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					                Flagstaff Renewable Fuels Final Design Report
May 1, 2009
Brent Baker, Matt Amanti
ME-486C Senior Design Team
Northern Arizona University
Building # 69
Flagstaff, AZ 86001

Dear Mr. Ed Smith and Flagstaff Renewable Fuels-


Enclosed is the requested final report containing our team’s final design, along with a detailed
Bill of Materials, overall project budget, and a detailed set of computer aided drawings. The
drawings include an overall layout drawing, an assembly drawing of the entire processor, a
branch assembly drawing, and flat drawings of each major component. We have also included
close up drawings of several areas for ease of construction when you choose to build this
processor.

Thank you for allowing us the opportunity to work on the design of the biodiesel processor for
Flagstaff Renewable Fuels Cooperative. We also want to take the time to thank you for your help
in directing us along the way. Enclosed in the report you will find a brief introduction followed
by the project description. After the description the report identifies several requirements and the
specifications that go along with those requirements. The next section walks you through the
basics that lead the team to the final design, and from there we present the bill of materials,
project budget, and a conclusion followed by project recommendations.

It was good to see you at the capstone celebration, and to follow up with that our presentation
went extremely well as did our poster presentation. There were several individuals that were
specifically interested in the biodiesel concept and we enjoyed presenting our final concept to
them as well as answering all of the questions that they had. We hope that you enjoyed the poster
presentation as much as we did.

We would appreciate it if you could contact our instructor by email for a final review and any
commentary that you might have. Please let him know as soon as possible. Dr. John Tester can
be reached at John.Tester@nau.edu. As always, please don’t hesitate to call or email me if you
have questions or need further assistance.

We enjoyed working together with you on this project.
Sincerely,
Brent Baker

Customer Liaison
(970) 216-5386
brbaker93@gmail.com
FLAGSTAFF RENEWABLE FUELS
 THE DESIGN OF A BIODIESEL PROCESSOR




                       By
           Brent Baker, Matt Amanti
           ME-486C Senior Design
          Northern Arizona University
              Flagstaff, AZ 86001
                  May 1, 2009
ME-486C                               Northern Arizona University                                                     Table of Contents




Table of Contents
1.0       Project Abstract: Designing a Biodiesel Processor .............................................................. 4
2.0       Project Introduction: Project Basics..................................................................................... 4
   2.1 State of The Art Research (SOTA) ....................................................................................... 4
3.0       Project Definition ................................................................................................................. 6
4.0       Project Requirements: .......................................................................................................... 6
   4.1 Client Requirements: ............................................................................................................ 7
       4.11 Manufacturing Requirements: ........................................................................................ 7
       4.1.2        Resource Concerns: .................................................................................................. 7
   4.2 Team developed requirements based on clients needs: ........................................................ 7
       4.2.1 Manufacturing Requirements: ....................................................................................... 7
       4.2.2        Resource Concerns: .................................................................................................. 7
5.0       Design Specifications: ......................................................................................................... 7
6.0       Design Decisions ................................................................................................................. 7
   6.1 Initial Design Procedure ....................................................................................................... 7
   6.2 Choosing the Final Design .................................................................................................. 10
   6.3 The Reacting and Settling Stages ....................................................................................... 11
   6.4 The Washing Stage ............................................................................................................. 11
   6.5 The Drying Stage ................................................................................................................ 12
7.0       Modeling and Component Analysis................................................................................... 12
   7.1       Mathematical Models ..................................................................................................... 12
   7.2       Physical Modeling/CAD Drawings ................................................................................ 13
8.0       Bill of Materials ................................................................................................................. 13
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................. 14
Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………………16
Appendix B………………………………………………………………………………………17
ME-486C                   Northern Arizona University                                     Page |4


