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Kalhora - Tareekh e Sindh


									Kalhora                                                                                                                  1

    The Kalhora (‫ )ڪﻠﻬﻮڙﺍ‬Abbasi's are of Arab origin and descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566 – 662) (‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺑﻦ‬
    ‫( ,)ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ‬c. 566 – c. 653) was a paternal uncle and Sahabi (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and
    progenitor of the Abbasi Khalifa of Baghdad, Iraq and Qahira (better known in nowadays as Cairo Egypt).

                                                         Royal Kalhora

                                A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieutenant Edwards

                                                       Total population

                                                       100,000 - 200,000

                                             Regions with significant populations

                                                          50,000 - 100,000




                                                          Islam - Sunni

                                                     Related ethnic groups


    Arrival In Sindh
    It was the reign of Abbasid Caliphate, which was ruled by Abbasid Dynasty of Caliphs who built their Capital in
    Baghdad And Cairo, they were the Religious and Political Leaders and claims to be the true Successors of
    Mohammed owing to kinship with him, it was era of Intellectual rebirth in Abbasid Domain, in all aspects they
    reached to Extreme Advancement in Science, Literature, Arts and Many Others Sectors, Caliphate Produced
    Prominent Scientists like Al-Biruni ,Abu Nasr Mansur , And Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, even today
    Caliphate is prominent for “GOLDEN AGE” In History.
    The Descendant of Caliph Al-Mustansir II (1261–1262)of Cairo, Egypt, was the first to arrive in Sindh With his
    large number of followers, he came into Sindh as an Official High Ranked Officer to manage Caliphate Rules and
    Joint Work With Sindh Local Authorities. “Samma “was Local Representatives of Sindh in that Era.
    Qaim was first to arrive in Sindh from Ancestors of Abbasid, ca 1366. Then few years later his brother Ahmed came
    into Sindh with a large followings of Arabs in c 1370. He married a daughter of Raja Rai, Dohrang Sahta, Receiving
    Third of the country in dowry, 4th of Ahmed’s descendant Amir Fathu'llah Khan Abbasi, conquered the bhangar
    territory from Raja Dallu, of Alor and Bhamanabad, renamed it to Qahir Bela. His son Amir Mohammed Chenai
    Khan Abbasi entered the imperial service and gained appointment as a Panchhazari in 1583 in the Reign of Mughal
Kalhora                                                                                                                2

    At his death, the leadership of the tribe was contested between two branches of the family, the Kalhora and the

    Origin History
    After the Death of Jaam Chenai or merely Amir Chenai Khan Abbasi, the Leadership of the Tribe Contested between
    his two sons, Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi & Amir Daud Khan Abbasi. Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi was given
    His Father’s Sword and Tribe’s Leadership next to him Amir Daud Khan Abbasi was becomes heir of his Musallah
    and Tasbeeh in simple Murshid or Religious Leader.
    In short time after his fathers Death, Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi died and his son Amir Ibrahim Khan Abbasi
    came into Power and became Tribes Leader, but sooner he abandoned Leadership thus he Survive his Entire Life
    with Simplicity & Loneliness on a Mountain Named ”Kalho” (‫( ))ڪﻠﻬﻮ‬near Hyderabad) for the sake of Allah.
    So After then, he was remembered as Kalhoro Khan (‫()ڪﻠﻬﻮڙﻭ ﺧﺎﻥ‬Means to Live Alone and make religious Practices),
    he adopted his Family Tradition and become Religious Leader.Today This Become Proud For His Family to Write
    Kalhoro as their Surname.

    Religious Leaders
    After the death of Ibrahim Khan, Kalhora
    family distinguished for centuries, none of
    his descendants rose to be of importance,
    except Amir Adam Shah Kalhoro, who was
    7th of his descendant. Who rose to occupy
    the holy seat vacated by the celebrated saint
    (Amir Chenai Khan Abbasi) of the time,
    Amir Adam Shah Kalhoro started his career
    from small village with the support of the
    Abro who remained a powerful force behind
    him. Sardar Khabar Abro was the first
    person to enroll as his follower. That small
    village became the centre for learning for
    the Mehdvis.                                                  Masjid Khudabad Kalhoro, Interior Sight
Kalhora                                                                                                                                    3

    At that time Nawáb Khán Khánán having
    come to pay respects to Amir Ádam Sháh
    and to ask his blessings, at the request of
    Wadera Kabar abro, granted to him the
    zamindarí of Chándúkah,. After some time
    Ádam Sháh went over to Multán, to pay a
    visit to Lál l’san the celebrated living saint
    of the time, and a descendent of Shekh
    Baháuddín Multání.* A large number of
    disciples joined him here and he was
    obliged to occupy a spacious tract of
    country. This excited the jealousy of the
    landowners of the place, at whose
    instigation the ruler of Multán had him                                        Masjid Khudabad Kalhoro, Interior Sight

    killed and thus he became a martyr.

