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					Chapter 26
Multiple-Choice Questions

1.               The IIA Code of Ethics is based on all but which of the following ethical principles?
easy             a. Integrity.
b                b. Independence.
                 c. Competency.
                 d. Confidentiality.

2.               Statements on Internal Auditing Standards are issued by the:
easy             a. AICPA.
c                b. SEC.
                 c. Internal Auditing Standards Boards.
                 d. Auditing Standards Boards.

3.               Internal auditors are responsible to:
easy             a. the board of directors.
c                b. management.
                 c. both a and b.
                 d. neither a nor b.

4.               Which of the following is not a similarity between external and internal auditors?
easy             a. Both must be independent of the company.
a                b. Both must be competent.
                 c. Both use similar methodologies in performing their work.
                 d. Both consider risk and materiality in their work.

5.               External auditors consider internal auditors effective if they are:
easy             a. independent of the operating units being evaluated.
d                b. competent and well trained.
                 c. have performed relevant audit tests of the internal controls and financial statements.
                 d. all of the above.

6.               Auditing standards _______ external auditors to use the internal auditors for direct assistance on
easy             the audit.
d                a. discourage
                 b. prohibit
                 c. encourage
                 d. permit

7.               The primary source of authoritative literature for doing government audits is the:
easy             a. Purple Book.
b                b. Yellow Book.
                 c. Green Book.
                 d. Red Book.




Arens/Elder/Beasley                              -1-
8.               When a state or local government agency receives federal financial assistance, it is subject to
easy             the audit requirements of:
c
a                                Yellow Book                  Single Audit Act           OMB Circular A-133
                 a.                  Yes                            Yes                          No
                 b.                   No                             No                         Yes
                 c.                  Yes                            Yes                         Yes
                 d.                  Yes                             No                          No

9.               Which of the following is not one of the broad categories of operational audits?
easy             a. Functional audits.
c                b. Organizational audits.
                 c. Single Audit Act audits.
                 d. Special assignment audits.

10.              Which of the following groups could not be involved in an operational audit?
easy             a. CPA firms.
d                b. Internal auditors.
                 c. Government auditors.
                 d. None of the above answers is correct; that is, all of the above could be involved.

11.              The IIA’s professional practice framework (including its code of ethics and International
easy             Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing) is commonly referred to as the:
b                a. Blue Book.
                 b. Red Book.
                 c. Green Book.
                 d. Yellow Book.

12.              The professional organization which is responsible for providing guidance for internal auditors
easy             is the:
b                a. APA.
                 b. IIA.
                 c. ABA.
                 d. AIA.

13.              The financial auditing standards of the Yellow Book are ______ the 10 GAAS of the AICPA.
easy             a. the same as
d                b. quite different from
                 c. incompatible with
                 d. consistent with

14.              Which of the following is not one of the three phases in an operational audit?
easy             a. Planning.
b                b. Training and supervising employees.
                 c. Evidence accumulation and evaluation.
                 d. Reporting and follow-up.

15.              The correct title of the Yellow Book is:
medium           a. Government Auditing Standards.
a                b. IIA Practice Standards.
                 c. Statement of Responsibilities of Internal Auditing.
                 d. Statement of Standards on Accounting and Review Services.

16.              The Yellow Book recognizes that, because of the sensitivity of government activities and their
medium           public accountability, in government audits the thresholds of acceptable audit risk and tolerable

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b                misstatement compared to an audit of a commercial enterprise may be:
                 a. equal.
                 b. lower.
                 c. higher.
                 d. indeterminable.


17.              The Single Audit Act requires that an audit be conducted for recipients who receive total federal
medium           funds in any fiscal year of:
b                a. $1,000,000 or more.
                 b. $500,000 or more.
                 c. $300,000 or more.
                 d. $100,000 or more.

18.              An audit conducted in accordance with the Yellow Book must include an audit report that states
medium           the audit was performed in accordance with:
b                a. GAAS.
                 b. GAGAS.
                 c. GASA.
                 d. SAS.

19.              An audit designed to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization or some part
medium           of an organization would not be called a(n):
d                a. performance audit.
                 b. management audit.
                 c. operational audit.
                 d. compliance audit.

20.              Which of the following is not one of the major differences between financial and operational
medium           auditing?
c                a. The financial audit is oriented to the past, but an operational audit concerns performance
                       for the future.
                 b. The financial audit report is distributed to many readers, but the operational audit report
                       goes to a few managers.
                 c. Financial audits deal with the information on the financial statements, but operational
                       audits are concerned with the information in the ledgers.
                 d. Financial audits are limited to matters that directly affect the financial statements, but
                       operational audits cover any aspect of efficiency and effectiveness.

