include
wolves, monkeys and even an ostrich. The authenticity of
these stories, however, has yet to be proved.
In this lesson Ss read about Romulus and Remus and the
wolf girls, Kamala and Amala. Through this context they
learn various phrasal verbs.
  Reading




(1)         (2)   (3)   (4)
      1 Look at the people in the pictures. What do they have in
        common?
        Picture1: Romulus and Remus. They are believed to have
        founded Rome in Roman mythology.
        Picture 2: Tarzan, a child brought up by gorillas. Upon
        discovering he is human, he must decide in which world he
        belongs. The two most important films of this are Disney’s
        Tarzan and the 1984 Greystoke.
        Picture 3: Mowgli, main character in The Jungle Book by
        Rudyard Kipling first published in 1893 and first made into a
        Disney film in 1967.
        Picture 4: Kamala and Amala, the two sisters found in the
        care of a wolf in India in 1920.
Key
2 Read the text. How many examples of children raised by
  animals are mentioned?
                 Raised by animals
  There are a number of stories of children who are raised by
animals. One of the earliest stories is about the twin brothers
Romulus and Remus. They were the sons of the god Mars. When
they were very young, they were left by the banks of the River Tiber.
Luckily, they were found by a wolf. The wolf looked after them and
fed them with her milk.
  Later, a shepherd came across the boys. He took them home
and brought them up as his own children. The boys grew up to be
very strong and clever. They decided to build a town in the place
where the shepherd found them.
   Shortly after building the town, the twins had a big argument.
Romulus killed his brother Remus in the fight. Romulus then
became the first king of this town, which was named Rome,
after him.
   More recently, two young girls were discovered in the care of
a wolf in 1920, in Godamuri, India. The girls (Kamala, 8, and
Amala, aged 18 months) were taken to a children’s home but
they didn’t like their new life there at all. They preferred to be
with cats and dogs and they seemed to look up to animals,
not people. They never got on with the other children and they
sometimes bit and attacked them.
   The girls slept during the day and were awake at night. They
walked on their hands and feet and enjoyed raw meat. They had
extremely good eyesight and hearing. The younger child, Amala,
died one year later, but Kamala lived for nine years in the home.
She picked up a small number of words but she remained very
different from other children.
    Notes
1   参考译文
               由动物养大

      有许多关于人类的孩子被动物抚养长大的故事。最早的故
    事之一是关于双胞胎兄弟罗穆卢斯和瑞摩斯的。他们是罗马战
    神马尔斯的儿子。他们很小的时侯,便被遗弃在台伯河的岸边。
    幸运的是,他们被一匹狼发现了。那匹狼便照顾他们,并用自
    己的乳汁喂养他们。

      此后,一个牧羊人碰巧发现了兄弟二人。他把他们带回家,
    把他们当作自己的孩子抚养大。两个男孩长得很健壮也很聪明。
    他们决定在牧羊人找到他们的地方建立一个城镇。
    Notes
2   参考译文

      在镇建好后不久,这对双胞胎兄弟发生了一场激烈的争
    吵。在争斗中罗穆卢斯把他的兄弟瑞摩斯杀死了。罗穆卢斯
    成了这个城镇的第一位国王,而这个城镇也用罗穆卢斯的名
    字——罗马——来命名。

      较现在近一些时候,1920年,在印度的戈达穆里发现了
    由一匹狼所照料的两个幼女。这两个女孩 (8岁的卡玛拉和18个
    月大的阿玛拉) 被带到一个儿童之家,但是她们根本不喜欢那
    里的新生活。她们更愿意与猫和狗呆在一起,她们似乎尊敬动
    物,而非人类。她们从不和其他孩子和睦相处,有时她们会咬
    和攻击其他孩子。
    Notes
3    参考译文

            这两个女孩白天睡觉,晚上醒来。她们用手和脚走路,喜
     欢吃生肉。她们有极好的视力和听觉。一年后,年幼的女孩阿
     玛拉死了,但是卡玛拉在儿童之家里生活了9年。她学会了一些
     单词,但是她还是跟其他孩子不同。
 Notes

1 Romulus   l [罗神] 罗穆卢斯 (战神Mars之
  子,罗马城的创建者,“王政时代”的第一个国王)
2 Remus i [罗神] 瑞摩斯:战神Mars之子,罗马
  创建者和第一代国王Romulus的孪生兄弟,由母狼哺育养大,因在
  修筑城墙时与Rumulus发生争吵而被其所杀。
  Notes
3 Mars  [罗神] 马尔斯 (一译玛斯,战神)
4 River Tiber  台伯河 (位于意大利中部,流
5 经罗马)
6 luckily ll ad. 幸运地
7 shepherd e n. 牧羊人
   come came 偶遇,不期而遇
  e.g. Heacross across one of his old friends on his way home.
      在他回家的路上,他遇见了他的一个老朋友。
      If you come across my glasses, please give them to me.
      如果你碰巧看见我的眼镜,请把它还给我。
  Notes
8 bring up 教育,培养
 e.g. David was brought up to respect authority.
     戴维被培养成为一个尊重权威的人。
     After their parents died an aunt brought them up.
     父母去世后,一位阿姨抚养了他们。
9 grow up 长大,成人
      Notes
10 in  n. 国王,
11 君主
12 Rome  罗马 (意大
      利首都)
     e.g. Gravity was discovered by Newton when an apple fell on
      discover 
          his head.
      v. 发现
         重力是牛顿在一只苹果落到他头上时发现的。
         The boss discovered him stealing money from the till.
        老板发现他从钱柜里偷钱。
13    Godamuri     戈达穆里 (
14    印度一地名)
15    India n 印度 (南亚国家)
16            el n. (女子名)
      Kamala/el n. 阿玛拉 卡玛拉 (女子名)
      Amala
   Notes
17 bite  (i ,
   ien n) v. 咬; 刺痛
  e.g. An insect bit me on the arm.
      一只虫子咬了我的胳膊。
      She finished sewing and bit off the end of the thread.
      她缝完后,咬断了线头。

18 c
    v. 攻击
   e.g. Most wild animals won’t attack humans unless they are
        provoked.
       大多数野兽若非被激怒,一般是不会袭击人的。
       I was attacked last night by a couple of guys with knives.
       昨晚有几个带刀的家伙袭击了我。
   Notes
19       a. 生
  的,未加工的
 e.g. I prefer to eat vegetables raw, not cooked.
     我喜欢生吃蔬菜,不喜欢煮熟的。
     She was wearing a jacket made of raw silk.
     她穿着一件生丝做的外套。