    Later on, his descendant visited many area of Sindh, many people join them gradually Kalhoras arosed and
    Flourished in Sindh for over centuries as Religious and Political leaders. Many Communities of Sindh Enrolled as
    their followers Abro, Bhatti, Jokhiyo, Junejo, Sial, Sahta, Rajputs, Kalwar, Jatoi, Khosa, Chandio, Leghari, Talpurs..
    and many others.
    In History,it is reported that in the battle of Halani Majority of Balouchs stand against their Murshid, the Two
    Followers never go astray to them and remained Loyal till their Death, those were Jatoi And Khosa Tribesmen who
    Fight at their last gasp in the Battle of Halani.

    Political Leaders
    Muhammad said:
          This Imara(rule) was in the Hameer meaning non Quraish then Allah snatched it from them and gave it
          to the Quraish and soon it will return to the Non Quraish."
    [Fath ul Bari 13/117, Sanad: Jayyad]

             "Meaning Clearly Reflect in Hadith Above , Rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling”

    The Kalhoro period is most important for the development of Sindhi literature, arts and crafts, Irrigation. Kalhoras
    are believed to have dug several channels in every part of Sindh to irrigate the uncultivated land. Historian(s) entitled
    Kalhora reign as “Golden Times of Sindh”
    Being Successful Religious Leaders of Sindh, they were having immense sympathy for the people of Sindh, It
    Compelled them to Join Politics and run campaign against the cruel rule of Mughal Rulers, they were the first local
    representatives to run politicking, and vocally protested against Injustice of Mughal Empire.
    They were forced to came into Politics otherwise they were never interested in Politics they were having sufi soul,
    and want to live peaceful and simple life. This Quality can be found in their Descendants as well.
    Kalhora Dynasty Produced Great Rulers of its time to Flourish Sindh.
    Accordingly, the natives of the place came and incited the Mughals of Bakhar to harass and trouble him. Mian Nasir
    Muhammad Kalhoro was therefore obliged to leave the place and go to a sandy desert near Shahdadkot. Mian Nasir
    Muhammad Kalhoro lived much time in Punjab in this way. After some days of hardship and want, he left Larkana
    and settled in the plains of Kachho where he established his capital. Seeing this Mír Panhwar, the chief of the
Kalhora                                                                                                                                             4

    Panhwars, taking an army from the Governor of Bakhar, commanded among other leaders by Mirza Khan Pini, the
    Governor of Siwi came and fought with Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, but soon a truce was made and Mian Nasir
    Muhammad Kalhoro was sent to the Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, who kept him in confinement at Gawaliyar for
    some time. During this period, fighting went on with the Mian’s followers, until Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro
    managed to escape and returned to his native place with the help of Amir Muhammad Bahadur Khan Daudpota of
    Shikarpur who did his arrangements in Chandookha Purgannah or Larkana area. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro
    spearheaded the Mianwal Movement from 1657 to 1692 A.D, leaving behind a legacy in the form of the shrines of
    his disciples. The leaders of Mianwal Movement struggled against the foreign rule of the Mughals and eventually
    succeeded in overthrown them. After a successful reign of 35 years in 1692 A.D Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro
    died and was buried in Gaarhi near Kakar taluka Khairpur Nathan Shah District Dadu Sindh. His tomb was built by
    his son Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro in 1708 A.D.
    The Kalhora Dynasty succumbed to the invasion of King Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganized the
    tribe, but later on Mian Abdul Nabi lost control of Sindh in 1783 and was defeated by his own disciples in the battle
    of Halani, Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhoro Amir.

