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A-Level PE

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					     STARTER ACTIVITY

     Discuss with a partner then write 3 the cycle of
     analysis without your notes.

Lesson focus:
What are key concepts and what are key features?


Lesson Objectives:

1. To explain the information processing model to a
   partner (KC 1, KF 1).
2. To review the classifications of skills with a
   partner (KC 1, KF 2).
CYCLE OF ANALYSIS


INVESTIGATE                       ANALYSE

     Skills + Technique
     Preparation of Body (+NAB)
     Structures and Strategies



REVIEW/EVALUATE                    DEVELOP
            CANDIDATES SHOULD BE ABLE TO…
…describe and explain how different types of feedback in practice situations
improve performance (intrinsic, extrinsic, knowledge of results)

…describe and explain a range of advanced skills relating to their chosen
practical activities and distinguish between those which are open and closed

…describe and explain what distinguishes the skills of a novice from a top level
performer (consistency, energy, time, adaptable)

…describe and explain how skill are learned, refined and adapted to various
practical activities (practice, copying, trial and error, role models)

…explain through the use of a simple information processing model how
 we learn physical skills, and the importance of feedback in
evaluating, analysing and planning for improvement in performance
  “the learned ability to perform a specific task with
greatest efficiency and with minimum amount of effort”



The term skill can be used in 2 ways:
  1. A specific task to be carried out
  2. An ‘indicator’ of the quality of the
     performance
Key Concept 1:

The concept of skill and skilled performance.


 Key Feature 1:
 How skills are performed through an information processing model:

    Input information
    Selecting information
    Making decisions
    Output action
    Receiving feedback about performance
    Using received information as new input information.
 When you are learning and playing a sport, you
    use your information processing system
   o The system is controlled by your brain
   o It has four parts


INPUT           DECISION-               OUTPUT
                 MAKING


                 FEEDBACK
 Example:

 A cricket ball could be bowled on a line to hit the stumps (input), the
 batsman decides to play a defensive shot (decision making), he then
 plays a defensive shot (output), but hears the ball has hit the stumps.




TASK:

In 2’s now try and write an example for badminton.
                       DECISION-MAKING
                               The brain
    INPUT                    processes the          OUTPUT
                              information
Information your                                    The actual action
 brain receives:                                     you carry out
•See: the direction                                 (move your leg to
•Hear: other players                                  kick the ball)
•Feel: body position       FEEDBACK
                           Brain looks at the
                          results of the output
                          (did the ball go to its
                            intended target?)
    “Information received during or following a movement”



o   Feedback is used to improve performance
o   Gives information on the effectiveness of a response
o   Allows learning to take place
o   Allows a performer to correct an incorrect movement
o   Reinforces a correct movement
o   Acts as a motivator
                              INTRINSIC
                               o Feedback from yourself
                               o Arising from the movement itself
                               o You know how it felt
                               o “That felt right”
                               o Proprioception – feeling muscle tension


EXTRINSIC
o Motivational, reinforcing, informational
o External source
o E.g. Coach or team mate
o Can support intrinsic feedback
o Can correct intrinsic feedback
KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS
 o Information concerning the outcome.
 oDid you get the result you wanted?
 o Did the shuttle go where I intended?
 o Proprioception
     You know when you land correctly from a somersault



 KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE
    o Tells you how well or badly you did
    o Can come from a coach, teacher or friend
    o Can study a video of your performance
         Use the information processing model.


TASK IN 3’S:

Using the equipment provided demonstrate the information
processing model (input, decision making, output, feedback).
1 member of the group must explain this example to the rest of the
class.
Key Concept 1:

The concept of skill and skilled performance.
Key Feature 2:

How skills and techniques are performed for effective, consistent
performance whilst also displaying qualities of control, fluency and
economy of movement.

Understanding of skill classification terms in relation to
performance.