1.0 Project Abstract: Designing a Biodiesel Processor
      The project objective is to design a biodiesel processor cooperative that can produce at least
375 gallons of biodiesel per week. Our design will be based on the “apple-seed” processor that
is currently being used by our client Ed Smith. The apple-seed processor is a basic design that
utilizes commercial off the self parts, most of which can be found at a local hardware store, to
produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil. The apple-seed design has four main stages; the
reactant stage, the settling stage, the washing stage, and the drying stage. Our design is based on
a two batch process. The processor uses 4 hot water heaters for the reactant stage, 2 conical
bottom tanks for settling, and 4 flat bottom tanks for washing and drying. In between each stage
a pump is utilized to move the biodiesel from one stage to another. After each batch is completed
it will be transferred to a horizontal storage tank through the use of another pump.

2.0 Project Introduction: Project Basics
      Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oil, in our case used vegetable oil and
formulated to fuel diesel engines. Our Client Flagstaff Renewable Fuels currently produces
biodiesel as a backyard operation. Our client contact Ed Smith currently produces 75 gallons of
biodiesel per week. Flagstaff Renewable Fuels wants to expand from a backyard operation to a
biodiesel cooperative. The goal of this cooperative is to produce at least 375 gallons of biodiesel
per week. As a team we have developed a biodiesel processor that is based on the “apple-seed”
design that meets Flagstaff Renewable Fuels specified requirements.
      To start this project it was important to conduct a high level of state of the art research. We
first began with research focused on optimizing the overall biodiesel process. We chose this
route based on the initial project definition, which was to determine the most cost effective,
energy efficient, automated, and environmentally friendly way to establish a biodiesel production
cooperative that will produce 375 gallons per week. A little more then half way through the
project we had a change of order due to the minimum amount of project funding and the goal of
our client. Due to this change of order our new project definition was to design a processor based
on the “apple-seed” design that could produce at least 375 gallons of biodiesel per week. After
the project definition changed it was important to research consumer off the shelf parts as well as
processors made utilizing the “apple-seed” design. As a group we researched an extensive
amount of information involving procedures for optimizing the biodiesel process as well as ways
to test these processes. At this point in the project this research was basically for our own
knowledge.

       2.1 State of The Art Research (SOTA)

            Our State of the Art research was divided into several areas of interest: experimental
       results, the strong acid process, current biodiesel standards, diesel engine technology, and
       current existing biodiesel facilities.
            We first looked into the best processes to test in our investigation of the biodiesel
       reaction (transesterfication) we reviewed various literary sources of experimental data.
       The first major challenge we encountered in our research was the feedstock we are
       required to use. A survey of various feedstock concluded that while waste cooking oil
       was the most economical feedstock, it was inconstant and high in free fatty acids which
ME-486C               Northern Arizona University                                     Page |5

