Definition: the growth of factories and mass production of products
Years: 1700 to 1914 (start of World War I)
Background: Agriculture Revolution (1700 to 1750) began the Industrial Revolution
Era and then things expanded beyond agricultural items. The Enclosure Method made it
difficult for small farmers to survive. Many went to the cities where laborers were
needed; factories developed for the 1st time and people worked in these factories. A
population explosion in Europe furthered the growth of the Industrial Revolution.
* Population due not to declining birth rates, but to declining death rates!
Britain took the lead in the Industrial Revolution (reasons further ahead), followed
by USA and Germany simultaneously, then other European nations, Canada and Japan.
The invention of the steam engine got the revolution going. Previous to this, was
the Cottage System, (Domestic System) (Putting-out System) in which goods were made
out of one’s home or cottage.
Why Did Britain Take the Lead in Industrializing?:
1. Natural Resources: Britain had a large supply of coal to power steam engines.
Britain also had plenty of iron to build new machines.
2. Human Resources: The Agricultural Revolution freed many farm workers to
perform in new industries.
3. New Technologies: Britain accepted ideas of thee Scientific Revolution and the
enlightenment, which promoted progress thought technology. Thus, British
population sold on these ideas.
4. Economic Conditions: Available capital with an overseas empire 1700’s. Through
trade, a business class accumulated capital. Hey invested in mines, railroads, and
5. Political Stability: A stable government helped support economic growth.
** Most important reason
First Part of the Industrial Revolution:
In the early 1700’s, ways to use water for power were experimented with.
1712: Thomas Newcomer: invented a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out
1769: James Watt: improved steam engine and made it very usable. It was the symbol of
the first half of the Industrial Revolution.
Textiles and the Industrial Revolution:
Textiles were the 1st industry to use factory-production. Britain had a large wool
industry and now cotton was also bog for their overseas empire.
John Kay (flying shutter, 1733) for weaving much faster than spinners
James Hargreaves (spinning jenny, 1764) for multiple thread spinning, alternating them
Richard Arkwright (water frame, 1769) which sped up the spinning process
Samuel Crompton (spinning mules, 1779) for multiple threads at one time and more
Edmund Cartwright (power loom, 1785)
Eli Whitney (American) (cotton gin, 1793) removed seeds form cotton
Capitalists invested in “turnpikes” in the 1700’s, which were privately-owned and
built roads (later controlled by governments). A fee was charged to travelers. Others had
“canals” built (man-made waterways) in order to link inland towns. Also, stronger
bridges were built, as were upgraded harbors.
Robert Fulton- (American) used Watt’s steam engine to create the first steamship, the
“Clermont” in 1897. This increased boat speeds.
George Stephenson- (British) invented the first steam powered locomotives (1830) which
began the rail service
Michael Faraday- (British) produced electricity in 1831
Second Industrial Revolution (1850 to 1914 period)
Steel: **Symbol of the 2nd half of the Industrial Revolution
Harry Bessemer- (Britain) invented Bessemer Converter (1856) that enabled iron to be
made into steal (cheaper) and enabled a building boom.
** After steal, chemicals and petroleum were the biggest products of the 2nd Industrial
Samuel Morse- (1836) invented the telegraph
Cyrus Field- (1866) Built Trans-Atlantic cable
Alexander G. Bell- (1876) invented the telephone
Guglielmo Marconi- (1899) invented the radio
Thomas Edison- (1877) invented the photograph
Thomas Edison- light bulb (1879)
Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler- (Germans) Automobile (1885)
Henry Ford- Invented assembly line to mass produce autos (early 1900s)
Rudolf Diesel- Diesel engine (1892)
Orville and Wilbur Wright – Airplane (1903)
Changes in Business Structure due to the Industrial Revolution:
Interchangeable Parts- Eli Whitney and Henry Ford contributed to this. It was cheaper
than remaking an entire item when something broke on it.
Division of Labor- Frederick Taylor developed this in the 1890’s, which gave each
person a detailed step-by-step assignment and they will master their function and improve
overall product in a cheaper and more efficient way.
Industrial Capitalism- Expanding factories or investing in new businesses. Profits were
used to expand.
