"EHIA in EIA"
Tips Before you conduct HIA or HRA Anticipate reaction from the public May have to go beyond minimum requirement Risk = Hazard + Outrage What is EIA? EIA is a study to identify, predict, evaluate and communicate information about the impacts on the environment of a proposed project and to detail out the mitigating measures prior to project approval and implementation (DoE, EIA Procedure and Requirement in Malaysia (Revised) 2007) History of EIA Handbook of EIA EIA Procedure and Requirement 1987 (1st Edition) • 1990 (1st Edition) 1995 • 1991 • 1992 2000 • 1993 2007 • 1994 2009 (5th Edition) • 2007 (6th Edition) Inclusion of Human Health NATIONAL POLICY ON THE ENVIRONMENT POLICY STATEMENT FOR CONTINOUS ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PROGRESS AND ENHANCEMENT OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF MALAYSIANS, THROUGH ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 21 October 2002 Aim and objectives of the EIA 5 objectives of EIA: To examine and select the best from the project options available; To identify and incorporate into the project plan appropriate abatement and mitigating measures; To predict residual environmental impacts; To determine the significance of the residual environmental impacts predicted; and To identify the environmental costs and benefits of the project to the community. Significant impact? Activities and their impacts are judged to be significant if they create, or have the potential to create concern and controversy in the public or professional community. It can be health concern Environmental concern Socio-cultural concern Type of EIA Preliminary EIA Detailed EIA HIA is a must Those projects for which PEIA was carried out; Impacts are unknown-require further studies Potential significant residual impact Those projects for which PEIA was not done but based on experience of such development Known to have significant residual impact which require detailed study. (Listed as Prescribed activities which require DEIA) List of Activities Requiring Detailed EIA Iron and Steel Industry Pulp and Paper Mill Cement Plant Coal Fired power plant Dams for water supply and hydroelectric power Land reclamation Incineration plant Municipal solid waste landfill facility (including municipal solid waste transfer station) Logging 500 hectares or more Scheduled waste recovery or treatment facility Primary smelting industries Recovery plant for lead-acid battery Development of tourist or recreational facilities on islands in surrounding waters gazetted as marine parks What is HIA A combination of procedures, methods and tools that systematically judges the potential, and sometimes unintended, effects of a policy, plan, programme or development project on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population. HIA identifies appropriate actions to manage those effects. Health Impact Assessment in the EIA process DOE’S EXPECTATION – Especially with projects with high health risk and implications: Existing Health Status with health indicators relevant to proposed projects Health Risk Assessment Predict morbidity and mortality rates Predict acute and chronic risks To be relevant for the decision making process Key Principles of HIA A social model of health and well-being An explicit focus on equity and social justice A multidisciplinary, participatory approach The use of qualitative as well as quantitative evidence Explicit values and openness to public scrutiny Values underpinning HIA. Democracy – allowing people to participate in the development and implementation of policies, programmes or projects that may impact on their lives. Equity – HIA assesses the distribution of impacts from a proposal on the whole population, with a particular reference to how the proposal will affect vulnerable people (in terms of age, gender, ethnic background and socio-economic status). Sustainable development – that both short and long term impacts are considered, along with the obvious, and less obvious impacts. Ethical use of evidence – the best available quantitative and qualitative evidence must be identified and used in the assessment. A wide variety of evidence should be collected using the best possible methods. HOW? Policy Procedure Methods Tools Policy National Physical Plan (April 2005) Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) Legal requirement In Malaysia, EIA is required under section 34A, EQA, 1974, EIA for prescribed activities Which activities are subject to EIA? Prescribed activities –EQA (Prescribed Activities) Order 1987 Who can conduct EIA study? EIA Consultant Registration Scheme Registered EIA