20 eyesight 
   n. 视力,目力
   e.g. good/bad/poor eyesight
      视力好/差/弱
      You need to have your eyesight tested.
      你需要测一下视力。
   Notes
21 pick up 学会
  e.g. He soon picked up French when he went to live in France.
       他到法国居住后很快就学会了法语。
22 remain
   en v. 保
   e.g. The bank will remain open while renovations are carried
   持   out.
       在整修期间银行照常开门。
23 be different from 与……不同
    e.g. These two cakes are different from each other.
       这两块蛋糕不一样。
      3 Read the text again and answer these questions.
      1 Who was the father of Romulus and Remus?
        the Roman god Mars
      2 Where were they left when they were very small?
        by the banks of the River Tiber
      3 Who found them at first?
        a wolf
      4 Who raised them?
        a shepherd
      5 What did the boys do when they became adults?
Key
       They built a town in the place where the shepherd found
       them.
      6 What was the result of the boys’ argument?
       Romulus killed Remus.
      7 Who was looking after Kamala and Amala when they were
        found?
       a wolf
      8 How was the girls’ relationship with other children?
       Their relationship with the other children was very bad.
      9 What special abilities did they have?
       They could see and hear very well.
      10 What happened to Amala and Kamala?
       Amala died one year later and Kamala died nine years later.

Key
 4 Discuss.
1 Do you think the person who found Kamala and Amala
  should have left them with the wolf? Why/Why not?
2 Do you know of any similar stories in real life or in films?
      Vocabulary | phrasal verbs
  5 Match the underlined phrasal verbs from the text with
      the definitions below.

                                        to grow up
      1 to change from child to adult = _________
      2 to learn without trying = _________
                                   to pick up
      3 to take care of = __________
                          to look after
                                    _________
      4 to raise/educate children = to bring up
                            _____________
      5 to find by chance = to come across
      6 to respect = ____________
                      to look up to
Key
  Notes
1 educate
  ee vt. 教
 e.g. The form says he was educated in Africa.
  育;教导
   表上说他是在非洲受的教育。
       6 Complete these sentences with the correct form of the
             phrasal verbs from Ex. 5.
      1 It’s not easy to _______ children as a single parent.
                          bring up
      2 All the children in my class __________ our History teacher.
                                      looked up to
        He was an amazing man.
      3 We went to Spain on holiday and I was surprised at how
        much Spanish we _________ quite quickly.
                              picked up
              __________
      4 Pete came across a really interesting art gallery when he
        was walking around Venice.
      5 I ________ in Manchester but then my parents moved to
           grew up
        Edinburgh.
                                                           ________
      6 We’re going on holiday for a few days. Could you look after
        our dog while we’re away?
Key
  Notes
1 single l    a. 单一的,单个的;未婚的,单身的
2 Manchester   n   曼彻斯特 (英国英格兰
  西北部港市)
        7 a Complete the questions.
      1 Where ______________? (you/grow up)
                did you grow up
              brought you up
      2 Who _____________? (bring up/you)
      3 As a child, who _____________ when you were ill?
                         looked after you
       (look after/you)
                         did you look up to
      4 As a child, who _______________?
        (you/look up to)
      5 Have ________________ any English
              you ever picked up
        from TV or songs? (you/ever/pick up)
      6 Have ___________________ any
               you ever come across
        money in the street? (you/ever/come
        across)
Key
b 10.1 Listen and check your answers.
        Pronunciation
      8 a 10.1   Listen to the sentences in Ex. 7a again.
                 Which words are stressed in each sentence?




         1 Where/up?
         2 Who/up?
         3 child/after/ill
Key
         4 child/who/up to
         5 Have/up/English/TV/songs?
         6 Have/across/money/street
Recording 10.1
1 Where did you grow up?
2 Who brought you up?
3 As a child, who looked after you when you were ill?
4 As a child, who did you look up to?
5 Have you ever picked up any English from TV or songs?
6 Have you ever come across any money in the street?
b Ask and answer the questions in Ex. 7a with a partner.
Lifelong learning
 Keep a record (1)
 It’s important to keep a special vocabulary notebook of
 the new words that you learn. How do you organise it?
 • Do you organise the new words by topic (e.g. animals),
   alphabetically or in another way?
 • Do you write a definition?
 • Do you write an example sentence?
 • Do you write a translation?
 Tell another student what you do.
    Listening and speaking
9 a 10.2 Listen to a woman talking about her childhood.
         Who were the two main people who influenced her?
    Recording 10.2
W=Woman
W: Well … I suppose I had a bit of an odd childhood really. I mean,
it’s very different to all my friends. My parents separated when I
was really young … errrr … about three … I think. They stayed
friends so … I saw my dad from time to time and that was fine …
but it was my mum who really brought me up. You see, she taught
English and we lived abroad a lot. In fact, she spent a long time in
Libya, in Tripoli … and that’s where I was born and really, where I
grew up. I’ve always been incredibly close to my mum … and also
to my grandma. I really look up to my grandma. She’s a wonderful
person. I mean, she’s incredibly kind and generous. We’ve all got
on really well … of course, we have the occasional row but …
that’s normal I think. So, anyway, I came back to England when I
was a teenager and went to school … but I didn’t really like any of
my teachers. School wasn’t easy for me …
 Notes
1 childhood
2 lh n. 童
  separate ee               v. 分离,分开;(使) 分居
  年
  e.g. The two towns are separated by a river.
      这两个城镇由一条河隔开。
      They separated after six months of marriage.
      他们结婚6个月后就分居了。
3 Libya l            利比亚 (北非国家)
4 Tripoli   l           的黎波里 (利比亚首都)
5 row            n. 排,行
      b Listen again. Which statement is false?



      1 She saw her father occasionally.
      2 She grew up in Libya.
      3 She feels close to her mother and grandmother.
      4 She enjoyed school in England.

      Number 4 is false as she says that she didn’t take
      to her teachers and school wasn’t easy.

Key
          c Listen again and look at the How to … box.
                 How many times do you hear each phrase?



                  use conversational phrases
      HOW TO …




                 Say the same thing     I mean, … (2)
                 in a different way

                 Give yourself thinking   Well, … (1)
                 time before you continue
                 Go back to your         So, anyway … (1)
                 original point
Key              Introduce an explanation You see, … (1)
10 Tell another student about the people who
   most influenced you when you were growing up.
10.2 Zoos: for or against?

