Agaricales Gilled Mushrooms and Boletes

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					   Agaricomycetidae
Gilled Mushrooms and Boletes



 General Mycology Pl P 421/521
          Lecture 13
From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98: 917--925
Spore print
basidiospores




                basidium
            Basidiospore discharge
Hilar appendix
                    Film of water on spore




                                         sterigmata

                 Buller drop
http://www.forestpathology.org/graphics/clamp.gif
      Basidiocarps; basidiomes
 Mushroom
     an agaric or bolete basidiocarp, especially an
      edible one
 Toadstool
     an inedible (or poisonous) basidiocarp of an
      agaric or bolete
                     ~80,000 described species           From D. R. Benjamin.
                                                         1995. Mushrooms.
                                                         Poisons and Panaceas.
                     10,000 fleshy macrofungi
                     (mushrooms)


400 species                                   2,000 species
                                              probably edible
Probably poisonous


20 common                     100 species                 80 species grown
poisonous species             widely picked               experimentally


                                                          40 species grown
                                                          commercially

< 6 common                  15-30 species
                                                          5-6 species grown
lethal species              commonly eaten
                                                          on large scale
          Macroscopic characters
 Spore color in mass
  (spore print)
 Gills or tubes
       If gills, how are they
        attached?
       If tubes, size and
        arrangement?
       adnexed
free
                          notched   decurrent   triangular

                 adnate
           Basidiocarp stature
   Cap (pileus) shape
   Stalk (stipe)
    attachment
   Cap margin
   Presence or absence
    of partial veil and
    annulus
   Presence or absence
    of volva, universal
    veil or remnants
   Stalk shape
   Overall proportion of
    cap and stalk
Cap Shape
    Stalk attachment

          ECCENTRIC         STIPELESS




                  LATERAL
CENTRAL
                              Color
   Cap
       Color change?
         • Hygrophanous
         • Blueing
         • Bruising
   Gills or pores
       Do they change color as
        the spores mature?
   Stalk
   Flesh
       Blueing
       Bruising
       Reddening
                  Other characters
 Glutinous or dry cap
 Presence of latex
       Color of latex,
        including changes
   Texture on cap and
    stalk
       Scales, fibrils, etc.
   Overall texture of
    basidiocarp
       Flesh brittle, tough,
        fragile
                       Associations

   How do the mushrooms
    grow?
       Singly
       In clumps (fairy rings?)
       In clusters
   Where does the
    mushroom grow?
       Grass, pastures, turf
       On other fungal fruiting
        bodies
       Associated with trees
         • Near trees (what types of
           trees?)
         • On decaying wood
         • On cones or pods
              Microscopic features
   Basidiospores--size,
    shape, ornamentation,
    germ pores
   Reaction of spores in
    H2SO4, Melzer’s, KOH
   Size and shape of
    basidia, number of
    basidiospores/basidium
   Structure of gill trama
       Regular (parallel)
       Irregular (interwoven)
       Bilateral (divergent)
       Inverse (convergent)
 Microscopic characters (cont.)
 Presence    of specialized cells in tertiary
 mycelium
     Sphaerocysts, lactiferous hyphae
 Arrangement     of cells in cap cuticle, stalk
 cuticle
      Miscellaneous Characters
 Taste
     Bitter
     Hot
     Mild
 Smell
     Pleasant (mushroomy, fruity, like almonds,
      etc)
     Unpleasant (phenolic, fetid, etc.)
                       Identification
   Are the spores (in
    mass) white?
       Russulales
       Agaricales
         •   Amanitaceae
         •   Lepiotaceae
         •   Hygrophoraceae
         •   Tricholomataceae
                        Russulales
                             Brittle flesh due to
                              presence of
                              sphaerocysts
     Russula rosacea
                             Basidiospores with
                              amyloid
                              ornamentation
                             Milky latex (Lactarius)
                             No latex (Russula)
                             Mycorrhizal
Lactarius deliciosus
photo by Fred Stevens
Russula brevipes (Short stemmed Russula)
                                    Amanitaceae

                                       Free gills
                                       Partial veil
                                        remaining as an
                                        annulus
                                       Universal veil
                                        remaining as volva
                                        and patches on cap
                                       Mycorrhizal
                                       Example: Amanita
Amanita muscaria (the Fly Agaric)
Amanita caesaria (Caesar’s
Mushroom)
Photos by Charles Mims
Amanita phalloides (the Death Cap)
Photo by Brenda Callan
                      Lepiotaceae
                                     Free gills
                                     Partial veil remaining
                                      as annulus
                                     Lack of volva
                                     Saprotrophs, often
                                      forming fairy rings
                                     Example: Lepiota