Consultant Registered Subject Consultant Assistant Consultant As of 1 October 2007, DOE will only accept EIA reports prepared by registered EIA consultants. Guidelines Procedure/method/tools ? Procedure is good management Requirement and process to follow saying what you will do getting it done proving that you have done it Method is technical doing the assessment Predicting the impact Tools The equipment for data collection, predicting the impact Method Screening and scoping determine focus and boundaries Hazards need to be translated into risks The assessment considers community risk factors, environmental risk factors and institutional risk factors The evidence base is not limited to scientific information Objectivity and procedural rigour must be verifiable Pre Project Implementation Prospective HIA HIA in EIA Process SCREENING Methods Qualitative SCOPING Post Project Implementation Direct Method Profiling Environmental Epidemiology Monitoring equation Prediction of HIA Retrospective Indirect Method HIA Quantitative Environmental Risk Statement Epidemiology Applied HRA study Risk Management Mitigating Measures Method Sentinel Disease Monitoring Surveillance HIA in EIA Site-Specific Exposure condition Exposure intake / dose ZOI (Zone of Impact) Project phase Construction Operational Worst case Health as defined by WHO Focus mainly on – possible negative health impacts Acute / Chronic health risk/Cancer risk Health Risk Assessment Facility Basic facility information Emission source Framework Characterization Identifying COPC Existing Air Water Exposure Exposure Phase Environ Modeling Modeling Scenario Exposure scenario Likelihood of exposure? Pathways analysis Receptors? Future Land use? Baseline Value Media Predicted MAIC Concentration (Air, Water, soil) Appropriate Environmental Health Quantifying Quantifying Exposure Guideline Exposure Intake Dose Dose-Response Cancer potency factor Characterizing Acute / chronic risk Risk Cancer risk Methods Direct Method Rely on epidemiological equation for estimation Weakness -Limited information, No established reference values for risk acceptability Indirect Method Rely on HRA method Rely on threshold toxicity values Well established methodology Risk acceptability level – well defined. Weakness – uncertainty, toxicity data based on extrapolation from animal to human, or high dose exposure to low dose exposure Type of health effects Cancer Acute Chronic Risk Local Local reaction reaction Lifetime Cancer Risk Systemic Systemic effects effects Average over A Year and a lifetime Up to 24hr exposure above Health Hazards Type of health hazard released into environmental media •Chemical •Biological •Physical Type of toxicity •Irritation •Systemic toxicity •Cancer Nature of toxicity •Acute •Chronic Similarity of toxicological action (mode of action, similar target organ) Health Hazards Threshold Dose •Acute •Chronic •RfC •RfD •ADI •REL Non-Threshold Dose •Cancer Potency Factor •Cancer Slope Factor •Cancer Unit Risk Factor Framework of Health Risk Estimation Toxicity Data Dose-response Hazard Threshold dose Type of toxicity Cancer potency factor Health Risk Estimation Data Input Exposure Data Estimating Intake For different route of exposure Contaminants Consumption pop.at levels in Data Risk Inhalation Ingestion Dermal Baseline media Env. Incremental ASK Hazard ; Can it cause cancer? Carcinogen No Does not requires Group ? Cancer Risk A, B Estimation Yes Need to evaluate for Cancer Risk Carcinogen Classification & Cancer risk estimate IARC U.S. EPA Description Cancer Risk Estimate Group 1: A Proven human Risk estimates carcinogens: Group 2 B1 Probable human carcinogens Risk estimates Group 2A B2 Limited evidence of Risk estimates carcinogenicity in humans, Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals Group 2B C Inadequate evidence of Guidelines based carcinogenicity in humans on non-cancer endpoints Group 3 D Unclassified chemicals Guidelines based on non-cancer endpoints Exposure Assessment Source activities Emissions Exposure Pathway Environmental Concentration analysis Air Water Food Soil Exposure External Exposure Exposure intake or Dose Dose estimation Health Effects Early/Subclinical Moderate/Clinical Advanced/Permanent Evaluating Exposure Pathways The goal of EEP is to identify site-specific likely exposure situations and answer the questions; Is anyone at a given site exposed to environmental contamination? (likelihood of exposure) Exposure pathways; Completed Potential Eliminated pathway Exposure Pathway Analysis No Exposure Eliminated Pathway Likely Yes Completed or Health Effect Potential exposure Evaluation pathway