     Introduction

     Reading

     Grammar countable/uncountable nouns

     Writing
Introduction
For some years now there has been a growing debate
about the advantages and disadvantages of keeping
animals in zoos. Those who favour zoos argue that animals
that are in danger of extinction can be bred in zoos thus
preserving the species. Moreover, most zoos now treat
animals much better than in the past and are a form of both
entertainment and education. Those against zoos maintain
that keeping animals in captivity is cruel and shows a lack of
respect for both animals and the environment.
In this lesson Ss read some arguments for and against zoos
and through this context, look at the grammar of countable
and uncountable nouns.
  Reading
1 a Write a list of advantages and disadvantages of keeping
    animals in zoos.
 Reading
b Compare with other students.
2 Look at the bulletin board messages. Is each person
      generally in favour of zoos or against zoos?
       against: Chris, Katie and Dave
       for: Tania




Key
  Notes
  bulletin
1 ln       n.
    公告
2
    board 
    n. 木板
                   WILDLIFE WORLD
                     BULLETIN BOARD
 Post your comments and questions here for everyone to see.
                 Are zoos a good thing?

Chris, London:
Just been to the local zoo with
my kids >>> awful! Hated seeing the
animals locked up in those tiny cages.
So little space. They looked really
unhappy and it seemed quite cruel :-(.
Tania, Boston: Sorry Chris that you went to a zoo like that. Most
zoos are quite good although that one sounds very bad. We have
a fantastic zoo here :-). The animals have lots of space to move
around. Actually, I think it’s really important that children can see
different animals face-to-face. Then they can learn about them.
Also, nearly 12,000 species are in danger of extinction. Zoos can
help save some of them!
Katie, Dublin: Although I think Tania’s right in some ways, I
mainly agree with Chris. Animals shouldn’t be locked up. They
should be free to go where they want. Yes, it’s important that kids
have information about animals but they can get that from the
Internet and TV.
Dave, Manchester: Take my advice:
have a break and go on a safari in
Africa. See the animals in their natural
environment. It’s completely different
to seeing animals in zoos! I don’t think
I could go to a zoo again.
  Notes
  comment  en n. 评论,意见
1
2 Chris  n. 克里斯 (男子名,Christopher的昵称),
    克丽斯
    (女子名,Christiana,Christine 的昵称)
3   lock up 锁上
4
    tiny n a. 很少的,微小的
5
    cage e n. 笼子
6   cruel l a. 残酷的;残暴的
    e.g. He was forced to apologize for his cruel remarks.
        他被迫为他的恶语伤人道歉。
        A cruel wind had been blowing all day.
        狂风猛烈地刮了一整天。
    Notes
  1 Boston  n 波士顿 (美国马萨诸塞州首府)
  2 move around 走来走去
  3 face-to-face ad. 面对面地
  4 species i n. 种;种类
  5 extinction n n. 消灭,灭绝
    e.g. The extinction of the dinosaurs occurred millions of years
         ago.
        恐龙于几百万年前灭绝。
        Some people predict the extinction of family life as we
        know it today.
        有些人预计我们今天所了解的家庭生活会消失。
Katie6 e           n. 卡蒂 (女子名,Kate的异体,亦作Katy)
    Notes
    Dave e     n. 戴夫 (男子名,David的昵称)
1
    safari    n. (东非的) (徒步) 旅游;
2 科学考察;游猎
3 environment   nnn      n.
    环境;周围状况
    Notes
1    参考译文
                野生动物世界
                  公告牌

            把你的看法和问题张贴在这里供大家看。

               动物园是好东西吗?

     克丽斯,来自伦敦:刚与我的孩子们去过本地的动物园。太可
     怕了!我讨厌看到动物被锁在那些狭小的笼子里。空间太小
     了。它们看上去很不开心,这似乎太残忍了。
    Notes
2    参考译文

     塔尼娅,来自波士顿:克里斯,很遗憾你去了那样的一个动物
     园。尽管那个动物园听起来很糟糕,但是大部分动物园还是相
     当不错的。我们这儿有一个很好的动物园。动物们有很多空间
     可以四处走动。事实上,我认为孩子们能够面对面地看到不同
     的动物是很重要的。这样孩子们就可以了解它们。与此同时,
     近一万两千种动物正面临灭绝的危险,动物园可以帮助拯救它
     们中的一些。
     卡蒂,来自都柏林:尽管在有些方面我认为塔尼娅是对的,但
     我大体上还是同意克里斯的看法。动物不该被锁起来。它们应
     该有想到哪里就到哪里的自由。是的,孩子们获取有关动物的
     知识很重要,但是他们可以从英特网和电视里获取这些知识。
    Notes
3    参考译文

     戴夫,来自曼彻斯特:请接受我的建议:休息一下,到非洲去
     旅行一次。看看在自然环境中的动物。这和在动物园里看动物
     是完全不同的!我想我再也不会到动物园去了。
      3 Read the messages again and answer the questions.
      1 Who is definitely a parent? Chris
      2 Who talks about using the Internet for education? Katie
      3 Who suggests taking a holiday? Dave
      4 Who is worried about how much room animals in zoos have?
        Chris


Key
   Notes
   definitely enl              ad. 明确
1 地,干脆地
  e.g. Have you definitely decided to go to the US?
       你决定一定要去美国了吗?
2 worry about 为……担心
4 Discuss. Which of the people do you agree/disagree
   with? Why?
       Grammar | countable/uncountable nouns
5 a Look at the sentences. Which underlined noun is
        countable and which is uncountable?
1 The animals have lots of space.
2 It’s important that kids have information about animals.

  Animal is countable and information is uncountable.




 Key
b Put the following nouns into the correct column in the
  Active grammar box.

     holiday travel furniture    newspaper
     work news job advice        money cheque
      Active grammar
       Countable               Uncountable
       animal, _______
                 holiday,                     travel,
                                information, ______
        _____________
       newspaper, job,          __________________
                                 furniture, work, news,
        cheque
        ______                  advice, money
                                ____________
       Can be singular         Can only be singular.
       or plural.
       Use a few,              Use a little/a bit of/a
       some or a lot           piece of, some or
       of in positive          a lot of in positive
       sentences.              sentences.
       Use any or many
       in negatives and        Use any or much in
       questions.              negatives and
Key
                               questions.
      see Reference page 103
 Countable/Uncountable nouns
 (可数名词和不可数名词)
可数名词,如:animal,child,zoo等,既有单数形式又有复数形式。
不可数名词,如:information,advice,news等,只有单数形式。
下面是其他一些不可数名词:

    accommodation (膳宿) behaviour bread
    furniture (家具)    health       knowledge
    luggage (行李)      research salt
    spaghetti (意大利面)         traffic   travel
    trouble     water    weather      work
   下列名词既可作可数名词又可作不可数名词:

        chicken chocolate coffee egg glass
        hair iron paper room space time
        wine

