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EHIA in EIA by nobimdanial


Lecture note on EHIA practice in the context of EIA.

More Info
 Before you conduct HIA or HRA
   Anticipate reaction from the
   May have to go beyond minimum
    Risk = Hazard + Outrage
What is EIA?
 EIA is a study to identify, predict, evaluate and communicate
    information about the impacts on the environment of a
    proposed project and to detail out the mitigating measures prior
    to project approval and implementation (DoE, EIA Procedure
    and Requirement in Malaysia (Revised) 2007)

   History of EIA
   Handbook of EIA                  EIA Procedure and Requirement
   1987 (1st Edition)               • 1990 (1st Edition)
   1995                             • 1991
                                     • 1992
   2000                             • 1993
   2007                             • 1994
   2009 (5th Edition)               • 2007 (6th Edition)
       Inclusion of Human Health

                 POLICY STATEMENT


                  21 October 2002
          Aim and objectives of the EIA

5 objectives of EIA:

    To examine and select the best from the project options

    To identify and incorporate into the project plan
    appropriate abatement and mitigating measures;

    To predict residual environmental impacts;

    To determine the significance of the residual
    environmental impacts predicted; and

    To identify the environmental costs and benefits of the
    project to the community.
Significant impact?
 Activities and their impacts are judged to be
 significant if they create, or have the potential to
 create concern and controversy in the public or
 professional community.

   It can be health concern
   Environmental concern
   Socio-cultural concern
Type of EIA
 Preliminary EIA
 Detailed EIA
    HIA is a must
    Those projects for which PEIA was carried out;
        Impacts are unknown-require further studies
        Potential significant residual impact

    Those projects for which PEIA was not done but based on
     experience of such development
        Known to have significant residual impact which require detailed
         study. (Listed as Prescribed activities which require DEIA)
List of Activities Requiring Detailed        EIA
   Iron and Steel Industry
   Pulp and Paper Mill
   Cement Plant
   Coal Fired power plant
   Dams for water supply and hydroelectric power
   Land reclamation
   Incineration plant
   Municipal solid waste landfill facility (including
    municipal solid waste transfer station)
   Logging 500 hectares or more
   Scheduled waste recovery or treatment facility
   Primary smelting industries
   Recovery plant for lead-acid battery
   Development of tourist or recreational facilities on
    islands in surrounding waters gazetted as marine
What is HIA
 A combination of procedures, methods and tools that
  systematically judges the potential, and sometimes
  unintended, effects of a policy, plan, programme or
  development project on the health of a population,
  and the distribution of those effects within the
 HIA identifies appropriate actions to manage those
Health Impact Assessment in the EIA process
   DOE’S EXPECTATION – Especially with
    projects with high health risk and implications:

   Existing Health Status with health indicators
    relevant to proposed projects
   Health Risk Assessment
   Predict morbidity and mortality rates
   Predict acute and chronic risks

   To be relevant for the decision making process
            Key Principles of HIA

 A social model of health and well-being
 An explicit focus on equity and social justice
 A multidisciplinary, participatory approach
 The use of qualitative as well as quantitative
 Explicit values and openness to public scrutiny
           Values underpinning HIA.
 Democracy – allowing people to participate in the development and
  implementation of policies, programmes or projects that may impact
  on their lives.

 Equity – HIA assesses the distribution of impacts from a proposal on
  the whole population, with a particular reference to how the proposal
  will affect vulnerable people (in terms of age, gender, ethnic
  background and socio-economic status).

 Sustainable development – that both short and long term impacts are
  considered, along with the obvious, and less obvious impacts.

 Ethical use of evidence – the best available quantitative and qualitative
  evidence must be identified and used in the assessment. A wide variety
  of evidence should be collected using the best possible methods.