   caused poor yields and low quality biodiesel [i]. A major question that came from our
   research was what catalyst to use; one experiment conducted concluded that potassium
   hydroxide was a superior catalyst to the sodium hydroxide that Mr. Smith currently uses
   as well as several other alkali catalysts [ii, 3]. In another articles we learned that sodium
   hydroxide may be more economical despite its poorer yield performance [ iii]. The articles
   all provided us with ideal concentrations of catalyst for an optimized reaction. Of the
   more conclusive studies we encountered, alcohol ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction
   time, and reaction temperature were all optimized [iv]. This article also discussed the
   disadvantages of using a strong acid catalyst. We did encounter some disagreement as to
   what ratio to use one article suggests using a methanol to oil ratio of 4:8 [v], whereas
   another article suggests a ratio of 6:1 [vi].
         In our research we also encountered more novel concepts including using ozanted
   vegetable oil to improve biodiesel properties [vii]. Though interesting, we decided not to
   pursue this idea because of the technical challenges it presented. Another promising idea
   was using a starch derived strong acid catalyst [viii]. The starch derived catalyst was
   inexpensive and recyclable but it was very difficult to make and required a very long
   reaction time at high temperature. We also read about various purification techniques.
   One article discussed a two-step production technique that utilized both an acid reaction
   and an alkali reaction. The author used this technique to test various purification
   techniques, washing over silica gel, washing with phosphoric acid treatment, and washing
   with hot distilled water. The article concluded that silica gel and phosphoric acid purify
   better than hot water and should be considered when producing biodiesel. This article
   also gave us valuable information about a two step reaction process [ix].
         At the request of our client we investigated the strong acid process. One article we
   read detailed the use of acids saying strong liquid acid catalysts are less sensitive to free
   fatty acids and can simultaneously conduct esterification and trans-esterification, [x]
   making strong acids ideal for waste cooking oil. There is not much literature related to
   this subject but we were able to find an article describing a situation with similar
   conditions. This document describes the use of sulfuric acid in the biodiesel purification
   process, which is a very detailed document and contains more of a chemistry oriented
   approach toward the strong acid method. The document describes a very different process
   using oleic acid, which we are not currently interested in, but some parts seem to parallel
   our situation and therefore could give us another perspective on the strong acid process
   [xi].
         To help us determine what fuel characteristics we were trying to produce we
   consulted several standards. The US Department of Energy produced a document
   detailing the emissions characteristics of biodiesel as well as state and local incentives for
   using it [xii]. The US Department of Energy also produced a document regarding quality
   specifications, energy content, cold flow properties, variation in biodiesel properties,
   microbial contamination, and the cleaning effect [xiii].
         To further increase our understandings of the biodiesel process we studied the diesel
   cycle and modern diesel engines. The book “Form the Fryer to The Fuel Tank” by Josh
   Tickell gave detailed descriptions and schematic drawings of the modern diesel engine,
   describing the inner working of the diesel cycle and why biodiesel works [xiv].
         To help us determine the best consumer off the shelf parts to use and the type of
   infrastructure we would need we research existing “apple-seed’ designs. In josh Tickell’s
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       book there was set of instructions explaining the simple design of some commercial
       biodiesel processors including stages and systems. We also learned from this book about
       popular small “home scale” designs. The book included detailed instructions for both
       single and dual tank processors [xv].
            Another source of existing technology was Graham Leming’s website,
       recommended to us by our client, Mr. Smith. With this process, however, there are a
       couple of cons: the system uses an acid titration which has to be relatively accurate or it
       can ruin the whole batch, and the un-reacted acid has to be reclaimed or drained back off.
       Graham’s site includes a design diagram with relatively detailed instructions on how to
       build and use this type and style of processor [xvi].
            We reviewed various feedstock commonly used in production and how they affected
       production. The book, From the Fryer to the Fuel Tank, also reviews feedstock and
       ingredients not used by Mr. Smith [xv]. Finally, we researched quality assurance
       procedures so that our client can test the biodiesel he produces and determine if it meets
       the standards we have found. The biodiesel book we read provides a very simplistic
       testing procedure for testing the quality of biodiesel using the specific gravity [xv].

3.0 Project Definition
     Our project definition was to design a biodiesel processor based on the “apple-seed” design
that can produce at least 375 gallons of biodiesel per week, using waste vegetable oil as the
feedstock.

                                                              Reactant stage




                             Drying           Washing




                        Figure 1: Basic “apple-seed” processor Biodiesel

4.0 Project Requirements:
     Mr. Ed Smith has established several requirements to ensure our designed processor will
meet the needs of his cooperative. Along with the clients requirements we have come up with a
list of our own requirements that we feel will help us deliver a better design. The requirements
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are based on the overall project which is to design a biodiesel processor for a medium sized
cooperative.

