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					Describe and explain a Bureacracy
System of administration distinguished by its clear hierarchy of authority,
rigid division of labor, written and inflexible rules, regulations, and procedures,
and impersonal relationships. Once instituted, bureaucracies are difficult to
dislodge or change.

Bureaucratic organizational structures have numerous layers of management,
cascading down from senior executives to regional managers to departmental
managers, all the way down to shift supervisors who work alongside frontline
employees. Due to the many layers of management, decision-making authority
has to pass through a larger number of layers than with flatter organizations.
Refund decisions, for example, may have to pass from frontline employees,
through shift supervisors, to store managers for a retail outlet in a bureaucratic
In a bureaucratic organizational structure, authority is generally centered at the
top, and information generally flows from the top down. This usually
encourages a company culture focused on rules and standards, where operational
processes are rigidly controlled with best-practices methodologies and close
Top-level managers in bureaucratic organizational structures exercise a great
deal of control over organizational strategy decisions, which is ideal for business
owners with a command and control style. Strategic decision-making time can
be shorter in a tall organizational structure, since less individuals are involved in
the process. Standardization and best-practices are often highlights in companies
with tall organizational structures, ensuring that work is consistently completed
efficiently and effectively.
Bureaucratic structures can discourage creativity and innovation throughout the
organization. No matter how ingenious a business owner is, it is virtually
impossible for a single individual to generate the range of strategic ideas
possible in a large, interdisciplinary group. Front-line employees may receive
less satisfaction from their jobs in a rigidly bureaucratic organization, increasing
employee turnover rates. Organizations bound by rigid controls can also find
themselves less able to adapt to changing conditions in the marketplace, industry
or legal environment.
At first glance, bureaucratic organizational structures may seem less desirable
than flatter structures, but this is not necessarily so. Some industries, such as
software development, may benefit from a more autonomous structure, but
others such as fast food benefit from tight controls and tall hierarchies.

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