 National Physical Plan (April 2005)
    Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA)

 Legal requirement
    In Malaysia, EIA is required under section 34A, EQA, 1974, EIA for
     prescribed activities

 Which activities are subject to EIA?
   Prescribed activities –EQA (Prescribed Activities) Order 1987

 Who can conduct EIA study?
   EIA Consultant Registration Scheme
         Registered EIA Consultant
         Registered Subject Consultant
         Assistant Consultant
         As of 1 October 2007, DOE will only accept EIA reports prepared
          by registered EIA consultants.
 Guidelines
Procedure/method/tools ?
 Procedure is good management
     Requirement and process to follow
     saying what you will do
     getting it done
     proving that you have done it
 Method is technical
     doing the assessment
     Predicting the impact
 Tools
     The equipment for data collection, predicting
      the impact
 Screening and scoping determine focus and
   Hazards need to be translated into risks
   The assessment considers community risk factors,
   environmental risk factors and institutional risk
   The evidence base is not limited to scientific
   Objectivity and procedural rigour must be verifiable
   Pre Project
 Prospective HIA      HIA in EIA
    SCREENING                 Methods

                                                            Post Project
                                        Direct Method
       Profiling                                           Environmental
                                           Epidemiology     Monitoring
Prediction of HIA                                           Retrospective
                                        Indirect Method         HIA
                         Quantitative                      Environmental
   Risk Statement
                                          Applied HRA          study
Risk Management
Mitigating Measures                         Method         Sentinel Disease
     Monitoring                                              Surveillance
 Site-Specific
    Exposure condition
    Exposure intake / dose
 ZOI (Zone of Impact)
 Project phase
    Construction
    Operational
    Worst case
 Health as defined by WHO
 Focus mainly on – possible negative health impacts
    Acute / Chronic health risk/Cancer risk
Health Risk Assessment                 Facility               Basic facility information
                                                                  Emission source
Framework                          Characterization              Identifying COPC

       Existing           Air          Water           Exposure       Exposure Phase
       Environ          Modeling      Modeling         Scenario      Exposure scenario

                                                                  Likelihood of exposure?
                                     Pathways analysis            Receptors? Future Land

                                                                       Baseline Value
                                         Media                        Predicted MAIC
                                      Concentration                   (Air, Water, soil)

     Environmental Health
                                       Quantifying                 Quantifying Exposure
                                     Exposure Intake                       Dose

     Cancer potency factor           Characterizing                 Acute / chronic risk
                                         Risk                          Cancer risk
 Direct Method
   Rely on epidemiological equation for estimation
   Weakness -Limited information, No established
      reference values for risk acceptability

 Indirect Method
     Rely on HRA method
     Rely on threshold toxicity values
     Well established methodology
     Risk acceptability level – well defined.
     Weakness – uncertainty, toxicity data based on
      extrapolation from animal to human, or high dose
      exposure to low dose exposure
Type of health effects
  Acute        Chronic
     Local        Local
   reaction     reaction     Lifetime
                            Cancer Risk
  Systemic     Systemic
   effects      effects
                            Average over
               A Year and    a lifetime
  Up to 24hr                 exposure
         Health Hazards

Type of health hazard released into
environmental media
Type of toxicity
   •Systemic toxicity
Nature of toxicity
Similarity of toxicological action
(mode of action, similar target organ)
        Health Hazards

Threshold Dose

Non-Threshold Dose
  •Cancer Potency Factor
     •Cancer Slope Factor
     •Cancer Unit Risk Factor
   Framework of Health Risk Estimation
                                   Toxicity Data

                                         Threshold dose
                Type of toxicity
                                       Cancer potency factor

                                                                         Health Risk
Data Input

                              Exposure Data
                                                                    Estimating Intake
                                                                   For different route of
              Contaminants           Consumption
                 levels in              Data            Risk     Inhalation Ingestion Dermal
             Baseline media
                Env. Incremental
        Hazard ; Can it
        cause cancer?

         Carcinogen          No   Does not requires
          Group ?                   Cancer Risk
            A, B                    Estimation


      Need to evaluate for
         Cancer Risk
Carcinogen Classification & Cancer
risk estimate
            Description  Cancer Risk Estimate

Group 1:   A    Proven human                 Risk estimates
Group 2    B1   Probable human carcinogens   Risk estimates

Group 2A   B2   Limited evidence of          Risk estimates
                carcinogenicity in humans,
                Sufficient evidence of
                carcinogenicity in animals
Group 2B   C    Inadequate evidence of       Guidelines based
                carcinogenicity in humans     on non-cancer
Group 3    D    Unclassified chemicals       Guidelines based
                                              on non-cancer
Exposure Assessment
                                Source activities


Exposure Pathway           Environmental Concentration
analysis             Air      Water     Food        Soil