比较:Would you like a coffee? 和 I drink too much coffee.
在可数名词前加a/an,a few,some,any,many,a lot of等词修饰。
There weren’t many people at the party.
They’ve got a lot of friends in Australia.
You should rest for a few days.
在不可数名词前加a little,a bit of,a piece of,some,any, much,
a lot of等词修饰。
    How much salt did you put in this?
    We bought a lot of bread this morning.
    Can you give me a piece of advice?
    Some通常用在肯定句中;any通常用在否定句和疑问句中。
    I’d like some information.
    Have you been to any interesting places?
    I didn’t bring any money with me.
!   如果期望别人的回答是Yes,那么some也可以用在疑问句中。
    Could I have some more dessert, please?
    Much通常用来修饰不可数名词,many经常用来修饰可数名词复数。
    I haven’t got much time.
    Did you bring many CDs?
      6 Choose the correct alternatives.
1 This job will involve many/ a lot of hard work.
2 We don’t have a little/ much furniture. Just a table and a few
  chairs.
3 I’ve got any/some bad news. There’s going to be a train strike.
4 I have a few /a little cheques that I’d like to pay in to my
  account.
5 Can you help me? I need a bit of /a few advice about times
  and prices of flights to Krakow.
6 I’d like to buy a new CD player but I don’t have many/much
  money at the moment.
Key
Notes

1 strike      n. 罢
工
2
    account   n
n. 账目
      7a Correct the mistake in the sentences.
      1 Pete has just got new job. He’s really happy.
                       got a new job
      2 We didn’t see many wild animals. Just a few of lions.
                                                  a few lions
      3 I’d like to give you small piece of advice.
                           a small piece of advice
      4 She hasn’t got a lot money so she’s going camping.
                       a lot of money
      5 Can I write you cheque or would you like cash?
                       a cheque
      6 I’ve got any great news. We’re moving to Spain.
               some great news
Key
Notes

1 Pete i       n. 皮特 (男子名,
  Peter的昵称)
2
   go camping 去野营
           Writing
        8 Look at these examples and choose the correct
           alternative below.

      1 Although there are a lot of arguments against zoos, they are a
        good thing.
      2 Zoos are a good thing although there are a lot of arguments
        against them.

      Although is followed by a noun/a clause.




Key
9 Make one sentence from two using although. Use
  although in two ways.
 Dogs are fun. Looking after them is hard work.
 Dogs are fun although looking after them is hard work.
 Although looking after them is hard work, dogs are fun.
  1 We went to the zoo. We’ve been there before.
    We went to the zoo although we’ve been there before.
    Although we’ve been there before, we went to the zoo.
  2 This book has been very successful. The author isn’t well-known.
      This book has been very successful although the author isn’t
      very well-known.
      Although the author isn’t very well-known, this book has been
      very successful.
3 Our staff are getting a pay increase. We can’t really afford it.
  Our staff are getting a pay increase although we can’t really
  afford it.
  Although we can’t really afford it, our staff are getting a pay
  increase.
Key
 Notes
1 author  n. 作家
2 well-known elnn   a. 众所周
 知的,有名的
      4 I want to take up sky diving. It’s very dangerous.
      I want to take up sky diving although it’s very dangerous.
      Although it’s very dangerous, I want to take up sky diving.
      5 He wants to study Zoology at university. He never reads any
        books.

       He wants to study Zoology at university although he never
       reads any books.
       Although he never reads any books, he wants to study
       Zoology at university.


Key
 Notes
3 take up 开始从事
  e.g. He has taken up skiing.
      他已开始学滑雪了。
      She has just taken up cycling to work.
      她刚开始骑车去上班。
4 zoology         l,          n. 动物学
10 a Read the bulletin board in the Writing bank on page
     148. Do the exercises.
         1 Read the bulletin board and mark the statements true
           (T) or false (F).

      1 Paula doesn’t think it is necessary to take anything. T
      2 Craig disagrees with Paula. T
      3 Craig will always take flowers. F
      4 Kelly will take different things for different people. It depends
        on how well she knows them. T
      5 Kelly thinks chocolates are good to take in formal situations. F


Key
      MODERN DAY POLITENESS BULLETIN BOARD
    This is the place for your questions and replies.
    What should you take when you are invited for dinner?
Paula, Newcastle: IMO, you don’t have to take anything. If I invite people
for dinner, it’s because I want to see them, not because I expect anything!
Craig, Auckland: Come on, Paula! I think that’s quite rude. I would never
arrive for dinner W/O a small gift! I usually take something to drink and
maybe flowers.
Kelly, Belfast: I think it all depends on who you’re visiting. With really good
friends who I see a lot, I probably wouldn’t take anything … or maybe just a
few chocolates. But if it’s more formal, or may be just a few chocolates. But
if it’s more formal, or people I don’t know very well then I’d do the same as
Craig – something to drink and flowers are always appreciated.
 Useful phrases
IMO – In my opinion
W / O – Without
BTW – By the way
F2F – Face-to-face
FAQ – Frequently asked question
LOL – Laugh out loud
TIA – Thanks in advance
YW – You’re welcome
Using bulletin boards
Disagree politely: Give your opinion but please disagree
politely and use reasonable language. Being rude to other
people is not acceptable.
Keep personal information private: It’s usually not a good
idea to put your address or telephone number on the public
message board. Also, do not ask for personal information
from others.
Don’t repeat yourself: Do not post the same message
more than once on a message board. Duplicate messages
can be frustrating for other members and will be removed.
No commercial messages: Do not post commercial
messages advertising websites or products for sale in
message boards. They will be removed.
         Writing skill | its/it’s
         When its is a possessive word (like my or your) there is no
         apostrophe. when it’s is the contracted form of it is or it has,
         there is an apostrophe.
         2 Decide for each example of ‘its’ below, if it needs an
           apostrophe (’) or not.
      1 If invite people to dinner, its because I want to see them. it’s
      2 I think you should give the dog its food now.
      3 Every family has its own special way of celebrating
        Christmas.
      4 A: What time is the film on?
        B: I’m afraid its started already. it’s
Key
b Choose one of the topics below and start an ‘online’
   bulletin board discussion (on paper). In pairs, write
   your opinions about this topic.