Corporation- Business organizations owned by stockholders who buy shares in a
Monopoly- When one company controls an industry in a region.
Cartel- When several similar companies or corporations dominate an industry (often in
more than one nation).
Positive & Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution:
1. Rise of middle-class as many entrepreneurs improved their lives
2. Politicians now had to cater to working class rather than nobility
3. More products now available and now former Scientific Age affects average
person for the first time
4. Trade increased as profits did
5. Rise of cities where industrialism was centered
6. More mobility with transportation improvements
7. Child Labor problems including long hours in dangerous conditions. Children
were not getting educated. Orphans were most abused
8. Women workers, like children and men, often worked 12-hours, six days a week,
and this had a negative effect on family life. *Excessive hours for women
outlawed in many nations after 1844.
9. Worker protests began. In Britain, the LUDDITES, named after Ned Ludd
organized early protests against workers’ conditions. In early 1800’s, these
English workers smashed textile machines that were putting them out of work.
Some Luddites were hanged; others sent to panel colonies abroad.
10. The rise of labor unions and collective bargaining
*British Coalminers set the 8-hour work day standard as of 1907
11. Slums become common in cities
More on Child Labor:
Almost 50% of Britain was under 20 years of age by 1821. They made up a large
part of workforce. They were only paid 1/3rd of an adult’s pay. Discipline was harsh for
children. Many got disabled working with machinery, but there was no disability pay.
Many worked 12+ hours daily. In Britain, the “Sadler Committee” exposed how
children were being beaten in factories. In England, the “Factory Act of 1933” formed as
a result – children in textile factories (where most worked) if under age 13, could only
work 9-hour days.
Significance of the Crystal Palace in London:
In London (1851) there was the “Great Exhibition of 1851” in which 13,000
exhibitors showed off their goods now available through industrialization. The greatest
achievement was by architect, John Paxton. He showed off the world’s first prefabricated
(made elsewhere) building- The Crystal Palace: early version of a mall with multiple
businesses on two levels and a glass formed ceiling the whole length.
Where the Industrial Revolution Spread After Britain and Reasons
for the Spreading or Delaying of the Industrial Revolution:
Britain first for reasons previously mentioned. Then, nations where capitalism had
the best restrains, and were not at war, and lacked absolutists rule were next = USA/
Germany (German States)/ Belgium.
These places were rich in coal and iron, and had decent economies with
entrepreneurs willing to invest in various commodities.
* German States= Prussia (1843) created the “Zollverein”: customs union to
abolish tariffs between the German States. This would aid in trade and manufacturing
since transporting of goods was expensive due to tolls and tariffs. It would also centralize
the German economy.
*Things were worse in continental Europe in 1815 than 1789 due to wars and
unwillingness to finance! But in time: Most nations helped by ranks more than Britain.
**Reasons why other nations lagged behind:
No central banking (Like France); at war (Napoleon); smaller “agrarian”
populations (like France) - only ½ of Britain’s population in the 1st half of 1800s.
Absolutist Rule stifled growth in many nations.
• In time, Canada, other European nations, and Japan industrialized by 1900. Russia
Role of Women During the Industrial Revolution:
Industrial Revolution affected family life, as men, women, and children often
worked 12-hour days, 6 days a week. Laws limiting much of this especially for women
and children in many nations did not come until the 1850’s.
Jobs were gender-related in the agrarian age and were so in the Industrial
Revolution too for many years. Women and Children were paid less than men. Married
women in many cases did not get involved during the Industrial Revolution if they could
live just on their husband’s salary, and worked at home. But for single women, 12 hour
days were typical in the factories or mines.
**Some Women Became Inventors:
Sarah Jane Rollason (Britain, 1894) = windmill
Margaret Knight (1868) = grocery bags
Mary Anderson (1903) = windshield wipers
Josephine Cochran (1850) = dishwasher
Sarah Mather (1845) = submarine telescope and lamp for deep ocean depths
Marie Curie = discovered Radium and Polonium – used in X-rays
Alice Parker (1919 Morristown, NJ) = central heating
Political, Economic, and Social Views & Ideas Associated With the
Thomas Malthus (British) 1766-1844: wrote Essay on the Principle of Population
(1798). Claimed population would outpace food supply. So, checks on population growth
were needed, especially disease, war, and famine. He also urged families to have fewer
David Ricardo (British) - an economist who developed the concept of the “Iron Law of
Wages.” When wages are high, people have more children. More people increases the
labor supply, which then leads to lower wages and higher unemployment. He wrote
Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817). This is why economics became
known as the “Dismal Science.” He rejected Adam Smith’s optimism.