                               External Exposure
Exposure intake or                    Dose

Dose estimation                  Health Effects

Evaluating Exposure Pathways
 The goal of EEP is to identify site-specific likely
  exposure situations and answer the questions;
   Is anyone at a given site exposed to environmental
    contamination? (likelihood of exposure)

   Exposure pathways;
        Completed
        Potential

        Eliminated pathway
Exposure Pathway

    Exposure              Eliminated Pathway


  Completed or               Health Effect
Potential exposure            Evaluation
Exposure pathway analysis can be very complicated

                                        Paustenbach, DJ.
                                        (2000) The practice of
                                        exposure assessment:
                                        a state-of-the-art
                                        review. J Toxicol Env
                                        Health, 3:179-291
     Documenting Exposure Pathways
                                   Exposure Pathway Elements
                 Source      Environmental      Point of Exposure   Route of Exposure    Potentially Exposed
Pathway Name                   Medium                                                        Population

Ambient Air Landfill      Air                Air                    Inhalation          Local Residents
Surface Soil   Landfill   Soil               Contact with soil at   No                  No
                                             landfill                                   (Eliminated)

Public Water Landfill     Municipal Water    Residences &           Ingestion           Users of Municipal
Supply (water                                Businesses, Tap                            Water Supply
intake point)                                                                           (completed)
Private Wells Landfill    Groundwater        Residences, Tap        Ingestion           No
                          (Private Wells)                           Dermal Contact      (Eliminated)

Food Chain     Landfill   Fresh water fish   Fish                   Ingestion           Unknown
(Biota)                   from river                                                    (Potential)
 Land use map
 Site visit
 Profiling of environmental
  health data from local area
    Kesihatan Daerah
    Local survey
Estimating Exposure Intake or Dose
                               Exposure intake for

                              Inhalation Ingestion Dermal

                        Ca * EF * ED
         ADE.or.LADE =
                       AT * 365days / year

               ADE * 0.001
 HQinh(i )   =
                 RfC                         LCR(i ) = LADE *URF (i )
    EF   Exposure frequency   Days/year   Default value -350

    ED   Exposure duration    year        Default RME value 6,30, or 40 or life span of project

    AT   Averaging time       year        Site-specific for Non-cancer risk; 70 years for cancer risk
Estimating Exposure Intake or Dose
                                Estimating dose for

                              Inhalation Ingestion Dermal

                          C * IR * EF * ED
           ExposureDose =
                              BW * AT
   For specific exposure dose though Air, Water, Food, Fish, Dermal contact; refer
   1. PHA Guidance Document Appendix G
   2. Exposure Factor Hand Book, EPA 1997
   3. Example Exposure Scenario, 2004
   4. EPA Document 530-R-05-006, September 2005

  EF    Exposure frequency    Days/year     Default value -350

  ED    Exposure duration     year          Default RME value 6,30, or 40 or life span of project

  AT    Averaging time        year          Site-specific for Non-cancer risk; 70 years for cancer risk
Site-Specific Exposure Duration
  Project life span
  RME
     Consider population movement in time and space
     mobility rate and median time in a residence
     In addition to the number of years at a particular location or
      residence, the amount of time spent at that location each day
      directly affects exposure.
     population mobility census
Health Effects Evaluation (HEE)
Has a completed or
potential exposure
pathway been identified?
• Yes – proceed with HEE
Health Effects Evaluation (HEE)
 Can we compare [environmental concentration] with
  environmental standard or guideline?
 Need to understand the derivation and use of that
   Standard Defaults exposure assumption used, and
   Level of risk acceptability used
   The standard is meant for what? Cancer risk, Non-
    cancer risk?

 Not site-specific
Example: Chromium in ambient air
 Ambient Cr (VI) level of 0.0002 mcg/m3
 Is it safe?
 Compare with Environmental Health Guideline Values
      WHO Air Quality Guideline: nil
      RMAQG: nil
      ATSDR’s EMEG: 1 mcg/m3
      EPA NAAQS- annual-average = 2 mcg/m3
      OEHHA’s Chronic REL = 0.2 mcg/m3
      EPA RfC = 0.1 mcg/m3