     Abu Bakr (RadiAllahu Tala Anho) said: This rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling.[Fath ul Bari
     13/116, Sanad: Sahih]
    The condition highlighted is that they uphold the Deen. When the Quraish were not able to uphold the Deen then
    Khilafah went out of their hands as according to the above hadith.
    It is recorded in history which repeated himself and reflect clearly the phenomenon that whenever “Hashemites”
    came into Power, Allah Blessed them thus their Period will be Recorded in the History as “Golden Time” , After
    decline of Abbasid Caliphate, the Caliphs Descendants came into power where they exists not merely in Sindh or
    Egypt but many other parts of the World, Witnessed by history & historians.

    Family tree
    The Royal Kalhora of Sindh family tree, is clearly visible in diagram(s) given below. The Abbasid Caliphs from Abu
    Al-Abbas Al Saffah till the Last Caliph of Egypt, is mentioned in diagram, furthermore, diagram mention their
    lieange line from Caliph Al-Muntasir II to Amir Adam Shah Abbasi, and Their Cousin(s), Amir Sadiq Mohammed
    Khan Abbasi I. The Caliphs of Baghdad are in Green, and in Yellow, The Caliphs of Cairo, Mohammedis also Cited
    here, to show the Kinship of Abbasids with him.
Kalhora                                                                                   5

                                 Genealogy Tree of     Genealogy tree of, Royal Kalhora
                                   Royal Kalhora               Abbasid family
                                Abbasid Family, In
                                 Green, the Abbasid
                               Caliphs of Baghdad,
                                  In Yellow, The
                                Abbasid Caliphs of
                               Cairo. Mohammed is
                               Included (in caps) to
                                show Kinship of the
                                 Abbasids with him

    Current Head of Tribe
    Sardar Ali Akbar Khan Kalhoro (Cheif Sardar)(Shikarpur)
    Nawab Amir Khan Kalhoro(Amir)(Shikarpur)
    Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi (Amir) (Larkana)

    Notable Kalhoras
    Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
    Yar Mouhammed Kalhoro (Khudabad), Amir
    Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, Amir
    Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
    Muhammad Muradyab Khan (Nawab Sarbuland Khan), Amir
    Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, Amir
    Mian Shahul Mouhammed Kalhoro, Amir
    Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro (Khudayar Khan), Amir
Kalhora                                                                                 6

    Notable Kalhoras II
    Dr. Ashraf Abbasi, Deputy Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan
    Senator Dr. Safdar Ali Abbasi , PPP
    Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi, MPA - PPP

    • History of Daudpota [1] By "Altaf Daudpoto" (Urdu: ‫ﭘﻮﭨﻮ‬   ‫)ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻑ ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺩﺍﺅﺩ‬
    • History of Kalhora's [2]
    • Fall of Kalhora's [3]
    [1] http:/ / daudpota. weebly. com/ index. html
    [2] http:/ / www. panhwar. com/ Article164. htm
    [3] http:/ / panhwar. com/ Article54. htm

    • Tareekh-e-Sindh, Kalhora Daur, Book 6 Part I & II (Author: Ghulam Sarwar Mahar)
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                             7

    Article Sources and Contributors
    Kalhora  Source:  Contributors: Aliazlan, AlphaGamma1991, AtticusX, Bhadani, Bihco, Boing! said Zebedee, ChrisGualtieri,
    CommonsDelinker, Darwinek, Drisz, Funandtrvl, Fæ, Go Phightins!, Hillel, Iohannes Animosus, JamesAM, Kamal Nawaz, Khahori01, Misaq Rabab, Mughal Lohar, Namiba, Neutron Jack,
    Pahari Sahib, R'n'B, ShakeelKalhoro, Shyamsunder, Siddiqui, Signalizing, Siyal1990, Tabletop, Tim1357, TimBentley, TreyGeek, Troy 07, Urschoice, WALTHAM2, Wasimawan, Wavelength,
    Woohookitty, 151 anonymous edits

    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    Image:Pacco Qillo Round Tower.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Lieut. Edwards (c.1845)
    File:Masjid_interior_Khudabad.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
     Contributors: User:ShakeelKalhoro
    File:Khudabad_Masjid_Art.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
    File:Generology of Kalhora Abbasid Family I.gif  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors:
    File:Kalhora Abbasids Family Tree II.GIF  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
    3.0  Contributors: User:ShakeelKalhoro

    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

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