       4.1 Client Requirements:

               4.11 Manufacturing Requirements:

                     Produce at least 375 gallons per week
                     Use Waste Vegetable Oil as feedstock

               4.1.2 Resource Concerns:

                     Ensure simplicity of operation
                     Minimize overall cost
                     Must be expandable (Adjusts easily to accommodate for a larger batch)

       4.2 Team developed requirements based on clients needs:

               4.2.1 Manufacturing Requirements:

                     Product must comply with accepted standards of quality, ASTM 6751

               4.2.2 Resource Concerns:

                     Minimize the time that the process takes
                     Minimize the amount of space used for the processor to operate

5.0 Design Specifications:
        Based on the needs and requirements Flagstaff Renewable Fuels as a team we extracted
several design specifications. We have also determined some of these values from our SOTA
research. As we move ahead on our design we narrow our specifications to more precise values.
            Batch shall be completed in one weeks time
            Processor will produce at least 375 gallons
            Biodiesel produced will meet ANSI standards
            Reaction will take place between 70°F-149°F
            Number of washing cycles will be between 1 and 5 cycles
            Number of drying cycles will be between 1 and 4 cycles

6.0 Design Decisions

       6.1 Initial Design Procedure
               The design selection process started with a brainstorming session where the team
       came up with nine different concepts. The next step was to narrow it down to the three
       best. All three concepts where batch processors that consisted of different branches. The
ME-486C              Northern Arizona University                                     Page |8

   first design was a branch processor that utilized gravity to transfer fluid from stage to
   stage (see figure 2 for a basic schematic of design 1). The second design was a branch
   processor that utilized an inexpensive utility pump in between each stage to transfer fluid
   from one stage to another (see figure 3 for a basic schematic of design 2). The third
   design is a branch processor that utilizes one centrally located utility pump to transfer
   fluid from one stage to another (see figure 4 for a basic schematic of design 3).

                                                       Reactant stage




                                     Washing


                 Drying



     Figure 2: Design 1 utilizing gravity to transfer fluid from one stage to another.




                                                              Reactant stage


                      Drying              Washing




               Figure 3: Design 2 utilizing one pump between each stage.
ME-486C              Northern Arizona University                                    Page |9




                                                              Reactant stage




                                          Washing
                     Drying




                  Figure 4: Design 3 utilizing one centrally located pump.

      After narrowing it down to three basic concepts the team created a decision matrix.
   The three designs were rated based on cost, ease of use; efficiency/energy, maintenance,
   and space (see Table 1 for the design matrix used to determine the final concept). The
   problem with design one is that it takes up a lot of space. In order to utilize gravity you
   have to build up so the top of the lowest tank is below the bottom of the tank before it and
   so on. All said and done the total design needed 23 feet in height in order to work
   correctly. At this point design one was no longer feasible. Design three, one centrally
   located pump, this concept made the plumbing very difficult thus making it harder to use
   because there are a large number of valves that have to be opened and closed in order to
   transfer the fluid from one stage to another. Therefore design two, a pump between each
   stage, is the initial design that the team decided on because the utility pumps utilized
   between each stage were relatively inexpensive. Utilizing a pump between each stage
   uses the same amount of energy as having one pump centrally located because only one
   pump can be used at one time.
ME-486C                Northern Arizona University                                  P a g e | 10


                 Design Aspects           Design         Design         Design

                                              1               2              3
            Rated: 3 best, 1 worst

                        Cost              2              2              3

                    Ease of Use           1              3              2

                Efficiency/Energy         3              2              2

                   Maintenance            1              3              3

                       Space              1              3              1

                TOTAL                     8              13             11

            Table 1: Decision matrix used to narrow it down to one final concept.