 ATSDR’s CREG for Cr (VI): 0.00008mcg/m3
Health Comparison Values
Specific Environmental Media         Threshold Toxicity Values
Standard / Guideline s
Air, Food, Water Quality Standard or EPA’s RfD, RfC, URF, CSF
ATSDR’s EMEG, CREG values            ATSDR’s MRL
EPA NAAQS                            OEHHA’s REL, URF, CSF
WHO Drinking water, recreational     ADI(Acceptable Daily Intake)
water guideline, WHO air Q
guideline for criteria pollutants
Applied for specific                 Applied for estimated dose /
environmental media                  exposure concentration (air)
concentration                        (ADE(air) or ADD or LADE(air) or
                                     LADD or CDI)
  Acute Exposure Guideline Values
  Guideline   Target Group           Organization                     Definition                    Exposure Duration

                                                    Three-tier guideline for emergency response   10 min., 30 min, 1 hr, 4
AEGL          Public         COT NRC
                                                                                                  hr., and 8 hr

                                                    For routine
REL           Public         OEHHA                                                                1 hour
                                                    emissions and exposure
                                                    Three-tier planning guideline for emergency
ERPG          Public         AIHA                                                                 1 hour

                                                    LOC estimation based on IDLH
1/10 IDLH     Public         EPA/FEMA/DOT                                                         30 minutes
                                                    (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health)

                                                                                                  Used to be 30 minutes.
                                                    Highest concentration from which escape       The revised IDLH
IDLH          Worker         NIOSH
                                                    possible without permanent damage             (1994) mentions no
                                                                                                  exposure duration.

                                                                                                  8 hours per day, 20 to 30
TLV, PEL, REL Worker         ACGIH, OSHA, NIOSH     Occupational exposure for 8-hour workday

STEL          Worker         ACGIH                  Occupational short-term exposure limit        15 minutes

NAAQS         Public         EPA                                                                  24 hrs, lifetime
Example: Ammonia Gas
                       Levels   Safe Limit

                       0.1      Safety limit for chronic
                       1.7      Exposure up to 14 days without
                                any health effects
                       25       Safety limit for 8 hours exposure
                       35       Safety limit for 15 minute exposure
                                (Short Term Exposure Limit

                       50 –     Mild Eye and throat irritation
                       140–     eye and throat irritation after
                       400      immediate exposure
                       500-     Corneal and throat burns
                       1000 -   Airway distress, laryngospasm
                       2500     Fatality (after halt-hour exposure)

                       5000     Rapidly fatal after exposure
         Likelihood of Exposure                                                 Stop


          Environmental Data                                Exposure Investigation needed; Env
                                                            Sampling; Env Monitoring Data


                                                                                            HEALTH EFFECTS
         Env. Guideline Value                                                                ASSESSMENT
                                                  No                                           LEVEL 1
Compare detected conc. with appropriate
 Environmental Guideline Value for air or
       water or soil or food quality
            Refer Table 4.7.

    Exceed Guideline Value

                                        Site-specific Exposure/Dose                          HEALTH EFFECTS
                No                  Estimation (Refer Health Evaluation                       ASSESSMENT
                                                Appendix 1)                                     LEVEL 2
                                                                                                              Modified from the
                                                    Risk Characterization;
                                                                                                               Public Health
                                                  cancer & non-cancer risk                                      Assessment
                        Acceptable                                                                            Guidance Manual
                                            Health Risk Statement and Conclusion
                                                                                                               (2005 Update)
                                                                         Not                                      ATSDR
                                                                      Acceptable       Risk Management
          No Further Action                            Policy Decision and
                                                       Actions by Authority
Non-Cancer Health Risk
 Acute health risk
    HQ = [ ]/Health Reference Value for Acute effects (MRL
     acute, REL acute)
 Chronic Health Risk
    HQ = [ ] / Health Reference Value for Chronic effects (RfD,
     RfC, MRL Chronic)

 Single pollutants
    HI = HQoral + HQinhallation +HQdermal
 Chemical mixture
Mixture of Chemical - Joint
Rule for summing up HI
 Similar type of health effects
    Local reaction
    Systemic effect
 Similarity of tox. Action
Cancer Risk
 Lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR)
 Probability of cancer incidence e.g 1 x10-6
 Incremental concentration is used to estimate excess
  cancer risk

Risk Estimation
       Non Cancer risk             Lifetime Cancer risk
             Inhalation                   Inhalation

               ADE * 0.001
 HQinh(i )   =               LCR(i ) = LADE *URF (i )
Risk Estimation
    Non Cancer risk          Lifetime Cancer risk
       Oral / Dermal               Oral /Dermal