21.              Before an operational audit for effectiveness can be performed, there must be:
medium           a. a financial audit by an independent auditor.
d                b. a financial audit by an internal auditor.
                 c. a review performed by either an independent or an internal auditor.
                 d. specific criteria developed to define effectiveness.

22.              Auditors involved in planning, performing, or reporting on audits under GAGAS must complete
medium           ____ hours of continuing professional education in each two-year period.
d                a. 20
                 b. 40
                 c. 60
                 d. 80

23.              Which of the following statements regarding types of operational audits is false?
medium           a. A functional audit has the advantage of permitting specialization by auditors.
b                b. An advantage of functional auditing is its ability to evaluate interrelated functions.
                 c. The emphasis in an organizational audit is on how efficiently and effectively functions

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                      interact.
                 d.   Special operational auditing assignments arise at the request of management.


24.              The two most important qualities for an operational auditor are:
medium           a. personality and appearance.
b                b. independence and competence.
                 c. competence and technical training.
                 d. academic background and sufficient experience.

25.              Which of the following is not a difference between operational auditing and financial auditing?
medium           a. Both must be CPAs.
a                b. Operational audit reports are usually of a restricted distribution while financial audit
                     reports are widely distributed.
                 c. Operational audits often cover non-financial issues while financial audits do not.
                 d. None of the above is a difference.

26.              A typical objective of an operational audit is to determine whether an entity’s:
medium           a. internal control is adequately operating as designed.
c                b. financial statements present fairly the results of operations.
                 c. specific operating units are functioning efficiently and effectively.
                 b. operational information is in accordance with generally accepted government auditing
                      standards.

27.              Which of the following can affect the independence of operational auditors?

medium                             Responsibilities                                 Reporting Structure
d                a.                     Yes                                                No
                 b.                     No                                                 No
                 c.                     No                                                 Yes
                 d.                     Yes                                                Yes


28.              Which is not a purpose of an economy and efficiency audit?
challenging      a. Whether the entity is acquiring, protecting, and using resources economically and
d                    efficiently.
                 b. The causes of inefficiencies and uneconomical practices.
                 c. Whether the entity has complied with laws and regulations concerning matters of economy
                     and efficiency.
                 d. Each of the above is a purpose.

29.              A(n) _________ audit emphasizes how efficiently and effectively functions interact.
challenging      a. operational
d                b. compliance
                 c. financial
                 d. organizational

30.              Which of the following is not a purpose of a program audit as performed by government
challenging      auditors?
b                a. Determination of the extent to which the desired results established by the legislature are
                      being achieved.
                 b. Determination of the causes of inefficiencies in sponsored programs.
                 c. Determination of the effectiveness of organizations, programs and activities.
                 d. Determination as to whether the entity has complied with laws and regulations applicable
                      to the program.


Arens/Elder/Beasley                             -4-
31.               What distinguishes internal control evaluation and testing for financial and operational
challenging       auditing?
c                 a. Purpose of the work.
                  b. Scope of the work.
                  c. Both a and b.
                  d. Neither a nor b.

32.               Of the many hours of continuing professional education required every two years, how many
challenging       must be in subjects related to the government environment and government auditing for auditors
c                 involved in planning, performing and reporting on audits under GAGAS?
                  a. 8 hours
                  b. 16 hours
                  c. 24 hours
                  d. 32 hours

33.               To be effective, an internal audit department must report to:
Challenging
b                               Operating departments                        The accounting department
                  a.                     Yes                                           Yes
                  b.                     No                                             No
                  c.                     Yes                                            No
                  d.                     No                                            Yes

34.               External financial statement auditors must obtain evidence regarding what attributes of an
challenging       internal audit department if the external auditors intend to rely on the internal auditor’s work?
d
                          Independence from the Audit Committee           Competence
                  a.      Yes                                             Yes
                  b.      No                                              No
                  c.      Yes                                             No
                  d.      No                                              Yes


Essay Questions

35.               What organization establishes auditing standards for internal auditors and what are those
easy              standards commonly called?

                  Answer:
                          Auditing standards for internal auditors are established by the Internal Auditing
                  Standards Board. They are commonly known as the “Red Book.”


36.               What are several similarities between internal and external auditors?
medium
                  Answer:
                      Both must be competent as auditors and remain objective in performing their work and
                          reporting their results.
                      Both follow a similar methodology in performing their audits, including planning and
                          performing tests of controls and substantive tests.
                      Both consider risk and materiality in deciding the extent of their tests and evaluating
                          results. However, their decisions about materiality and risks may differ, because
                          external users may have different needs than management or the board.


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37.              External auditors typically consider internal auditors effective if they meet three criteria. What
medium           are these criteria?

                 Answer:
                    External auditors typically consider internal auditors effective if they are:
                     Independent of the operating units being evaluated
                     Competent and well-trained
                     Have performed relevant audit tests of the internal controls and financial statements


38.              How do the risk and materiality thresholds change in a government audit compared to a
medium           financial statement audit of a public company?