  Open/Closed
  Simple/Complex
  Discrete/Serial/Continuous

Key Feature 3:

How model performance can be used to enhance and develop
performance.
…ARE SKILLS WHICH REQUIRE LITTLE
DECISION MAKING AND ONLY BASIC
MOVEMENT PATTERNS E.G.RUNNING,
          JUMPING ETC.


    …ARE SKILLS WHICH REQUIRE
      THOUGHT AND DECISION
   MAKING E.G BADMINTON SERVE,
          HIGH JUMP ETC.
  …ARE SKILLS WHICH TAKE PLACE IN A
 CONSTANTLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
AND ARE CONSEQUENTLY AFFECTED BY IT




     …ARE SKILLS WHICH TAKE PLACE
       IN A FIXED ENVIRONMENT
Performer is not in                       Participants have
complete control of                      to constantly make
    the game                             decisions on how to
                                              react/act


                                                Affected by the
                                                 ‘environment’
                            OPEN SKILL           E.g. weather/
                                               opponents/playing
                                                    surface

   Examples of sports
activities which use open
  skills are games. E.g.           These types of sports/
football/ rugby/netball/            games contain a great
basketball/ hockey etc…              deal of uncertainty
                                             E.g. Gymnastic
Performer in complete                       activities/diving
control of the activity




                          CLOSED SKILL



                                              No outside
Pre-learned movement
                                           influences from
       patterns
                                         weather/opponents,
                                                 etc…
 …ARE SKILLS WHICH HAVE A CLEAR
BEGINNING AND END E.G BADMINTON
             SERVE.



 …ARE SKILLS WHICH ARE MADE UP OF
   A NUMBER OF SKILLS WHICH ARE
  PUT TOGETHER IN A SEQUENCE OR
     SERIES E.G JAVELIN THROW.


      …ARE SKILLS WHICH HAVE NO
     CLEAR BEGINNING OR END AND
       ARE REPITIOUS E.G FRONT
           CRAWL, CYCLING.
TASK IN 2’s.

Place the following sports on a skill classification continuum

 Simple                                                                    Complex




 High jump         Running           Badminton
                                     serve                Jumping




 Open                                                                      Closed




     Rugby Hook                            Soccer
                      Tennis serve         interception


   Tennis volley    Forward roll         Saving a goal        Golf swing
  TASK IN 2’s.
Place the following sports on a skill classification continuum

   Simple                                                                   Complex


Jumping                                                               Badminton    High jump
          Running
                                                                       serve




   Open                                                                        Closed


                    Soccer     Rugby Hook   Tennis volley                      Forward roll
   Saving a goal                                            Tennis serve
                    interception
                                                                           Golf swing
SPEED: Ability to move all or part of the body quickly
AGILITY:    Ability to change position/direction quickly
COORDINATION: Ability to perform complicated
 movements with ease

FLEXIBILITY:Ability to use full range of movement around
  the joints of the body

BALANCE: Ability to maintain the centre of mass over the
 base of support whilst stationary or when moving
REACTION TIME: Ability to react at speed to a
 given stimulus/stimuli
Top level performers perform skills with…
   o A consistently high level
   o An efficient use of energy
   o Minimum outlay of time
   o An ease in adapting skills to suit situation
Practice
   o Can be trail & error
   o Guidance

Copying
   o Watching others
   o Can be role models
WHOLE
o Presentation of new skill in its entirety
o Teach the skill in its complete form

PART
o Breaking down of a skill - practise individual components
o Parts then assembled into the whole

VARIABLE
o Practice open skills in varying conditions
o Matches game situations
VISUAL
o   Often a demonstration
o   Learner develops a mental image
o   Visual feedback on performers own actions

VERBAL
o   Used to describe actions
o   More effective with advanced learners
o   Short phrases e.g. bend knees, stretch fingers

MANUAL OR MECHANICAL
o   Provides kinaesthetic awareness
o   Physical support for the performer
o   Response of the performer being directed physically

				
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posted:1/2/2013
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