1 Are there good reasons for keeping animals in zoos?
2 Is it wrong to wear fur or leather?
3 Are animal sports wrong and should they be banned?
4 Is it necessary to use animals for scientific research?
    Notes
1 fur             n. 软毛,柔毛;毛皮;裘,
    毛皮衣服
2
    leather   le         n. 皮革
3
    ban n banned in the restaurant.
    e.g. Smoking is vt. 禁止
        这家餐馆内禁止吸烟。
        She was banned from driving for two years.
        她被禁止开车两年。
4 scientific n                  a. 科学的
c Pass your paper to another pair of students to
  continue the discussion.
10.3 Pet TV
  Introduction
  Reading and listening
  Vocabulary verb + prepositions (1)
  Grammar the definite article (the)
  Speaking
Introduction
The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) believes it has
a duty to serve minority audiences and in 2004 introduced
the new concept of ‘pet TV’. ‘The sound of running water
might attract your fish to the screen, and the sight of fish
swimming around a tank might attract your cat’ (BBC).
In this lesson Ss read and listen about Pet TV and through
this context, they analyse the grammar of the definite
article.
      Reading and listening
    1 Discuss.
      Which of the following things do you think pets would
      like to watch on TV? Why/Why not?

snooker balls             wolves howling
cartoon characters        cats mewing
popular TV programmes     balls of string
Notes

1 snooker n n. 斯诺克,台球
2 howl hl        v. (狼、狗等)凄厉地长嚎,嗷叫,
    狂吠;吼叫,
             咆哮,怒吼
3
    mew  v. 咪咪叫,喵喵叫,发出猫叫似的声
4 音

    string    n. 线,细绳
2 Read the short text about a new TV programme.
  Answer as many of the questions as possible.

 Pets get their own TV show
 The BBC provides programmes for all tastes although
 they haven’t made programmes for animals – until now.
 From next week, pets (and their owners) will be able
 to watch Pet TV. It is a programme full of sounds and
 images that might appeal to animals.The aim is to find
 out what animals respond to. What will your pet like?
  Notes
1 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) 英国广播公司
2 image  n. 图像
3 appeal il vi. 对……有吸引力(to);请求,恳求
  ;呼吁; (法律)
 e.g. It is a program designed to appeal mainly to 16 to 20 year
                    上诉,申诉
      olds.
       这个节目主要是为吸引16至20岁的青少年而设计的。
      I think what appeals to me about his painting is the colors
      he uses.
       我觉得他的画吸引我的是他用的色彩。
     I intend to appeal against this sentence.
       我要对这个判决提出上诉。
     The defendant has been given leave to appeal to the High
     Court.
       被告已被允许向高级法院上诉。
 Notes
4 respond n vi. 作出反应,响应;
  作答,回答
 e.g. How did they respond to the news?
         他们对这条消息有什么反应?
         respond negatively to a question
         对问题作否定的回答
Notes
1 参考译文:
            宠物有它们自己的电视节目


        英国广播公司为各种爱好的人提供不同的节目,但是直到
  现在他们还没有给动物制作过节目。从下周起,宠物和它们的
  主人就能看到“宠物电视”了。这个节目中充满着吸引动物的声
  音和图像。它的目的在于找出动物会对什么作出反应。你的宠
  物会喜欢什么呢?
      1 What is the new TV programme from the BBC?
        Pet TV
      2 When does the programme start?
       next week
      3 What different animals is the programme for?
       don’t know
      4 What is the aim of the programme?
       to find out what animals respond to
      5 Where can pets take an intelligence test?
       don’t know
      6 What did the advertisement show?
Key    don’t know
3 a 10.3 Listen to a radio programme about Pet TV and
         tick (✓) the things from Ex. 1 that you hear.




         All the things in the list are mentioned.




Key
   Recording 10.3
R=Radio Presenter
R: … Pet TV is a new kind of TV programme from the BBC. The
programme will have images and sounds that are repeated again
and again. Examples of the images are: snooker balls on a
snooker table, a frisbee flying through the air, and cartoon
characters such as Top Cat.
The programme will also show extracts from popular TV
programmes such as EastEnders, The Muppet Show and Animal
Hospital.
The BBC says that Pet TV will appeal to many different kinds of
animal including dogs, cats, birds and even fish. ‘We think that
Pet TV is a unique opportunity to find out what are the pets’
favourite shows,‘ the BBC said. ’We want to know if animals
    Notes
1 frisbee i n. 飞盘
2 Top Cat 猫老大 (卡通人物):世界上最优秀的动画片之一
    《猫老大》中的动画形象,已经为人所津津乐道。猫老大是
    陋巷一群猫的高层领导人,总是试图欺骗别人。
3   extract e n. 摘录;选段
4   EastEnders 《东伦敦人》 (英国肥皂剧)
5   The Muppet  Show 《大青蛙布偶秀》 (英国
    一载歌载
6   舞的综艺节目)
7   Animal Hospital 《动物医院》 (电视节目)
8   unique ni a. 唯一的,独特的
    opportunity n n. 机会,时机
understand messages from the television. For example, does
your pet respond to dogs barking, wolves howling or parrots
talking in English?’
Responses like these are a sign of intelligence. Animal lovers
who would like to know if they have the cleverest cat or dog
in the country will also be able to give their pets an intelligence
test on the BBC website.
This is not the first time programmes have been made for
pets. ITV made an advertisement for Whiskas, a popular cat
food. The advert showed 40 seconds of cats mewing, birds
singing and mice squeaking, along with images including balls
of string, birds and mice.
 Notes
1 bark  vi. 吠,叫 vt. 厉声说出,厉声命令 n. 吠声,叫
2 声
3 parrot  n. 鹦鹉
  Whiskas  伟嘉猫粮:伟嘉品牌诞生于20世纪
  50年代的英
4 国,并于1993年进入中国大陆市场,是全球最大的猫粮品牌之一,也
  是全球消费者喜欢的猫粮品牌。
 squeak   i   v. 发出尖叫声
 b Listen again and answer the rest of the questions from
      Ex. 2.




      3 dogs, cats, birds and fish
      5 on the BBC website
      6 cats mewing, birds singing, and mice squeaking and
        images including balls of string, birds and mice



Key
4 Discuss.
What do you think of the idea of Pet TV?
      Vocabulary verb + prepositions (1)
      5 Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the
        endings on the right.
1 The starting date of Pet TV        a) to many different kinds of animals.
  depends                            b) to an excellent series on the radio.
2 The BBC think that Pet TV will     c) on the results of the trial.
  appeal                             d) about our dog, Patch. He’s not
3 Do you really agree                   very well.
4 Does your pet respond              e) on my horse. He’s very expensive
5 Six people have applied               to look after.
6 I can’t believe how much I spend   f) with Reena? You never have the
7 My mum is worried                     same views!
8 I’ve been listening                g) for the job.
                                     h) to dogs barking?
Key
       2a, 3f, 4h, 5g, 6e, 7d, 8b
Notes
1 agree with 同意;适合
2 apply for 请求,申请
  e.g. You can apply to the manager for a job as a clerk.
        你可以向经理申请一份办事员的工作。
        They applied to him for help.
        他们向他请求帮助。
3 spend on 在……上花费
4 be worried about 为……忧虑
5 trial l n. 试验
6 Patch  n. 帕奇 (男子名, 文中为一小狗名)
7 Reena in n. 里娜 (女子名)
       6 a Add the missing preposition to the sentences below.