   6.2 Choosing the Final Design

            After the team decided on our final concept it was time to start designing it. This
   process took several iterations. The first design using this concept was an 11 branch
   processor that utilized two hot water heaters and several 55 gallon barrels. The problem
   with this design was the space that it took up and the fact that it couldn’t produce the
   required capacity in the required amount of time. The next design was to use a large
   boiler to heat the oil during the reaction, however a boiler this size cost around $3500.00,
   which is out of the price range of this project. The next design was the design that
   evolved into the team’s final design. This design is a two branch process utilizing four 80
   gallon hot water heaters for the reacting stage, two 350 gallon conical bottom tanks for
   the settling stage, and 4 flat bottom storage tanks for washing and drying (refer to figure
   5 for a Solid Works drawing of our final design or refer to Appendix A for detailed
   drawings of final design).
ME-486C               Northern Arizona University                                   P a g e | 11




                       Figure 5: Final Biodiesel Processor Design.


   6.3 The Reacting and Settling Stages

           The four 80 gallon hot water heaters are capable of producing 60 gallons of
   biodiesel per tank for a total of 240 gallons. At the end of the reacting stage all 240
   gallons gets pumped into one branch of the processor, and more specifically into one 350
   gallon conical bottom settling tank. At this stage the mixture of biodiesel and vegetable
   glycerin has to settle for eight hours. After the eight hours is complete it is time to drain
   the glycerin off the bottom of the biodiesel. The next step is to transfer it to the washing
   stage.

   6.4 The Washing Stage

             The washing stage is the most time consuming stage in the “apple-seed” process.
   Our client Flagstaff Renewable Fuels currently bubble washes the fuel. This method is
   done through the addition of water, which has a higher specific gravity then biodiesel, so
   it settles to the bottom, then utilizing a fish tank bubbler or similar equipment air is
   bubbled through the fuel. In order to bubble wash a batch this size it takes roughly six
   hours, and then you have to let the water/fuel separate for 12 hours. In order to get a
   successful wash it is common practice to repeat this cycle two to three times. Another
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     method of washing is stirring. After the addition of water, utilizing a chemical mixer with
     a low revelation per minute motor, the biodiesel is stirred for 15 minutes. After the
     mixture is stirred you let it separate for 12 hours and then drain off the water and repeat.
     This stage is repeated two to three times and then the fuel is transferred to the drying
     stage.

     6.5 The Drying Stage

             The drying stage is an important stage in the biodiesel process. After the addition
     of water in the washing stage it is common that your batch may have excess water and
     that excess water is not good for your engine. In fact the water content is one of the
     ASTM standards measured. In order to meet these ASTM standards the final product
     must have less the 0.05 % volume of water. The team’s final processor design uses
     Flagstaff’s dry climate to dry the excess water from the batch. Utilizing the same utility
     pump that was used between each stage the fuel is rotated from the bottom of the tank to
     the top where it is sprayed through a fine nozzle allowing any excess water to evaporate.
     The recommended time for drying is a half hour, but to ensure that the final product is
     dry we recommend that the fuel be circulated for at least 1 hour.

7.0 Modeling and Component Analysis
     7.1 Mathematical Models

          The tank sizes were chosen based on ratios provided to use by Josh Tickell in from
     “The Fryer to the Fuel Tank”. The hot water heaters have a ratio of 4:3 which means that
     the 80 gallon hot water heaters can react 60 gallons of waste vegetable oil. The settling
     tank needs to be big enough to handle all four hot water heaters thus being at least 240
     gallons. This was not a standard size for conical bottom tanks so we specified the next
     standard size up, a 350 gallon tank. The ratio for the washing tank is 11:7 due to the
     amount of water added at this stage. This means a 380 gallon tank can was 240 gallons of
     biodiesel. This again was not a standard size tank. The next standard size was a 400
     gallon tank; however the 500 gallon tank was only $25 more so we incorporated the 500
     gallon tank into the final processor for both the washing stage and the drying stage. All
     tanks are rated for a fluid with a specific gravity of 1.6 at a temperature of 170 degrees
     Fahrenheit, well over the acceptable specific gravity for biodiesel according to ASTM
     standards. The ASTM standard specific gravity for biodiesel is between 0.8 and 0.9. The
     tanks chosen are made for the production of biodiesel and wine. Each stage of the process
     has a specific amount of time that it takes to complete. The reaction stage takes 2 hours to
     complete, the settling stage takes at least 8 hours to complete, the washing stage utilizing
     the stirring method takes 24.5 hours to complete and the drying stage takes at least 1
     hour. So the overall time that it takes the final design to complete both batches is 38
     hours. This design therefore metes the time requirement, and during this 38 hour period
     the final design can produce roughly 400 gallons of biodiesel, thus meeting the 375
     gallon requirement.
ME-486C                    Northern Arizona University                                   P a g e | 13