                 Answer:
                    The Yellow Book recognizes that in government audits the thresholds of acceptable audit
                    risk and materiality may be lower than in an audit of a commercial enterprise. This is
                    because of the sensitivity of government activities and their public accountability.



39.              Discuss each of the three phases of an operational audit.
medium
                 Answer:
                      Planning. In the planning phase, the auditor must determine the scope of the
                         engagement, staff the engagement, obtain background information about the
                         organizational unit, understand internal control, and decide on the appropriate
                         evidence to accumulate.
                      Evidence accumulation and evaluation. In operational auditing, it is common to use
                         documentation, client inquiry, and observation extensively, while confirmation and
                         reperformance are used less extensively for most operational audits than for financial
                         audits.
                      Reporting and follow-up. The audit report is tailored to address the scope of the audit,
                         findings, and recommendations and is typically sent only to management. When
                         recommendations are made to management, follow-up is done to determine whether
                         the recommended changes were made, and if not, why.


40.              The Institute of Internal Auditors has established Ethical Principles for its members. List each
medium           of the principles.

                 Answer:
                     The IIA’s ethical principles are:
                      Integrity.
                      Objectivity.
                      Confidentiality.
                      Competency.


41.              Define internal auditing.
medium
                 Answer:

                      According to the IIA: “Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and
                      consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It

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                      helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined
                      approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and
                      governance processes.”


42.              Discuss three major differences between operational and financial auditing.
medium
                 Answer:
                      Purpose of the audit. Financial auditing emphasizes whether historical information
                         was correctly recorded, whereas operational auditing emphasizes effectiveness and
                         efficiency.
                      Distribution of the reports. For financial auditing, the report typically goes to many
                         users of financial statements, such as stockholders and bankers, whereas operational
                         audit reports are intended primarily for management.
                      Inclusion of nonfinancial areas in operational auditing. Operational audits cover any
                         aspect of efficiency and effectiveness in an organization, whereas financial audits are
                         limited to matters that directly affect the fairness of financial statement presentations.



43.              Discuss each of the three broad categories (types) of operational audits.
medium
                 Answer:
                      Functional. A functional audit deals with auditing one or more functions (e.g.,
                         purchasing) in an organization.
                      Organizational. An organizational audit deals with an entire organizational unit, such
                         as a department, branch, or subsidiary.
                      Special assignments. Special assignments audits arise at the request of management
                         when there is a need to investigate a particular area, such as investigating the
                         possibility of fraud in a division, or determining the cause of an ineffective EDP
                         system.


44.              Operational auditing is the review of an organization for efficiency and effectiveness. Discuss
medium           what is meant by the terms “effectiveness” and “efficiency.”

                 Answer:
                      Effectiveness refers to the degree to which the organization’s objectives and goals are
                         accomplished.
                      Efficiency refers to the degree to which costs are reduced without reducing
                         effectiveness.


45.              Audit tests as required by the Single Audit Act must meet several specific objectives. One
challenging      objective is to determine “whether the amounts reported as expenditures were for allowable
                 services.” Identify three other specific objectives.

                 Answer:
                      Whether the records show that those who received services or benefits were eligible to
                         receive them.
                      Whether matching requirements, levels of effort, and earmarking limitations were
                         met.
                      Whether federal financial reports and claims for advances and reimbursements
                         contain information that is supported by the books and records from which the basic
                         financial statements have been prepared.


Arens/Elder/Beasley                             -7-
                         Whether amounts claimed or used for matching were determined in accordance with
                          OMB Circular A-87 and OMB Circular A-102.


46.              The auditing standards of the Yellow Book are consistent with the ten generally accepted
challenging      auditing standards of the AICPA. There are, however, important additions/modifications in the
                 Yellow Book. For example, the Yellow Book recognizes that materiality and risk are lower due
                 to the nature of the government enterprise. Discuss the other additions/modifications.

                 Answer:
                      Quality control. Auditors of government entities must have an appropriate system of
                         internal quality control and participate in an external quality control review program.
                      Compliance auditing. The audit should be designed to provide reasonable assurance
                         of detecting material misstatements resulting from noncompliance with provisions of
                         contracts or grant agreements that have a material and direct effect on the financial
                         statements.
                      Reporting. The report on financial statements must describe the scope of the auditors’
                         testing of compliance with laws and regulations and internal controls and present the
                         results of those tests, or refer to a separate report containing that information.


47.              In addition to an opinion on whether the financial statements are in accordance with GAAP,
challenging      identify four other reports required by the OMB Circular A-133.