Exposure pathway analysis can be very complicated From: Paustenbach, DJ. (2000) The practice of exposure assessment: a state-of-the-art review. J Toxicol Env Health, 3:179-291 Documenting Exposure Pathways Exposure Pathway Elements Source Environmental Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Potentially Exposed Pathway Name Medium Population Ambient Air Landfill Air Air Inhalation Local Residents (completed) Surface Soil Landfill Soil Contact with soil at No No landfill (Eliminated) Public Water Landfill Municipal Water Residences & Ingestion Users of Municipal Supply (water Businesses, Tap Water Supply intake point) (completed) Private Wells Landfill Groundwater Residences, Tap Ingestion No (Private Wells) Dermal Contact (Eliminated) Food Chain Landfill Fresh water fish Fish Ingestion Unknown (Biota) from river (Potential) Land use map Site visit Profiling of environmental health data from local area Kesihatan Daerah Local survey Estimating Exposure Intake or Dose Exposure intake for Inhalation Ingestion Dermal Ca * EF * ED ADE.or.LADE = AT * 365days / year ADE * 0.001 HQinh(i ) = RfC LCR(i ) = LADE *URF (i ) EF Exposure frequency Days/year Default value -350 ED Exposure duration year Default RME value 6,30, or 40 or life span of project AT Averaging time year Site-specific for Non-cancer risk; 70 years for cancer risk Estimating Exposure Intake or Dose Estimating dose for Inhalation Ingestion Dermal C * IR * EF * ED ExposureDose = BW * AT For specific exposure dose though Air, Water, Food, Fish, Dermal contact; refer 1. PHA Guidance Document Appendix G 2. Exposure Factor Hand Book, EPA 1997 3. Example Exposure Scenario, 2004 4. EPA Document 530-R-05-006, September 2005 EF Exposure frequency Days/year Default value -350 ED Exposure duration year Default RME value 6,30, or 40 or life span of project AT Averaging time year Site-specific for Non-cancer risk; 70 years for cancer risk Site-Specific Exposure Duration Project life span RME Consider population movement in time and space mobility rate and median time in a residence In addition to the number of years at a particular location or residence, the amount of time spent at that location each day directly affects exposure. population mobility census Health Effects Evaluation (HEE) Has a completed or potential exposure pathway been identified? • Yes – proceed with HEE Health Effects Evaluation (HEE) Can we compare [environmental concentration] with environmental standard or guideline? Need to understand the derivation and use of that standard Standard Defaults exposure assumption used, and Level of risk acceptability used The standard is meant for what? Cancer risk, Non- cancer risk? Not site-specific Example: Chromium in ambient air Ambient Cr (VI) level of 0.0002 mcg/m3 Is it safe? Compare with Environmental Health Guideline Values WHO Air Quality Guideline: nil RMAQG: nil ATSDR’s EMEG: 1 mcg/m3 EPA NAAQS- annual-average = 2 mcg/m3 OEHHA’s Chronic REL = 0.2 mcg/m3 EPA RfC = 0.1 mcg/m3 ATSDR’s CREG for Cr (VI): 0.00008mcg/m3 Health Comparison Values Specific Environmental Media Threshold Toxicity Values Standard / Guideline s Air, Food, Water Quality Standard or EPA’s RfD, RfC, URF, CSF Guideline ATSDR’s EMEG, CREG values ATSDR’s MRL EPA NAAQS OEHHA’s REL, URF, CSF WHO Drinking water, recreational ADI(Acceptable Daily Intake) water guideline, WHO air Q guideline for criteria pollutants Applied for specific Applied for estimated dose / environmental media exposure concentration (air) concentration (ADE(air) or ADD or LADE(air) or LADD or CDI) Acute Exposure Guideline Values Guideline Target Group Organization Definition Exposure Duration Three-tier guideline for emergency response 10 min., 30 min, 1 hr, 4 AEGL Public COT NRC hr., and 8 hr For routine REL Public OEHHA 1 hour emissions and exposure Three-tier planning guideline for emergency ERPG Public AIHA 1 hour response LOC estimation based on IDLH 1/10 IDLH Public EPA/FEMA/DOT 30 minutes (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) Used to be 30 minutes. Highest concentration from which escape The revised IDLH IDLH Worker NIOSH possible without permanent damage (1994) mentions no exposure duration. 