Adam Smith (British) – advocated laissez-faire economics. This was free-market
capitalism without government interference. Unseen hand supply and demand would
guide the economy. He wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Cause of the Wealth of Nations
(1776). His beliefs became known as “classical economics”.
Friedrich List- wrote National System of Political Economy (1840). This held that
political economies are only for that particular nation, and may not work for another. He
became the founder of the historic (or institutional) school of economics. He particularly
concentrated on the role RR building and tariffs played in a nation.
Jeremy Bentham (Utilitarianism) - philosophy that held that the goal of a society (or
government) was to create the greatest happiness for the greatest number of citizens.
Laws or actions should be judged by their “utility” which is whether or not they provide
more pleasure than pain.
John Stuart Mill (Britain) = follower of Bentham. He questioned unrestricted
competition in free market and believed it could be evil. He was also one of the few men
that stood for women’s rights.
Karl Marx (Germany) = father of communism, (also known as scientific socialism). He
saw class struggles as inevitable unless his ideas were implored. He believed the
bourgeoisie (middle class) exploited the proletarian (worker). He wrote Das Kapital
He believed in the explaining these views. He also wrote with Friedrich Engels =
“Hegelian Dialectic” Communist Manifesto = advocating society needs to begin with
too. - The conflict of necessary evil = capitalism (thesis) and go to socialism (antithesis)
opposites to ensure through revolution and arrive at worldwide communism (synthesis) =
progress, based on known as the theory of “Dialectical Materialism.” He opposed utopian
philosopher Georg villages and claimed religion was the opiate of the people.
Socialism- Government controls mass means of production. Small businesses are
Communism- Government controls ALL means of production
Scientific Socialism- pure communism, often done by an overthrow of existing
Revisionist Socialist- (Karl Marx opposed this): using voting and government policies to
gradually establish communism.
Utopianism- create a self-sufficient society in which happiness prevails due to
communal sharing of all goods.
Robert Owen- A mill owner. He never used child labor. He tried setting p a socialist-
utopian society in New Lanark, Scotland. This occurred in the 1820’s, but it failed due to
people’s selfishness and materialism.
• He also tried creating one single large nation = Grand National Consolidated
Trades Union in Britain. It failed. He also tried a utopian society in Indiana, which
was also short-lived.
New Laws Relating to Industrialization
Factory Act of 1833- (Britain) I limited the factory workday for children 9 uears to 13
years old to 8 hours daily and children 14 years to 18 years to 12 hours daily. Factory
owners were required to enroll children under 9 in elementary school that were required
- This Act broke tradition of families working together.
Mines Act of 1842- (Britain) prohibited underground work for all women and children
under 10 years.
Combination Acts- (Britain) (1799): outlaws unions and strikes. Many years later,
unions would be permitted. The Combination Acts was repealed in 1824.
Le Chapelier Act- (France)(1791): French version of a law outlawing unions and strikes.
It would be many years before it was overturned.
Info Relating to Unions
Late 1770’s, movement toward workers’ union and they were outlawed by
National governments. They wanted higher pay, benefits, and better working conditions.
Strikes were common. Direct political activity would follow to influence voters. By the
mid-1800’s, unions were gaining strength and governments were relaxing laws, though
business owners were not happy.
* Don’t forget: British coalminers set the 8-hour workday standard in 1907
Role of Religion during the Industrial Revolution
Revivals (Great Awakenings) took place during the early half of the industrial
revolution. Peoples’ lives were dim, so they looked to Christianity and its hope of eternal
life for inspiration.
• Social Gospel = preaching with proactive activity like feeding the poor, clothing
• Salvation Army = began in England in 1878 for special gospel purpose. Started by
William and Catherine Booth