1 What kinds of people do TV programmes about animals appeal __?  to
2 Some people seem to pick up a new language very quickly, others
  more slowly. What do you think it depends ___ ?
                                              on
                          for
3 Have you ever applied ___ a job and lied about your qualifications?
4 Do you think TV advertising works? What kinds of people respond
  to
  __ it?
                      to
5 Do you ever listen ___ the radio? If so, what station?
6 What do you worry _____ ?
                      about
7 Which member of your family do you most often agree ____?
                                                         with
                                            on
8 What do you spend most of your money ___ each month?
 Key
Notes
1 lie
  l
  v. 说谎
b Discuss the questions above with a partner.
 Grammar | the definite article (the)
7 Match sentences 1–3 below to the rules in the
   Active grammar box.

1 And fish may want to watch TV …

2 … the cleverest cat or dog in the country.

3 ITV made an advertisement for Whiskas, a popular cat
  food. The advert consists of …
Notes
1 advert
2          n.
 广告
 consist of 由……组成
    Active grammar
   a Use the with superlatives because there is only one.
     He’s the youngest person in the company.
     e.g. sentence: ___
                      2
   b Use the to refer to something or someone you have
     mentioned before. __ 3
     She has got a cat and a dog. The cat is nearly twelve.
     e.g. sentence:
   c Don’t use the to talk about things or people in general.
     Children can be very funny.
     e.g. sentence: __1


see Reference page 103
The definite article (定冠词)
定冠词the通常放在形容词最高级前,修饰形容词最高级,表示唯一
的和说话人所特指的人或物。
She’s the best player in the team.
定冠词the用来表示前面已经提及的人或物。
I bought some ham and some chicken. We had the chicken
for lunch.
定冠词the用在许多短语中,用来指自然环境。
Would you like to live in the country?
Listen to the rain!
What do you think the weather will be like at the weekend?
定冠词the表示某些特定的人或物,在泛指人或物时不用定冠词the。
People watch too much TV these days.
There’s a problem with the TV. There’s a picture but no
sound.
定冠词the不与单数的专有名词连用。
Which department does James Cameron work in?
定冠词the表示世界上独一无二的东西。
The sun dipped below the horizon.
8 a Complete the sentences with the or nothing (–).
  She’s the most intelligent pet I’ve ever had!
                             the
      1 Where shall I put ____ flowers that I brought?
          (–)
      2 ____ CDs are very expensive in the UK.
                    the
      3 What was ____ name of that film we saw last weekend?
                  ___
      4 Pet TV is the strangest idea I’ve ever heard!
         (–)
      5 ___ oil is very expensive at the moment.
      6 He’s ____ young man I was telling you about.
              the
      7 Did you turn off all ____ lights?
                              the
        (–)
      8 ___ police officers seem younger and younger these days.


Key
 Notes
1 turn off 关掉
      b 10.4 Listen and check your answers. What do you notice
              about the pronunciation of the?




        In all of these sentences the is pronounced / and
        is not stressed; the is pronounced i if it
        comes before a vowel, e.g., the apple.




Key
Recording 10.4
E.g. She’s the most intelligent pet I’ve ever had!

1   Where shall I put the flowers that I brought?
2   CDs are very expensive in the UK.
3   What was the name of that film we saw last weekend?
4   Pet TV is the strangest idea I’ve ever heard!
5   Oil is very expensive at the moment.
6   He’s the young man I was telling you about.
7   Did you turn off all the lights?
8   Police officers seem younger and younger these days.
c Repeat the sentences.


 1   Where shall I put the flowers that I brought?
 2   CDs are very expensive in the UK.
 3   What was the name of that film we saw last weekend?
 4   Pet TV is the strangest idea I’ve ever heard!
 5   Oil is very expensive at the moment.
 6   He’s the young man I was telling you about.
 7   Did you turn off all the lights?
 8   Police officers seem younger and younger these days.
      9 a Four of the sentences have mistakes. Find and correct
          them.
         What’s most interesting thing you’ve done recently?
         What’s the most interesting thing you’ve done recently?
      1 Do you prefer the cats or dogs? Why?
        Do you prefer cats or dogs?
      2 Who’s the funniest person you know? Correct.
      3 How long have you known your best friend? Correct.
      4 What age do you think the children should have to stay at
        school until?
        What age do you think children should have to stay at
        school until?
Key
      5 Did you like the school(s) that you went to?
        Correct.
      6 What’s most beautiful place you have been to?
        What’s the most beautiful place you have been to?
      7 Do you think that the money makes you happy?
        Do you think that money makes you happy?
      8 Is public transport expensive in your country?
        Correct.

Key
b Ask and answer the questions above with a partner.
        Speaking
10 a 10.5 Listen to an advert for cats. Use the How to … box
            to say what you think each sound is.




                        speculate
             HOW TO …




                        It looks/sounds like a …
                        Perhaps it’s a …
                        It could be a …

  Key
As this is speculation, any answer is justifiable although the
actual sounds are as follows:
1 snooker ball being hit and falling off a table
2 cat pushing along a toy ball with a bell inside
3 water fountain
4 animal scratching itself
5 birds in a cage
6 rabbit eating lettuce
      b Now look at the pictures on page 132. What do you
        think these might be?              1                2


Again any reasonable speculation
can be accepted although the
correct answers are:
1 a cat’s paw                                        3
2 a birdbox in a tree
3 fish in a fish tank
4 a TV remote control
5 a dog’s kennel
                             4                                  5
Key
        Communication | Animal protection
      1 Read the information about the charities and answer
        the questions.
       Which charity …
       1 only works in England and Wales? the RSCPA
       2 teaches you about monkeys in the wild?
         the Monkey Sanctuary Trust
       3 works all around the world on a number of issues ?
         WWF (the World Wildlife Fund)
       4 offers you the chance to adopt an animal?
         the Monkey Sanctuary Trust
       5 accepts credit cards?
        WWF (the World Wildlife Fund)
Key    6 has animal inspectors ? the RSCPA
   Notes
1 issue  n. 问题
2 adopt  vt. 收养;采取,采纳
  e.g. She had the child adopted.
        她把这个孩子让别人收养了。
       The young couple adopted an earthquake orphan yesterday.
        这对年轻夫妇昨天收养了一个地震孤儿。