Lepiota (Macrolepiota) rachodes
photo from MatchMaker
               Hygrophoraceae
                       Waxy-looking gills
                        due to long, narrow
                        basidia
                       Often brightly colored
                        (Hygrocybe); other
                        species in
                        Hygrophorus
                       Mycorrhizal and
                        saprotrophic species

Hygrocybe coccinea
            Tricholomataceae
 Largest  family of white spored
  mushrooms;
 Many common genera, including
  Armillaria, Clitocybe, Lentinus, Mycena,
  Marasmius, Pleurotus, Tricholoma
Tricholomataceae: Armillaria




Photos by Raini Rippi
Tricholomataceae: Clitocybe




  Clitocybe dilatata by Raini Rippi
Tricholomatacae: Lentinus and
            allies
Tricholomataceae: Mycena
 Tricholomatacae: Pleurotus and
              allies




Pleurocybella porrigens
Angel Wings

                          Pleurotus sp. Oyster Mushroom
Tricholomatacae: Tricholoma




  Tricholoma magnivelare (Matsutake)
          Pale Spored families
 Entolomatacae—ex.        Entoloma
     Basidiospores pink in mass, angular or ribbed
     Attached gills
     Terrestrial mushrooms (some mycorrhizal)
 Plutaceae—ex.      Pluteus
     Basidiospores pinkish in mass, smooth
     Many species grown on wood
Entoloma hirtipes
http://www.kki.pl/zenit/grzyby_spyt/ga710.htm
Plutaceae: Pluteus




      Pluteus cervinus from MycoWeb
    Are the spores dark in mass?
   Agaricaceae
   Coprinaceae
   Strophariaceae
   Cortinariacae
   Gomphidiacae
   Boletaceae
Agaricaceae
         Chocolate brown
          spores
         Distinct annulus
          resulting from partial
          veil
         Gills free
         Saprotrophs
         Example: Agaricus
Coprinaceae
       Deep brown to black
        spores with germ
        pore
       Saprotrophs
       Often in clusters
       Examples:
             Coprinus (Inky Caps)
             Panaeolus
             Psathyrella
Inky Caps
             Strophariaceae
 Spores  brown, purple-brown to purple
  black, with distinct germ pore
 Saprotrophs
 Four well-known genera:
     Pholiota —on wood
     Stropharia —on dung, humus or wood
     Naematoloma —in clusters on wood
     Psilocybe —grass, wood chips, dung
Strophariaceae: Pholiota
Strophariaceae: Stropharia
Naematoloma fasiculare
Strophariaceae: Psilocybe
Psilocybe cubensis (dried specimen) brought in to Gritman
Emergency Room by victim
                  Cortinariaceae
 Largest brown-spored family
 Identified by eliminating other families
 Examples:
       Cortinarius –rusty brown spores, cortina, mycorrhizal
       Hebeloma –similar to Cortinarius but lacks cortina,
        often with radish-like odor
       Inocybe –dull brown, yellow or gray fibrillose caps
       Galerina –small brown mushrooms on wood; deadly
        poisonous
          Cortinarius

cortina
              Gomphidiaceae
 Smoky-gray  to black spores that are long
  and narrow (boletoid)
 Waxy decurrent gills
 Mycorrhizal
 Examples:
     Gomphidius –slimy cuticle, white flesh, yellow
      stalk base
     Chroogomphus –orange-colored flesh
Gomphidius glutinosus
(Hideous Gomphidius)




        Chroogomphus rutilus
        (Pine Spikes)
                     Boletaceae
 Hymenium forms in a spongelike layer of tubes
  or pores that can be cleanly separated from cap
  in most taxa, but may also form gills (gilled
  boletes)
 Spores are brown, long and narrow (boletoid)
 Mycorrhizal
 Common genera:
       Suillus –slimy or fibrillose cap, partial veil
       Fuscoboletinus—like Suillus but with darker spores,
        mycorrhizal with larch
       Boletus –dry cap, no partial veil
Boletus edulis (King Bolete, Steinpilz, Porcini)
Boletus zelleri
Slippery Jacks
Suillus cavipes
Fuscoboletinus ochraceoroseus (Rosy Larch Bolete)
Phylloporus rhodoxanthus,
a gilled bolete
Paxillus atrotomentosus (Velvet Pax)

				
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