       7.2 Physical Modeling/CAD Drawings

            The physical model is strictly limited to Solid Works drawings. All of the drawings
       were completed by Matt Amanti. Using consumer off the self parts the team was able to
       design and build a 3-D model of the biodiesel processor that produces at least 375 gallons
       of biodiesel in one week’s time (refer to figure 5 above for a drawing of the final design
       or refer to appendix A for detailed drawings of the final design). Drawing the processor
       in Solid Works allowed the team to see potential trouble areas, which in turned allowed
       the team to develop the final design through several iterations. Some of the changes that
       were made after the CAD modeling were valve locations, pipe routing/plumbing
       decisions, component placement, and quantity needed to completely build the processor.
       The valve locations are important because one of the project requirements is to make it
       easy to operate, this meaning that all valves can be easily accessed and placed at a
       reasonable height. It is required that the processor needs to be easily maintained. One of
       the features that we add was petroleum transfer hoses between the hot water heaters and
       the settling tanks, and between the drying stage and the final fuel storage tank. Adding
       these flexible petroleum transfer hoses virtually eliminated the difficult pipe
       routing/plumbing that otherwise would have been present throughout these particular
       areas (refer to Appendix A for detailed drawing showing the flexible transfer hose). In
       order to determine the processor foot print is was necessary to have a 3-D model. Without
       this model it was impossible to provide any kind of space requirement. The final design
       requires a 15X25 ft area. To determine the number of off the shelf components needed
       for our client to construct this processor it was important to construct a Solid Works
       model. Without the model the team could not estimate the linear feet of pipe, the number
       of valves, or the number of fittings required.


8.0 Bill of Materials
   The bill of materials is a list of the consumer off the shelf parts that were utilized in order to
complete the team’s final design.

The final design consists of:
    Four standard 80 gallon hot water heaters
    Two 350 gallon conical bottom tanks and the two steel stands required for the tanks
    Four 500 gallon storage tanks
    11 utility pumps
    21 ball valves
    100 ft of 1 in flexible hose
    Four female cam fittings with 11 male groove fittings
    One fuel transfer pump
    100 ft of standard 1 in steel pipe

(Refer to Appendix B for a detailed bill of materials including major components, manufacturer,
product cost, and distributor).
ME-486C                   Northern Arizona University                                   P a g e | 14



Bibliography
[i] “Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstock and Their Effects on Their Fuel Properties,”
M. Canakei and H. Sanli, Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Special
issue: BioEnergy, March 13, 2008

[ii] “Biodiesel from Used Fry Oil Variables Affecting the Yields and Characteristics of
Biodiesel,” Juan González, and Antonio Rodríguez, Ind. Eng. Chem Res, Volume 144, issue
15, pages 5491-5499, 2005

[iii] “Optimization of Base-Catalyzed Transesterfication Reaction of Used Cooking Oils,” Merve
Centinkaya, Filiz Karaosmanoğlu, Energy and Fuels, Volume 18, 2004, pages 1888-1895

[iv] “Biodiesel from Used Fry Oil Variables Affecting the Yields and Characteristics of
Biodiesel,” Juan González, and Antonio Rodríguez, Ind. Eng. Chem Res, Volume 144, issue
15, pages 5491-5499, 2005