3 inspector   ne           n. 检查
     员,巡视员
             WWF the global conservation organisation
WWF works on both global and local environmental issues.
• We protect animals in danger, e.g. tigers, great apes and whales
• We protect areas in danger, e.g. forests and seas
• We protect the planet from dangers, e.g. climate change and
  toxic chemicals
 Make a donation by credit or debit card
 Help support our conservation work by making a donation to
 WWF by credit or debit card.
 For more information go to: www.wwf.org.uk
   Notes
1 WWF (World Wildlife Fund for Nature) 世界野生动物基金会:原
  名世界野生动物基金会(World Wildlife Fund),成立于1961年,是
  全球享有盛誉的、最大的独立性非政府环境保护机构之一,在全世界
  拥有将近500万支持者和一个在90多个国家活跃着的网络。WWF的
   使命是遏止地球自然环境的恶化,创造人类与自然和谐相处的美好未
   来。为此WWF致力于:保护世界生物的多样性;确保可再生自然资
   源的可持续利用;推动减少污染和浪费性消费的行动。
2 conservation nen
  e.g. the conservation of coal/gas/oil reserves
  n. 保存,保持
        煤/天然气/石油储藏资源保护
        As well as helping the environment, energy conservation
        reduces your fuel bills.
        节省能源不但有利于环境,还能减少你的燃料支出。
    Notes
3 environmental
  nnenl               a.
4
    环境的
5
    ape     e   n. 猿
6
    climate   l       n. 气候
7
    toxic  a. 有毒的;中毒的
8
    donation nen         n. 捐
    款;捐赠品
    debit e         n. 借方;借记
                      Who are we?
                      The Monkey Sanctuary in Cornwall has been
                      home to woolly monkeys for over forty years.
                      It provides a safe place in which the monkeys,
                      many rescued from lonely lives in zoos or as
                      pets, can live as naturally as possible.
                      What do we do?
                      Educate thousands of visitors each year about
                      monkeys in the wild and in captivity. Advise other
                      rescue centres around the world.
                      Campaign to stop trade in monkeys as pets.
                      How you can help …
                      Thousands of young monkeys are taken from
                      the wild every year. By adopting a monkey
                      from only £2 per month you will help us give it
                      a safe and happy home.
For more information go to: www.ethicalworks.co.uk/monkeysanctuary
   Notes
1 sanctuary  n. 避难
  所
2
  rescue e vt., n. 营救,救援
  e.g. The lifeboat rescued the sailors from the sinking boat.
  ;搭救;挽救
          救生船救了沉船上的水手。
          They were rescued from the locked hut.
          他们被从锁住的小屋中解救了出来。

3 captivity  n. 囚虏,监
4 禁;羁绊,束缚
5 campaign en n. 运动;竞选
  运动;战役
  trade     e           n. 贸易;商业,交易;行
  业,职业
       The RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)
Action for animals
RSPCA inspectors in England and Wales work
around the clock to save animals in distress. Last
year inspectors investigated over 100,000
complaints of cruelty to animals.
Preventing cruelty
Our inspectors prefer to educate people rather than
prosecute. They also offer help and advice about the
care of animals in markets, pet shops, kennels and farms.
Our inspectors help animals in distress – last year they
removed over 180,000 animals from danger or abuse and
rescued over 11,000 injured or trapped animals.
Get involved
Your support can make the difference between life and
death to an injured, sick or neglected animal.
    For more information go to: www.rspca.org.uk
    Notes
1 RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals )
   (英国) 皇家防止虐待动物协会
2 royal   l           a. 王室的,皇家的
   e.g. the royal yacht
          皇家游艇
          the royal family
          王室
3 prevention    enn              n.
4 预防,防止
5 cruelty l n. 残忍,残
  酷
  around the clock 昼夜不停地,毫不疲倦地
   Notes
6 investigate
  nee v.to investigate the fact of the
  e.g. Sherlock Holms was called 调查,
 研究
      case.
       福尔摩斯被请来调查案件的真相。
      Scientists are investigating to find out the cause of the
      crash.
       科学家们正在调查失事的原因。
7 prosecute
   v. fraud.
   e.g. He was prosecuted for 起诉,
 告发        他因诈骗而被起诉。
       The victim has said that she will not prosecute.
           受害者说她不会起诉。
    Notes
8 kennel enl n. 狗屋,狗
9 舍
  remove  v. 移动rubbish.
  e.g. The men came to remove the
       来了几个人,运走了垃圾。
       It got so hot that he removed his tie and jacket.
        天很热,他解开领带,脱下上衣。
10 abuse  n. 虐待,伤害;滥用 vt. 滥用;虐
   待,伤害 claimed to have been a victim of child abuse.
    e.g. She
       她声称自己曾是儿童虐待的受害者。
       Drug and alcohol abuse contributed to his early death.
       滥用毒品和酗酒造成了他的早亡。
       provide help for the abused children
       为受虐待的儿童提供帮助
    Notes
11 injure
   n v. injured in the crash.
   e.g. He was seriously
  伤害 他在撞车事故中严重受伤。
       He claimed that working too hard was injuring his health.
       他声称工作过度辛劳损害了他的健康。
12 trap  vt. 设陷阱捕捉;使陷入圈套,使陷
  于困境
   e.g. She n. 陷阱;圈套 forest by eating berries and trapping
            survived in the
        small animals and birds.
        她靠吃浆果和设陷阱捕捉小动物和鸟在森林中活了下来。
        The two men died when they were trapped in a burning
        building.
        两名男子因被困在失火的大楼里而丧生。
   Notes
13 involved nl a. 参与的;有关的,牵涉在内的;纠
  缠的,
                     混乱的;棘手的
  involve nl vt. get involved in public service.
  e.g. There are many ways to使陷入,使卷入,牵涉;包括,包含
      参与公共服务的途径有许多。
      Don’t involve me in solving your problems!
      你解决你的问题,不要把我拉进去!
      The four men were all involved in organizing and carrying
      out the murder.
      这四个人都参与组织和实施了谋杀。
14 neglect nle
   v. 忽视,疏忽 one’s health
    e.g. neglect                忽视健康
         He neglects that poor dog. 他对那只可怜的狗漠不关心。
2a   Your class has recently won £1,000. You can give
     this money to one or more of the charities above.
     Or you can spend it to help animals in another way.
b In groups of four, make a list of ways of spending the
  money. Then decide how you want to spend the £1,000.
3 a Explain your decisions to other students. Listen to the
    ideas from the other groups. Are they similar or
    different to your group’s decision?
Reference
Countable/Uncountable nouns
(可数名词和不可数名词)
The definite article (定冠词)

Key vocabulary
 Countable/Uncountable nouns
 (可数名词和不可数名词)
可数名词,如:animal,child,zoo等,既有单数形式又有复数形式。
不可数名词,如:information,advice,news等,只有单数形式。
下面是其他一些不可数名词:

    accommodation (膳宿) behaviour bread
    furniture (家具)    health       knowledge
    luggage (行李)      research salt
    spaghetti (意大利面)         traffic   travel
    trouble     water    weather      work
    下列名词既可作可数名词又可作不可数名词:

         chicken chocolate coffee egg glass
         hair iron paper room space time
         wine