                 Answer:
                    The following reports are required:
                         An opinion as to whether the schedule of federal awards is presented fairly in all
                          material respects in relation to the financial statements as a whole.
                         A report on internal control related to the financial statements and major programs.
                         A report on compliance with laws, regulations, and the provisions of contracts or
                          grant agreements, noncompliance with which could have a material effect on the
                          financial statements. This report can be combined with the report on internal control.
                         A schedule of findings and questioned costs.



Other Objective Answer Format Questions
48.              Match seven of the terms (a-o) with the descriptions/definitions provided below (1-7):
medium
                 a.   Compliance audit
                 b.   Economy and efficiency audit
                 c.   Effectiveness
                 d.   Efficiency
                 e.   Functional audit
                 f.   Government Auditing Standards
                 g.   Government audit
                 h.   Institute of Internal Auditors
                 i.   Operational auditing
                 j.   Organizational audit
                 k.   Program audit
                 l.   Single Audit Act
                 m.   Special assignment
                 n.   IIA Practice Standards


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                 o.   Statements on Internal Auditing Standards

f                          1.    The official title of the Yellow Book.

m                          2.    A management request for an operational audit for a specific purpose, such as
                                 investigating the possibility of fraud in a division or making recommendations
                                 for reducing the cost of a manufactured product.

b                          3.    A government audit to determine whether an entity is acquiring, protecting, and
                                 using its resources economically and efficiently and whether the entity has
                                 complied with laws and regulations concerning such matters.

c                          4.    The degree to which the organization’s objectives are accomplished.

i                          5.    The review of an organization for efficiency and effectiveness.

l                          6.    Federal legislation that provides for a single coordinated audit to satisfy the
                                 audit requirements of all federal funding agencies.

o                          7.    Statements issued by the Internal Auditing Standards Board of the IIA to
                                 provide authoritative interpretation of the IIA Practice Standards.

49.              Independence is a fundamental ethical principle for internal auditors.
easy             a. True
b                b. False

50.              Current professional auditing standards prohibit external auditors from using internal auditors
easy             for direct assistance on external audits.
b                a. True
                 b. False

51.              Current professional auditing standards require external auditors to use internal auditors for
easy             direct assistance on external audits.
b                a. True
                 b. False

52.              The objectives of internal auditors are considerably broader than the objectives of external
easy             auditors.
a                a. True
                 b. False

53.              For financial auditing, the audit report typically goes to many users of financial statements,
easy             whereas operational audit reports are intended primarily for management.
a                a. True
                 b. False

54.              Integrity is one of the IIA’s ethical principles.
easy             a. True
a                b. False

55.              Operational audits are primarily geared toward compliance.
easy             a. True
b                b. False

56.              Effectiveness refers to the degree to which costs are reduced without reducing efficiency.
easy             a. True

Arens/Elder/Beasley                               -9-
b                b.   False

57.              Efficiency refers to the degree to which costs are reduced without reducing effectiveness.
easy             a. True
a                b. False

58.              Internal auditing standards are included in the Yellow Book.
easy             a. True
b                b. False

59.              Government auditing standards are included in the Yellow Book.
easy             a. True
a                b. False

60.              Effectiveness is concerned with whether defined goals are achieved, whereas efficiency is
easy             concerned with whether the goals are achieved with a minimum use of resources.
a                a. True
                 b. False

61.              Operational audits may be performed by internal auditors and government auditors, but not by
easy             external auditors.
b                a. True
                 b. False
62.              Benchmarking is one source of evaluation criteria for completing an operational audit.
easy             a. True
a                b. False

63.              The two most important qualities for an internal auditor to possess are independence and
easy             competence.
a                a. True
                 b. False

64.              Program audits are primarily focused on inefficient uses of federal funds in sponsored
easy             programs.
b                a. True
                 b. False

65.              The formal name of the Yellow Book is Government Auditing Standards.
easy             a. True
a                b. False

66.              Professional guidelines for performing internal audits for companies are not as well-defined as
medium           for external audits.
a                a. True
                 b. False

67.              To help them remain independent of the operations they audit, internal auditors should report
medium           directly to the controller.
b                a. True
                 b. False

68.              An operational auditor may use “engineered standards” as evaluation criteria.
medium           a. True
a                b. False

69.              The Internal Auditing Standards Board issues Statements on Internal Auditing Standards.

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medium           a.   True
a                b.   False

70.              Operational audits are often categorized as functional, organizational, or special assignments.
medium           a. True
a                b. False

71.              Internal auditors should have the authority to require implementation of suggestions for
medium           improvement.
b                a. True
                 b. False

72.              The “Red Book” specifies all auditing standards issued by the U.S. General Accounting Office.
medium           a. True
b                b. False

73.              One disadvantage of functional auditing is the failure to evaluate interrelated functions.
challenging      a. True
a                b. False




Arens/Elder/Beasley                             - 11 -

				
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