[v] “Production of biodiesel from waste frying oils,” Pedro Felizardo, M. Joana Neiva Correia, ,
Idalina Raposob, João F. Mendes, Rui Berkemeier and João Moura Bordado, Waste
Management, Volume 26, Issue 5, 2006, Pages 487-494

[vi] “Optimization of Base-Catalyzed Transesterfication Reaction of Used Cooking Oils,” Merve
Centinkaya, Filiz Karaosmanoğlu, Energy and Fuels, Volume 18, 2004, pages 1888-1895

[vii] “Improvement of Neat Biodiesel Characteristics by Mixing with Ozanted Vegetable Oil,” El
Raffie, Sh and Altia Nahehed, Desalination, Aug. 15, 2008, Volume 228, Issue 1-3 pages 168-
174

[viii] “Improvement of Neat Biodiesel Characteristics by Mixing with Ozanted Vegetable Oil,” El
Raffie, Sh and Altia Nahehed, Desalination, Aug. 15, 2008, Volume 228, Issue 1-3 pages 168-
174

[ix] “The production of biodiesel from waste frying oils: A comparison of different purification
steps,” Zlatica J. Predojević, Fuel, Volume 87, Issues 17-18, December 2008, Pages 3522-3528

[x] Lotero , Edgar . "Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis". Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry Research Jul 6, 2005: 5353-5363.

[xi] Lucena, Izabelly. "Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Oleic Acid with Met[hanol
Using a Water Adsorption Apparatus". : Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research Sep 17,
2008: 6885-6889.

[xii] U.S. Department of Energy “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy”.
Vehicle Technologies Program: Clean Cities, April 2008.

[xiii] U.S. Department of Energy “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy”.
 Biodiesel: Handling and Use Guidelines Third Edition, September 2006.
ME-486C                  Northern Arizona University                               P a g e | 15




[xiv] Lekse, Robert L. Understand Your Diesel Engine and Save Money,
R&B Publishing Tallahassee, FL. 2002.
[xv] Tickell, Joshua. From the Fryer to the Fuel Tank: The Complete Guide to Using Vegetable
Oil as an Alternative Fuel. Tallahassee: Tickell Energy Consulting, 2000. Pages #75-87.


[xvi] Leming, Graham. "Graham's Biodiesel Documents". 9/28/08 <http://www.graham-
laming.com/bd/main.htm>.
ME-486C           Northern Arizona University                       P a g e | 16




Appendix A: Detailed Processor Drawings




              *(For the drawings all measurements are in inches).
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 (Close up drawing of the valve located at the bottom of the Conical tank For draining
                                  vegetable glycerin)




     Close up drawing of plumbing and valve location coming off the wash tank).
ME-486C                   Northern Arizona University                                  P a g e | 24




(Close up of the flexible hose, cam and groove fittings, as well as the hot water heater plumbing).
ME-486C                  Northern Arizona University              P a g e | 25




Appendix B: Detailed Bill of Materials




   Component                   Quantity   Price/         Distributor
   (Manufacturer)                         unit

   Hot Water Heater            4          $586.48        Lowe’s Home
   (General Electric)                                    Improvement
   Conical Bottom Tank         2          Tank:          The Tank Depot
   (Chem-Tainer)                          $414.12        (www.tank-depot.com)
                                          Stand:
                                          $267.97
   Flat Bottom Storage         4          $304.66        www.watertanks.com
   Tank
   (American Tank
   Company)
   Fuel Transfer Pump          1          $329.99        Northern Tools
   (Tuthill)

   Flex Transfer Hose          100 ft     $3.81          www.jmesales.com
   (Goodyear)

   Female Cam Fitting          4          $11.03         www.hosexpress.com
   (Andrews)
   Male Groove fitting         10         $5.83          www.hosexpress.com
   (Andrews)

   Steel Pipe                  150 ft     $2.45 per ft   Home Depot

   Pumps                       11         $60.00         Northern Tools
   (Northern Tools)

   Valves                      21         $7.99          Home Depot

				
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