比较:Would you like a coffee? 和 I drink too much coffee.
在可数名词前加a/an,a few,some,any,many,a lot of等词修饰。
There weren’t many people at the party.
They’ve got a lot of friends in Australia.
You should rest for a few days.
在不可数名词前加a little,a bit of,a piece of,some,any much,
a lot of等词修饰。
    How much salt did you put in this?
    We bought a lot of bread this morning.
    Can you give me a piece of advice?
    Some通常用在肯定句中;any通常用在否定句和疑问句中。
    I’d like some information.
    Have you been to any interesting places?
    I didn’t bring any money with me.
!   如果期望别人的回答是Yes,那么some也可以用在疑问句中。
    Could I have some more dessert, please?
    Much通常用来修饰不可数名词,many经常用来修饰可数名词复数。
    I haven’t got much time.
    Did you bring many CDs?
The definite article (定冠词)
定冠词the通常放在形容词最高级前,修饰形容词最高级,表示唯一
的和说话人所特指的人或物。
She’s the best player in the team.
定冠词the用来表示前面已经提及的人或物。
I bought some ham and some chicken. We had the chicken
for lunch.
定冠词the用在许多短语中,用来指自然环境。
Would you like to live in the country?
Listen to the rain!
What do you think the weather will be like at the weekend?
定冠词the表示某些特定的人或物,在泛指人或物时不用定冠词the。
People watch too much TV these days.
There’s a problem with the TV. There’s a picture but no
sound.
定冠词the不与单数的专有名词连用。
Which department does James Cameron work in?
定冠词the表示世界上独一无二的东西。
The sun dipped below the horizon.
Key vocabulary
Animals
tiger lion elephant hyena dog cat bear
wolf snake horse cow zebra spider eagle
whale

Animal idioms
as quiet as a mouse           eat like a horse
plenty more fish in the sea the rat race
let the cat out of the bag
kill two birds with one stone
Phrasal verbs

grow up     bring up       look after   come across
pick up    look up to

Verb + prepositions (1)

appeal to      listen to       respond to    apply for
spend on       worry about          depend on    agree with
 Notes
1 tiger  n. 老虎
2    ,虎
3 lion ln n. 狮
     子
4
  hyen
5
     hin n. 鬣狗
6    ;袋狼
7 wolf l n. 狼
8 snake ne n. 蛇
9 zebra i n.
   斑马
 spider    n.
   蜘蛛
 eagle il   n. 鹰
    Notes
1    grow up 长大,成人
2    bring up 教育,培养
3    come across 偶遇,不期而遇
4    pick up 学会
5    appeal il       vi. 对……有吸引力 (to) ;请求,恳
      求;呼吁; (法律)
6                  上诉,申诉
     respond n vi. 作出反应,响应;
7    作答,回答
     apply for 请求,申请
8 spend on 在……上花费
9 be worried about 为……忧虑
10 agree with 同意;适合
        Review and practice
1 Complete the sentences with a/an or nothing (–).
      Can I have a glass of water?
                         (–)
      1 Would you like ___ rice or potatoes with your dinner?
                             (–)
      2 They say it will be ___ good weather this weekend.
                               (–)
      3 This bed is made of ___ iron(铁).
                           a
      4 Have you seen ___ lion yet?
                   (–)
      5 She’s got ___ long, black hair.
      6 I haven’t got ___ room for your books in my bag.
                       (–)
      7 Sue’s ___ old friend from university.
              an
Key
      2 Complete the sentences with a / an, the, or nothing (–).
      What’s the longest river in South America?
      1 I had ___ sandwich and ___ banana for lunch but ___
               a                  a                       the
        sandwich was awful!
      2 Simon is looking for __ job in publishing(出版业).
                             a
      3 Did you pass ___ exam you took last month?
                        the
                      (-)
      4 Listening to ___ music helps me relax.
      5 I heard that yesterday was ____ hottest day of the year.
                                     the
                        (-)
      6 Yolanda is in ___ hospital. She is having an
        operation(手术) this afternoon.
                                                    the
      7 Excuse me, where is the main entrance to ____ university?
Key
      3 Choose the correct alternative.
      I only speak a little/a few words of Spanish.
      1 We don’t have much /many rain in summer.
      2 She’s got a lot /some of experience.
      3 He gave me a very good piece /lot of advice.
      4 I need some /little paper to write on.
      5 Could I have a little /few more cake?
      6 Do many /much tourists come to your town?
      7 I don’t have a lot of /many time this weekend.

Key
      4 Delete the extra and unnecessary(不需要的) word in
        each sentence.
        I haven’t got much many money at the moment.

1 Are you going to have a few summer holiday this year?
2 I don’t need any more of advice.
3 We need some many new furniture for the living room.
4 She’s really enjoying a work since she changed jobs.
5 Have you heard Tina’s piece news? She’s having a baby.


Key
       5 Complete the sentences with prepositions from the
          box. You will need to use some of the prepositions
          more than once.

                   for   on    to   with     about

      My dog likes listening to the radio.

1 I’d like to get a dog but it depends ____ the size of our new flat.
                                        on
2 In our research, 70 percent of the animals responded ____ the
                                                            to
  Pet TV programmes.
3 I think we should get a cat but Tim doesn’t agree ____ me.
                                                      with
4 It’s amazing how much we spend ____ dog food each week!
                                       on
Key
5 Chris has just applied ____ a new job in Australia.
                           for
6 She’s a bit worried ______ her horse. He’s not been very well.
                       about
7 We feel that this advert will appeal ____ cat and dog owners.
                                        to
8 Marcus often listens ____ the news on Capital Radio in the
                         to
  morning.




Key
      6 Complete the sentences with one missing word.
      We’ve just bought our daughter a horse. She loves riding.

1 We’re thinking of playing tennis tomorrow but it ________on the
                                                      depends
  weather.
                            up
2 It took me ages to pick ___ Spanish. I tried to learn it from tapes.
3 My dad wants me to work in advertising but I don’t want to be
   part of the ____ race.
                rat
4 Could you look _____ our dog for a few days while we’re away?
                    after
5 I hope I haven’t let the ___ out of the bag. I told Julie that
                           cat
  Simon’s been promoted to Manager Director.
                    up
6 I really looked ___ to my father when I was a child.

Key
7 Don’t worry about him, Mary. There are plenty more ____ in the
                                                        fish
  sea!
                           mouse
8 She was as quiet as a ______ when she was a child. She hardly
  ever said a word!
9 I don’t think Sunita’s parents brought her ___ very well. She
                                              up
  behaves very badly.
     grew
10 I _____ up in Malawi, but my family moved to the UK when I
   was seventeen.

Key

				
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