    HQ(i)   =          LCR(i ) = LADD * CSF (i )
  Exposure Scenario for Health Risk Assessment: Landfill (Worse Case Scenario,
  Burst pond)
Parameters   Max. Levels of CDI for each route                     HQ for each route              HI of all    HImix    of
             Heavy Metals                                                                         routes for   chemical
             in    Receiving Ingestion of ingestio skin            Ingestio ingesti skin          specific     mixture
             Rivers          Fish         n      of contact        n     of on of contact         pollutant    with
                                          water     with           Fish     water with water                   similar
                                                    water                                                      toxicologic
                                                                                                               al endpoint

Cd (mg/L)    0.02                 4.44E-05   6.02E-09   1.96E-06 0.044429 1.2E-05      0.078499     0.122941 -

Cr (VI)      0.11
(mg/L)                            ND         3.31E-08   1.08E-05       ND      ND      0.143916     0.143916 -

Hg (mg/L)    0.01                0.000303    3.01E-09   9.81E-07 3.034773      ND      0.010903     3.045676 -

Lead         0.05
(mg/L)                             4.7E-05   1.51E-08   4.91E-06       ND      ND          ND            ND -

Ni (mg/L)    5.36                 ND         1.61E-06   0.000526       ND      ND          ND            ND -

Zn (mg/L)    0.58                 3.52E-06   1.75E-07   5.69E-05 1.17E-05        0     0.000949      0.00096 -

Nitrate      58.9                                                            1.11E-
(mg/l)                            ND         1.77E-05    0.00578       ND       05         ND       1.11E-05

Nitrite      15.4                                                            4.63E-
(mg/l)                            ND         4.64E-06   0.001511       ND       05         ND       4.64E-05 5.74E-05
Direct Method
Air contaminant of % per 10                      CONSTRUSTION PHASE                                        OPERATIONAL PHASE
concern      /   Health     ug/m3       Predicted Attributable    Predicted Attributable     Predicted Attributable    Predicted Attributable
outcome                     [(RR-     proportion (%) of health        proportion (%) of     proportion (%) of health proportion (%) of health
                            1)]*100           outcome                  health outcome               outcome                   outcome
                                        With control measures          Without control       With control measures        Without control
                                                                          measures                                            measures

                                      SMK      Kg Sg    Project   SMK     Kg Sg      Project SMK    Kg Sg     Project SMK     Kg Sg      Project
                                      Tamil    Pedas    site      Tamil Pedas        site   Tamil   Pedas     site    Tamil   Pedas      site
PM10(µg/m3)*                          1.045    0.715    2.585     10.8    7.3        26.6   3.52    2.42      8.47    17.77   12.26      41.85

Hospital     admissions 0.89%         0.09%    0.06%    0.23%     0.96    0.64% 2.36% 0.31%         0.21%     0.75%   1.58%   1.09%      3.72%
for       cardiovascular                                          %
Hospital      admission 1.50%         0.15%    0.10%    0.38%     1.62    1.09% 3.99% 0.52%         0.36%     1.27%   2.66%   1.83%      6.27%
for          respiratory                                          %
Occurrence           of 6.50%         0.67%    0.46%    1.68%     7.02    4.74% 17.29       2.28%   1.57%     5.50%   11.55   7.96%      27.20
respiratory symptoms                                              %                  %                                %                  %
Asthma exacerbation        4.80%      0.50%    0.34%    1.24%     5.18    3.50% 12.7% 1.68%         1.16%     4.06%   8.52%   5.88%      20.08
(aged <15)                                                        %                                                                      %
Asthma exacerbation        0.39%      0.04%    0.02%    0.10%     0.42    0.28% 1.03% 0.13%         0.09%     0.33%   0.69%   0.47%      1.63%
(aged >15)                                                        %
Quantification   number of cases attributable to exposure
(based on epidemiological evidence only)

 Dose-Response        Morbidity            Exposure Assessment
      Step           Mortality data                step
Alternatively for Criteria Pollutants
 Compare with WHO Air Quality Guideline (2005
   Established based on extensive epidemiology
   Exposure setting – general population
   Uncertainty –
     no extrapolation from animal to human or
      High dose exposure to low dose exposure
Particulate Matter PM10 AND
Particulate Matter PM10 AND PM2.5

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