8 hours per day, 20 to 30 TLV, PEL, REL Worker ACGIH, OSHA, NIOSH Occupational exposure for 8-hour workday years STEL Worker ACGIH Occupational short-term exposure limit 15 minutes NAAQS Public EPA 24 hrs, lifetime Example: Ammonia Gas Levels Safe Limit (ppm) 0.1 Safety limit for chronic exposure 1.7 Exposure up to 14 days without any health effects 25 Safety limit for 8 hours exposure (PEL) 35 Safety limit for 15 minute exposure (Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)) 50 – Mild Eye and throat irritation 100 140– eye and throat irritation after 400 immediate exposure 500- Corneal and throat burns 700 1000 - Airway distress, laryngospasm 1700 2500 Fatality (after halt-hour exposure) 5000 Rapidly fatal after exposure No Likelihood of Exposure Stop Yes No Environmental Data Exposure Investigation needed; Env Sampling; Env Monitoring Data Available? Yes HEALTH EFFECTS Env. Guideline Value ASSESSMENT No LEVEL 1 Yes Compare detected conc. with appropriate Environmental Guideline Value for air or water or soil or food quality Refer Table 4.7. Yes Exceed Guideline Value Site-specific Exposure/Dose HEALTH EFFECTS No Estimation (Refer Health Evaluation ASSESSMENT Appendix 1) LEVEL 2 Modified from the Risk Characterization; Public Health cancer & non-cancer risk Assessment Acceptable Guidance Manual Health Risk Statement and Conclusion (2005 Update) Not ATSDR Acceptable Risk Management No Further Action Policy Decision and Actions by Authority Non-Cancer Health Risk Acute health risk HQ = [ ]/Health Reference Value for Acute effects (MRL acute, REL acute) Chronic Health Risk HQ = [ ] / Health Reference Value for Chronic effects (RfD, RfC, MRL Chronic) Single pollutants HI = HQoral + HQinhallation +HQdermal Chemical mixture HI = HICHEMICAL 1 + HICHEMICAL 2……. Mixture of Chemical - Joint toxicities Rule for summing up HI Similar type of health effects Local reaction Systemic effect Similarity of tox. Action Cancer Risk Lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) Probability of cancer incidence e.g 1 x10-6 Incremental concentration is used to estimate excess cancer risk LECR = LADD or LADE x CSF or URF Risk Estimation Non Cancer risk Lifetime Cancer risk Inhalation Inhalation ADE * 0.001 HQinh(i ) = LCR(i ) = LADE *URF (i ) RfC Risk Estimation Non Cancer risk Lifetime Cancer risk Oral / Dermal Oral /Dermal ADD HQ(i) = LCR(i ) = LADD * CSF (i ) RfD Exposure Scenario for Health Risk Assessment: Landfill (Worse Case Scenario, Burst pond) Parameters Max. Levels of CDI for each route HQ for each route HI of all HImix of Heavy Metals routes for chemical in Receiving Ingestion of ingestio skin Ingestio ingesti skin specific mixture Rivers Fish n of contact n of on of contact pollutant with water with Fish water with water similar water toxicologic al endpoint Cd (mg/L) 0.02 4.44E-05 6.02E-09 1.96E-06 0.044429 1.2E-05 0.078499 0.122941 - Cr (VI) 0.11 (mg/L) ND 3.31E-08 1.08E-05 ND ND 0.143916 0.143916 - Hg (mg/L) 0.01 0.000303 3.01E-09 9.81E-07 3.034773 ND 0.010903 3.045676 - Lead 0.05 (mg/L) 4.7E-05 1.51E-08 4.91E-06 ND ND ND ND - Ni (mg/L) 5.36 ND 1.61E-06 0.000526 ND ND ND ND - Zn (mg/L) 0.58 3.52E-06 1.75E-07 5.69E-05 1.17E-05 0 0.000949 0.00096 - Nitrate 58.9 1.11E- (mg/l) ND 1.77E-05 0.00578 ND 05 ND 1.11E-05 Nitrite 15.4 4.63E- (mg/l) ND 4.64E-06 0.001511 ND 05 ND 4.64E-05 5.74E-05 Direct Method Air contaminant of % per 10 CONSTRUSTION PHASE OPERATIONAL PHASE concern / Health ug/m3 Predicted Attributable Predicted Attributable Predicted Attributable Predicted Attributable outcome [(RR- proportion (%) of health proportion (%) of proportion (%) of health proportion (%) of health 1)]*100 outcome health outcome outcome outcome With control measures Without control With control measures Without control measures measures SMK Kg Sg Project SMK Kg Sg Project SMK Kg Sg Project SMK Kg Sg Project Tamil Pedas site Tamil Pedas site Tamil Pedas site Tamil Pedas site PM10(µg/m3)* 1.045 0.715 2.585 10.8 7.3 26.6 3.52 2.42 8.47 17.77 12.26 41.85 Hospital admissions 0.89% 0.09% 0.06% 0.23% 0.96 0.64% 2.36% 0.31% 0.21% 0.75% 1.58% 1.09% 3.72% for cardiovascular % causes Hospital admission 1.50% 0.15% 0.10% 0.38% 1.62 1.09% 3.99% 0.52% 0.36% 1.27% 2.66% 1.83% 6.27% for respiratory % disease Occurrence of 6.50% 0.67% 0.46% 1.68% 7.02 4.74% 17.29 2.28% 1.57% 5.50% 11.55 7.96% 27.20 respiratory symptoms % % % % Asthma exacerbation 4.80% 0.50% 0.34% 1.24% 5.18 3.50% 12.7% 1.68% 1.16% 4.06% 8.52% 5.88% 20.08 (aged <15) % % Asthma exacerbation 0.39% 0.04% 0.02% 0.10% 0.42 0.28% 1.03% 0.13% 0.09% 0.33% 0.69% 0.47% 1.63% (aged >15) % Quantification number of cases attributable to exposure (based on epidemiological evidence only) Dose-Response Morbidity Exposure Assessment Step Mortality data step Alternatively for Criteria Pollutants Compare with WHO Air Quality Guideline (2005 Updates) Established based on extensive epidemiology studies Exposure setting – general population Uncertainty – no extrapolation from animal to human or High dose exposure to low dose exposure Particulate Matter PM10 AND PM2.5 Particulate Matter PM10 AND PM2.5